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Animation is a method in which
figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Figure (music), distinguished from musical motif *Noise figure, in telecommunication *Dance figure, an elementary dance pattern ...

figures
are manipulated to appear as moving images. In
traditional animation Traditional animation (or classical animation, cel animation, hand-drawn animation, 2D animation or just 2D) is an animation technique in which each frame is drawing, drawn by hand. The technique was the dominant form of animation in cinema unt ...
, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent
celluloid sheets
celluloid sheets
to be photographed and exhibited on
film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, ...

film
. Today, most animations are made with
computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of computer graphics Computer graphics deals with generating images with the aid of computers A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out seque ...
(CGI).
Computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to i ...
can be very detailed 3D animation, while
2D computer animation Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. Today, most an ...
(which may have the look of traditional animation) can be used for stylistic reasons, low bandwidth, or faster
real-time rendering Real-time computer graphics or real-time rendering is the sub-field of computer graphics focused on producing and analyzing images in Real-time computing, real time. The term can refer to anything from rendering an application's graphical user ...
s. Other common animation methods apply a
stop motion Stop motion is an animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and exh ...

stop motion
technique to two and three-dimensional objects like paper cutouts,
puppet A puppet is an object, often resembling a human, animal or mythical figure, that is animated or manipulated by a person called a puppeteer A puppeteer is a person who manipulates an inanimate object, called a puppet A puppet is an ...

puppet
s, or clay figures. Commonly, the effect of animation is achieved by a rapid succession of sequential images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the
phi phenomenon The term phi phenomenon is used in a narrow sense for an Illusory motion, apparent motion that is observed if two nearby optical Stimulus (psychology), stimuli are presented in alternation with a relatively high frequency. In contrast to beta movem ...
and
beta movement The term Beta movement is used for the optical illusion of apparent motion in which the very short projection of one figure and a subsequent very short projection of a more or less similar figure in a different position are experienced as one fig ...

beta movement
, but the exact causes are still uncertain. Analog mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the
phénakisticope
phénakisticope
,
zoetrope A zoetrope is one of several pre-film animation devices that produce the illusion of motion by displaying a sequence of drawings or photographs showing progressive phases of that motion. It was basically a cylindrical variation of the phénakis ...

zoetrope
,
flip book A flip book, flicker book, or kineograph is a booklet with a series of images that very gradually change from one page to the next, so that when the pages are viewed in quick succession, the images appear to animate by simulating motion or some ...
,
praxinoscope 300px, The Théâtre Optique, 1892. This ultimate elaboration of the device used long strips with hundreds of narrative images. The praxinoscope was an animation device, the successor to the zoetrope. It was invented in France in 1877 by Charl ...

praxinoscope
, and film.
Television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Gre ...

Television
and
video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active d ...

video
are popular electronic animation media that originally were analog and now operate digitally. For display on the computer, techniques like
animated GIF The Graphics Interchange Format (GIF; or , #Pronunciation, see pronunciation) is a Raster graphics, bitmap Image file formats, image format that was developed by a team at the online services provider CompuServe led by American computer scien ...
and
Flash animation 300px, Simple animation in Flash MX: a square moving across the screen in a motion tween, one of the basic functions of Flash. Onion skinning is used to show the apparent motion of the square. Adobe Flash animation or Adobe Flash cartoon (former ...
were developed. Animation is more pervasive than many people know. Apart from
short films A short film is any motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color ...
,
feature films A feature film, or feature-length film, is a narrative film (motion picture or "movie") with a running time long enough to be considered the principal or sole presentation in a commercial entertainment program. The term ''feature film'' original ...
,
television series upright=1.35, A live television show set and cameras A television show – or simply TV show – is any content produced for viewing on a television set A Sony Wega CRT television set A television set or television receiver, more commonly c ...
, animated GIFs, and other media dedicated to the display of moving images, animation is also prevalent in
video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device to generate visual f ...
s,
motion graphics Motion graphics (sometimes mograph) are pieces of animation Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid ...
,
user interface In the industrial design Industrial design is a process of design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specificati ...
s, and
visual effects Visual effects (sometimes abbreviated VFX) is the process by which imagery is created or manipulated outside the context of a live-action shot in filmmaking Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a is . Filmmaking involves a ...
. The physical movement of image parts through simple mechanics—for instance moving images in
magic lantern The magic lantern, also known by its Latin name ''laterna magica'', is an early type of image projector 200px, Acer projector, 2012 A projector or image projector is an optical device that projects an image (or moving images) onto a surf ...
shows—can also be considered animation. The mechanical manipulation of three-dimensional puppets and objects to emulate living beings has a very long history in
automata An automaton (; plural: automata or automatons) is a relatively self-operating machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecu ...

automata
. Electronic automata were popularized by
Disney The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney (), is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California California is a U.S. st ...

Disney
as
animatronics Animatronics refers to mechatronic puppets. They are a modern variant of the automaton automaton. An automaton (; plural: automata or automatons) is a relatively self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to auto ...
.
Animator An animator is an artist An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of prima ...

Animator
s are artists who specialize in creating animation.


Etymology

The word "animation" stems from the Latin "animātiōn", stem of "animātiō", meaning "a bestowing of life". The primary meaning of the English word is "liveliness" and has been in use much longer than the meaning of "moving image medium".


History


Before cinematography

Hundreds of years before the introduction of true animation, people from all over the world enjoyed shows with moving figures that were created and manipulated manually in
puppetry Puppetry is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a spe ...

puppetry
,
automata An automaton (; plural: automata or automatons) is a relatively self-operating machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecu ...

automata
,
shadow play Shadow play, also known as shadow puppetry, is an ancient form of storytelling Storytelling describes the social and cultural activity of sharing narrative, stories, sometimes with improvisation, theatre, theatrics or embellishment. Every cul ...
, and the
magic lantern The magic lantern, also known by its Latin name ''laterna magica'', is an early type of image projector 200px, Acer projector, 2012 A projector or image projector is an optical device that projects an image (or moving images) onto a surf ...
. The multi-media
phantasmagoria Phantasmagoria (, also fantasmagorie, fantasmagoria) was a form of horror Horror may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Genres *Horror fiction, a genre of fiction **Japanese horror, Japanese horror fiction **Korean horror, Korean hor ...
shows that were very popular in West-European theatres from the late 18th century through the first half of the 19th century, featured lifelike projections of moving ghosts and other frightful imagery in motion. In 1833, the
stroboscopicStroboscopic may refer to: * Stroboscopic effect, visual temporal aliasing *Stroboscopic effect (lighting), a temporal light artefact visible if a moving object is lit with modulated light with specific modulation frequencies and amplitudes * Strobo ...
disc (better known as the
phénakisticope
phénakisticope
) introduced the principle of modern animation with sequential images that were shown one by one in quick succession to form an optical illusion of motion pictures. Series of sequential images had occasionally been made over thousands of years, but the stroboscopic disc provided the first method to represent such images in fluent motion and for the first time had artists creating series with a proper systematic breakdown of movements. The stroboscopic animation principle was also applied in the
zoetrope A zoetrope is one of several pre-film animation devices that produce the illusion of motion by displaying a sequence of drawings or photographs showing progressive phases of that motion. It was basically a cylindrical variation of the phénakis ...

