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The automotive industry comprises a wide range of and s involved in the , , , , and of s. It is one of the world's largest by . The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the of following delivery to the end-user, such as and s. The word ''automotive'' comes from the ''autos'' (self), and ''motivus'' (of ), referring to any form of self-powered vehicle. This term, as proposed by (1860-1930), first came into use with reference to automobiles in 1898.


History

The automotive industry began in the with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the . For many decades, the led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the , the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time, the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After 1945, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and then became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U.S. production of 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units. From 1970 (140 models) over 1998 (260 models) to 2012 (684 models), the number of automobile models in the U.S. has grown exponentially.


Safety

Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage. Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. and other have to comply with a certain number of regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market. The standard , is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive . In case of safety issues, danger, or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run. This procedure is called . Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material. Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences.


Economy

In 2007, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road, consuming over of and yearly. The automobile is a primary mode of for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of predicted that, by 2014, one-third of world demand would be in the four markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed. It is also expected that this trend will continue, especially as the younger generations of people (in highly urbanized countries) no longer want to own a car anymore, and prefer other modes of transport. Other potentially powerful automotive markets are and . Emerging automobile markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global sales in 2010. The study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate. However, more recent reports (2012) confirmed the opposite; namely that the automotive industry was slowing down even in BRIC countries. In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units.


World motor vehicle production


By year


By country

The counts over 50 countries which assemble, manufacture or disseminate automobiles. Of that figure, only 14 countries (boldfaced in the list below) currently possess the capability to design original production automobiles from the ground up.


By manufacturer

These were the 15 largest manufacturers by production volume in 2017, according to OICA.OICA: World Ranking of Manufacturers
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Other rankings

This is the list of the 15 largest publicly-traded car manufacturers by , according to CompaniesMarketCap.com.


Notable company relationships


Stake holding

It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies. Notable current relationships include: * holds a 25% stake in . * holds a 10.0% stake in . * Daimler holds an 89.29% stake in . * Daimler holds a 3.1% in the , while holds a 3.1% share in . * Daimler holds a 12% stake in , while holds 5% stake in Daimler. * Daimler holds an 85% stake in . * holds a 12.23% stake and a 19.94% exercisable voting rights in . * owns 49% of . * holds a 10% stake in . * FCA holds a 67% stake in . * FCA holds 37.8% of with another 37.8% owned by . * owns a 54% stake in . * owns a 46% stake in . * holds a 15% stake in . FMG, Beijing Automotive Group, , and Daimler has a joint venture called . FMG, China Motor, and Mitsubishi Motors has a joint venture called , FMG holds a 50% stake, and both China Motor and Mitsubishi Motors holds an equal 25% stake. * holds a 23% stake in . * Geely Automobile holds a 49.9% stake in and a 51% stake in . * holds a 9.69% stake in . * Geely Holding Group holds an 8.3% stake and a 15.9% exercisable voting rights in . * holds a 93% stake in and holds a 7% stake. * holds a 94% stake in and holds a 6% stake. * General Motors holds a 20% stake in . * owns 10% of Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines. * holds a 70% stake in . * holds a 17.01% voting stake in . * owns 19% of . * holds 20% of . * owns 34% of since October 2016, thus having the right to nominate the chairman of Mitsubishi Motors' board and a third of its directors. * Nissan owns 43% of . * has a 50.74% voting stake in . The Porsche automotive business is fully owned by the Volkswagen Group. * and have an alliance () involving two global companies linked by cross-shareholding, with Renault holding 43.4% of Nissan shares, and Nissan holding 15% of (non-voting) Renault shares. * Renault holds a 25% stake in * Renault holds an 80.1% stake in . * holds a 51% stake in . * holds a 100% stake in . * holds a 100% stake in . * Toyota holds a 50.1% stake in . *Toyota holds a 5.9% stake in . *Toyota holds a 5.05% stake in , while Mazda holds 0.25% stake in Toyota. * Toyota holds a 16.7% stake in , parent company of . * Toyota holds a 4.94% stake in , while Suzuki holds 0.2% stake in Toyota. * holds a 99.55% stake in the . * Volkswagen Group holds a 37.73% stake in (68.6% voting rights), a 53.7% stake in (55.9% voting rights), Volkswagen is integrating Scania, MAN and its own truck division into one division. * has a 19% stake in . * holds a 51% stake in .


Joint ventures


China joint venture

* has a joint venture with called , both companies hold a 50-50% stake. both companies also have a joint venture called . * Beijing Automotive Group also has a joint venture with called , both companies hold a 50-50% stake. * and have a joint venture called . BMW owns a 50% stake, Brilliance owns a 40.5% stake, and the Shenyang municipal government owns a 9.5% stake. * has a joint venture with ( ), both hold a 50-50% stake. * Changan Automobile has a joint venture with ( ), both hold a 50-50% stake. * Changan Automobile has a 50-50% joint venture with ( ). * Changan Automobile and have a 50-50% joint venture called . * Changan Automobile and have a joint venture called . * has a joint venture with called , both companies hold a 50-50% stake. *Chery and has a joint venture called , both companies hold a 50-50% stake. * and have a 50-50% joint venture called . * Dongfeng Motor and have a 50-50% joint venture called . * Dongfeng Motor has a 50-50% joint venture with called . * Dongfeng Motor has a joint venture with called . * Dongfeng Motor has a 50-50% joint venture with named in , which was founded in the end of 2013 * and has a 50-50 joint venture called . * FAW Group has a 50-50 joint venture with called . * FAW Group has a 50-50 joint venture with called and both companies also have another joint venture called . * and , both have two joint ventures in and .


Outside China

* and have a joint venture called , both companies hold a 50-50% stake. *Daimler AG and have a joint venture called , both companies hold a 50-50% stake. * and have a 50-50 joint venture called . * Ford and have a 50-50 joint venture called . * Ford and have a 50-50 joint venture called . * Ford and Lio Ho Group have a joint venture called , Ford owns 70% and Lio Ho Group owns 30%. * General Motors and UzAvtosanoat have a joint venture called , UzAvtosanoat owns 75% and General Motors owns 25%. * General Motors, , and have a joint venture called , Both GM and AvtoVAZ owns 41.61% and EBRD owns 16.76%. * and has a joint venture called , owns 70% and owns 30%. * and Anadolu Group have a 50-50% joint venture called . * Isuzu and has a 50-50% joint venture called . * Isuzu, , and Imperial Sojitz have a joint venture called , Sollers JSC owns 66%, Isuzu owns 29%, and Imperial Sojitz owns 5%. * and have a joint venture called . Mahindra & Mahindra owns 51% and Navistar International owns 49%. * Mahindra & Mahindra has a joint venture with in India, where Mahindra & Mahindra owns 51% and Ford owns 49%. * and have a joint venture called , owns 51% and MAN SE owns 49%. * and has a joint venture called . * and have a 50-50% joint venture called . *PSA and (AVTEC) have a 50-50% joint venture called PSA AVTEC Powertrain Pvt. Ltd. * is involved in joint ventures with ( ) and to produce cars. * also formed a joint venture in India with and gained access to Fiat's diesel engine technology. * Tata Motors and have a joint venture called , where Tata owns 51% and Marcopolo owns 49%. * and has a 50-50% joint venture called VE Commercial Vehicles.


See also

* * * * * * * * *


Notes

These figures were before the merger of both Fiat Chrysler Automobiles and Groupe PSA; the latter of which has merged into as of January 2021.


References


External links

*
Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers
{{DEFAULTSORT:Automotive Industry Industries (economics)