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An arcade game or coin-op game is a
coin-operated A currency detector or currency validator is a device that determines whether banknote, notes or coins are genuine or counterfeit. These devices are used in a wide range of automated machines, such as Mall kiosk, retail kiosks, supermarket self c ...
entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and
amusement arcade An amusement arcade (often referred to as a video arcade, amusements or simply arcade) is a venue where people play arcade games, including arcade video games, pinball Pinball is a type of arcade game in which a player uses paddles (called #Fl ...
s. Most arcade games are presented as primarily
games of skill A game of skill or game of wits is a game where the outcome is determined mainly by mental or physical skill, rather than chance. Alternatively, a game of chance is one where its outcome is strongly influenced by some randomness, randomizing devic ...
and include
arcade video game An arcade video game takes player input from its controls, processes it through electrical or computerized components, and displays output to an electronic monitor or similar display. Most arcade video games are coin-operated A currency detec ...
s, pinball machines, electro-mechanical games,
redemption game Redemption games are typically arcade games of skill that reward the player proportionally to their score in the game. The reward most often comes in the form of tickets, with more tickets being awarded for higher scores. These tickets can then ...
s or
merchandisers A merchandiser is an arcade gaming device, which features a machine that contains a display of merchandise, which can be won by playing the game. In the trade, such games are described as " skill with prize" (SWP) games, and are a hybrid of games ...
.


Types

Broadly, arcade games are nearly always considered
games of skill A game of skill or game of wits is a game where the outcome is determined mainly by mental or physical skill, rather than chance. Alternatively, a game of chance is one where its outcome is strongly influenced by some randomness, randomizing devic ...
, with only some elements of
games of chance A game of chance is a game with separate sliding drawer, from 1390 to 1353 BC, made of glazed faience, dimensions: 5.5 × 7.7 × 21 cm, in the Brooklyn Museum (New York City) '', 1560, Pieter Bruegel the Elder File:Paul Cézanne, ...
. Games that are solely games of chance, like
slot machines A slot machine (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American ...

slot machines
and
pachinko is a type of mechanical game originating in Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the north toward the and in ...

pachinko
, often are categorized legally as
gambling Gambling (also known as betting) is the wagering something of Value (economics), value ("the stakes") on an Event (probability theory), event with an uncertain outcome with the intent of winning something else of value. Gambling thus requires ...
devices, and due to restrictions, may not be made available to minors or without appropriate oversight in many jurisdictions.


Arcade video games

Arcade video games were first introduced in the early 1970s, with ''
Pong ''Pong'' is a table tennis Table tennis, also known as ping-pong and whiff-whaff, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball, also known as the ping-pong ball, back and forth across a table using small rackets. The game t ...

Pong
'' as the first commercially-successful game. Arcade video games use
electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active devices to control electron flow b ...
or
computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These ...

computer
ized circuitry to take input from the player and translate that to an
electronic display An electronic visual display, informally a screen, is a display device s, LED display and Vacuum fluorescent display, VF display, top to bottom. A display device is an output device for presentation of information in visual or Touch, tactile form ...
such as a
monitor Monitor or monitor may refer to: Places * Monitor, Alberta * Monitor, Indiana, town in the United States * Monitor, Kentucky * Monitor, Oregon, unincorporated community in the United States * Monitor, Washington * Monitor, Logan County, West Virg ...
or
television set A television set or television receiver, more commonly called the television, TV, TV set, tube, telly, or tele, is a device that combines a tuner, display, and loudspeakers, for the purpose of viewing and hearing television Television ...
.


Carnival games

Coin-op carnival games are automated versions or variations of popular manned games held at carnival midways. Most of these are played for prizes or tickets for redemption. Common examples include
Skee-Ball More traditional skee ball machines like this one do not include the two additional "100 points" holes, located on the uppermost corners of the machine, on either side of the "50 points" hole. Skee-Ball is an arcade game An arcade game or coin- ...
and
Whac-A-Mole Whac-A-Mole is an arcade and carnival game A carnival game is a game of chance A game of chance is a game with separate sliding drawer, from 1390–1353 BC, made of glazed faience, dimensions: 5.5 × 7.7 × 21 cm, in the ...
.