zoetrope
(1866), the
flip book A flip book, flicker book, or kineograph is a booklet with a series of images that very gradually change from one page to the next, so that when the pages are viewed in quick succession, the images appear to animate by simulating motion or some ...
(1868) and the
praxinoscope 300px, The Théâtre Optique, 1892. This ultimate elaboration of the device used long strips with hundreds of narrative images. The praxinoscope was an animation device, the successor to the zoetrope. It was invented in France in 1877 by Charl ...

praxinoscope
(1877). The average 19th-century animation contained about 12 images that were displayed as a continuous loop by spinning a device manually. The flip book often contained more pictures and had a beginning and end, but its animation would not last longer than a few seconds. The first to create much longer sequences seems to have been Charles-Émile Reynaud, who between 1892 and 1900 had much success with his 10- to 15-minute-long ''
Pantomimes Lumineuses Pantomime (; informally panto) is a type of musical theatre, musical comedy stage production designed for family entertainment. It was developed in England and is performed throughout the United Kingdom, Ireland and (to a lesser extent) in other ...
''.


Silent era

When
cinematography Cinematography (from ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Gre ...

cinematography
eventually broke through in 1895 after animated pictures had been known for decades, the wonder of the realistic details in the new medium was seen as its biggest accomplishment. Animation on film was not commercialized until a few years later by manufacturers of optical toys, with
chromolithography '', 6 April 1883. Chromolithography is a unique method for making multi-colour printmaking, prints. This type of colour printing stemmed from the process of lithography, and includes all types of lithography that are printed in colour. When chr ...
film loops (often traced from live-action footage) for adapted toy magic lanterns intended for kids to use at home. It would take some more years before animation reached movie theaters. After earlier experiments by movie pioneers J. Stuart Blackton,
Arthur Melbourne-Cooper Arthur Melbourne Cooper (15 April 1874 – 28 November 1961) was a British photographer and early filmmaker best known for his pioneering work in stop-motion animation. He produced over three hundred films between 1896 and 1915, of which an estimat ...
,
Segundo de Chomón Segundo Víctor Aurelio Chomón y Ruiz (also ''Chomont'' or ''Chaumont'', ; 17 October 1871 – 2 May 1929) was a pioneering Spanish film director, cinematographer and screenwriter. He produced many short films in France while working for Path ...

Segundo de Chomón
, and
Edwin S. Porter Edwin Stanton Porter (April 21, 1870 – April 30, 1941) was an American film pioneer, most famous as a producer, director, studio manager and cinematographer with the Edison Manufacturing Company and the Famous Players Film Company. Of over ...
(among others), Blackton's ''The Haunted Hotel'' (1907) was the first huge
stop motion Stop motion is an animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and exh ...

stop motion
success, baffling audiences by showing objects that apparently moved by themselves in full photographic detail, without signs of any known stage trick.
Émile Cohl Émile Cohl (; 4 January 1857 – 20 January 1938), born Émile Eugène Jean Louis Courtet, was a French caricaturist of the largely forgotten Incoherents, Incoherent Movement, cartoonist, and animator, called "The Father of the Animated Cartoon" a ...
's '' Fantasmagorie'' (1908) is the oldest known example of what became known as traditional (hand-drawn) animation. Other great artistic and very influential short films were created by
Ladislas Starevich Ladislas Starevich (russian: Владисла́в Алекса́ндрович Старе́вич, pl, Władysław Starewicz; August 8, 1882 – February 26, 1965) was a Poles, Polish-Russian stop-motion animation, animator notable as the author o ...
with his puppet animations since 1910 and by
Winsor McCay Zenas Winsor McCay ( – July 26, 1934) was an American cartoonist and animator. He is best known for the comic strip ''Little Nemo'' (1905–14; 1924–26) and the animated film ''Gertie the Dinosaur'' (1914). For contractual reasons, he worke ...

Winsor McCay
with detailed drawn animation in films such as ''
Little Nemo Little Nemo is a fictional character created by American cartoonist Winsor McCay. He originated in an early comic strip by McCay, ''Dream of the Rarebit Fiend'', before receiving his own spin-off series, ''Little Nemo in Slumberland''. The fu ...
'' (1911) and ''
Gertie the Dinosaur ''Gertie the Dinosaur'' is a 1914 animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be phot ...

Gertie the Dinosaur
'' (1914). During the 1910s, the production of animated "
cartoons A cartoon is a type of illustration An illustration is a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process, designed for integration in print and digital published media, such as poster A poster is a tempor ...
" became an industry in the US. Successful producer
John Randolph Bray John Randolph Bray (August 25, 1879 – October 10, 1978) was an American animator. Work Bray became interested in animation in the early years of moving pictures. By 1914, he opened a New York area studio specifically organized to make animated ...
and animator
Earl Hurd Earl Hurd (September 14, 1880 – September 28, 1940) was a pioneering American animator and film director. He is noted for creating and producing the silent film, silent ''Bobby Bumps'' animated short subject series for early animation producer J.R ...
, patented the
cel animation Traditional animation (or classical animation, animation, hand-drawn animation, 2D animation or just 2D) is an technique in which each frame is by hand. The technique was the dominant form of animation in cinema until the advent of . Proce ...
process that dominated the animation industry for the rest of the century.
Felix the Cat Felix the Cat is a children's comedy cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration that is typically drawn, sometimes animated, in an unrealistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the modern usage usua ...

Felix the Cat
, who debuted in 1919, became the first animated superstar.


Golden age of US animation

In 1928, ''
Steamboat Willie ''Steamboat Willie'' is a 1928 American animated short film directed by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks. It was produced in black and white by Walt Disney Animation Studios, Walt Disney Studios and was released by Celebrity Productions. The cartoon ...
'', featuring
Mickey Mouse Mickey Mouse is a cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration that is typically drawn, sometimes animated, in an unrealistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the modern usage usually refers to ei ...
and
Minnie Mouse Minnie Mouse is a cartoon character created in 1928 at Walt Disney Animation Studios. As the longtime sweetheart of Mickey Mouse, she is an anthropomorphic mouse with white gloves, a bow, polka-dotted dress, and low-heeled shoes occasionally wit ...
, popularized film with synchronized sound and put
Walt Disney Walter Elias Disney (; December 5, 1901December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, writer, voice actor, and film producer. A pioneer of the American animation industry, he introduced several developments in the production of ...
's studio at the forefront of the animation industry. In 1932, Disney also introduced the innovation of full color (in ''
Flowers and Trees ''Flowers and Trees'' is a 1932 '' Silly Symphonies'' cartoon produced by Walt Disney Walter Elias Disney (; December 5, 1901December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, writer, voice actor, and film producer. A pioneer of th ...

