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A boat is a
watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or ...
of a large range of types and sizes, but generally smaller than a
ship A ship is a large watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional propertie ...

ship
, which is distinguished by its larger size, shape, cargo or passenger capacity, or its ability to carry boats. Small boats are typically found on inland waterways such as
river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of wate ...

river
s and
lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable ove ...

lake
s, or in protected coastal areas. However, some boats, such as the
whaleboat A whaleboat is a type of open boat that was used for whaling, catching whales, or a boat of similar design that retained the name when used for a different purpose. Some whaleboats were used from whaling ships. Other whaleboats would operate fro ...
, were intended for use in an offshore environment. In modern
naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense ...

naval
terms, a boat is a vessel small enough to be carried aboard a ship. Anomalous definitions exist, as
lake freighter Lake freighters, or lakers, are bulk carrier A bulk carrier, bulker is a specially to transport unpackaged , such as grains, coal, ore, steel coils and cement, in its s. Since the first specialized bulk carrier was built in 1852, economic f ...
s long on the
Great Lakes The Great Lakes also called the Great Lakes of North America or the Laurentian Great Lakes, is a series of large interconnected freshwater lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land Land ...

Great Lakes
are called "boats". Boats vary in proportion and construction methods with their intended purpose, available materials, or local traditions.
Canoe A canoe is a lightweight narrow vessel, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel and using a single-bladed paddle A paddle is a tool used for pushin ...

Canoe
s have been used since prehistoric times and remain in use throughout the world for transportation, fishing, and sport.
Fishing boat A fishing vessel is a boat A boat is a watercraft of a large range of types and sizes, but generally smaller than a ship, which is distinguished by its larger size, shape, cargo or passenger capacity, or its ability to carry boats. Small bo ...

Fishing boat
s vary widely in style partly to match local conditions.
Pleasure craft Boating is the leisurely activity of travelling by boat A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical ...
used in
recreational boating Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. The "need to do something for recreation" is an essential element of human biology and psychology. Recreational activities are often done for happiness, enjoyment, amusement, ...

recreational boating
include ski boats, pontoon boats, and
sailboat A sailboat or sailing boat is a boat A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered ...

sailboat
s.
House boat A house is a single-unit residential building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house A house is a single-unit residential building, which may range ...

House boat
s may be used for vacationing or long-term residence.
Lighters A lighter is a portable device which generates a flame A flame (from Latin ''flamma Flamma (lit. The Flame) was a Syrians, Syrian gladiator under the Roman Empire during the reign of Hadrian. He was one of the most famous and successful of ...
are used to convey cargo to and from large ships unable to get close to shore.
Lifeboat Lifeboat may refer to: Rescue vessels * Lifeboat (shipboard), a small craft aboard a ship to allow for emergency escape * Lifeboat (rescue), a boat designed for sea rescues * Airborne lifeboat, an air-dropped boat used to save downed airmen Ar ...
s have rescue and safety functions. Boats can be propelled by manpower (e.g.
rowboat
rowboat
s and paddle boats), wind (e.g.
sailboat A sailboat or sailing boat is a boat A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered ...

sailboat
s), and motor (including
gasoline Gasoline () or petrol () (see the etymology Etymology ()The New Oxford Dictionary of English ''The'' () is a grammatical article Article often refers to: * Article (grammar) An article is any member of a class of dedicated word ...

gasoline
,
diesel Diesel may refer to: * Diesel engine, an internal combustion engine where ignition is caused by compression * Diesel fuel, a liquid fuel used in diesel engines * Diesel locomotive, a railway locomotive in which the prime mover is a diesel engine ...

diesel
, and electric).


History

Boats have served as transportation since the earliest times. Circumstantial evidence, such as the early settlement of Australia over 40,000 years ago, findings in
Crete Crete ( el, Κρήτη, translit=, Modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology ...

