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Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the and . Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications. consists of and . Aerospace organizations research, design, manufacture, operate, or maintain and . The beginning of space and the ending of the is considered as 100 km (62 mi) above the ground according to the physical explanation that the air pressure is too low for a lifting body to generate meaningful lift force without exceeding orbital velocity.


Overview

In most industrial countries, the aerospace industry is a cooperation of the public and private sectors. For example, several states have a civilian funded by the , such as in the United States, in Europe, the in Canada, in India, in Japan, in Russia, in China, in Pakistan, in Iran, and in South Korea. Along with these public space programs, many companies produce technical tools and components such as and s. Some known companies involved in space programs include , , , , , , and . These companies are also involved in other areas of aerospace, such as the construction of aircraft.


History

Modern aerospace began with Engineer in 1799. Cayley proposed an aircraft with a "fixed wing and a horizontal and vertical tail," defining characteristics of the modern airplane. The 19th century saw the creation of the (1866), the American Rocketry Society, and the , all of which made aeronautics a more serious scientific discipline. Airmen like , who introduced s in 1891, used gliders to analyze s. The were interested in Lilienthal's work and read several of his publications. They also found inspiration in , an and the author of ''Progress in Flying Machines'' (1894). It was the preliminary work of Cayley, Lilienthal, Chanute, and other early aerospace engineers that brought about the first powered sustained flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17, 1903, by the Wright brothers. War and science fiction inspired scientists and engineers like and to achieve flight beyond the atmosphere. World War II inspired Wernher von Braun to create the V1 and V2 rockets. The launch of 1 in October 1957 started the , and on July 20, 1969 achieved the first manned moon landing. In April 1981, the launched, the start of regular manned access to orbital space. A sustained human presence in orbital space started with "" in 1986 and is continued by the "". and are more recent features of aerospace.


Manufacturing

Aerospace manufacturing is a high-technology industry that produces "aircraft, guided missiles, space vehicles, aircraft engines, propulsion units, and related parts". Most of the industry is geared toward governmental work. For each (OEM), the US government has assigned a . These codes help to identify each manufacturer, repair facilities, and other critical aftermarket vendors in the aerospace industry. In the United States, the and the (NASA) are the two largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. Others include the very large airline industry. The aerospace industry employed 472,000 wage and salary workers in 2006. Most of those jobs were in Washington state and in California, with , and also being important. The leading aerospace manufacturers in the U.S. are , , , and . These manufacturers are facing an increasing labor shortage as skilled U.S. workers age and retire. Apprenticeship programs such as the Aerospace Joint Apprenticeship Council (AJAC) work in collaboration with Washington state aerospace employers and community colleges to train new manufacturing employees to keep the industry supplied. Important locations of the civilian aerospace industry worldwide include state (), (, , etc.); , Canada (, ); , France (/); , Germany (/); and , Brazil (), , Mexico (Bombardier Aerospace, General Electric Aviation) and , Mexico (United Technologies Corporation, ). In the European Union, aerospace companies such as , , , , and (formerly Finmeccnica) account for a large share of the global aerospace industry