Flowers and Trees
'') as part of a three-year-long exclusive deal with
Technicolor Technicolor is a series of color motion picture processes, the first version dating to 1916, and followed by improved versions over several decades. It was the second major color process, after Britain's Kinemacolor Kinemacolor was the firs ...

Technicolor
. The enormous success of Mickey Mouse is seen as the start of the
golden age of American animation The golden age of American animation was a period in the history of U.S. animation that began with the popularization of sound cartoons in 1928 and gradually ended in the late 1960s, where theatrical animated shorts began losing popularity to the ...
that would last until the 1960s. The United States dominated the world market of animation with a plethora of cel-animated theatrical shorts. Several studios would introduce characters that would become very popular and would have long-lasting careers, including
Walt Disney Productions The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney (), is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California California is a U.S. st ...
'
Goofy Goofy is a funny animal cartoon character created in 1932 at Walt Disney Animation Studios. Goofy is a tall, Anthropomorphism, anthropomorphic dog who typically wears a turtle neck and vest, with pants, shoes, white gloves, and a tall hat origin ...

Goofy
(1932) and
Donald Duck Donald Fauntleroy Duck is a cartoon character created by The Walt Disney Company. Donald is an Anthropomorphism, anthropomorphic American Pekin, white duck with a yellow-orange bill, legs, and feet. He typically wears a sailor suit, sailor shi ...

Donald Duck
(1934),
Warner Bros. Cartoons Warner Bros. Cartoons, Inc. (also known as Warner Bros. Classic Animation and nicknamed Termite Terrace) was the in-house division of Warner Bros. during the Golden Age of American animation. One of the most successful animation Animation is ...
'
Looney Tunes ''Looney Tunes'' is an American animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photo ...
characters like
Daffy Duck Daffy Duck is an animated cartoon Animation is a method in which figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhi ...
(1937),
Bugs Bunny Bugs Bunny is an animated cartoon character, created in the late 1930s by Warner Bros. Cartoons, Leon Schlesinger Productions (later Warner Bros. Cartoons) and Voice acting, voiced originally by Mel Blanc. Bugs is best known for his starring ro ...
(1938/1940),
Tweety Tweety is a in the ' and ' series of animated cartoons. The name "Tweety" is a play on words, as it originally meant "sweetie", along with "tweet" being an English for the sounds of s. His characteristics are based on 's famous "Junior the ...
(1941/1942),
Sylvester the Cat Sylvester James Pussycat, Sr. is a fictional character In fiction Fiction generally is a narrative form, in any media (communication), medium, consisting of people, events, or places that are imagination, imaginary—in other words, not based ...
(1945), Wile E. Coyote and Road Runner (1949),
Fleischer Studios Fleischer Studios () was an American corporation that originated as an animation studio located at 1600 Broadway, New York City, New York New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by populati ...
/
Paramount Cartoon Studios Famous Studios (renamed Paramount Cartoon Studios in 1956) was the first animation Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transp ...
'
Betty Boop Betty Boop is an created by , with help from animators including .Pointer (2017) She originally appeared in the ' and ''Betty Boop'' film series, which were produced by and released by . She was featured in between 1930 and 1939. She has a ...

Betty Boop
(1930),
Popeye Popeye the Sailor Man is a fictional cartoon character created by .Superman Superman is a superhero A superhero or superheroine is a stock character that possesses Superpower (ability), ''superpowers'', abilities beyond those of ordinary people, and fits the role of the hero, typically using his or her powers t ...
(1941) and
Casper Casper may refer to: People * Casper (given name) * Casper (surname) * Casper (Maya ruler) (422–487?), ruler of the Mayan city of Palenque * Tok Casper, first known king of Maya city-state Quiriguá in Guatemala, ruling beginning in 426 * David ...
(1945),
MGM cartoon studio The Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer cartoon studio (also known as MGM Cartoons) was the in-house division of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) film studio in Hollywood during the Golden Age of American animation. The studio was responsible for producing animated shor ...
's
Tom and Jerry ''Tom and Jerry'' is an American Animated cartoon, animated media franchise and series of comedy short films created in 1940 by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera. Best known for its 161 theatrical short films by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, the series c ...
(1940) and
Droopy Droopy is an animated character from the golden age of American animation. He is an anthropomorphic dog with a droopy face, hence his name. He was created in 1943 by Tex Avery for theatrical cartoon short film, shorts produced by the Metro-Goldwyn ...

Droopy
,
Walter Lantz Productions Walter Lantz Productions was an American animation Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Figure (music), distinguished ...
/ Universal Studio Cartoons'
Woody Woodpecker Woody Woodpecker is a cartoon anthropomorphic woodpecker that has appeared in theatrical short films produced by the Walter Lantz Studio and distributed by Universal Studios Universal Pictures (legally Universal City Studios LLC, also kno ...
(1940),
Terrytoons Terrytoons was an American animation studio in New Rochelle, New York New Rochelle () is a Political subdivisions of New York State#City, city in Westchester County, New York, United States, in the southeastern portion of the state. In 2010, t ...
/
20th Century Fox 20th Century Studios, Inc. (also known as 20th Century for short, and nicknamed 20th Pictures, formerly Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation) is an American film studio A film studio (also known as movie studio or simply studio) is a maj ...
's
Mighty Mouse Mighty Mouse is an American animated anthropomorphic Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairl ...

Mighty Mouse
(1942) and
United Artists United Artists Corporation (UA), currently doing business as United Artists Digital Studios, is an American digital production company. Founded in 1919 by D. W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin Jr. (16 April ...
'
Pink Panther ''The Pink Panther'' is an American media franchise primarily focusing on a series of comedy-mystery films featuring an inept French police detective, Inspector Clouseau, Inspector Jacques Clouseau. The franchise began with the release of the Th ...
(1963).


Animated features before CGI

In 1917, Italian-Argentine director
Quirino Cristiani Quirino Cristiani (July 2, 1896 – August 2, 1984) was an Italian-born Argentine animation director and cartoonist, responsible for the world's first two animated feature films as well as the first animated feature film with sound, even though th ...