Crete
dated 130,000 years ago, and in Flores dated to 900,000 years ago, suggest that boats have been used since prehistoric times. The earliest boats are thought to have been dugouts, and the oldest boats found by archaeological excavation date from around 7,000–10,000 years ago. The oldest recovered boat in the world, the
Pesse canoe The Pesse canoe is believed to be the world's oldest known boat A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physi ...
, found in the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
, is a dugout made from the hollowed tree trunk of a ''
Pinus sylvestris ''Pinus sylvestris'', the Scots pine (UK), Scotch pine (US) or Baltic pine, is a species of tree in the pine family Pinaceae that is native plant, native to Eurasia, ranging from Western Europe to Eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountain ...

Pinus sylvestris
'' that was constructed somewhere between 8200 and 7600 BC. This
canoe A canoe is a lightweight narrow vessel, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel and using a single-bladed paddle A paddle is a tool used for pushin ...

canoe
is exhibited in the Drents Museum in Assen, Netherlands. Other very old dugout boats have also been recovered.
Raft A raft is any flat structure for support or transportation over water. It is usually of basic design, characterized by the absence of a hull Hull may refer to: Structures * Chassis, of an armored fighting vehicle * Fuselage, of an aircraft * H ...

Raft
s have operated for at least 8,000 years. A 7,000-year-old seagoing
reed boat Reed boats and rafts, along with dugout canoe A dugout canoe or simply dugout is a boat made from a hollowed tree. Other names for this type of boat are logboat and monoxylon. ''Monoxylon'' (''μονόξυλον'') (pl: ''monoxyla'') is Greek -- ...
has been found in
Kuwait Kuwait (; ar, الكويت ', or ), officially the State of Kuwait ( ar, دولة الكويت '), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regi ...

Kuwait
. Boats were used between 4000 and 3000 BC in
Sumer Sumer ()The name is from Akkadian language, Akkadian '; Sumerian language, Sumerian ''kig̃ir'', written and ,approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land". means "native, local", iĝir NATIVE (7x: Old Babylonian)from ''The ...

Sumer
,
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

ancient Egypt
and in the
Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of and contains 97% of . Another definition is "any of the large ...

Indian Ocean
. Boats played an important role in the commerce between the
Indus Valley Civilization The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), also known as the Indus Civilisation, was a Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric that was characterized by the use of , in some areas , and other early features of urban . The Bronze Age is ...

Indus Valley Civilization
and
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in th ...

Mesopotamia
. Evidence of varying models of boats has also been discovered at various Indus Valley archaeological sites.
Uru Uru or URU may refer to: Language * Uru dialect of Central Kilimanjaro, a Bantu language of Tanzania * Uru language The Uru language, more specifically known as Iru-Itu, and Uchumataqu, is an extinct language formerly spoken by the Uru peo ...
craft originate in
Beypore Beypore or ''Beypur'' is an ancient port town and a locality town in Kozhikode district in the state of Kerala Kerala ( ; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magaz ...

Beypore
, a village in south
Calicut Kozhikode (), also known as Calicut, is an Indian city, second-largest urban agglomeration in the State of Kerala in India and 19th largest in the country with a population of two million according to 2011 census. Kozhikode is classified as ...

Calicut
,
Kerala Kerala ( ; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Kerala
, in southwestern
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
. This type of mammoth wooden ship was constructed solely of teak, with a transport capacity of 400 tonnes. The ancient Arabs and Greeks used such boats as trading vessels. The historians
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an Classical Greece, ancient Greek writer, geographer, and historian born in the Greek city of Halicarnassus, part of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire (now Bodrum, Turkey). He ...
,
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
and
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
record the use of boats for commerce, travel, and military purposes.


