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The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an
information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational work design that recognizes the interaction between people and technology in wiktionary:Wor ...
where documents and other web resources are identified by
Uniform Resource Locators
Uniform Resource Locators
(URLs, such as ), which may be interlinked by
hyperlink In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and soft ...

hyperlink
s, and are accessible over the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
. The resources of the Web are transferred via the
Hypertext Transfer Protocol The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application layer An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and Interface (computing), interface methods used by Host (network), hosts in a c ...
(HTTP), may be accessed by users by a
software application Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typically to be used by end-users. Examples of an application Application may refer ...
called a ''
web browser A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is application software Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typical ...

web browser
'', and are published by a software application called a ''
web server A web server is computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, pr ...
''. The World Wide Web is not synonymous with the Internet, which pre-dated the Web in some form by over two decades and upon the technologies of which the Web is built. English scientist
Tim Berners-Lee Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee (born 8 June 1955), also known as TimBL, is an English computer scientist best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system ...

Tim Berners-Lee
co-invented the World Wide Web in 1989 along with
Robert Cailliau Robert Cailliau (born 26 January 1947) is a Belgian informatics engineer, computer scientist A computer scientist is a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, moralit ...
. He wrote the first web browser in 1990 while employed at
CERN The European Organization for Nuclear Research (french: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (; ; derived from the name ), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laborat ...
near Geneva, Switzerland. The browser was released outside CERN to other research institutions starting in January 1991, and then to the general public in August 1991. The Web began to enter everyday use in 1993–1994, when websites for general use started to become available. The World Wide Web has been central to the development of the
Information Age#REDIRECT Information Age The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a historical periodHuman history is commonly divided into three main Era, eras — Ancient history, Ancient, Post-classical history, ...
and is the primary tool billions of people use to interact on the Internet. Web resources may be any type of downloaded media, but ''
web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically acti ...

web page
s'' are hypertext documents formatted in
Hypertext Markup Language The HyperText Markup Language, or HTML is the standard markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntactically distinguishable from the ...

Hypertext Markup Language
(HTML). Special HTML syntax displays embedded
hyperlink In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and soft ...

hyperlink
s with URLs, which permits users to
navigate Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.Bowditch, 2003:799. The field of navigation includes four general categories: land navigation, mar ...
to other web resources. In addition to
text Text may refer to: Written word * Text (literary theory), any object that can be read, including: **Religious text, a writing that a religious tradition considers to be sacred **Text, a verse or passage from scripture used in expository preaching ...

text
, web pages may contain references to
image An image (from la, imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC__ * Natural environment, all living and non- ...

image
s,
video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active de ...

video
,
audio Audio most commonly refers to sound In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion ( ...
, and software components, which are either displayed or internally executed in the user's web browser to render pages or streams of
multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different such as , , , , or into a single interactive presentation, in contrast to traditional mass media which featured little to no interaction fr ...

multimedia
content. Multiple web resources with a common theme and usually a common
domain name A domain name is an identification string String or strings may refer to: *String (structure), a long flexible structure made from threads twisted together, which is used to tie, bind, or hang other objects Arts, entertainment, and media Films ...
make up a
website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext File:Douglas Engelbart in 2008.jpg, Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother of All Demos" i ...

website
. Websites are stored in computers that are running a
web server A web server is computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, pr ...
, which is a program that responds to requests made over the Internet from web browsers running on a user's computer. Website content can be provided by a publisher or interactively from
user-generated content User-generated content (UGC), alternatively known as user-created content (UCC), is any form of content, such as images, videos, text, and audio, that has been posted by User (computing), users on online platforms such as social media and wikis. I ...
. Websites are provided for a myriad of informative, entertainment, commercial, and governmental reasons.


History

The underlying concept of hypertext originated in previous projects from the 1960s, such as the
Hypertext Editing System The Hypertext Editing System, or HES, was an early hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, wh ...
(HES) at Brown University,
Ted Nelson Theodor Holm Nelson (born June 17, 1937) is an American pioneer of information technology, philosopher, and sociologist. He coined the terms ''hypertext Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother ...

Ted Nelson
's
Project Xanadu Project Xanadu ( ) was the first hypertext File:Douglas Engelbart in 2008.jpg, Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother of All Demos" in San Francisco, a 90-minute 1968 presentation of the NLS (computer ...
, and
Douglas Engelbart Douglas Carl Engelbart (January 30, 1925 – July 2, 2013) was an engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are Professional, professionals who Invention, invent, design, analyze, build and test Machine, machines, complex sys ...
's oN-Line System (NLS). Both Nelson and Engelbart were in turn inspired by
Vannevar Bush Vannevar Bush ( ; March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II, World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almo ...

Vannevar Bush
's
microfilm Microforms are scaled-down reproductions of documents, typically either films A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perception ...
-based ''
memex Memex is the name of the hypothetical electromechanical device that Vannevar Bush Vannevar Bush ( ; March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. ...

memex
'', which was described in the 1945 essay "
As We May Think "As We May Think" is a 1945 essay by Vannevar Bush Vannevar Bush ( ; March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research ...
"..
Tim Berners-Lee Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee (born 8 June 1955), also known as TimBL, is an English computer scientist best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system ...

Tim Berners-Lee
's vision of a global hyperlinked information system became a possibility by the second half of the 1980s. By 1985, the global Internet began to proliferate in Europe and the
Domain Name System The Domain Name System (DNS) is the hierarchical and decentralized Decentralization or decentralisation is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision making, are distributed o ...

Domain Name System
(upon which the
Uniform Resource Locator A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication prot ...

Uniform Resource Locator
is built) came into being. In 1988 the first direct IP connection between Europe and North America was made and Berners-Lee began to openly discuss the possibility of a web-like system at CERN. While working at CERN, Berners-Lee became frustrated with the inefficiencies and difficulties posed by finding information stored on different computers. On 12 March 1989, he submitted a memorandum, titled "Information Management: A Proposal", to the management at CERN for a system called "Mesh" that referenced
ENQUIRE ENQUIRE was a software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, physical hardware, from which the system ...
, a database and software project he had built in 1980, which used the term "web" and described a more elaborate information management system based on links embedded as text: "Imagine, then, the references in this document all being associated with the
network address A network address is an identifier for a node In general, a node is a localized swelling (a "knot A knot is an intentional complication in Rope, cordage which may be practical or decorative, or both. Practical knots are classified by function, ...
of the thing to which they referred, so that while reading this document, you could skip to them with a click of the mouse." Such a system, he explained, could be referred to using one of the existing meanings of the word ''
hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically activated by a click, keypress set, or screen ...