Electro-mechanical games

Electro-mechanical In engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encomp ...
games (EM games) operate on a combination of some
electronic circuitry File:PExdcr01CJC.jpg, 200px, A circuit built on a printed circuit board (PCB). An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or ...
and
mechanical Mechanical may refer to: Machine * Mechanical system A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine A molecular machine, nan ...

mechanical
actions from the player to move items contained within the game's cabinet. Some of these were early light gun games using light-sensitive sensors on targets to register hits. Examples of electro-mechanical games include ''
Periscope A periscope is an instrument for observation over, around or through an object, obstacle or condition that prevents direct line-of-sight observation from an observer's current position. In its simplest form, it consists of an outer case with ...
'' and ''
Rifleman A rifleman is an infantry soldier armed with a rifling, rifled long gun. Although the rifleman role had its origin with 16th century hand cannoneers and 17th century musketeers, the term originated in the 18th century with the introduction o ...
'' from the 1960s. Electro-mechanical games typically combined
mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is an engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineerin ...

mechanical engineering
technology with various
electrical components An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, ...
, such as
motors An engine or motor is a designed to convert one or more forms of into . Available energy sources include (e.g. energy of the Earth's as exploited in ), heat energy (e.g. ), , and nuclear energy (from or ). Many of these processes genera ...

motors
,
switches In electrical engineering Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design, and application of equipment, devices, and systems which use electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism. It emerged as an ident ...

switches
,
resistors A resistor is a passive Passive may refer to: * Passive voice, a grammatical voice common in many languages, see also Pseudopassive (disambiguation), Pseudopassive * Passive language, a language from which an interpreter works * Passivity (b ...

resistors
,
solenoids A solenoid (,) is a type of electromagnet File:VFPt Solenoid correct2.svg, Magnetic field produced by a solenoid (coil of wire). This drawing shows a cross section through the center of the coil. The crosses are wires in which current is ...
,
relays A relay Electromechanical relay schematic showing a control coil, four pairs of normally open and one pair of normally closed contacts An automotive-style miniature relay with the dust cover taken off A relay is an electric Electricity i ...

relays
, bells, buzzers and electric lights. EM games lie somewhere in the middle between fully
electronic games An electronic game is a game that employs electronics to create an interactive system with which a player can play. Video games are the most common form today, and for this reason the two terms are often used interchangeably. There are other commo ...
and mechanical games.


Merchandiser game

Merchandiser games are those where the player attempts to win a prize by performing some physical action with the arcade machine, such as
claw crane A claw crane, claw machine, toy crane or skill crane is a type of arcade game known as a merchandiser, commonly found in video arcades, supermarkets, restaurants, movie theaters, shopping malls, and bowling alleys. Machine components Image:Snor ...
games or coin pusher games.


Pachinko

Pachinko is a type of mechanical game originating in Japan. It is used as both a form of recreational arcade game and much more frequently as a gambling device, filling a Japanese gambling niche comparable to that of the slot machine in Western gambling.


Photo booths

Coin-operated photo booths automatically take and develop three or four wallet-sized pictures of subjects within the small space, and more recently using
digital photography Digital photography uses cameras A camera is an optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the ...
. A specific variety in Asia, ''
purikura Photo Booth is a software application for taking photos and videos with an iSight webcam, camera. It is published by Apple Inc. as part of macOS and iOS (on the iPad and iPad Mini available starting with the iPad 2). Photo Booth was released in ...

purikura
'', creates
selfie A selfie () is a self-portrait A self-portrait is a representation of an artist that is drawn, painted, photographed, or sculpted by that artist. Although self-portraits have been made since the earliest times, it is not until the Early ...

selfie
photo stickers. The name is a shortened form of the registered
Atlus is a Japanese , , and distribution company based in . A subsidiary of , the company is known for its ', ', ', and ' series, among others. Its corporate is Jack Frost, a snowman-like character from their ''Shin Megami Tensei'' series. Outside ...
trademark ''Purinto Kurabu'', derived from the English ''print club''. ''Purikura'' are essentially a cross between a traditional license/passport photo booth and an arcade video game, with a computer which allows the manipulation of
digital images Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology a ...
.