Quirino Cristiani
made the first feature-length film '' El Apóstol'' (now
lost Lost may refer to getting lost Getting lost is the occurrence of a person or animal losing spatial reference. This situation consists of two elements: the feeling of disorientation and a spatial component. While ''getting lost'', ''being lost'' or ...
), which became a critical and commercial success. It was followed by Cristiani's ''
Sin dejar rastros ''Sin dejar rastros'' (Spanish: "Without a Trace") is a 1918 lost Argentine animated feature film. It was written and directed by Quirino Cristiani. The film used cutout animation. Plot The plot revolved around the recent incident involving the ...
'' in 1918, but one day after its premiere the film was confiscated by the government. After working on it for three years,
Lotte Reiniger Charlotte "Lotte" Reiniger (2 June 1899 – 19 June 1981) was a German film director A film director controls a 's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the (or script) while guiding the and s in the fulfilment of that . The direct ...
released the German feature-length
silhouette animation Silhouette animation is in which the characters are only visible as black s. This is usually accomplished by articulated , though other methods exist. It is partially inspired by, but for a number of reasons technically distinct from, . Hist ...
'' Die Abenteuer des Prinzen Achmed'' in 1926, the oldest extant animated feature. In 1937,
Walt Disney StudiosWalt Disney Studios may refer to: * Walt Disney Studio (1926–1929) the second name of The Walt Disney Company * Walt Disney Studios (division), the Walt Disney Company's Studio Entertainment unit, which includes Disney's motion picture studios, mus ...
premiered their first animated feature, ''
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs "Snow White" is a 19th-century German fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy story or ''Märchen'' is an instance of a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story A short story is a piece of prose fictio ...
'', still one of the highest-grossing traditional animation features .* Total prior to 50th anniversary reissue: * 1987 and 1993 grosses from North America: The Fleischer studios followed this example in 1939 with ''
Gulliver's Travels ''Gulliver's Travels'', or ''Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. In Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of Several Ships'' is a 1726 prose satire Satire is a genre Genre () is any form or ...
'' with some success. Partly due to foreign markets being cut off by the Second World War, Disney's next features ''
Pinocchio Pinocchio (, ) is an Italian fictional character and the protagonist of the children's novel ''The Adventures of Pinocchio'' (1883) by Italian writer Carlo Collodi of Florence, Tuscany. Pinocchio was carved by a woodcarver named Geppetto in a Tu ...
'', '' Fantasia'' (both 1940) and Fleischer Studios' second animated feature ''
Mr. Bug Goes to Town#REDIRECT Mr. Bug Goes to Town ''Mr. Bug Goes to Town'' (also known as ''Hoppity Goes to Town'' and ''Bugville'') is a 1941 American cel-animated Technicolor Technicolor is a series of color motion picture processes, the first version dating t ...
'' (1941/1942) failed at the box office. For decades afterwards Disney would be the only American studio to regularly produce animated features, until
Ralph Bakshi Ralph Bakshi ( he, ראלף בקשי; born October 29, 1938) is an Israeli-born American director of animated and live-action film Live action (or live-action) is a form of cinematography or videography that uses photography instead of animati ...

Ralph Bakshi
became the first to also release more than a handful features. Sullivan-Bluth Studios began to regularly produce animated features starting with ''
An American Tail ''An American Tail'' is a 1986 American animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to b ...
'' in 1986. Although relatively few titles became as successful as Disney's features, other countries developed their own animation industries that produced both short and feature theatrical animations in a wide variety of styles, relatively often including
stop motion Stop motion is an animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and exh ...

stop motion
and
cutout animation Cutout animation is a form of using flat characters, s and backgrounds cut from materials such as , card, stiff or s. The props would be cut out and used as puppets for stop motion. The world's earliest known animated feature films were cutou ...
techniques. Russia's
Soyuzmultfilm Soyuzmultfilm ( rus, Союзмультфильм, p=səjʉsmʊlʲtˈfʲilʲm , ''Union Cartoon'') is a Russian animation studio based in Moscow. Launched in August 5, 1935, the studio has produced more than 1,500 cartoons. Soyuzmultfilm specializ ...
animation studio, founded in 1936, produced 20 films (including shorts) per year on average and reached 1,582 titles in 2018. China, Czechoslovakia / Czech Republic, Italy, France and Belgium were other countries that more than occasionally released feature films, while Japan became a true powerhouse of animation production, with its own recognizable and influential
anime is hand-drawn and computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of ...

anime
style of effective
limited animation Limited animation is a process in the overall technique of traditional animation on the reverse side of an already inked cel, here placed on the original animation drawing Traditional animation (or classical animation, cel animation, hand-drawn ...
.


Animation on television

Animation became very popular on television since the 1950s, when television sets started to become common in most developed countries. Cartoons were mainly programmed for children, on convenient time slots, and especially US youth spent many hours watching
Saturday-morning cartoon "Saturday-morning cartoon" is a colloquial term for the original animated series programming that was typically scheduled on Saturday and Sunday mornings in the United States on the Big Three television networks, "Big Three" television networks. Th ...
s. Many classic cartoons found a new life on the small screen and by the end of the 1950s, production of new animated cartoons started to shift from theatrical releases to TV series.
Hanna-Barbera Productions Hanna-Barbera Productions, Inc. ( ), also variously known as H-B Enterprises, H-B Production Co., and Hanna-Barbera Cartoons, Inc., was an American animation studio An animation studio is a company producing animated media. The broadest such c ...
was especially prolific and had huge hit series, such as ''
The Flintstones ''The Flintstones'' is an American animated sitcom An animated sitcom is a subgenre of the that is instead of . History Early history ', which debuted in 1960, is considered the first example of the animated sitcom genre.
The Flintstones
'' (1960–1966) (the first
prime time The prime time or the peak time is the block of broadcast programming Broadcast programming is the practice of organizing and/or ordering (scheduling) of broadcast media shows, typically radio and television, in a daily, weekly, monthly, qu ...
animated series), ''
Scooby-Doo ''Scooby-Doo'' is an American animated franchise comprising many animated television series produced from 1969 to the present, as well as their derivative List of Scooby-Doo media, media. Writers Joe Ruby and Ken Spears created the original ser ...
'' (since 1969) and Belgian co-production ''
The Smurfs ''The Smurfs'' (french: Les Schtroumpfs; nl, De Smurfen) is a Belgian comic a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other visual information. It typically the form of a sequence of ...
'' (1981–1989). The constraints of American television programming and the demand for an enormous quantity resulted in cheaper and quicker
limited animation Limited animation is a process in the overall technique of traditional animation on the reverse side of an already inked cel, here placed on the original animation drawing Traditional animation (or classical animation, cel animation, hand-drawn ...
methods and much more formulaic scripts. Quality dwindled until more daring animation surfaced in the late 1980s and in the early 1990s with hit series such as ''
The Simpsons ''The Simpsons'' is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical depiction of American life, epitomized by the Simpson family, which consists of Homer Simpson, Homer, Marge Si ...
'' (since 1989) as part of a "renaissance" of American animation. While US animated series also spawned successes internationally, many other countries produced their own child-oriented programming, relatively often preferring
stop motion Stop motion is an animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and exh ...

stop motion
and
puppetry Puppetry is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a spe ...

puppetry
over cel animation. Japanese
anime is hand-drawn and computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of ...

anime
TV series became very successful internationally since the 1960s, and European producers looking for affordable cel animators relatively often started co-productions with Japanese studios, resulting in hit series such as ''
Barbapapa ''Barbapapa'' is a 1970 Picture book, children's picture book by the French Americans, French-American couple Annette Tison and Talus Taylor, who lived in Paris, France. Barbapapa is both the title character and the name of his "species". The book w ...
'' (The Netherlands/Japan/France 1973–1977), '' Wickie und die starken Männer/小さなバイキング ビッケ (Vicky the Viking)'' (Austria/Germany/Japan 1974), and ''
The Jungle Book ''The Jungle Book'' (1894) is a collection of stories by the English author Rudyard Kipling Joseph Rudyard Kipling ( ; 30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)''The Times'', (London) 18 January 1936, p. 12. was an English journalist, shor ...
'' (Italy/Japan 1989).