Types

Boats can be categorized into three main types: # Unpowered or human-powered. Unpowered craft include
raft A raft is any flat structure for support or transportation over water. It is usually of basic design, characterized by the absence of a hull Hull may refer to: Structures * Chassis, of an armored fighting vehicle * Fuselage, of an aircraft * H ...

raft
s meant for one-way downstream travel. Human-powered boats include
canoe A canoe is a lightweight narrow vessel, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel and using a single-bladed paddle A paddle is a tool used for pushin ...

canoe
s,
kayak A kayak is a small, narrow watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional pr ...

kayak
s,
gondola The gondola (, ; vec, góndoła ) is a traditional, flat-bottomed Venetian rowing Rowing is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oar An oar is an implement used for water-borne propulsion. Oars have a flat blade at one en ...

gondola
s and boats propelled by poles like a
punt Punt or punting may refer to: Boats *Punt (boat), a flat-bottomed boat with a square-cut bow developed on the River Thames *Falmouth Quay Punt, a small sailing vessel hired by ships anchored in Falmouth harbour *Norfolk Punt, a type of racing ding ...
. #
Sailboat A sailboat or sailing boat is a boat A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered ...

Sailboat
s, propelled mainly by means of
sail A sail is a tensile structure by Vladimir Shukhov (during construction), Nizhny Novgorod, 1895 in Kings Domain, Melbourne A tensile structure is a construction of elements carrying only tension (physics), tension and no compression (physica ...
s. #
Motorboat A motorboat, speedboat or powerboat is a boat A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system w ...

Motorboat
s, propelled by mechanical means, such as
engine An engine or motor is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine that uses Power (physics), power to apply For ...

engine
s.


Terminology

The
hull Hull may refer to: Structures * Chassis, of an armored fighting vehicle * Fuselage, of an aircraft * Hull (botany), the outer covering of seeds * Hull (watercraft), the body or frame of a ship * Submarine hull Mathematics * Affine hull, in affin ...
is the main, and in some cases only, structural component of a boat. It provides both capacity and
buoyancy Buoyancy (), or upthrust, is an upward exerted by a that opposes the of a partially or fully immersed object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus the pressure at the bo ...

buoyancy
. The
keel The keel is the bottom-most longitudinal structural element on a vessel. On some sailboats, it may have a Fluid dynamics, hydrodynamic and counterbalancing purpose, as well. As the keel laying, laying down of the keel is the initial step in the c ...

keel
is a boat's "backbone", a lengthwise structural member to which the perpendicular frames are fixed. On most boats a deck covers the hull, in part or whole. While a
ship A ship is a large watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional propertie ...

ship
often has several decks, a boat is unlikely to have more than one. Above the deck are often lifelines connected to
stanchion A stanchion () is a sturdy upright fixture that provides support for some other object. It can be a permanent fixture. Types In architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 25 ...
s,
bulwark Bulwark may refer to: * Bulwark (nautical), a nautical term for the extension of a ship's side above the level of a weather deck * Bastion, a structure projecting outward from the curtain wall of a fortification Bulwark may also refer to: Arts a ...
s perhaps topped by gunnels, or some combination of the two. A cabin may protrude above the deck forward, aft, along the centerline, or covering much of the length of the boat. Vertical structures dividing the internal spaces are known as
bulkhead Bulkhead may refer to: Structural safety devices *Bulkhead (partition), a wall within the hull of a ship, vehicle, or container *Torpedo bulkhead, a type of armor plate or protective covering designed to keep a ship afloat even if the hull is st ...
s. The forward end of a boat is called the
bow Bow often refers to: * Bow and arrow The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon A ranged weapon is any weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or device that can be used with the intent to inflict physical damage or harm. Weapons ar ...
, the aft end the
stern The stern is the back or aft Aft :''For the acronym, see AFT (disambiguation).'' Aft, in naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, ...

stern
. Facing forward the right side is referred to as
starboard Port and starboard are nautical Seamanship is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, oppos ...
and the left side as
port A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Maritime Southeast Asia * The Maritimes, the Canadian provinces of ...
.