Pinball machines

Pinball machines are games that have a large, enclosed, slanted table with a number of scoring features on its surface. Players launch a steel ball onto the table and using pinball flippers, try to keep the ball in play while scoring as many points as possible.


Slot machines

In limited jurisdictions, slot machines may also be considered an arcade game and installed alongside other games in arcades. However, as slot machines are mostly games of chance, their use in this manner is highly limited. They are most often used for gambling.


Sports games

Sport games are indoor or miniaturized versions of popular physical sports that can be played within an arcade setting often with a reduced ruleset. Examples include
air hockey Air hockey is a game where two players play against each other on a low-friction table. Air hockey requires an air-hockey table, two player-held strikers, and a puck. An air hockey table has a very smooth and slippery surface which reduces frict ...

air hockey
and indoor basketball games like '' Super Shot''. Sports games can be either mechanical, electro-mechanical or electronic.


Redemption games

A general category of arcade games are those played for tickets that can be redeemed for prizes. The gameplay itself can be of any arcade game, and the number of tickets received are proportional to the player's score. Skee ball is often played as a redemption game, while ''
pachinko is a type of mechanical game originating in Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the north toward the and in ...

pachinko
'' is one of the most popular redemption games in Japan.


History


Skee-Ball and carnival games (late 19th century–1930s)

Game of skill A game of skill or game of wits is a game where the outcome is determined mainly by mental or physical skill, rather than chance. Alternatively, a game of chance is one where its outcome is strongly influenced by some randomness, randomizing devic ...
amusements had been a staple of fairs since the 19th century. Further, the invention of
coin-operated A currency detector or currency validator is a device that determines whether banknote, notes or coins are genuine or counterfeit. These devices are used in a wide range of automated machines, such as Mall kiosk, retail kiosks, supermarket self c ...
vending machines had come about in the 19th century. To build off this, coin-operated automated amusement machines were created, such as
fortune telling Fortune telling is the practice of prediction, predicting information about a person's life.J. Gordon Melton, Melton, J. Gordon. (2008). ''The Encyclopedia of Religious Phenomena''. Visible Ink Press. pp. 115-116. The scope of fortune telling ...
and
strength tester machine
strength tester machine
s as well as
mutoscope The Mutoscope is an early motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere ...

mutoscope
s, and installed along with other attractions at fairs, traveling carnivals, and resorts. Soon, entrepreneurs began housing these coin-operated devices in the same facilities which required minimal oversight, creating
penny arcade ''Penny Arcade'' is a webcomic focused on video games and video game culture, written by Jerry Holkins and illustrated by Mike Krahulik. The comic debuted in 1998 on the website ''loonygames.com''. Since then, Holkins and Krahulik have establis ...