hypertext
'', a term that he says was coined in the 1950s. There is no reason, the proposal continues, why such hypertext links could not encompass multimedia documents including graphics, speech and video, so that Berners-Lee goes on to use the term ''
hypermedia Hypermedia, an extension of the term hypertext File:Douglas Engelbart in 2008.jpg, Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother of All Demos" in San Francisco, a 90-minute 1968 presentation of the NLS (com ...
''. With help from his colleague and fellow hypertext enthusiast
Robert Cailliau Robert Cailliau (born 26 January 1947) is a Belgian informatics engineer, computer scientist A computer scientist is a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, moralit ...
he published a more formal proposal on 12 November 1990 to build a "Hypertext project" called "WorldWideWeb" (one word, abbreviated "W3") as a "web" of "hypertext documents" to be viewed by "
browsers Browse, browser or browsing may refer to: Programs *Web browser, a program used to access the World Wide Web *Code browser, a program for navigating source code *File browser or file manager, a program used to manage files and related objects *Har ...

browsers
" using a client–server architecture.He Created the Web. Now He’s Out to Remake the Digital World
New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''NYT'' or ''NY Times'') is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 130 Pulit ...
, by Steve Lohr, 10 Jan 2021.
At this point HTML and
HTTP The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application layer An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and Interface (computing), interface methods used by Host (network), hosts in a c ...
had already been in development for about two months and the first Web server was about a month from completing its first successful test. This proposal estimated that a read-only web would be developed within three months and that it would take six months to achieve "the creation of new links and new material by readers, o thatauthorship becomes universal" as well as "the automatic notification of a reader when new material of interest to him/her has become available". While the read-only goal was met, accessible authorship of web content took longer to mature, with the
wiki A wiki ( ) is a hypertext Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother of All Demos" in San Francisco, a 90-minute 1968 presentation of the NLS (computer system)">NLS computer system which was a ...

wiki
concept,
WebDAV WebDAV (Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning) is a set of extensions to the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which allows user agents to collaboratively author contents ''directly'' in an Web_server, HTTP web server by providing facilities ...
,
blog A blog (a truncation In mathematics and computer science, truncation is limiting the number of numerical digit, digits right of the decimal point. Truncation and floor function Truncation of positive real numbers can be done using the flo ...
s,
Web 2.0 Web 2.0 (also known as participative (or participatory) web and social web) refers to website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext File:Douglas Engelbart in 2008. ...

Web 2.0
and
RSS RSS ( RDF Site Summary or Really Simple Syndication) is a web feed that allows users and applications to access updates to websites in a standardized, computer-readable format. These feeds can, for example, allow a user to keep track of many d ...

RSS
/
Atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atom ...
. The proposal was modelled after the
SGML The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML; ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social) ...

SGML
reader
Dynatext DynaText is an SGML publishing tool. It was introduced in 1990, and was the first system to handle arbitrarily large SGML documents, and to render them according to multiple style-sheets that could be switched at will. DynaText and its Web sibling ...
by Electronic Book Technology, a spin-off from the
Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship The Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship (IRIS) was founded at Brown University by Andries van Dam, William S. Shipp, and Norman Meyrowitz in 1983 and closed in 1991. It was initially part of a campus-wide effort at Brown to develop ...
at
Brown University Brown University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two de ...

Brown University
. The Dynatext system, licensed by
CERN The European Organization for Nuclear Research (french: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (; ; derived from the name ), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laborat ...
, was a key player in the extension of SGML ISO 8879:1986 to Hypermedia within
HyTime HyTime (''Hypermedia/Time-based Structuring Language'') is a markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntactically distinguishable from the ...
, but it was considered too expensive and had an inappropriate licensing policy for use in the general high energy physics community, namely a fee for each document and each document alteration. A
NeXT Computer NeXT Computer (also called the NeXT Computer System) is a workstation computer that was developed, marketed, and sold by NeXT Inc. It was introduced in October 1988 as the company's first and flagship product, at a price of , aimed at the higher ...
was used by Berners-Lee as the world's first
web server A web server is computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, pr ...
and also to write the first
web browser A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is application software Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typical ...

web browser
in 1990. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web: the first web browser (
WorldWideWeb WorldWideWeb (later renamed to Nexus to avoid confusion between the software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer ...

WorldWideWeb
, which was a web editor as well) and the first web server. The first website, which described the project itself, was published on 20 December 1990. The first web page may be lost, but Paul Jones of UNC-Chapel Hill in North Carolina announced in May 2013 that Berners-Lee gave him what he says is the oldest known web page during a visit to UNC in 1991. Jones stored it on a
magneto-optical drive A magneto-optical drive is a kind of optical disc drive capable of writing and rewriting data upon a magneto-optical disc. Both 130 mm (5.25 in) and 90 mm (3.5 in) form factors exist. In 1983, just a year after the introducti ...
and his NeXT computer. On 6 August 1991, Berners-Lee published a short summary of the World Wide Web project on the
newsgroup A Usenet newsgroup is a Software repository, repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages Posting style, posted from users in different locations using the Internet. They are discussion groups and are not devoted to publishing news. N ...
''alt.hypertext''. This date is sometimes confused with the public availability of the first web servers, which had occurred months earlier. As another example of such confusion, some news media reported that the first photo on the Web was published by Berners-Lee in 1992, an image of the CERN house band Les Horribles Cernettes taken by Silvano de Gennaro; Gennaro has disclaimed this story, writing that media were "totally distorting our words for the sake of cheap sensationalism". The first server outside Europe was installed in December 1991 at the
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, originally named Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is a United States Department of Energy The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furnitur ...
(SLAC) in Palo Alto, California, to host the
SPIRES A spire is a tall, slender, pointed structure on top of a roof or tower, especially at the summit of church s. A spire may have a square, circular, or polygonal plan, with a roughly conical or pyramidal shape. Spires are typically built of or , ...