Building materials

Until the mid-19th century most boats were made of natural materials, primarily wood, although
reed Reed or Reeds may refer to: Science, technology, biology, and medicine * Reed bird (disambiguation) Reed bird may refer to: * Reed bunting * Pallas's reed bunting * Eurasian reed warbler * Red nose flower bomb ... * Reed pen A reed pen ( ...
, bark and animal skins were also used. Early boats include the bound-reed style of boat seen in Ancient Egypt, the
birch bark Birch bark or birchbark is the Bark (botany), bark of several Eurasian and North American birch trees of the genus ''Betula''. The strong and water-resistant cardboard-like bark can be easily cut, bent, and sewn, which has made it a valuable bui ...

birch bark
canoe A canoe is a lightweight narrow vessel, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel and using a single-bladed paddle A paddle is a tool used for pushin ...

canoe
, the animal hide-covered
kayak A kayak is a small, narrow watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional pr ...

kayak
and
coracle A coracle is a small, rounded, lightweight boat A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system wit ...
and the
dugout canoe A dugout canoe or simply dugout is a boat made from a hollowed tree. Other names for this type of boat are logboat and monoxylon. ''Monoxylon'' (''μονόξυλον'') (pl: ''monoxyla'') is Greek -- ''mono-'' (single) + ''wikt:ξύλον, ξύλο ...

dugout canoe
made from a single log. By the mid-19th century, many boats had been built with iron or steel frames but still planked in wood. In 1855
ferro-cement Ferrocement or ferro-cement is a system of construction using reinforced mortar Mortar may refer to: * Mortar (weapon), an indirect-fire infantry weapon * Mortar (masonry), a material used to fill the gaps between blocks and bind them together ...
boat construction was patented by the French, who coined the name "ferciment". This is a system by which a steel or iron wire framework is built in the shape of a boat's hull and covered over with cement. Reinforced with bulkheads and other internal structure it is strong but heavy, easily repaired, and, if sealed properly, will not leak or corrode. As the forests of Britain and Europe continued to be over-harvested to supply the keels of larger wooden boats, and the
Bessemer process The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some refer ...

Bessemer process
(
patent A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depe ...

patent
ed in 1855) cheapened the cost of steel, steel ships and boats began to be more common. By the 1930s boats built entirely of steel from frames to plating were seen replacing wooden boats in many industrial uses and fishing fleets. Private recreational boats of steel remain uncommon. In 1895 WH Mullins produced steel boats of galvanized iron and by 1930 became the world's largest producer of pleasure boats. Mullins also offered boats in aluminum from 1895 through 1899 and once again in the 1920s, but it wasn't until the mid-20th century that
aluminium Aluminium (aluminum in and ) is a with the  Al and  13. Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common , at approximately one third that of . It has a great affinity towards , and of on the surface when exposed to air ...

aluminium
gained widespread popularity. Though much more expensive than steel, aluminum alloys exist that do not corrode in salt water, allowing a similar load carrying capacity to steel at much less weight. Around the mid-1960s, boats made of
fiberglass Fiberglass (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American Englis ...
(aka "glassfibre") became popular, especially for recreational boats. Fiberglass is also known as "GRP" (glass-reinforced plastic) in the UK, and "FRP" (for fiber-reinforced plastic) in the US. Fiberglass boats are strong, and do not rust, corrode, or rot. Instead, they are susceptible to structural degradation from sunlight and extremes in temperature over their lifespan. Fiberglass structures can be made stiffer with sandwich panels, where the fiberglass encloses a lightweight core such as balsa or foam. Cold moulding is a modern construction method, using wood as the structural component. In cold moulding very thin strips of wood are layered over a form. Each layer is coated with resin, followed by another directionally alternating layer laid on top. Subsequent layers may be stapled or otherwise mechanically fastened to the previous, or weighted or vacuum bagged to provide compression and stabilization until the resin sets.


Propulsion

The most common means of boat propulsion are as follows: * Engine **
Inboard motor An inboard motor is a marine propulsion Marine propulsion is the mechanism or system used to generate to move a or across water. While s and s are still used on some smaller boats, most modern ships are propelled by mechanical systems consi ...
**
Stern drive A sterndrive or inboard/outboard drive (I/O) is a form of marine propulsion Marine propulsion is the mechanism or system used to generate to move a or across water. While s and s are still used on some smaller boats, most modern ships are ...
(Inboard/outboard) **
Outboard motor An outboard motor is a propulsion Propulsion is the action or process of pushing or pulling to drive an object forward. The term is derived from two Latin words: '' pro'', meaning'' before'' or ''forward''; and '' pellere'', meaning ''to dri ...
**
Paddle wheel A paddle wheel is a form of waterwheel A water wheel is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine A mo ...