penny arcade
s near the turn of the 20th century, the name taken from the common use of a single
penny A penny is a coin A coin is a small, flat, (usually, depending on the country or value) round piece of metal A metal (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ...
to operate the machine. Penny arcades started to gain a negative reputation as the most popular attraction in them tended to be mutoscopes featuring risqué and
softcore pornography Softcore pornography or softcore porn, is commercial still photography or film that has a pornographic Pornography (often shortened to porn) is the portrayal of sexual subject matter for the exclusive purpose of sexual arousal Sexual ...
while drawing audiences of young men. Further, the birth of the
film industry The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a is . Filmmaking involves a number of complex and discrete stages, sta ...
in the 1910s and 1920s drew audiences away from the penny arcade. New interactive coin-operated machines were created to bring back patrons to the penny arcades, creating the first arcade games. Many were based on carnival games of a larger scope, but reduced to something which could be automated. One popular style were pin-based games, such as ''
Baffle Ball ''Baffle Ball'' is a pinball Pinball is a type of arcade game in which a player uses paddles (called #Flippers, flippers) to manipulate one or more balls inside a ''pinball machine''. A pinball machine is a glass-covered cabinet containing a p ...
'', a precursor to the pinball machine where players were given a limited number of balled to knock down targets with only a
plunger A plunger, force cup, plumber's friend or plumber's helper is a tool used to clear blockages in drains and pipes. It consists of a rubber suction cup Image:Suction cup pressure from collisions.svg, 232px, alt=A figure showing that the pressure ...
. Skee-Ball became popular after being featured at an
Atlantic City Atlantic City, often known by its initials A.C., is a coastal Resort town, resort city in Atlantic County, New Jersey, Atlantic County, New Jersey, United States, known for its casinos, Boardwalk (entertainment district), boardwalk, and beache ...

Atlantic City
boardwalk arcade. The popularity of these games was aided by the impact of the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
of the 1930s, as they provided inexpensive entertainment. Mechanical s had existed since the 1920s. The first light guns appeared in the 1930s, with the Seeburg Ray-O-Lite. Games using this toy rifle were mechanical and the rifle fired beams of light at targets wired with sensors.


Pinball (1930s–1960s)

Coin-operated
pinball Pinball is an arcade entertainment machine in which a ball careens around the machine's interior, hitting various lights, bumpers, ramps, and other targets depending on its design. The game's object is to score as many points as possible by hit ...
machines that included electric lights and features were developed in 1933, but lacked the user-controlled flipper mechanisms at that point; these would be invented in 1947. Though the creators of these games argued that these games were still skill-based, most governments still consider them a
game of luck A game of chance is a game A game is a structured form of play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an activity done for enjoyment * Play (theatre), a work of drama Play may refer also to: Computers and technology * Google ...
and ruled them as gambling devices, banning them as well. Beyond this, pinball machines drew the younger generation to the games, making morally-concerned elders across the
generation gap A generation gap or generational gap is a difference of opinions between one generation and another regarding beliefs, politics, or values. In today's usage, ''generation gap'' often refers to a perceived gap between younger people and their paren ...

generation gap
fear what the youth were doing and considering the machines "tools of the devil", furthering these bans. These bans were slowly lifted in the 1960s and 1970s; New York City's ban, placed in 1942, lasted until 1976, while Chicago's was lifted in 1977. Where pinball was allowed, pinball manufacturers carefully distanced their games from gambling, adding "For Amusement Only" among the game's labeling, eliminating any redemption features, and asserting these were games of skill at every opportunity. By the early 1970s, pinball machines thus occupied select arcades at amusement parks, at bars and lounges, and with solitary machines at various stores. Pinball machines beyond the 1970s have since advanced with similar improvement in technology as with arcade video games. Past machines used discrete electro-mechanical and electronic componentry for game logic, but newer machines have switched to
solid-state electronics Solid-state electronics means semiconductor A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity Electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property of a material that qua ...
with
microprocessor A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip ...

microprocessor
s to handle these elements, making games more versatile. Newer machines may have complex mechanical actions and detailed backplate graphics that are supported by these technologies.