Switch from cel animation to computer animation

Computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to i ...
was gradually developed since the 1940s. 3D wireframe animation started popping up in the mainstream in the 1970s, with an early (short) appearance in the sci-fi thriller ''
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'' (1976). ''
The Rescuers Down Under ''The Rescuers Down Under'' is a 1990 American animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets ...
'' was the first feature film to be completely created digitally without a camera. It was produced in a style that's very similar to traditional cel animation on the
Computer Animation Production System The Computer Animation Production System (CAPS) was a digital ink and paint system used in animated feature films, the first at a major studio, designed to replace the expensive process of transferring animated drawings to cels using India ink or ...
(CAPS), developed by
The Walt Disney Company The Walt Disney Company, commonly just Disney (), is an American multinational entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, ...
in collaboration with
Pixar Pixar Animation Studios (), commonly known as just Pixar, is an American computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform ge ...

Pixar
in the late 1980s. The so-called 3D style, more often associated with computer animation, has become extremely popular since Pixar's ''
Toy Story ''Toy Story'' is a 1995 American computer-animated comedy film A comedy film is a category of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communic ...

Toy Story
'' (1995), the first computer-animated feature in this style. Most of the cel animation studios switched to producing mostly computer animated films around the 1990s, as it proved cheaper and more profitable. Not only the very popular 3D animation style was generated with computers, but also most of the films and series with a more traditional hand-crafted appearance, in which the charming characteristics of cel animation could be emulated with software, while new digital tools helped developing new styles and effects.


Economic status

In 2008, the animation market was worth US$68.4 billion. Animated feature-length films returned the highest
gross margin Gross margin is the difference between revenue In accounting Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement ' Measurement is the number, numerical quantification (science), quantification of the variable and attribute (research), attributes ...
s (around 52%) of all
film genre A film genre is a stylistic or thematic category for motion pictures A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the pra ...
s between 2004 and 2013. Animation as an art and industry continues to thrive as of the early 2020s.


Education, propaganda and commercials

The clarity of animation makes it a powerful tool for instruction, while its total malleability also allows exaggeration that can be employed to convey strong emotions and to thwart reality. It has therefore been widely used for other purposes than mere entertainment. During World War II, animation was widely exploited for propaganda. Many American studios, including Warner Bros. and Disney, lent their talents and their cartoon characters to convey the public of certain war values. Some countries, including China, Japan and the United Kingdom, produced their first feature-length animation for their war efforts. Animation has been very popular in television commercials, both due to its graphic appeal, and the humour it can provide. Some animated characters in commercials have survived for decades, such as
Snap, Crackle and Pop Snap, Crackle and Pop are the cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration, sometimes animated, typically in a non- realistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the modern usage usually refers to either: ...
in advertisements for Kellogg's cereals. The legendary animation director
Tex Avery Frederick Bean "Tex" Avery (February 26, 1908 – August 26, 1980) was an American animator, cartoonist, animation director, director and voice actor. He was known for directing and producing animated cartoons during the golden age of American an ...
was the producer of the first
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" Kills Bugs Dead" commercials in 1966, which were very successful for the company.


Spin-off enterprises: other media, merchandise and theme parks

Apart from their success in movie theaters and television series, many cartoon characters would also prove extremely lucrative when licensed for all kinds of merchandise and for other media. Animation has traditionally been very closely related to
comic book A comic book, also called comic book, comic magazine or (in the United Kingdom and Ireland) simply comic, is a publication that consists of comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with t ...
s. While many comic book characters found their way to the screen (which is often the case in Japan, where many
manga Manga (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...

manga
are adapted into
anime is hand-drawn and computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of ...

anime
), original animated characters also commonly appear in comic books and magazines. Somewhat similarly, characters and plots for
video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device to generate visual f ...
s (an interactive animation medium) have been derived from films and vice versa. Some of the original content produced for the screen can be used and marketed in other media. Stories and images can easily be adapted into children's books and other printed media. Songs and music have appeared on records and as streaming media. While very many animation companies commercially exploit their creations outside moving image media,
The Walt Disney Company The Walt Disney Company, commonly just Disney (), is an American multinational entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, ...
is the best known and most extreme example. Since first being licensed for a children's writing tablet in 1929, their
Mickey Mouse Mickey Mouse is a cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration that is typically drawn, sometimes animated, in an unrealistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the modern usage usually refers to ei ...
mascot has been
depicted on an enormous amount of products
depicted on an enormous amount of products
, as have many other Disney characters. This may have influenced some pejorative use of Mickey's name, but Disney Consumer Products, licensed Disney products sell well, and the so-called Disneyana has many avid collectors, and even a dedicated Disneyana fanclub (since 1984). Disneyland opened in 1955 and features many attractions that were based on Disney's cartoon characters. Its enormous success spawned several other Disney Parks, Experiences and Products#Disney resorts, Disney theme parks and resorts. The Walt Disney Company#Financial data, Disney's earnings from the theme parks have relatively often been higher than those from their movies.


Criticism

Criticism of animation has been common in media and cinema since its inception. With its popularity, a large amount of criticism has arisen, especially animated feature-length films. Many concerns of cultural representation, psychological effects on children have been brought up around the animation industry, which has remained rather politically unchanged and stagnant since its inception into mainstream culture.


Awards

As with any other form of media, animation has instituted awards for excellence in the field. The original awards for animation were presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for animated shorts from the year 1932, during the 5th Academy Awards function. The first winner of the 5th Academy Awards, Academy Award was the short ''Flowers and Trees'', a production by
Walt Disney Productions The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney (), is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California California is a U.S. st ...
. The Academy Award for a feature-length animated motion picture was only instituted for the year 2001, and awarded during the 74th Academy Awards in 2002. It was won by the film ''Shrek'', produced by DreamWorks Animation, DreamWorks and Pacific Data Images. Walt Disney Animation Studios, Disney Animation and
Pixar Pixar Animation Studios (), commonly known as just Pixar, is an American computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform ge ...

