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A barque, barc, or bark is a type of
sailing vessel A sailing ship is a sea-going vessel that uses sails mounted on Mast (sailing), masts to harness the power of wind and propel the vessel. There is a variety of sail plans that propel sailing ships, employing Square rig, square-rigged or Fore-and ...

sailing vessel
with three or more masts having the fore- and mainmasts rigged square and only the mizzen (the aftmost mast) rigged fore and aft. Sometimes, the mizzen is only partly fore-and-aft rigged, bearing a square-rigged sail above.


Etymology

The word "barque" entered English via the French term, which in turn came from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...
''barca'' by way of
Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no ,), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evol ...
,
Catalan Catalan may refer to: Catalonia From, or related to Catalonia: * Catalan language, a Romance language * Catalans, an ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia * Països Catalans, territories where Catalan is spoken * C ...
, Spanish, or Italian. The Latin ''barca'' may stem from
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
''barc'' (per Thurneysen) or Greek ''baris'' (per
DiezDiez may refer to: *Diez (surname) *''Diez'', a sports newspaper in Bolivia *Diez (Honduras), ''Diez'' (Honduras), a newspaper in Honduras *''Diez'' or ''X'', an album by Intocable *10 (number) in Spanish. *Diez, Germany, a town in Rhineland-Palatin ...

Diez
), a term for an Egyptian boat. The ''
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historica ...
'', however, considers the latter improbable. The word ''barc'' appears to have come from Celtic languages. The form adopted by English, perhaps from
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
, was "bark", while that adopted by Latin as ''barca'' very early, which gave rise to the French ''barge'' and ''barque''. In Latin, Spanish, and Italian, the term ''barca'' refers to a small
boat A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It m ...

boat
, not a full-sized ship. French influence in England led to the use in English of both words, although their meanings now are not the same. Well before the 19th century, a
barge A barge is a shoal A tidal sandbar connecting the islands of Waya and Wayasewa of the Yasawa Islands, Fiji In oceanography Oceanography (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in a ...

barge
had become interpreted as a small vessel of coastal or inland waters, or a fast rowing boat carried by warships and normally reserved for the commanding officer. Somewhat later, a bark became a sailing vessel of a distinctive rig as detailed below. In Britain, by the mid-19th century, the spelling had taken on the French form of ''barque''. Although
Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (; 22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626), also known as Lord Verulam, was an English philosopher and statesman who served as Attorney General for England and Wales, Attorney General and as Lord Chancellor of K ...
used this form of the word as early as 1592, Shakespeare still used the spelling "barke" in
Sonnet 116 William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet, and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and one of the world's greatest dramatists. He is ...

Sonnet 116
in 1609. Throughout the period of sail, the word was used also as a shortening of the barca-longa of the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
. The usual spelling convention is that, to distinguish between
homophone A homophone () is a word that is pronouncedPronunciation is the way in which a word or a language is spoken. This may refer to generally agreed-upon sequences of sounds used in speaking a given word or language in a specific dialect ("correct ...
s, when spelled as barque it refers to a ship, and when spelled as bark it refers to either a
sound In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular ...
or to a tree hide. "
Barcarole A barcarolle (; from French, also barcarole; originally, Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language ...
" in music shares the same etymology, being originally a folk song sung by
Venetian
Venetian
gondolier The gondola (, ; vec, góndoła ) is a traditional, Flat-bottomed boat, flat-bottomed Venice, Venetian watercraft rowing, rowing boat, well suited to the conditions of the Venetian lagoon. It is typically propelled by a gondolier, who uses a rowi ...

gondolier
and derived from ''barca'' — "boat" in Italian, or in Late Latin.


Bark

In the 18th century, the British
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
used the term bark for a nondescript vessel that did not fit any of its usual categories. Thus, when the British admiralty purchased a
collier Collier or colliers may refer to: Coal industry * Collier, coal miner or coal Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as stratum, rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of o ...
for use by
James Cook Captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a milit ...