and research effort, with the as one of the largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. In India, is a major center of the aerospace industry, where , the and the are headquartered. The (ISRO) launched India's first Moon orbiter, , in October 2008. In Russia, large aerospace companies like and the (encompassing , , , , , and which includes ) are among the major global players in this industry. The historic was also the home of a major aerospace industry. The United Kingdom formerly attempted to maintain its own large aerospace industry, making its own rs and warplanes, but it has largely turned its lot over to cooperative efforts with continental companies, and it has turned into a large import customer, too, from countries such as the United States. However, the UK has a very active aerospace sector, including the second largest defence contractor in the world, , supplying fully assembled aircraft, aircraft components, sub-assemblies and sub-systems to other manufacturers, both in Europe and all over the world. Canada has formerly manufactured some of its own designs for jet warplanes, etc. (e.g. the fighter), but for some decades, it has relied on imports from the United States and Europe to fill these needs. However Canada still manufactures some military aircraft although they are generally not combat capable. Another notable example was the late 1950s development of the , a supersonic fighter-interceptor whose 1959 cancellation was considered highly controversial. France has continued to make its own warplanes for its air force and navy, and Sweden continues to make its own warplanes for the Swedish Air Force—especially in support of its position as a country. (See .) Other European countries either team up in making (such as the and the ), or else to import them from the United States. has a developing aerospace engineering industry. The , and are among the premier organizations involved in research and development in this sector. Pakistan has the capability of designing and manufacturing guided rockets, missiles and space vehicles. The city of is home to the which contains several factories. This facility is responsible for manufacturing the , , and aircraft. Pakistan also has the capability to design and manufacture both armed and unarmed . In the People's Republic of China, , , , , and are major research and manufacture centers of the aerospace industry. China has developed an extensive capability to design, test and produce military aircraft, missiles and space vehicles. Despite the cancellation in 1983 of the experimental , China is still developing its civil aerospace industry. The was born out of the sale of second-hand or used aircraft parts from the aerospace manufacture sector. Within the United States there is a specific process that parts brokers or resellers must follow. This includes leveraging a certified repair station to and "tag" a part. This certification guarantees that a part was repaired or overhauled to meet OEM specifications. Once a part is overhauled its value is determined from the supply and demand of the aerospace market. When an airline has an , the part that the airline requires to get the plane back into service becomes invaluable. This can drive the market for specific parts. There are several online marketplaces that assist with the commodity selling of aircraft parts. In the aerospace and defense industry, much consolidation has occurred at the end of the 20th century, going into the 21st century. Between 1988 and 2011, more than 6,068 with a total known value of 678 billion USD have been announced worldwide. The largest transactions have been: * The acquisition of by for 30.0 bil. USD in 2018 * The acquisition of by for 16.2 bil. USD in 2011 * The merger of with in a stock swap valued 15.6 bil. USD in 1999 * The merger of with valued at 13.4 bil. USD in 1996 * The acquisition of , a subsidiary of GEC, by for 12.9 bil. USD in 1999 (now called: ) * The acquisition of by for 9.5 bil. USD in 1997