Pixar
has produced the most films either to win or be nominated for the award. ''Beauty and the Beast (1991 film), Beauty and the Beast'' was the first animated film nominated for Best Picture. ''Up (2009 film), Up'' and ''Toy Story 3'' also received Best Picture nominations after the Academy expanded the number of nominees from five to ten. * Academy Award for Best Animated Feature * Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film Several other countries have instituted an award for the best-animated feature film as part of their national film awards: Africa Movie Academy Award for Best Animation (since 2008), BAFTA Award for Best Animated Film (since 2006), César Award for Best Animated Film (since 2011), Golden Rooster Award for Best Animation (since 1981), Goya Award for Best Animated Film (since 1989), Japan Academy Prize for Animation of the Year (since 2007), National Film Award for Best Animated Film (since 2006). Also since 2007, the Asia Pacific Screen Award for Best Animated Feature Film has been awarded at the Asia Pacific Screen Awards. Since 2009, the European Film Awards have awarded the European Film Award for Best Animated Film. The Annie Award is another award presented for excellence in the field of animation. Unlike the Academy Awards, the Annie Awards are only received for achievements in the field of animation and not for any other field of technical and artistic endeavour. They were re-organized in 1992 to create a new field for Best Animated Feature. The 1990s winners were dominated by Walt Disney; however, newer studios, led by Pixar & DreamWorks, have now begun to consistently vie for this award. The list of awardees is as follows: * Annie Award for Best Animated Feature * Annie Award for Best Animated Short Subject * Annie Award for Best Animated Television Production


Production

The creation of non-trivial animation works (i.e., longer than a few seconds) has developed as a form of filmmaking, with certain unique aspects. Traits common to both live-action and animated Feature film, feature-length films are labor intensity and high production costs. The most important difference is that once a film is in the production phase, the marginal cost of one more shot is higher for animated films than live-action films. It is relatively easy for a director to ask for one more take during principal photography of a live-action film, but every take on an animated film must be manually rendered by animators (although the task of rendering slightly different takes has been made less tedious by modern computer animation). It is pointless for a studio to pay the salaries of dozens of animators to spend weeks creating a visually dazzling five-minute scene if that scene fails to effectively advance the plot of the film. Thus, animation studios starting with Disney began the practice in the 1930s of maintaining story departments where storyboard artists develop every single scene through storyboards, then handing the film over to the animators only after the production team is satisfied that all the scenes make sense as a whole. While live-action films are now also storyboarded, they enjoy more latitude to depart from storyboards (i.e., real-time improvisation). Another problem unique to animation is the requirement to maintain a film's consistency from start to finish, even as films have grown longer and teams have grown larger. Animators, like all artists, necessarily have individual styles, but must subordinate their individuality in a consistent way to whatever style is employed on a particular film. Since the early 1980s, teams of about 500 to 600 people, of whom 50 to 70 are animators, typically have created feature-length animated films. It is relatively easy for two or three artists to match their styles; synchronizing those of dozens of artists is more difficult. This problem is usually solved by having a separate group of visual development artists develop an overall look and palette for each film before the animation begins. Character designers on the visual development team draw model sheets to show how each character should look like with different facial expressions, posed in different positions, and viewed from different angles. On traditionally animated projects, maquettes were often sculpted to further help the animators see how characters would look from different angles. Unlike live-action films, animated films were traditionally developed beyond the synopsis stage through the storyboard format; the storyboard artists would then receive credit for writing the film. In the early 1960s, animation studios began hiring professional screenwriters to write screenplays (while also continuing to use story departments) and screenplays had become commonplace for animated films by the late 1980s.


Techniques


Traditional animation

Traditional animation (also called cel animation or hand-drawn animation) was the process used for most animated films of the 20th century. The individual frames of a traditionally animated film are photographs of drawings, first drawn on paper. To create the illusion of movement, each drawing differs slightly from the one before it. The animators' drawings are traced or photocopied onto transparent acetate sheets called cels, which are filled in with paints in assigned colors or tones on the side opposite the line drawings. The completed character cels are photographed one-by-one against a painted background by a rostrum camera onto motion picture film. The traditional cel animation process became obsolete by the beginning of the 21st century. Today, animators' drawings and the backgrounds are either scanned into or drawn directly into a computer system. Various software programs are used to color the drawings and simulate camera movement and effects. The final animated piece is output to one of several delivery media, including traditional 35 mm movie film, 35 mm film and newer media with digital video. The "look" of traditional cel animation is still preserved, and the character animators' work has remained essentially the same over the past 70 years. Some animation producers have used the term "tradigital art, tradigital" (a play on the words "traditional" and "digital") to describe cel animation that uses significant computer technology. Examples of traditionally animated feature films include ''
Pinocchio Pinocchio (, ) is an Italian fictional character and the protagonist of the children's novel ''The Adventures of Pinocchio'' (1883) by Italian writer Carlo Collodi of Florence, Tuscany. Pinocchio was carved by a woodcarver named Geppetto in a Tu ...
'' (United States, 1940), ''Animal Farm (1954 film), Animal Farm'' (United Kingdom, 1954), ''Lucky and Zorba'' (Italy, 1998), and ''The Illusionist (2010 film), The Illusionist'' (British-French, 2010). Traditionally animated films produced with the aid of computer technology include ''The Lion King'' (US, 1994), ''The Prince of Egypt'' (US, 1998), ''Akira (1988 film), Akira'' (Japan, 1988), ''Spirited Away'' (Japan, 2001), ''The Triplets of Belleville'' (France, 2003), and ''The Secret of Kells'' (Irish-French-Belgian, 2009).


Full animation

Full animation refers to the process of producing high-quality traditionally animated films that regularly use detailed drawings and plausible movement, having a smooth animation. Fully animated films can be made in a variety of styles, from more realistically animated works like those produced by the Walt Disney Animation Studios, Walt Disney studio (''The Little Mermaid (1989 film), The Little Mermaid'', ''Beauty and the Beast (1991 film), Beauty and the Beast'', ''Aladdin (1992 Disney film), Aladdin'', ''The Lion King'') to the more 'cartoon' styles of the Warner Bros. Cartoons, Warner Bros. animation studio. Many of the Disney animated features are examples of full animation, as are non-Disney works, ''The Secret of NIMH'' (US, 1982), ''The Iron Giant'' (US, 1999), and ''Nocturna (Film), Nocturna'' (Spain, 2007). Fully animated films are animated at 24 frames per second, with a combination of animation on ones and twos, meaning that drawings can be held for one frame out of 24 or two frames out of 24.