James Cook
in his journey of exploration, she was registered as HM Bark ''Endeavour'' to distinguish her from another ''Endeavour'', a
sloop A sloop is a sailboat sloop ged sloop Image:Sail plan sloop.svg, Gaff-rigged sloop with a Topsail#Gaff rig, gaff topsail A sloop is a sailboat with a single mast (sailing), mast typically having only one headsail in front of the mast and ...
already in service at the time. She happened to be a
ship-rigged A full-rigged ship or fully rigged ship is a sailing ship, sailing vessel's sail plan and her rigging A sail plan is a description of the specific ways that a sailing craft is rigged, as #Types of rig, discussed below. Also, the term “s ...
sailing vessel with a plain bluff bow and a full stern with windows. William Falconer's ''Dictionary of the Marine'' defined "bark", as "A general name given to small ships: it is however peculiarly appropriated by seamen to those which carry three masts without a
mizzen The mast of a sailing vessel A sailing ship is a sea-going vessel that uses sails mounted on Mast (sailing), masts to harness the power of wind and propel the vessel. There is a variety of sail plans that propel sailing ships, employing Squar ...
topsail A topsail ("tops'l") is a sail A sail is a tensile structure by Vladimir Shukhov (during construction), Nizhny Novgorod, 1895 in Kings Domain, Melbourne A tensile structure is a construction of elements carrying only tension (physics), ten ...

topsail
. Our Northern Mariners, who are trained in the coal-trade, apply this distinction to a broad-sterned ship, which carries no ornamental figure on the stem or prow." The UK's National Archives state that a paper document surviving from the 16th century in the Cheshire and Chester Archives and Local Studies Service, notes the names of
Robert Ratclyfe
Robert Ratclyfe
, owner of the bark "Sunday" and 10 mariners appointed to serve under Rt. Hon. the Earl of Sussex,
Lord Deputy of Ireland The Lord Deputy was the representative of the monarch and head of the Irish executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of ...
.


Barque rig

By the end of the 18th century, the term barque (sometimes, particularly in the US, spelled bark) came to refer to any vessel with a particular type of
sail-plan A sail plan is a description of the specific ways that a sailing craft is rigged. Also, the term "sail plan" is a graphic depiction of the arrangement of the s for a given sailing craft.> Introduction A well-designed sail plan should be ba ...
. This comprises three (or more) masts, fore-and-aft sails on the
aft Aft :''For the acronym, see AFT (disambiguation).'' Aft, in naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organiz ...
ermost mast and square sails on all other masts. Barques were the workhorse of the golden age of sail in the mid-19th century as they attained passages that nearly matched full-rigged ships, but could operate with smaller crews. The advantage of these rigs was that they needed smaller (therefore cheaper) crews than a comparable
full-rigged ship A full-rigged ship or fully rigged ship is a sailing vessel A sailing ship is a sea-going vessel that uses sails mounted on Mast (sailing), masts to harness the power of wind and propel the vessel. There is a variety of sail plans that prop ...
or
brig A brig is a sailing vessel with two square-rigged Square rig is a generic type of Sail-plan, sail and rigging arrangement in which the primary driving sails are carried on horizontal spar (sailing), spars which are perpendicular, or wikt:sq ...

brig
-rigged vessel, as fewer of the labour-intensive square sails were used, and the rig itself is cheaper. Conversely, the ship rig tended to be retained for training vessels where the larger the crew, the more seamen were trained. Another advantage is that a barque can outperform a
schooner A schooner () is a type of sailing vessel A sailing ship is a sea-going vessel that uses sails mounted on Mast (sailing), masts to harness the power of wind and propel the vessel. There is a variety of sail plans that propel sailing ships, em ...

schooner
or barkentine, and is both easier to handle and better at going to windward than a full-rigged ship. While a full-rigged ship is the best runner available, and while fore-and-aft rigged vessels are the best at going to windward, the barque is often the best compromise, and combines the best elements of these two. Most ocean-going
windjammer 300px, Four-masted, iron-hulled barque ''Herzogin Cecilie''—one of the fastest windjammers built">Herzogin_Cecilie.html" ;"title="barque ''Herzogin Cecilie">barque ''Herzogin Cecilie''—one of the fastest windjammers built A windjammer is a co ...

windjammer
s were four-masted barques, since the four-masted barque is considered the most efficient rig available because of its ease of handling, small need of manpower, good running capabilities, and good capabilities of rising toward wind. Usually, the main mast was the tallest; that of ''
Moshulu ''Moshulu'' is a four-masted steel barque A barque, barc, or bark is a type of sailing vessel A sailing ship is a sea-going vessel that uses sails mounted on Mast (sailing), masts to harness the power of wind and propel the vessel. There ...