SPIRES
-HEP database. Berners-Lee's breakthrough was to marry hypertext to the Internet. In his book '' Weaving The Web'', he explains that he had repeatedly suggested to members of ''both'' technical communities that a marriage between the two technologies was possible. But, when no one took up his invitation, he finally assumed the project himself. In the process, he developed three essential technologies: * a system of globally unique identifiers for resources on the Web and elsewhere, the universal document identifier (UDI), later known as
uniform resource locator A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication prot ...

uniform resource locator
(URL) and
uniform resource identifier A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a unique sequence of characters that identifies a logical or physical resource used by web technologies. URIs may be used to identify anything, including real-world objects, such as people and places, concep ...
(URI); * the publishing language
Hypertext Markup Language The HyperText Markup Language, or HTML is the standard markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntactically distinguishable from the ...
(HTML); * the
Hypertext Transfer Protocol The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application layer An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and Interface (computing), interface methods used by Host (network), hosts in a c ...
(HTTP). The World Wide Web had several differences from other hypertext systems available at the time. The Web required only unidirectional links rather than bidirectional ones, making it possible for someone to link to another resource without action by the owner of that resource. It also significantly reduced the difficulty of implementing web servers and browsers (in comparison to earlier systems), but in turn, presented the chronic problem of ''
link rot Link rot (also called link death, link breaking, or reference rot) is the phenomenon of hyperlinks tending over time to cease to point to their originally targeted computer file, file, web page, or Server (computing), server due to that resource be ...
''. Unlike predecessors such as
HyperCard HyperCard is a software application Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typically to be used by end-users. Examples o ...

HyperCard
, the World Wide Web was non-proprietary, making it possible to develop servers and clients independently and to add extensions without licensing restrictions. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone, with no fees due. Coming two months after the announcement that the server implementation of the
Gopher Pocket gophers, commonly referred to simply as gophers, are burrowing An Eastern chipmunk at the entrance of its burrow A burrow is a hole or tunnel excavated into the ground by an animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular ...
protocol was no longer free to use, this produced a rapid shift away from Gopher and toward the Web. An early popular web browser was
ViolaWWW ViolaWWW is a discontinued web browser, browser, the first to be popular for the World Wide Web (WWW). It was first released in 1991/1992 for Unix and acted as the recommended browser at CERN, where the WWW was invented, but eventually lost its posi ...
for
Unix Unix (; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser Multi-user software is computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to ...

Unix
and the
X Window System The X Window System (X11, or simply X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on Unix-like A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer ...
. The Web began to enter general use in 1993–1994, when websites for everyday use started to become available. Historians generally agree that a turning point for the Web began with the 1993 introduction of
Mosaic A mosaic is a pattern or image made of small regular or irregular pieces of colored stone, glass or ceramic, held in place by plaster/mortar, and covering a surface. Mosaics are often used as floor and wall decoration, and were particularly pop ...
, a graphical web browser developed at the
National Center for Supercomputing Applications The National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) is a state-federal partnership to develop and deploy national-scale cyberinfrastructure that advances research, science and engineering based in the United States of America The Un ...
at the
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (U of I, Illinois, or colloquially the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. ...
(NCSA-UIUC). The development was led by
Marc Andreessen Marc Lowell Andreessen ( ; born July 9, 1971) is an American entrepreneur, investor, and software engineer. He is the co-author of Mosaic (web browser), Mosaic, the first widely used web browser; co-founder of Netscape; and co-founder and general ...

Marc Andreessen
, while funding came from the US High-Performance Computing and Communications Initiative and the
High Performance Computing Act of 1991 The High Performance Computing Act of 1991 (HPCA) is an Act of Congress promulgation, promulgated in the 102nd United States Congress as (Pub.L. 102–194) on December 9, 1991. Often referred to as the Gore Bill, it was created and introduced by the ...
, one of several computing developments initiated by US Senator Al Gore. Before the release of Mosaic, graphics were not commonly mixed with text in web pages, and the Web was less popular than older protocols such as
Gopher Pocket gophers, commonly referred to simply as gophers, are burrowing An Eastern chipmunk at the entrance of its burrow A burrow is a hole or tunnel excavated into the ground by an animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular ...
and Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS). Mosaic's graphical user interface allowed the Web to become by far the most popular protocol on the Internet. The
World Wide Web Consortium The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary ...
(W3C) was founded by Tim Berners-Lee after he left the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in October 1994. It was founded at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a Private university, private Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1861, MIT has since played a key role in the development of modern ...
Laboratory for Computer Science (MIT/LCS) with support from the
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is a research and development Research is " creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of in ...
(DARPA), which had pioneered the Internet; a year later, a second site was founded at
INRIA The National Institute for Research in Digital Science and Technology (Inria) () is a French national research institution focusing on computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms an ...
(a French national computer research lab) with support from the
European Commission The European Commission (EC) is the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. The executive executes a ...

European Commission
DG InfSo; and in 1996, a third continental site was created in Japan at
Keio University , mottoeng = The pen is mightier than the sword 200px, An illustration of Cardinal Richelieu holding a sword, by H. A. Ogden, 1892, from ''The Works of Edward Bulwer Lytton'' "The pen is mightier than the sword" is a metonymic adage An ada ...

Keio University
. By the end of 1994, the total number of websites was still relatively small, but many notable websites were already active that foreshadowed or inspired today's most popular services. Connected by the Internet, other websites were created around the world. This motivated international standards development for protocols and formatting. Berners-Lee continued to stay involved in guiding the development of web standards, such as the
markup language #REDIRECT Markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntactically distinguishable from the text, meaning when the document is processed for di ...
s to compose web pages and he advocated his vision of a
Semantic Web The Semantic Web (sometimes known as Web 3.0) is an extension of the World Wide Web upright=1.35, A global map of the web index for countries in 2014 The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system where d ...

Semantic Web
. The World Wide Web enabled the spread of information over the Internet through an easy-to-use and flexible format. It thus played an important role in popularising use of the Internet. Although the two terms are sometimes conflated in popular use, ''World Wide Web'' is not
synonym A synonym is a word, morpheme A morpheme is the smallest meaningful lexical item in a language. A morpheme is not a word. The difference between a morpheme and a word is that a morpheme bound and free morphemes, sometimes does not stand alone, ...
ous with ''Internet''. The Web is an information space containing hyperlinked documents and other
resources A resource is a source or supply from which a benefit is produced and that has some utility. Resources can broadly be classified upon their availability — they are classified into renewable and non-renewable resources. They can also be classif ...
, identified by their URIs. It is implemented as both client and server software using Internet protocols such as
TCP/IP The Internet protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, is the set of communications protocol A communication protocol is a system of rules that allows two or more entities of a communications system 400px, Communication system A commu ...
and
HTTP The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application layer An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and Interface (computing), interface methods used by Host (network), hosts in a c ...

HTTP
. Berners-Lee was
knighted A knight is a person granted an honorary title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some ...
in 2004 by Queen
Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and 14 other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in Mayfair, London, as the first child of the Duke of York, Duke and Duchess of York (later Kin ...
for "services to the global development of the Internet". He never patented his invention.