Technology

Multiple and s are used in aerospace, many of them pioneered around : * patented by , optimise storage from a simple fold to the entire rotating wing of the , and the wingtip fold of the for airport compatibility. * To improve low-speed performance, a was modified by to a monoplane with s: full-span s and trailing-edge s; in 1924, that extend backward and downward were invented in the US, and used on the while in 1943 forward-hinged leading-edge s were invented in Germany and later used on the . * The 1927 large Propeller Research Tunnel at NACA confirmed that the was a major source of drag, in 1930 the featured a retractable gear. * The displaced the domed rivet in the 1930s and pneumatic s work in combination with a heavy reaction ; not depending on plastic deformation, specialist rivets were developed to improve fatigue life as s like the Hi-Lok, threaded pins tightened until a collar breaks off with enough torque. * First flown in 1935, the was a target derived from the for training; the was a jet-powered target drone developed into long-range reconnaissance UAVs: the Fire Fly and Lightning Bug; the Israeli and launched a line of s including the ; developed from the long-endurance UAV for the CIA, the led to the armed . * At the end of World War I, piston engine power could be boosted by compressing intake air with a compressor, also compensating for decreasing air density with altitude, improved with 1930s s for the and the first pressurized airliners. * The 1937 ended the era of passenger s but the US Navy used airships for and into the 1960s, while small airships continue to be used for aerial advertising, sightseeing flights, surveillance and research, and the or the continue to be developed. * As US airlines were interested in high-altitude flying in the mid-1930s, the with a was tested in 1937 and the was developed as the first pressurized airliner. * In 1933, , a transparent Acrylic plastic, was introduced in Germany and shortly before World War II, was first used for aircraft windshields as it is lighter than glass, and the bubble canopy improved fighter pilots visibility. * In January 1930, pilot and engineer filed a patent for a aircraft engine with an inlet, compressor, combustor, turbine and nozzle, while an independent was developed by researcher in Germany; both engines ran within weeks in early 1937 and the -propelled experimental aircraft made its first flight on Aug 27, 1939 while the -powered prototype flew on May 15, 1941. * In 1935, Britain demonstrated aircraft and in 1940 the introduced the first airborne radars on s, then higher-resolution -frequency radar with a on s in 1941, and in 1959 the radar-homing Hughes became the first US on the . * In the early 1940s, British Hurricane and Spitfire pilots wore s to prevent due to blood pooling in the lower body in situations; researchers developed air-filled bladders to replace water-filled bladders and in 1943 the US military began using s from the . * The modern was developed during World War II, a seat on rails ejected by rockets before deploying a parachute, which could have been enhanced by the USAF in the late 1960s as a turbojet-powered autogyro with 50 nm of range, the . * In 1942, machining was conceived by machinist to cut complex structures from solid blocks of alloy, rather than assembling them, improving quality, reducing weight, and saving time and cost to produce bulkheads or wing skins. * In World War II, the German combined s, an and a primitive for real-time allowing without reference to landmarks or guide stars, leading to packaged s for spacecraft and aircraft. * The UK supersonic aircraft was to have an , augmenting a thrust by burning additional fuel in the , but was cancelled in 1946. * In 1935, German aerodynamicist proposed using s to reduce high-speed drag and the fighter prototype was 80% complete by the end of World War II; the later US and flew in 1947, as the Soviet , and the British in 1949. * In 1951, the featured an from through resistances in the wing and tail leading edges; use hot engine and lighter aircraft use pneumatic s or anti-icing fluid on propellers, wing and tail leading edges. * In 1954, developed the first transistorized airborne digital computer, Tradic for the US and in the 1960s built the -developed ; the avionics was defined in 1973 then first used in the , while the civil was first used in the / and in the early 1980s. * After World War II, the initial promoter of for spacecraft, , was brought to the US under along and was its first application in 1958, later enhanced in space- structures like the solar arrays of . * To board an , s are more accessible, comfortable and efficient than climbing the stairs. * In the 1950s, to improve thrust and fuel efficiency, the airflow was divided into a core stream and a bypass stream with a lower velocity for better propulsive efficiency: the first was the with a 0.3 on the in 1960, followed by the with a 1.5 BPR and, derived from the , the powered the with a 28% lower cruise fuel burn; bypass ratio improved to the 9.3 BPR , the 10:1 BPR and the with high-pressure ratio cores.


Functional safety

Functional safety relates to a part of the general safety of a system or a piece of equipment. It implies that the system or equipment can be operated properly and without causing any danger, risk, damage or injury. Functional safety is crucial in the aerospace industry, which allows no compromises or negligence. In this respect, supervisory bodies, such as the (EASA ), regulate the aerospace market with strict certification standards. This is meant to reach and ensure the highest possible level of safety. The standards AS 9100 in America, EN 9100 on the European market or JISQ 9100 in Asia particularly address the aerospace and aviation industry. These are standards applying to the functional safety of aerospace vehicles. Some companies are therefore specialized in the certification, inspection verification and testing of the vehicles and spare parts to ensure and attest compliance with the appropriate regulations.


Spinoffs

Spinoffs refer to any technology that is a direct result of coding or products created by NASA and redesigned for an alternate purpose. These technological advancements are one of the primary results of the aerospace industry, with $5.2 billion worth of revenue generated by spinoff technology, including computers and cellular devices. These spinoffs have applications in a variety of different fields including medicine, transportation, energy, consumer goods, public safety and more. NASA publishes an annual report called "Spinoffs", regarding many of the specific products and benefits to the aforementioned areas in an effort to highlight some of the ways funding is put to use. For example, in the most recent edition of this publication, "Spinoffs 2015", endoscopes are featured as one of the medical derivations of aerospace achievement. This device enables more precise and subsequently cost-effective neurosurgery by reducing complications through a minimally invasive procedure that abbreviates hospitalization.


See also

* * * * * * * (List of) * * *


References


External links

{{Wiktionary, aerospace