Limited animation

Limited animation involves the use of less detailed or more stylized drawings and methods of movement usually a choppy or "skippy" movement animation. Limited animation uses fewer drawings per second, thereby limiting the fluidity of the animation. This is a more economic technique. Pioneered by the artists at the American studio United Productions of America, limited animation can be used as a method of stylized artistic expression, as in ''Gerald McBoing-Boing'' (US, 1951), ''Yellow Submarine (1968 film), Yellow Submarine'' (UK, 1968), and certain
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produced in Japan. Its primary use, however, has been in producing cost-effective animated content for media for television (the work of Hanna-Barbera, Filmation, and other TV animation studios) and later the Internet (web cartoons).


Rotoscoping

Rotoscoping is a technique patented by Max Fleischer in 1917 where animators trace live-action movement, frame by frame. The source film can be directly copied from actors' outlines into animated drawings, as in ''The Lord of the Rings (1978 film), The Lord of the Rings'' (US, 1978), or used in a stylized and expressive manner, as in ''Waking Life'' (US, 2001) and ''A Scanner Darkly (film), A Scanner Darkly'' (US, 2006). Some other examples are ''Fire and Ice (1983 film), Fire and Ice'' (US, 1983), ''Heavy Metal (film), Heavy Metal'' (1981), and ''The Flowers of Evil (manga), Aku no Hana'' (Japan, 2013).


Live-action/animation

List of films with live action and animation, Live-action/animation is a technique combining hand-drawn characters into live action shots or live-action actors into animated shots. One of the earlier uses was in Koko the Clown when Koko was drawn over live-action footage. Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks created a series of ''Alice Comedies'' (1923–1927), in which a live-action girl enters an animated world. Other examples include ''Allegro Non Troppo'' (Italy, 1976), ''Who Framed Roger Rabbit'' (US, 1988), ''Volere volare'' (Italy 1991), ''Space Jam'' (US, 1996) and ''Osmosis Jones'' (US, 2001).


Stop motion animation

Stop-motion animation is used to describe animation created by physically manipulating real-world objects and photographing them one frame of film at a time to create the illusion of movement. There are many different types of stop-motion animation, usually named after the medium used to create the animation. Computer software is widely available to create this type of animation; traditional stop-motion animation is usually less expensive but more time-consuming to produce than current computer animation. * Puppet animation typically involves stop-motion puppet figures interacting in a constructed environment, in contrast to real-world interaction in model animation. The puppets generally have an armature (sculpture), armature inside of them to keep them still and steady to constrain their motion to particular joints. Examples include ''The Tale of the Fox'' (France, 1937), ''The Nightmare Before Christmas'' (US, 1993), ''Corpse Bride'' (US, 2005), ''Coraline (film), Coraline'' (US, 2009), the films of Jiří Trnka and the adult animated sketch-comedy television series ''Robot Chicken'' (US, 2005–present). ** Puppetoon, created using techniques developed by George Pal, are puppet-animated films that typically use a different version of a puppet for different frames, rather than simply manipulating one existing puppet. * Clay animation, or Plasticine animation (often called ''claymation'', which, however, is a Laika (company), trademarked name), uses figures made of clay or a similar malleable material to create stop-motion animation. The figures may have an armature (sculpture), armature or wire frame inside, similar to the related puppet animation (below), that can be manipulated to pose the figures. Alternatively, the figures may be made entirely of clay, in the films of Bruce Bickford (animator), Bruce Bickford, where clay creatures morph into a variety of different shapes. Examples of clay-animated works include ''The Gumby Show'' (US, 1957–1967), ''Mio Mao'' (Italy, 1974–2005), ''Morph (animation), Morph'' shorts (UK, 1977–2000), ''Wallace and Gromit'' shorts (UK, as of 1989), Jan Švankmajer's ''Dimensions of Dialogue'' (Czechoslovakia, 1982), ''The Trap Door'' (UK, 1984). Films include ''Wallace & Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit'', ''Chicken Run'' and ''The Adventures of Mark Twain (1985 film), The Adventures of Mark Twain''. ** Strata-cut animation, Strata-cut animation is most commonly a form of clay animation in which a long bread-like "loaf" of clay, internally packed tight and loaded with varying imagery, is sliced into thin sheets, with the animation camera taking a frame of the end of the loaf for each cut, eventually revealing the movement of the internal images within. * Cutout animation is a type of stop-motion animation produced by moving two-dimensional pieces of material paper or cloth. Examples include Terry Gilliam's animated sequences from ''Monty Python's Flying Circus'' (UK, 1969–1974); ''Fantastic Planet'' (France/Czechoslovakia, 1973); ''Tale of Tales (1979 film), Tale of Tales'' (Russia, 1979), The pilot episode of the adult television sitcom series (and sometimes in episodes) of ''South Park'' (US, 1997) and the music video Live for the moment, from Verona Riots band (produced by Alberto Serrano and Nívola Uyá, Spain 2014). **Silhouette animation is a variant of cutout animation in which the characters are backlit and only visible as silhouettes. Examples include ''The Adventures of Prince Achmed'' (Weimar Republic, 1926) and ''Princes et Princesses'' (France, 2000). * Model animation refers to stop-motion animation created to interact with and exist as a part of a live-action world. Intercutting, matte (filmmaking), matte effects and split screens are often employed to blend stop-motion characters or objects with live actors and settings. Examples include the work of Ray Harryhausen, as seen in films, ''Jason and the Argonauts (1963 film), Jason and the Argonauts'' (1963), and the work of Willis H. O'Brien on films, ''King Kong (1933 film), King Kong'' (1933). **Go motion is a variant of model animation that uses various techniques to create motion blur between frames of film, which is not present in traditional stop motion. The technique was invented by Industrial Light & Magic and Phil Tippett to create special effect scenes for the film ''The Empire Strikes Back'' (1980). Another example is the dragon named "Vermithrax" from 1981 film ''Dragonslayer (1981 film), Dragonslayer''. * Object animation refers to the use of regular inanimate objects in stop-motion animation, as opposed to specially created items. ** Graphic animation uses non-drawn flat visual graphic material (photographs, newspaper clippings, magazines, etc.), which are sometimes manipulated frame by frame to create movement. At other times, the graphics remain stationary, while the stop-motion camera is moved to create on-screen action. ** Brickfilm are a subgenre of object animation involving using Lego or other similar brick toys to make an animation. These have had a recent boost in popularity with the advent of video sharing sites, YouTube and the availability of cheap cameras and animation software. * Pixilation involves the use of live humans as stop-motion characters. This allows for a number of surreal effects, including disappearances and reappearances, allowing people to appear to slide across the ground, and other effects. Examples of pixilation include ''The Secret Adventures of Tom Thumb'' and ''Angry Kid'' shorts, and the Academy Award-winning ''Neighbours (1952 film), Neighbours'' by Norman McLaren.


Computer animation

Computer animation encompasses a variety of techniques, the unifying factor being that the animation is created digitally on a computer. 2D animation techniques tend to focus on image manipulation while 3D techniques usually build virtual worlds in which characters and objects move and interact. 3D animation can create images that seem real to the viewer.