Electro-mechanical games (1940s–1970s)

Alternatives to pinball were electro-mechanical games (EM games) that clearly demonstrated themselves as games of skill to avoid the stigma of pinball. These overlapped with the introduction of arcade video games, and in some cases, were prototypical of the experiences that arcade video games offered. The transition from mechanical arcade games to electro-mechanical games dates back to around the time of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, with different types of arcade games gradually making the transition during the
post-war In Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, co ...
period between the 1940s and 1960s. In 1941, International Mutoscope Reel Company released the electro-mechanical driving game ''Drive Mobile'', which had an upright
arcade cabinet An arcade cabinet, also known as an arcade machine or a coin-op cabinet or coin-op machine, is the housing within which an arcade game An arcade game or coin-op game is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public bus ...
similar to what arcade video games would later use. It was derived from older driving games that had appeared in British arcades during the 1930s. In ''Drive Mobile'', a
steering wheel A steering wheel (also called a driving wheel, a hand wheel, or simply wheel) is a type of steering Steering is a system of components, linkages, etc. that allows a vehicle to follow a desired course. An exception is the case of , by whic ...

steering wheel
was used to control a
model car A model is an informative representation of an object, person or system. The term originally denoted the plan A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with details of timing and resources, used to achieve an Goal, objective to do someth ...

model car
over a road painted on a metal
drum The drum is a member of the percussion A percussion instrument is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a ...

drum
, with the goal being to keep the car centered as the road shifts left and right. Kasco introduced this type of electro-mechanical driving game to Japan in 1958 with ''Mini Drive'', which followed a similar format but had a longer cabinet allowing a longer road. Capitol Projector's 1954 machine '' Auto Test'' was a
driving test A driving test (also known as a driving exam, driver's test, or road test) is a procedure designed to test a person's ability to drive a motor vehicle Electric bicycles parked in Yangzhou's main street, Wenchang Lu. They are a very common way ...
simulation that used
film reel A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface ...

film reel
to project pre-recorded driving
video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active d ...

video
footage, awarding the player points for making correct decisions as the footage is played. These early driving games consisted of only the player vehicle on the road, with no rival cars to race against. By the 1950s, EM games were using a
timer Timer is a specialized type of clock used for measuring specific time intervals. Timers can be categorized into two main types. A timer that counts upwards from zero for measuring elapsed time is often called a ''stopwatch,'' while a Device d ...

timer
to create a sense of urgency in the gameplay, such as the
boxing Boxing is a combat sport A combat sport, or fighting sport, is a competitive contact sport that usually involves one-on-one combat. In many combat sports, a contestant wins by scoring more points than the opponent or by disabling the opponent ...

boxing
game ''K.O. Champ'' (1955) by International Mutoscope Reel Company. By 1961, the US arcade industry had been stagnating, which in turn had a negative effect on Japanese arcade distributors such as
Sega is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign ...

Sega
that had been depending on US imports up until then. Sega co-founder David Rosen responded to market conditions by having Sega develop original arcade games in Japan. ''
Periscope A periscope is an instrument for observation over, around or through an object, obstacle or condition that prevents direct line-of-sight observation from an observer's current position. In its simplest form, it consists of an outer case with ...
'', a
submarine simulator A submarine simulator is usually a computer game in which the player commands a submarine upright=1.35, Russian ''Akula''-class submarine of the Northern Fleet A submarine (or sub) is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels ...
and
light gun shooter Light gun shooter, also called light gun game or simply gun game, is a shooter video game genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions develop ...
, was released by
Namco simply known as Namco, was a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinatio ...
in 1965 and then by Sega in 1966. It used lights and plastic waves to simulate sinking ships from a submarine, and had players look through a
periscope A periscope is an instrument for observation over, around or through an object, obstacle or condition that prevents direct line-of-sight observation from an observer's current position. In its simplest form, it consists of an outer case with ...