Paddle wheel
** Water jet (
jetboat A jetboat is a boat A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and fu ...
,
personal water craft A personal watercraft (PWC), also called water scooter or jet ski, is a recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is time spent away from busin ...
) ** Fan (
hovercraft A hovercraft, also known as an air-cushion vehicle or ACV, is an amphibious craft A craft or trade is a pastime or an occupation that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. In a historical sense, particularly the ...

hovercraft
,
air boat An airboat (also known as a planeboat, swamp boat, bayou boat, or fanboat) is a flat-bottomed watercraft propelled by an aircraft-type Propeller (aircraft), propeller and powered by either an aircraft or automotive engine.In early aviation hist ...

air boat
) * Man (
rowing Rowing is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oars in the water by displacing water to propel the boat forward. Rowing and paddling are similar. However, rowing requires oars to have a mechanical connection with the boat, while p ...
,
paddling Paddling with regard to watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional proper ...
,
setting pole A setting pole or quant (quant pole) is a oar, pole, handled by a single individual, made to move boats, barges (barge pole) or punt (boat), punts by pushing the craft in the desired direction. Because it is a pushing tool, it is generally used fro ...
etc.) * Wind (
sail A sail is a tensile structure by Vladimir Shukhov (during construction), Nizhny Novgorod, 1895 in Kings Domain, Melbourne A tensile structure is a construction of elements carrying only tension (physics), tension and no compression (physica ...
ing)


Buoyancy

A boat displaces its weight in water, regardless whether it is made of wood, steel, fiberglass, or even concrete. If weight is added to the boat, the volume of the hull drawn below the waterline will increase to keep the balance above and below the surface equal. Boats have a natural or designed level of buoyancy. Exceeding it will cause the boat first to ride lower in the water, second to take on water more readily than when properly loaded, and ultimately, if overloaded by any combination of structure, cargo, and water, sink. As commercial vessels must be correctly loaded to be safe, and as the sea becomes less buoyant in brackish areas such as the
Baltic Baltic may refer to: Geography Northern Europe * Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographi ...

Baltic
, the
Plimsoll line The waterline is the line where the hull of a ship meets the surface of the water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organis ...
was introduced to prevent overloading.


European Union classification

Since 1998 all new leisure boats and barges built in Europe between 2.5m and 24m must comply with the 's
Recreational Craft Directive The Recreational Craft Directive, Directive 2013/53/EU, originally Directive 94/25/EC on recreational craft amended by Directive 2003/44/EC, is a European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member stat ...
(RCD). The Directive establishes four categories that permit the allowable
wind Wind is the natural movement of air or other gases relative to a planet's surface. Wind occurs on a range of scales, from thunderstorm A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm or a lightning storm, is a storm characterized by th ...
and wave conditions for vessels in each class:"The Barge Buyer's Handbook" - DBA publications *Class A - the boat may safely navigate any waters. *Class B - the boat is limited to offshore navigation. (Winds up to Force 8 & waves up to 4 metres) *Class C - the boat is limited to inshore (coastal) navigation. (Winds up to Force 6 & waves up to 2 metres) *Class D - the boat is limited to rivers, canals and small lakes. (Winds up to Force 4 & waves up to 0.5 metres)


Gallery

File:A boat in India.JPG, A boat on the
Ganges River The Ganges ( ) (in India: Ganga ( ); in Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is de ...

Ganges River
File:Babur crossing the river Son.jpg, Babur crossing river Son; folio from an illustrated manuscript of ‘Babur-Namah’, Mughal,
Akbar Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated ...