Function

The terms ''Internet'' and ''World Wide Web'' are often used without much distinction. However, the two terms do not mean the same thing. The Internet is a global system of
computer network A computer network is a set of s sharing resources located on or provided by . The computers use common s over to communicate with each other. These interconnections are made up of technologies, based on physically wired, optical, and wire ...
s interconnected through telecommunications and
optical networkingOptical networking is a means of communication that uses signals encoded in light to transmit information in various types of telecommunications networks. These include limited range Local area network, local-area networks (LAN) or Wide area network ...
. In contrast, the World Wide Web is a global collection of documents and other
resources A resource is a source or supply from which a benefit is produced and that has some utility. Resources can broadly be classified upon their availability — they are classified into renewable and non-renewable resources. They can also be classif ...
, linked by hyperlinks and URIs. Web resources are accessed using
HTTP The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application layer An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and Interface (computing), interface methods used by Host (network), hosts in a c ...

HTTP
or
HTTPS Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application layer An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared commu ...
, which are application-level Internet protocols that use the Internet's transport protocols. Viewing a
web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically acti ...

web page
on the World Wide Web normally begins either by typing the
URL A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication prot ...

URL
of the page into a web browser or by following a hyperlink to that page or resource. The web browser then initiates a series of background communication messages to fetch and display the requested page. In the 1990s, using a browser to view web pages—and to move from one web page to another through hyperlinks—came to be known as 'browsing,' 'web surfing' (after
channel surfing Channel surfing (also known as channel hopping or zapping) is the practice of quickly scanning through different television channels or radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio waves. Radio ...
), or 'navigating the Web'. Early studies of this new behavior investigated user patterns in using web browsers. One study, for example, found five user patterns: exploratory surfing, window surfing, evolved surfing, bounded navigation and targeted navigation. The following example demonstrates the functioning of a web browser when accessing a page at the URL . The browser resolves the server name of the URL () into an
Internet Protocol address An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication protocols over digital signal, digita ...
using the globally distributed
Domain Name System The Domain Name System (DNS) is the hierarchical and decentralized Decentralization or decentralisation is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision making, are distributed o ...

Domain Name System
(DNS). This lookup returns an IP address such as ''203.0.113.4'' or ''2001:db8:2e::7334''. The browser then requests the resource by sending an
HTTP The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application layer An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and Interface (computing), interface methods used by Host (network), hosts in a c ...
request across the Internet to the computer at that address. It requests service from a specific TCP port number that is well known for the HTTP service so that the receiving host can distinguish an HTTP request from other network protocols it may be servicing. HTTP normally uses port number 80 and for HTTPS it normally uses port number 443. The content of the HTTP request can be as simple as two lines of text: GET /home.html HTTP/1.1 Host: example.org The computer receiving the HTTP request delivers it to web server software listening for requests on port 80. If the webserver can fulfill the request it sends an HTTP response back to the browser indicating success: HTTP/1.1 200 OK Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 followed by the content of the requested page. Hypertext Markup Language (
HTML The HyperText Markup Language, or HTML is the standard markup language #REDIRECT Markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntacticall ...

HTML
) for a basic web page might look like this: Example.org – The World Wide Web

The World Wide Web, abbreviated as WWW and commonly known ...