periscope
to direct and fire torpedoes, which were represented by colored lights and electronic sound effects. Sega's version became an instant success in Japan, Europe, and North America, where it was the first arcade game to cost a quarter per play, which would remain the standard price for arcade games for many years to come. The success of ''Periscope'' was a turning point for the arcade industry, leading to American distributors turning to Japan for new arcade games, which in turn encouraged competition from traditional
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
arcade manufacturers. ''Periscope'' also represented a trend of missile-launching gameplay in arcade games during the late 1960s to 1970s, such as Midway's submarine-themed missile-launching games ''Sea Raider'' (1969) and ''Sea Devil'' (1970). The game's periscope viewer cabinet design was later adopted by several arcade video games, including Midway's '' Sea Wolf'' (1976) and
Atari Atari () is a brand name owned by several entities since its inception in 1972, currently by Atari Interactive Atari Interactive is a name used by several separate groups and corporations since the mid-1990s. In 1996, it was the name of Ata ...
's '' Battlezone'' (1980). The 1960s to 1970s was considered an "electro-mechanical golden age" for Japanese arcade companies such as Kasco (short for Kansai Seisakusho). In 1967,
Taito is a Japanese company that specializes in video games, toys, arcade cabinets and game centers, based in Shinjuku, Tokyo. The company was founded by Michael Kogan in 1953 as the importing vodka, vending machines and jukeboxes into Japan. It be ...

Taito
released an electro-mechanical arcade game of their own, ''Crown Soccer Special'', a two-player
sports game A sports video game is a video game that simulates the practice of sports. Most sports have been recreated with a game, including team sports, track and field, extreme sports, and combat sports. Some games emphasize actually playing the sport (s ...
that simulated
association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a team sport A team sport includes any sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain ...
, using various electronic components, including electronic versions of pinball flippers. In 1968, Kasco introduced a new electro-mechanical racing game in Japan, ''Indy 500'', which was licensed by
Chicago Coin Chicago Coin was one of the early major manufacturers of pinball Pinball is an arcade entertainment machine in which a ball careens around the machine's interior, hitting various lights, bumpers, ramps, and other targets depending on its des ...
for release in North America as ''Speedway'' in 1969. It had a circular racetrack with rival cars painted on individual rotating discs illuminated by a lamp, which produced colorful graphics projected using mirrors to give a pseudo-3D perspective on a screen, resembling a windscreen view. It had collision detection, with players having to dodge cars to avoid crashing, as well as electronic sound for the car engines and collisions. This gave it greater realism than earlier driving games, and it resembled a prototypical arcade
racing video game Racing games are a video game genre A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joysti ...
, with an upright cabinet, yellow marquee, three-digit scoring, coin box, steering wheel and accelerator pedal. ''Indy 500'' sold over 2,000 arcade cabinets in Japan, while ''Speedway'' sold over 10,000 cabinets in North America, becoming the biggest arcade hit in years. Like ''Periscope'', ''Speedway'' also charged a quarter per play, further cementing quarter-play as the US arcade standard for over two decades. Other EM
racing games Racing video games are a video game genre in which the player participates in a racing, racing competition. They may be based on anything from real-world racing leagues to fantastical settings. They are distributed along a spectrum between simula ...

racing games
derived from ''Indy 500'' included Namco's ''Racer'' and Sega's ''Grand Prix'', the latter a 1969 release that similarly had a first-person view, electronic sound, a dashboard with a
racing wheel A racing wheel is a method of control for use in racing video game Racing video games are a video game genre in which the player participates in a racing competition. They may be based on anything from real-world racing leagues to fantastical ...
and accelerator, and a
forward Forward is a relative direction, the opposite of backward. Forward may also refer to: People *Forward (surname) Sports * Forward (association football) * Forward (basketball), including: ** Point forward ** Power forward (basketball) ** Small f ...
-
scrolling In computer display A computer monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial or text form. A monitor usually comprises a electronic visual display, visual display, electronic circuit, some circuitry, a casing, and a powe ...
road projected on a screen. Taito's similar 1970 rear-projection driving game ''Super Road 7'' involved driving a car down an endlessly scrolling road while having to dodge cars, which inspired
Tomohiro Nishikado is a Japanese people, Japanese video game developer. He is best known as the creator of the fixed shooter ''Space Invaders'', released to the public in 1978 by the Taito of Japan, often credited as the first shoot 'em up and for beginning the golde ...
to develop the Taito racing video game ''
Speed Race is a 1974 arcade racing video game Racing video games are a video game genre in which the player participates in a racing competition. They may be based on anything from real-world racing leagues to fantastical settings. They are distribut ...
'' (1974). Around the same time, Sega began producing gun games which somewhat resemble
first-person shooter First-person shooter (FPS) is a sub-genre Genre () is any form or type of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entities or O ...
video games, but which were in fact electro-mechanical games that used image projection in a manner similar to a
zoetrope A zoetrope is one of several pre-film animation devices that produce the illusion of motion by displaying a sequence of drawings or photographs showing progressive phases of that motion. It was basically a cylindrical variation of the phénakis ...