Akbar
Period, AD 1598 File:Tug Boat NY 1.jpg, A
tugboat A tugboat or tug is a marine vessel Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional ...

tugboat
is used for towing or pushing another larger
ship A ship is a large watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional propertie ...

ship
File:DerelictBoatFollyIs.jpg, A ship's derelict
lifeboat Lifeboat may refer to: Rescue vessels * Lifeboat (shipboard), a small craft aboard a ship to allow for emergency escape * Lifeboat (rescue), a boat designed for sea rescues * Airborne lifeboat, an air-dropped boat used to save downed airmen Ar ...
, built of steel, rusting away in the wetlands of
Folly Island Folly Island is a barrier island in the Atlantic Ocean near Charleston, South Carolina. It is one of the Sea Islands and is within the boundaries of Charleston County, South Carolina. During the American Civil War, the island served as a major ...
,
South Carolina South Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspap ...

South Carolina
, United States File:EgyptTombOarboat.jpg, A boat in an Egyptian tomb, painted around 1450 BC File:Historic Center of Quito - World Heritage Site by UNESCO - Photo 437.jpg, Dugout boats in the courtyard of the Old Military Hospital in the Historic Center of Quito File:Jiajing Emperor on his state barge.jpg,
Ming Dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming Dynasty
Chinese painting of the
Wanli Emperor The Wanli Emperor (; 4 September 1563 – 18 August 1620), personal name Zhu Yijun (), was the 14th Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigned from 1572 to 1620. "Wanli", the era name A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign Sovereign i ...
enjoying a boat ride on a river with an entourage of guards and courtiers File:Kambojika Putta Khemara Tarei (front).jpg, Worlds longest dragon boat on display in
Phnom Penh Phnom Penh (; km, ភ្នំពេញ, ; lit. "Penh's Hill") is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ...

Phnom Penh
, Cambodia File:lifeboat.17-31.underway.arp.jpg, At 17 metres long, the Severn-class lifeboats are the largest operational
lifeboat Lifeboat may refer to: Rescue vessels * Lifeboat (shipboard), a small craft aboard a ship to allow for emergency escape * Lifeboat (rescue), a boat designed for sea rescues * Airborne lifeboat, an air-dropped boat used to save downed airmen Ar ...
s in the UK File:Oldboats.JPG, Aluminum
flat-bottomed boat A flat-bottomed boat is a boat A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structu ...
s ashore for storage File:Sauce Bottle - geograph.org.uk - 13422.jpg, A boat shaped like a sauce bottle that was sailed across the by
Tom McClean Tom McClean is a veteran of both the Parachute Regiment and the SAS and is a survival expert who lived on the island of Rockall Rockall () is an uninhabitable granite islet situated in the North Atlantic Ocean. The United Kingdom claims ...
File:Yacht and Sails.JPG, Anchored boats in Portovenere, Italy File:Groep in een boot, Stadsbuitengracht Utrecht, 2019 - 2.jpg, A boat in Utrecht, Netherlands


See also

* Abora * Barge * Cabin cruiser *
Canoe A canoe is a lightweight narrow vessel, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel and using a single-bladed paddle A paddle is a tool used for pushin ...

Canoe
* Car float * Coracle * Dinghy * Dory * Fishing vessel * Flatboat * Halkett boat * Inflatable boat * Kayak * Launch (boat) * Lifeboat (rescue), Lifeboat * Lighter (barge), Lighter * Log canoe * Narrowboat * Naval architecture * Panga (skiff), Panga (boat) * Pirogue * Poveiro (boat), Poveiro * Rescue craft * Riverboat * Rowing *
Sailboat A sailboat or sailing boat is a boat A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered ...

Sailboat
* Sampan * Ship * Ship's boat * Skiff * Tour boat * Traditional fishing boats * Tûranor PlanetSolar * Watercraft * Yacht


References


External links

* University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections
Freshwater and Marine Image Bank
(enter search term "vessels" for images of boats and vessels.) {{Authority control Boats, Watercraft Fishing equipment