The web browser the HTML and interprets the markup (</syntaxhighlight>, <syntaxhighlight lang="HTML" inline><p></syntaxhighlight> for paragraph, and such) that surrounds the words to format the text on the screen. Many web pages use HTML to reference the URLs of other resources such as images, other embedded media, <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Client-side_scripting.html" "title="Client-side scripting">scripts</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developi ...<br></span></div> that affect page behaviour, and <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Cascading_Style_Sheets.html" "title="Cascading Style Sheets">Cascading Style Sheets</a><span class="linkinfotext"> #REDIRECT CSS #REDIRECT CSS Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation Introduction A presentation conveys information from a speaker to an audience. Presentations are typically demonst ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Cascading_Style_Sheets.jpg" alt="Cascading Style Sheets" ></span></div> that affect page layout. The browser makes additional HTTP requests to the web server for these other <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Internet_media_type.html" "title="Internet media type">Internet media type</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A media type (formerly known as MIME type) is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer ...<br></span></div>s. As it receives their content from the web server, the browser progressively <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Browser_engine.html" ;"title="Browser engine">renders</a> the page onto the screen as specified by its HTML and these additional resources. <h2><br><p> HTML </h2></p> Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/markup_language.html" "title="markup language">markup language</a><span class="linkinfotext"> #REDIRECT Markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntactically distinguishable from the text, meaning when the document is processed for di ...<br></span></div> for creating <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/web_page.html" "title="web page">web page</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically acti ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Web_page.jpg" alt="web page" ></span></div>s and <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_application.html" "title="web application">web application</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web application (or web app) is application software that runs on a web server, unlike computer-based software programs that are run locally on the operating system (OS) of the device. Web applications are accessed by the user through a web brow ...<br></span></div>s. With <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Cascading_Style_Sheets.html" "title="Cascading Style Sheets">Cascading Style Sheets</a><span class="linkinfotext"> #REDIRECT CSS #REDIRECT CSS Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation Introduction A presentation conveys information from a speaker to an audience. Presentations are typically demonst ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Cascading_Style_Sheets.jpg" alt="Cascading Style Sheets" ></span></div> (CSS) and <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/JavaScript.html" "title="JavaScript">JavaScript</a><span class="linkinfotext"> JavaScript (), often abbreviated JS, is a programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set architecture, set of instructions that produce various kinds of Input/output, output. Programming lang ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/Unofficial_JavaScript_logo_2.svg" alt="JavaScript" ></span></div>, it forms a triad of <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/cornerstone.html" "title="cornerstone">cornerstone</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The cornerstone (or foundation stone or setting stone) is the first stone set in the construction of a masonry Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by ; the term ''masonry'' ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/08/Cornerstone.jpg" alt="cornerstone" ></span></div> technologies for the World Wide Web. <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Web_browser.html" "title="Web browser">Web browser</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is application software Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typical ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3/Web_browser.png" alt="Web browser" ></span></div>s receive HTML documents from a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_server.html" "title="web server">web server</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web server is computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, pr ...<br></span></div> or from local storage and <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/browser_engine.html" ;"title="browser engine">render</a> the documents into multimedia web pages. HTML describes the structure of a web page <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Semantic_Web.html" "title="Semantic Web">semantically</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of meaning, reference, or truth. The term can be used to refer to subfields of several distinct disciplines, including linguistics Linguistics is th ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/95/Semantic_web.svg" alt="semantically" ></span></div> and originally included cues for the appearance of the document. <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/HTML_element.html" "title="HTML element">HTML element</a><span class="linkinfotext"> An HTML element is a type of (Hypertext Markup Language) document component, one of several types of HTML nodes (there are also text nodes, comment nodes and others). HTML document is composed of a of simple HTML , such as text nodes, and H ...<br></span></div>s are the building blocks of HTML pages. With HTML constructs, <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/HTML_element#Images_and_objects.html" "title="HTML element#Images and objects">images</a><span class="linkinfotext"> An image (from la, imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, such as a photograph or other Two-dimensional space, two-dimensional picture, that resembles a subject—usually a physical physical body, object—and thus provides ...<br></span></div> and other objects such as <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Fieldset.html" ;"title="Fieldset">interactive forms</a> may be embedded into the rendered page. HTML provides a means to create <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/structured_document.html" "title="structured document">structured document</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A structured document is an electronic document An electronic document is any electronic media content (other than computer program A computer program is a collection of instructions that can be executed by a computer to perform a specific tas ...<br></span></div>s by denoting structural <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/semantics.html" "title="semantics">semantics</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another o ...<br></span></div> for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Hyperlink.html" "title="Hyperlink">links</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Link or Links may refer to: Places * Link, West Virginia, an unincorporated community in the US * Link River, Klamath Falls, Oregon, US People with the name * Link (singer) (Lincoln Browder, born 1964), American R&B singer * Link (surname) * ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/46/At_%28%40%29_sign.png" alt="links" ></span></div>, quotes and other items. HTML elements are delineated by ''tags'', written using <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Bracket#Angle_brackets.html" "title="Bracket#Angle brackets">angle brackets</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A bracket is either of two tall fore- or back-facing punctuation marks commonly used to isolate a segment of text or data from its surroundings. Typically deployed in symmetric pairs, an individual bracket may be identified as a ''left'' or ...<br></span></div>. Tags such as and directly introduce content into the page. Other tags such as surround and provide information about document text and may include other tags as sub-elements. Browsers do not display the HTML tags, but use them to interpret the content of the page. HTML can embed programs written in a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/scripting_language.html" "title="scripting language">scripting language</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A scripting language or script language is a programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set architecture, set of instructions that produce various kinds of Input/output, output. Programming language ...<br></span></div> such as <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/JavaScript.html" "title="JavaScript">JavaScript</a><span class="linkinfotext"> JavaScript (), often abbreviated JS, is a programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set architecture, set of instructions that produce various kinds of Input/output, output. Programming lang ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/Unofficial_JavaScript_logo_2.svg" alt="JavaScript" ></span></div>, which affects the behavior and content of web pages. Inclusion of CSS defines the look and layout of content. The <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/World_Wide_Web_Consortium.html" "title="World Wide Web Consortium">World Wide Web Consortium</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary ...<br></span></div> (W3C), maintainer of both the HTML and the CSS standards, has encouraged the use of CSS over explicit presentational HTML <ref name="deprecated"></ref> <h2><br><p> Linking </h2></p> Most web pages contain hyperlinks to other related pages and perhaps to downloadable files, source documents, definitions and other web resources. In the underlying HTML, a hyperlink looks like this: <syntaxhighlight lang="html" inline><a href="http://example.org/home.html">Example.org Homepage</a></syntaxhighlight> <img title="WorldWideWebAroundWikipedia"; style="text-decoration: none; height:150px;float: left; padding: 0px 3px 0px 0px;"src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b9/WorldWideWebAroundWikipedia.png" > Such a collection of useful, related resources, interconnected via hypertext links is dubbed a ''web'' of information. Publication on the Internet created what Tim Berners-Lee first called the ''WorldWideWeb'' (in its original <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/CamelCase.html" "title="CamelCase">CamelCase</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Camel case (sometimes stylized as camelCase or CamelCase; also known as camel caps or more formally as medial capitals) is the practice of writing phrases without spaces or punctuation, indicating the separation of words with a single capitalized ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/CamelCase.png" alt="CamelCase" ></span></div>, which was subsequently discarded) in November 1990.