zoetrope
to produce moving animations on a
screen Screen or Screens may refer to: Arts * Screen printing (also called ''silkscreening''), a method of printing * Big screen, a nickname associated with the motion picture industry * Split screen (filmmaking), a film composition paradigm in which mult ...
. They often had vertical playfields that used mirrors to create an artificial sense of depth. The
light gun A light gun is a pointing device A pointing device is an input interface (specifically a human interface device) that allows a User (computing)#End-user, user to input Three-dimensional space, spatial (i.e., continuous and multi-dimens ...
game ''
Duck Hunt is a 1984 light gun shooter Light gun shooter, also called light gun game or simply gun game, is a shooter video game genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with social ...

Duck Hunt
'', released in 1969, had animated moving targets on a screen, printed out the player's
score Score or scorer may refer to: *Test score, the result of an exam or test Business * Score Digital, now part of Bauer Radio#Score Digital, Bauer Radio * Score Entertainment, a former American trading card design and manufacturing company * Score ...
on a ticket, and had volume-controllable sound-effects. ''Missile'', a
shooter Shooting is the act or process of discharging a projectile from a ranged weapon (such as a gun, bow and arrow, bow, crossbow, slingshot, or blowgun, blowpipe). Even the acts of launching flamethrower, flame, artillery, dart (missile), darts, har ...
and
vehicular combat game Vehicular combat games (also known as just vehicular combat or car combat) are typically video game, video or computer games where the primary objectives of gameplay includes vehicles, armed with weapons such as machine guns, lasers, missiles, ro ...
released by Sega in 1969, had electronic sound and a moving film strip to represent the targets on a projection screen. A two-way
joystick A joystick is an input device In computing, an input device is a piece of equipment used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system, such as a computer or information appliance. Examples of input devices include ...

joystick
with a fire
button In modern clothing Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the body. Typically, clothing is made of fabrics or textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of ...
was used to shoot and steer the missile onto oncoming planes displayed on a screen, while two directional buttons were used to move the player's tank; when a plane is hit, an animated explosion appears on screen, accompanied by the sound of an explosion. According to Ken Horowitz, it may have been the first arcade game to use a joystick with a fire button. Midway later released a version called ''S.A.M.I.'' (1970) and adapted it into the arcade video game ''Guided Missile'' (1977). Sega's ''Jet Rocket'' (1969) was a combat flight-simulator featuring cockpit controls that could move the player aircraft around a landscape displayed on a screen and shoot missiles onto targets that explode when hit. Upon release, the game was cloned by three Chicago manufacturers. The concept of
air hockey Air hockey is a game where two players play against each other on a low-friction table. Air hockey requires an air-hockey table, two player-held strikers, and a puck. An air hockey table has a very smooth and slippery surface which reduces frict ...

air hockey
was invented in 1969, as a cross between
ice hockey Ice hockey is a contact Contact may refer to: Interaction Physical interaction * Contact (geology)A geological contact is a boundary which separates one rock body from another. A contact can be formed during deposition, by the intrusio ...