Moshulu
'' extends to 58 m off the deck. The four-masted barque can be handled with a surprisingly small crew—at minimum, 10—and while the usual crew was around 30, almost half of them could be apprentices. Today many sailing-
school ship A training ship is a ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research, and fishing. ...
s are barques. A well-preserved example of a commercial barque is the ''
Pommern Pomerania ( pl, Pomorze; german: Pommern; Kashubian language, Kashubian: ''Pòmòrskô'') is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Poland and Germany. The western part of Pomerania belongs ...
'', the only windjammer in original condition. Its home is in
Mariehamn Mariehamn (, ; fi, Maarianhamina ; la, Portus Mariae) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or mo ...

Mariehamn
outside the
Åland Åland (; fi, Ahvenanmaa: ; ; ) is an autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, su ...
maritime museum. The wooden barque ''
Sigyn . Sigyn (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic languages, North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants ...
'', built in
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Gothenburg
1887, is now a
museum ship A museum ship, also called a memorial ship, is a ship that has been preserved and converted into a museum open to the public for educational or memorial purposes. Some are also used for training and recruitment purposes, mostly for the small number ...
in
Turku Turku ( ; ; sv, Åbo, ; la, Aboa; russian: Турку, formerly ) is a List of cities and towns in Finland, city and former Capital city, capital on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura (Archipelago Sea), Aura River, in the ...

Turku
. The wooden
whaling Whaling is the process of hunting of whales for their usable products such as Whale meat, meat and blubber, which can be turned into Whale oil, a type of oil that became increasingly important in the Industrial Revolution. It was practiced as ...

whaling
barque '' Charles W. Morgan'', launched 1841, taken out of service 1921, is now a museum ship at
Mystic Seaport Mystic Seaport Museum or Mystic Seaport: The Museum of America and the Sea in Mystic, Connecticut is the largest maritime museum in the United States. It is notable for its collection of sailing ships and boats and for the re-creation of the craft ...
in
Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 United States census, 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, second-highest level of List of U.S. states and territories by H ...
. The ''Charles W. Morgan'' has recently been refit and is (as of summer, 2014) sailing the New England coast. The
United States Coast Guard The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is the maritime security, search and rescue, and maritime law enforcement, law enforcement military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's eight Uniformed services ...
still has an operational barque, built in Germany in 1936 and captured as a
war prize A prize of war is a piece of enemy property or land seized by a belligerent party during or after a war or battle, typically at sea. This term was used nearly exclusively in terms of captured ships during the 18th and 19th centuries. Basis in inte ...
, the USCGC ''Eagle'', which the
United States Coast Guard Academy The United States Coast Guard Academy (USCGA) is a service academy of the United States Coast Guard in New London, Connecticut. Founded in 1876, it is the smallest of the five United States service academies, U.S. service academies and provid ...
in New London uses as a training vessel. The
Sydney Heritage Fleet Sydney Heritage Fleet, is the trading name of Sydney Maritime Museum Ltd., a public (non-profit) company in Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug language, Dharug: ) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital city of the state of New South Wa ...
restored an iron-hulled three-masted barque, the ''James Craig'', originally constructed as ''Clan Macleod'' in 1874 and sailing at sea fortnightly. The oldest active sailing vessel in the world, the ''Star of India'', was built in 1863 as a full-rigged ship, then converted into a barque in 1901. This type of ship inspired the French composer Maurice Ravel to write his famous piece, ''Une Barque sur l'ocean'', originally composed for piano, in 1905, then orchestrated in 1906.