<ref name="W90" /> The hyperlink structure of the web is described by the <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/webgraph.html" ;"title="webgraph">webgraph</a>: the nodes of the web graph correspond to the web pages (or URLs) the directed edges between them to the hyperlinks. Over time, many web resources pointed to by hyperlinks disappear, relocate, or are replaced with different content. This makes hyperlinks obsolete, a phenomenon referred to in some circles as link rot, and the hyperlinks affected by it are often called <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/dead_link.html" "title="dead link">dead link</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Link rot (also called link death, link breaking, or reference rot) is the phenomenon of hyperlink In computing, a hyperlink, or simply a link, is a reference to Data (computing), data that the user (computing), user can follow by point and clic ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1d/Dead_link.jpg" alt="dead link" ></span></div>s. The ephemeral nature of the Web has prompted many efforts to archive websites. The <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Internet_Archive.html" "title="Internet Archive">Internet Archive</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The Internet Archive is an American with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge". It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos ...<br></span></div>, active since 1996, is the best known of such efforts. <h2><br><p> WWW prefix </h2></p> Many hostnames used for the World Wide Web begin with ''www'' because of the long-standing practice of naming <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Internet.html" "title="Internet">Internet</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/Internet.jpg" alt="Internet" ></span></div> hosts according to the services they provide. The <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/hostname.html" "title="hostname">hostname</a><span class="linkinfotext"> In computer networking, a hostname (archaically nodename) is a label that is assigned to a device connected to a computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication protocols over digital signal ...<br></span></div> of a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_server.html" "title="web server">web server</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web server is computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, pr ...<br></span></div> is often ''www'', in the same way that it may be ''ftp'' for an <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/FTP_server.html" "title="FTP server">FTP server</a><span class="linkinfotext"> An FTP server is computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Comput ...<br></span></div>, and ''news'' or ''nntp'' for a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Usenet.html" "title="Usenet">Usenet</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Usenet () is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers. It was developed from the general-purpose Unix-to-Unix Copy (UUCP) dial-up Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access Internet access is the ability of ...<br></span></div> <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/news_server.html" "title="news server">news server</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A news server is a collection of software used to handle Usenet Usenet () is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers. It was developed from the general-purpose UUCP, Unix-to-Unix Copy (UUCP) dial-up network architecture ...<br></span></div>. These hostnames appear as Domain Name System (DNS) or <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/subdomain.html" "title="subdomain">subdomain</a><span class="linkinfotext"> In the Domain Name System The Domain Name System (DNS) is the hierarchical and Decentralised system, decentralized naming system used to identify computers, Internet#Applications_and_services, services, and other resources reachable through ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7c/Subdomain.jpg" alt="subdomain" ></span></div> names, as in ''www.example.com''. The use of ''www'' is not required by any technical or policy standard and many web sites do not use it; the first web server was ''nxoc01.cern.ch''. According to Paolo Palazzi, who worked at CERN along with Tim Berners-Lee, the popular use of ''www'' as subdomain was accidental; the World Wide Web project page was intended to be published at www.cern.ch while info.cern.ch was intended to be the CERN home page; however the DNS records were never switched, and the practice of prepending ''www'' to an institution's website domain name was subsequently copied. Many established websites still use the prefix, or they employ other subdomain names such as ''www2'', ''secure'' or ''en'' for special purposes. Many such web servers are set up so that both the main domain name (e.g., example.com) and the ''www'' subdomain (e.g., www.example.com) refer to the same site; others require one form or the other, or they may map to different web sites. The use of a subdomain name is useful for <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/load_balancing_(computing).html" ;"title="load balancing (computing)">load balancing</a> incoming web traffic by creating a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/CNAME_record.html" "title="CNAME record">CNAME record</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A Canonical Name record (abbreviated as CNAME record) is a type of resource record A resource is a source or supply from which a benefit is produced and that has some utility. Resources can broadly be classified upon their availability — they ...<br></span></div> that points to a cluster of web servers. Since, currently, only a subdomain can be used in a CNAME, the same result cannot be achieved by using the bare domain root. When a user submits an incomplete domain name to a web browser in its address bar input field, some web browsers automatically try adding the prefix "www" to the beginning of it and possibly ".com", ".org" and ".net" at the end, depending on what might be missing. For example, entering "" may be transformed to ''<nowiki>http://www.microsoft.com/</nowiki>'' and "openoffice" to ''<nowiki>http://www.openoffice.org</nowiki>''. This feature started appearing in early versions of <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Firefox.html" "title="Firefox">Firefox</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Mozilla Firefox or simply Firefox is a free and open-source Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/da/Firefox.jpg" alt="Firefox" ></span></div>, when it still had the working title 'Firebird' in early 2003, from an earlier practice in browsers such as <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Lynx_(web_browser).html" "title="Lynx (web browser)">Lynx</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A lynx (; plural lynx or lynxes) is any of the four species (the Canada lynx, Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, or bobcat) within the medium-sized wild cat genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ed/Lynx_%28web_browser%29.png" alt="Lynx" ></span></div>. It is reported that Microsoft was granted a US patent for the same idea in 2008, but only for mobile devices. In English, <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Pronunciation_of_"www".html" ;"title="Pronunciation of "www"">''www'' is usually read as</a> ''double-u double-u double-u''. Some users pronounce it ''dub-dub-dub'', particularly in New Zealand. Stephen Fry, in his "Podgrams" series of podcasts, pronounces it ''wuh wuh wuh''. The English writer <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Douglas_Adams.html" "title="Douglas Adams">Douglas Adams</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Douglas Noel Adams (11 March 1952 – 11 May 2001) was an English author, screenwriter, essayist, humorist, satirist and dramatist. Adams was author of ''The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy'', which originated in 1978 as The Hitchhiker's Guide ...<br></span></div> once quipped in ''<div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/The_Independent.html" "title="The Independent">The Independent</a><span class="linkinfotext"> ''The Independent'' is a British online newspaper An online newspaper (or electronic news or electronic news publication) is the electronic publishing, online version of a newspaper, either as a stand-alone publication or as the online ver ...<br></span></div> on Sunday'' (1999): "The World Wide Web is the only thing I know of whose shortened form takes three times longer to say than what it's short for".<ref name="Sim"></ref> In Mandarin Chinese, ''World Wide Web'' is commonly translated via a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/phono-semantic_matching.html" "title="phono-semantic matching">phono-semantic matching</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Phono-semantic matching (PSM) is the incorporation of a word into one language from another, often creating a neologism, where the word's non-native quality is hidden by replacing it with Phonetics, phonetically and semantically similar words or r ...<br></span></div> to ''wàn wéi wǎng'' (), which satisfies ''www'' and literally means "myriad-dimensional net", a translation that reflects the design concept and proliferation of the World Wide Web. Tim Berners-Lee's web-space states that ''World Wide Web'' is officially spelled as three separate words, each capitalised, with no intervening hyphens. Use of the www prefix has been declining, especially when <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Web_2.0.html" "title="Web 2.0">Web 2.0</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Web 2.0 (also known as participative (or participatory) web and social web) refers to website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext File:Douglas Engelbart in 2008. ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f1/Web_2.0.png" alt="Web 2.0" ></span></div> <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_application.html" "title="web application">web application</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web application (or web app) is application software that runs on a web server, unlike computer-based software programs that are run locally on the operating system (OS) of the device. Web applications are accessed by the user through a web brow ...<br></span></div>s sought to brand their domain names and make them easily pronounceable.<ref name="cas"></ref> As the <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/mobile_Web.html" "title="mobile Web">mobile Web</a><span class="linkinfotext"> #REDIRECT Mobile web#REDIRECT Mobile web The mobile web refers to browser-based World Wide Web services accessed from handheld mobile devices, such as smartphones or feature phones, through a mobile or other wireless network A wireless ne ...<br></span></div> grew in popularity, services like <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Gmail.html" "title="Gmail">Gmail</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Gmail is a free service provided by . As of 2019, it had 1.5 billion active worldwide. A user typically accesses Gmail in a or the official . Google also supports the use of s via the and protocols. At its launch in 2004, Gmail provided ...<br></span></div>.com, <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Outlook.com.html" "title="Outlook.com">Outlook.com</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Outlook.com is a personal information manager web app from Microsoft consisting of webmail, Calendaring software, calendaring, Address book, contacts, and Task management, tasks services. Founded in 1996 by Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith (Hotmai ...