ice hockey
and pool tables, by a group of Brunswick Billiards employees in 1969. Sega's EM driving games ''Stunt Car'' (1970) and ''Dodgem Crazy'' (1972) are seen as precursors to later driving video games that involve ramming cars, such as
Exidy Exidy was a developer and manufacturer of coin-operated amusements. The company was founded by H.R. "Pete" Kauffman and Samuel Hawes in 1973. The name "Exidy" was a portmanteau of the words "Excellence in Dynamics". Notable games released by Exid ...
's ''
Destruction Derby ''Destruction Derby'' is a vehicular combat racing video game Racing video games are a video game genre in which the player participates in a racing competition. They may be based on anything from real-world racing leagues to fantastical ...
'' (1975) and ''Death Race (1976 video game), Death Race'' (1976) as well as Atari's ''Crash 'N Score'' (1975), while lacking their dynamically changing open arenas enabled by video game technology. Following the arrival of arcade video games with ''
Pong ''Pong'' is a table tennis Table tennis, also known as ping-pong and whiff-whaff, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball, also known as the ping-pong ball, back and forth across a table using small rackets. The game t ...

Pong
'' (1972) and its clones, electro-mechanical games continued to have a strong presence in arcades for much of the 1970s, especially in Japan. However, electro-mechanical games declined following the arrival of ''Space Invaders'' (1978) and the golden age of arcade video games in the late 1970s.


Arcade video games (1970s–present)

After two attempts to package mainframe computers running video games into a coin-operated arcade cabinet in 1971, ''Galaxy Game'' and ''Computer Space'',
Atari Atari () is a brand name owned by several entities since its inception in 1972, currently by Atari Interactive Atari Interactive is a name used by several separate groups and corporations since the mid-1990s. In 1996, it was the name of Ata ...
released ''
Pong ''Pong'' is a table tennis Table tennis, also known as ping-pong and whiff-whaff, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball, also known as the ping-pong ball, back and forth across a table using small rackets. The game t ...

Pong
'' in 1972, the first successful arcade video game. The number of arcade game makers greatly increased over the next several years, including several of the companies that had been making EM games such as Midway, Bally, Sega, and Taito, and as technology moved from integrated circuits to microprocessors, a new wave of arcade video games arose, starting with ''Space Invaders'' in 1978 and leading to a so-called "golden age" of arcade video games that lasted until 1983. In the course of the 1970s, following the release of ''Pong'' in 1972, electronic video-games gradually replaced electro-mechanical arcade games. In 1972, Sega released an electro-mechanical game called ''Killer Shark'', a first-person light-gun shooter known for appearing in the 1975 film ''Jaws (film), Jaws''. In 1974, Nintendo released ''Wild Gunman'', a light-gun shooter that used Full motion video based game, full-motion video projection, video-projection from 16 mm film to display live-action cowboy opponents on the screen. One of the last successful electro-mechanical arcade games was ''F-1 (arcade game), F-1'', a racing game developed by
Namco simply known as Namco, was a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinatio ...
and distributed by Atari in 1976; this game appeared in the films ''Dawn of the Dead (1978 film), Dawn of the Dead'' (1978) and ''Midnight Madness (1980 film), Midnight Madness'' (1980), as did Sega's ''Jet Rocket'' in the latter film. The 1978 video game ''Space Invaders'', however, dealt a yet more powerful blow to the popularity of electro-mechanical games.Brian Ashcraft (2008) ''Arcade Mania! The Turbo Charged World of Japan's Game Centers'', p. 136, Kodansha International The arcade industry was partially impacted by the video game crash of 1983, and while titles like ''Street Fighter II'' and ''Mortal Kombat (1992 video game), Mortal Kombat'' helped to revive it in the early 1990s, the growing popularity of home video game consoles drew crowds away from arcades. Today, most arcades serve highly specialized experiences that cannot be replicated in the home, including lines of pinball and other games, along with arcade video games like ''Dance Dance Revolution'' that require specialized equipment.


References

{{reflist Arcade games,