2D animation

2D computer graphics, 2D animation figures are created or edited on the computer using 2D Raster graphics, bitmap graphics and 2D vector graphics. This includes automated computerized versions of traditional animation techniques, Interpolation, interpolated morphing, onion skinning and interpolated rotoscoping. 2D animation has many applications, including Scanimate, analog computer animation,
Flash animation 300px, Simple animation in Flash MX: a square moving across the screen in a motion tween, one of the basic functions of Flash. Onion skinning is used to show the apparent motion of the square. Adobe Flash animation or Adobe Flash cartoon (former ...
, and PowerPoint animation. Cinemagraphs are Still life photography, still photographs in the form of an
animated GIF The Graphics Interchange Format (GIF; or , #Pronunciation, see pronunciation) is a Raster graphics, bitmap Image file formats, image format that was developed by a team at the online services provider CompuServe led by American computer scien ...
file of which part is animated. Final line advection animation is a technique used in 2D animation, to give artists and animators more influence and control over the final product as everything is done within the same department. Speaking about using this approach in ''Paperman'', John Kahrs said that "Our animators can change things, actually erase away the CG underlayer if they want, and change the profile of the arm."


3D animation

3D animation is digitally modeled and manipulated by an animator. The 3D model maker usually starts by creating a 3D polygon mesh for the animator to manipulate. A mesh typically includes many vertices that are connected by edges and faces, which give the visual appearance of form to a 3D object or 3D environment. Sometimes, the mesh is given an internal digital skeletal structure called an Armature (computer animation), armature that can be used to control the mesh by weighting the vertices. This process is called rigging and can be used in conjunction with key frames to create movement. Other techniques can be applied, mathematical functions (e.g., gravity, particle simulations), simulated fur or hair, and effects, fire and fluid animation, water simulations. These techniques fall under the category of 3D dynamics.


=3D terms

= * Cel-shaded animation is used to mimic traditional animation using computer software. Shading looks stark, with less blending of colors. Examples include ''Skyland'' (2007, France), ''The Iron Giant'' (1999, United States), ''Futurama'' (1999, United States) ''Appleseed Ex Machina'' (2007, Japan), ''The Legend of Zelda: The Wind Waker'' (2002, Japan), ''The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild'' (2017, Japan) * Machinima – Films created by screen capturing in video games and virtual worlds. The term originated from the software introduction in the 1980s demoscene, as well as the 1990s recordings of the first-person shooter video game ''Quake (video game), Quake''. * Motion capture is used when live-action actors wear special suits that allow computers to copy their movements into CG characters. Examples include ''The Polar Express (film), Polar Express'' (2004, US), ''Beowulf (2007 film), Beowulf'' (2007, US), ''A Christmas Carol (2009 film), A Christmas Carol'' (2009, US), ''The Adventures of Tintin (film), The Adventures of Tintin'' (2011, US) ''Kochadaiiyaan, kochadiiyan'' (2014, India) *
Computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to i ...
is used primarily for animation that attempts to resemble real life, using advanced rendering that mimics in detail skin, plants, water, fire, clouds, etc. Examples include ''Up (2009 film), Up'' (2009, US), ''How to Train Your Dragon (film), How to Train Your Dragon'' (2010, US) * Physically based animation is animation using computer simulations.


Mechanical animation

* Animatronics is the use of mechatronics to create machines that seem animate rather than robotic. ** Audio-Animatronics and Autonomatronics is a form of robotics animation, combined with 3-D animation, created by Walt Disney Imagineering for shows and attractions at Disney theme parks move and make noise (generally a recorded speech or song). They are fixed to whatever supports them. They can sit and stand, and they cannot walk. An Audio-Animatron is different from an android (robot), android-type robot in that it uses prerecorded movements and sounds, rather than responding to external stimuli. In 2009, Disney created an interactive version of the technology called Autonomatronics. ** Linear Animation Generator is a form of animation by using static picture frames installed in a tunnel or a shaft. The animation illusion is created by putting the viewer in a linear motion, parallel to the installed picture frames. The concept and the technical solution were invented in 2007 by Mihai Girlovan in Romania. * Chuckimation is a type of animation created by the makers of the television series ''Action League Now!'' in which characters/props are thrown, or chucked from off camera or wiggled around to simulate talking by unseen hands. * The Magic lantern#Moving images, magic lantern used mechanical slides to project moving images, probably since Christiaan Huygens invented this early image projector in 1659.


Other animation styles, techniques, and approaches

* Hydrotechnics: a technique that includes lights, water, fire, fog, and lasers, with high-definition projections on mist screens. * Drawn on film animation: a technique where footage is produced by creating the images directly on film stock; for example, by Norman McLaren, Len Lye and Stan Brakhage. * Paint-on-glass animation: a technique for making animated films by manipulating slow drying oil paints on sheets of glass, for example by Aleksandr Petrov (animator), Aleksandr Petrov. * Erasure animation: a technique using traditional 2D media, photographed over time as the artist manipulates the image. For example, William Kentridge is famous for his charcoal erasure films, and Piotr Dumała for his auteur technique of animating scratches on plaster. * Pinscreen animation: makes use of a screen filled with movable pins that can be moved in or out by pressing an object onto the screen. The screen is lit from the side so that the pins cast shadows. The technique has been used to create animated films with a range of textural effects difficult to achieve with traditional cel animation. * Sand animation: sand is moved around on a back- or front-lighted piece of glass to create each frame for an animated film. This creates an interesting effect when animated because of the light Contrast (vision), contrast. * Flip book: a flip book (sometimes, especially in British English, called a flick book) is a book with a series of pictures that vary gradually from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned rapidly, the pictures appear to animate by simulating motion or some other change. Flip books are often illustrated books for children, they also be geared towards adults and employ a series of photographs rather than drawings. Flip books are not always separate books, they appear as an added feature in ordinary books or magazines, often in the page corners. Software packages and websites are also available that convert digital video files into custom-made flip books. * Character animation * Multi-sketching * Special effects animation


See also

* 12 basic principles of animation * War film#Animated, Animated war film * Animation department * Architectural animation * Avar (animation variable) * Independent animation * International Animation Day * International Animated Film Association * International Tournée of Animation * List of film-related topics * Motion graphic design * Society for Animation Studies * Wire-frame model


References


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Journal articles

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Books

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External links


The making of an 8-minute cartoon short

"Animando"
a 12-minute film demonstrating 10 different animation techniques (and teaching how to use them).
Bibliography on animation – Websiite "Histoire de la télévision"
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Commonly used programs

Some programs used for video making digitally include FlipaClip, Vyond, and Animaker. {{DEFAULTSORT:Animation Animation, Cartooning Articles containing video clips Film and video technology