<br></span></div>, <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Myspace.html" "title="Myspace">Myspace</a><span class="linkinfotext">#REDIRECT Myspace</a> {{Redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation {{R from former name {{R from page move ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/db/Myspace.svg" alt="Myspace" ></span></div>.com, <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Facebook.html" "title="Facebook">Facebook</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Facebook is an American online social media Social media are interactive technologies that allow the creation or sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, and other forms of expression via virtual communities and Network ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c2/F_icon.svg" alt="Facebook" ></span></div>.com and <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Twitter.html" "title="Twitter">Twitter</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Twitter is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging A blog (a truncation In mathematics and computer science, truncation is limiting the number of numerical di ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3/Twitter_icon.png" alt="Twitter" ></span></div>.com are most often mentioned without adding "www." (or, indeed, ".com") to the domain. <h2><br><p> Scheme specifiers </h2></p> The scheme specifiers ''<code><nowiki>http://</nowiki></code>'' and ''<code><nowiki>https://</nowiki></code>'' at the start of a web <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Uniform_Resource_Identifier.html" "title="Uniform Resource Identifier">URI</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a unique sequence of characters that identifies a logical or physical resource used by web technologies. URIs may be used to identify anything, including real-world objects, such as people and places, concep ...<br></span></div> refer to <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Hypertext_Transfer_Protocol.html" "title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol">Hypertext Transfer Protocol</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application layer An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and Interface (computing), interface methods used by Host (network), hosts in a c ...<br></span></div> or <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/HTTP_Secure.html" "title="HTTP Secure">HTTP Secure</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application layer An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared commun ...<br></span></div>, respectively. They specify the communication protocol to use for the request and response. The HTTP protocol is fundamental to the operation of the World Wide Web, and the added encryption layer in HTTPS is essential when browsers send or retrieve confidential data, such as passwords or banking information. Web browsers usually automatically prepend <nowiki>http://</nowiki> to user-entered URIs, if omitted. <h2><br><p> Pages</h2></p> <img title="Commons"; style="text-decoration: none; height:150px;float: left; padding: 0px 3px 0px 0px;"src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b0/Commons.png" > A ''web page'' (also written as ''webpage'') is a document that is suitable for the World Wide Web and <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/web_browser.html" "title="web browser">web browser</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is application software Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typical ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3/Web_browser.png" alt="web browser" ></span></div>s. A web browser displays a web page on a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/computer_display.html" "title="computer display">monitor</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Monitor or monitor may refer to: Places * Monitor, Alberta * Monitor, Indiana, town in the United States * Monitor, Kentucky * Monitor, Oregon, unincorporated community in the United States * Monitor, Washington * Monitor, Logan County, West Virg ...<br></span></div> or <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/mobile_device.html" "title="mobile device">mobile device</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known a ...<br></span></div>. The term ''web page'' usually refers to what is visible, but may also refer to the contents of the <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/computer_file.html" "title="computer file">computer file</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A computer file is a computer resource for recording data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative property, qualitative or quant ...<br></span></div> itself, which is usually a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/text_file.html" "title="text file">text file</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A text file (sometimes spelled textfile; an old alternative name is flatfile) is a kind of computer file A computer file is a computer resource for recording data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, oft ...<br></span></div> containing <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/hypertext.html" "title="hypertext">hypertext</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically activated by a click, keypress set, or screen ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/62/Hypertext.png" alt="hypertext" ></span></div> written in <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/HTML.html" "title="HTML">HTML</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The HyperText Markup Language, or HTML is the standard markup language #REDIRECT Markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntacticall ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/84/HTML.svg" alt="HTML" ></span></div> or a comparable <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/markup_language.html" "title="markup language">markup language</a><span class="linkinfotext"> #REDIRECT Markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntactically distinguishable from the text, meaning when the document is processed for di ...<br></span></div>. Typical web pages provide <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/hypertext.html" "title="hypertext">hypertext</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically activated by a click, keypress set, or screen ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/62/Hypertext.png" alt="hypertext" ></span></div> for browsing to other web pages via <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/hyperlink.html" "title="hyperlink">hyperlink</a><span class="linkinfotext"> In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and soft ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/46/At_%28%40%29_sign.png" alt="hyperlink" ></span></div>s, often referred to as ''links''. Web browsers will frequently have to access multiple <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/web_resource.html" ;"title="web resource">web resource</a> elements, such as reading <div class="linkinfo_pict"><a class = "pict_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Cascading_Style_Sheets.html" "title="Cascading Style Sheets">style sheets</a><span class="linkinfotext"><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Cascading_Style_Sheets.jpg" alt="style sheets" ></span></div>, <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/client-side_scripting.html" "title="client-side scripting">scripts</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developi ...<br></span></div>, and images, while presenting each web page. On a network, a web browser can retrieve a web page from a remote <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_server.html" "title="web server">web server</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web server is computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, pr ...<br></span></div>. The web server may restrict access to a private network such as a corporate intranet. The web browser uses the <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Hypertext_Transfer_Protocol.html" "title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol">Hypertext Transfer Protocol</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application layer An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and Interface (computing), interface methods used by Host (network), hosts in a c ...<br></span></div> (HTTP) to make such requests to the <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_server.html" "title="web server">web server</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web server is computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, pr ...<br></span></div>. A <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/static_web_page.html" ;"title="static web page">''static'' web page</a> is delivered exactly as stored, as <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_content.html" "title="web content">web content</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Web content is the textual, visual The visual system comprises the sensory organ (the eye) and parts of the central nervous system (the retina containing photoreceptor cells, the optic nerve The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerv ...<br></span></div> in the web server's <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/file_system.html" "title="file system">file system</a><span class="linkinfotext"> In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and softwa ...<br></span></div>. In contrast, a <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/dynamic_web_page.html" ;"title="dynamic web page">''dynamic'' web page</a> is generated by a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_application.html" "title="web application">web application</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web application (or web app) is application software that runs on a web server, unlike computer-based software programs that are run locally on the operating system (OS) of the device. Web applications are accessed by the user through a web brow ...<br></span></div>, usually driven by <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/server-side_scripting.html" ;"title="server-side scripting">server-side software</a>. Dynamic web pages are used when each user may require completely different information, for example, bank websites, web email etc. <h3><br><p> Static page </h3></p> A ''static web page'' (sometimes called a ''flat page/stationary page'') is a <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/web_page.html" "title="web page">web page</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically acti ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Web_page.jpg" alt="web page" ></span></div> that is delivered to the user exactly as stored, in contrast to <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/dynamic_web_page.html" "title="dynamic web page">dynamic web page</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A server-side dynamic web page is a web page whose construction is controlled by an application server processing server-side scripts. In server-side scripting, Parameter (computer programming), parameters determine how the assembly of every new ...