Barques and barque shrines in Ancient Egypt

In
Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

Ancient Egypt
, barques, referred to using the French word as
Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs () were the formal writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent ...
were first translated by the Frenchman
Jean-François Champollion Jean-François Champollion (), also known as Champollion ''le jeune'' ('the Younger'; 23 December 17904 March 1832), was a French scholar A scholar is a person who pursues academic and intellectual activities, particularly those that develop e ...

Jean-François Champollion
, were a type of boat used from Egypt's earliest recorded times and are depicted in many drawings, paintings, and reliefs that document the culture. Transportation to the afterlife was believed to be accomplished by way of barques, as well, and the image is used in many of the religious murals and carvings in temples and tombs. The most important Egyptian barque carried the dead
pharaoh Pharaoh ( , ; cop, , Pǝrro) is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the conte ...

pharaoh
to become a deity. Great care was taken to provide a beautiful barque to the pharaoh for this journey, and models of the boats were placed in their tombs. Many models of these boats, that range from tiny to huge in size, have been found. Wealthy and royal members of the culture also provided barques for their final journey. The type of vessel depicted in Egyptian images remains quite similar throughout the thousands of years the culture persisted. Barques were important religious artifacts, and since the deities were thought to travel in this fashion in the sky, the
Milky Way The Milky Way is the galaxy A galaxy is a gravitation Gravity (), or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass Mass is both a property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and con ...

Milky Way
was seen as a great waterway that was as important as the
Nile The Nile, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian languages, Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan language family. "Nobiin" is the genitive case, genitive form of ''Nòòbíí'' ("Nub ...

Nile
on Earth; cult statues of the deities traveled by boats on water and ritual boats were carried about by the priests during festival ceremonies.
Temples A temple (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...

Temples
included barque shrines, sometimes more than one in a temple, in which the sacred barques rested when a procession was not in progress. In these stations, the boats would be watched over and cared for by the priests.


Barque of St. Peter

The Barque of St. Peter, or the Barque of Peter, is a reference to the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Roman Catholic Church
. The term refers to
Peter Peter may refer to: People * List of people named Peter, a list of people and fictional characters with the given name * Peter (given name) ** Saint Peter (died 60s), apostle of Jesus, leader of the early Christian Church * Peter (surname), a sur ...

Peter
, the first
Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

Pope
, who was a fisherman before becoming an apostle of Jesus. The Pope is often said to be steering the Barque of St. Peter.


See also

*
Barquentine A barquentine or schooner barque (alternatively "barkentine" or "schooner bark") is a sail A sail is a tensile structure by Vladimir Shukhov (during construction), Nizhny Novgorod, 1895 in Kings Domain, Melbourne A tensile structure is a ...
(three masts, fore mast square-rigged) *
Brigantine A brigantine is a two-masted sailing vessel with a fully square-rig Square rig is a generic type of sail and rigging arrangement in which the primary driving sails are carried on horizontal spars which are perpendicular, or square In E ...

Brigantine
(two masts, fore mast square-rigged) *
Jackass-barque A jackass-barque, sometimes spelled jackass bark, is a sailing ship with three (or more) masts, of which the foremast is square-rigged and the main is partially square-rigged (topsail, Topgallant sail, topgallant, etc.) and partially fore-and-aft ri ...
(three masts, fore mast and upper part of mizzen mast square-rigged) *
Schooner A schooner () is a type of sailing vessel A sailing ship is a sea-going vessel that uses sails mounted on Mast (sailing), masts to harness the power of wind and propel the vessel. There is a variety of sail plans that propel sailing ships, em ...

Schooner
*
Windjammer 300px, Four-masted, iron-hulled barque ''Herzogin Cecilie''—one of the fastest windjammers built">Herzogin_Cecilie.html" ;"title="barque ''Herzogin Cecilie">barque ''Herzogin Cecilie''—one of the fastest windjammers built A windjammer is a co ...

Windjammer
*
List of large sailing vessels This is a list of large sailing vessels, past and present, including sailing mega yachts, tall ships, sailing cruise ships, and large sailing military ships. It is sorted by overall length. The list, which is in the form of a table, covers vessel ...


References


Further reading

*


External links


Description of the four-masted barque ''Kaiwo Maru''
{{Sailing ship elements Sailing rigs and rigging