<br></span></div>s which are generated by a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_application.html" "title="web application">web application</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web application (or web app) is application software that runs on a web server, unlike computer-based software programs that are run locally on the operating system (OS) of the device. Web applications are accessed by the user through a web brow ...<br></span></div>. Consequently, a static web page displays the same information for all users, from all contexts, subject to modern capabilities of a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_server.html" "title="web server">web server</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web server is computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, pr ...<br></span></div> to <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/content_negotiation.html" ;"title="content negotiation">negotiate</a> <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/MIME_type.html" "title="MIME type">content-type</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A media type (formerly known as MIME type) is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer ...<br></span></div> or language of the document where such versions are available and the server is configured to do so. <h3><br><p> Dynamic pages </h3></p> <img title="Scheme dynamic page en"; style="text-decoration: none; height:150px;float: left; padding: 0px 3px 0px 0px;"src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4f/Scheme_dynamic_page_en.svg" > A ''server-side dynamic web page'' is a <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/web_page.html" "title="web page">web page</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically acti ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Web_page.jpg" alt="web page" ></span></div> whose construction is controlled by an <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/application_server.html" "title="application server">application server</a><span class="linkinfotext"> An application server is a server that hosts applications. Application server frameworks are software framework In computer programming, a software framework is an abstraction (computer science), abstraction in which software providing generic fu ...<br></span></div> processing server-side scripts. In server-side scripting, <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Parameter_(computer_programming).html" "title="Parameter (computer programming)">parameters</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A parameter (from the Ancient Greek language, Ancient Greek wikt:παρά#Ancient Greek, παρά, ''para'': "beside", "subsidiary"; and wikt:μέτρον#Ancient Greek, μέτρον, ''metron'': "measure"), generally, is any characteristic that ...<br></span></div> determine how the assembly of every new web page proceeds, including the setting up of more client-side processing. A ''client-side dynamic web page'' processes the web page using JavaScript running in the browser. JavaScript programs can interact with the document via <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Document_Object_Model.html" "title="Document Object Model">Document Object Model</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The Document Object Model (DOM) is a cross-platform In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and dev ...<br></span></div>, or DOM, to query page state and alter it. The same client-side techniques can then dynamically update or change the DOM in the same way. A dynamic web page is then reloaded by the user or by a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/computer_program.html" "title="computer program">computer program</a><span class="linkinfotext"> In imperative programming, a computer program is a sequence of instructions in a programming language that a computer can execute or interpret. In declarative programming, a ''computer program'' is a Set (mathematics), set of instructions. A comp ...<br></span></div> to change some variable content. The updating information could come from the server, or from changes made to that page's DOM. This may or may not truncate the browsing history or create a saved version to go back to, but a ''dynamic web page update'' using <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Ajax_(programming).html" "title="Ajax (programming)">Ajax</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Ajax (also AJAX ; short for "Asynchronous and ") is a set of techniques using many web technologies on the to create s. With Ajax, web applications can send and retrieve data from a asynchronously (in the background) without interfering wi ...<br></span></div> technologies will neither create a page to go back to nor truncate the <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_browsing_history.html" "title="web browsing history">web browsing history</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Web browsing history refers to the list of web pages a user has visited, as well as associated data such as page title and time of visit. It is usually stored locally by web browsers in order to provide the user with a history list to go back to pr ...<br></span></div> forward of the displayed page. Using Ajax technologies the end <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/User_(computing).html" ;"title="User (computing)">user</a> gets ''one dynamic page'' managed as a single page in the <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/web_browser.html" "title="web browser">web browser</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is application software Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typical ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3/Web_browser.png" alt="web browser" ></span></div> while the actual <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_content.html" "title="web content">web content</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Web content is the textual, visual The visual system comprises the sensory organ (the eye) and parts of the central nervous system (the retina containing photoreceptor cells, the optic nerve The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerv ...<br></span></div> rendered on that page can vary. The Ajax engine sits only on the browser requesting parts of its DOM, ''the'' DOM, for its client, from an application server. Dynamic HTML, or DHTML, is the umbrella term for technologies and methods used to create web pages that are not <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/static_web_page.html" "title="static web page">static web page</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A static web page (sometimes called a flat page or a stationary page) is a web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext File:Douglas Engelbart in 2008.jpg, Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother ...<br></span></div>s, though it has fallen out of common use since the popularization of <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Ajax_(programming).html" "title="Ajax (programming)">AJAX</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Ajax (also AJAX ; short for "Asynchronous and ") is a set of techniques using many web technologies on the to create s. With Ajax, web applications can send and retrieve data from a asynchronously (in the background) without interfering wi ...<br></span></div>, a term which is now itself rarely used. Client-side-scripting, server-side scripting, or a combination of these make for the dynamic web experience in a browser. <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/JavaScript.html" "title="JavaScript">JavaScript</a><span class="linkinfotext"> JavaScript (), often abbreviated JS, is a programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set architecture, set of instructions that produce various kinds of Input/output, output. Programming lang ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/Unofficial_JavaScript_logo_2.svg" alt="JavaScript" ></span></div> is a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/scripting_programming_language.html" "title="scripting programming language">scripting language</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A scripting language or script language is a programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set architecture, set of instructions that produce various kinds of Input/output, output. Programming language ...<br></span></div> that was initially developed in 1995 by <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Brendan_Eich.html" "title="Brendan Eich">Brendan Eich</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Brendan Eich (; born July 4, 1961) is an American technologist and creator of the JavaScript JavaScript (), often abbreviated JS, is a programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set archit ...<br></span></div>, then of <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Netscape.html" "title="Netscape">Netscape</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Netscape Communications Corporation (originally Mosaic Communications Corporation) was an American independent computer services company with headquarters in Mountain View, California Mountain View is a city in Santa Clara County, California ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ae/Netscape.png" alt="Netscape" ></span></div>, for use within web pages.<ref name=Hamilton></ref> The standardised version is <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/ECMAScript.html" "title="ECMAScript">ECMAScript</a><span class="linkinfotext"> ECMAScript () (or ES) is a JavaScript JavaScript (), often abbreviated JS, is a programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set architecture, set of instructions that produce various kinds o ...<br></span></div>.<ref name=Hamilton /> To make web pages more interactive, some web applications also use JavaScript techniques such as <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Ajax_(programming).html" "title="Ajax (programming)">Ajax</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Ajax (also AJAX ; short for "Asynchronous and ") is a set of techniques using many web technologies on the to create s. With Ajax, web applications can send and retrieve data from a asynchronously (in the background) without interfering wi ...<br></span></div> (<div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Asynchronous_I/O.html" "title="Asynchronous I/O">asynchronous</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Asynchrony is the state of not being in synchronization. Asynchrony or asynchronous may refer to: Electronics and computing * Asynchrony (computer programming), the occurrence of events independent of the main program flow, and ways to deal with ...<br></span></div> JavaScript and <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/XML.html" "title="XML">XML</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language #REDIRECT Markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntactically distinguishable fro ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/Infografia_XML.jpg" alt="XML" ></span></div>). <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Client-side_scripting.html" ;"title="Client-side scripting">Client-side script</a> is delivered with the page that can make additional HTTP requests to the server, either in response to user actions such as mouse movements or clicks, or based on elapsed time. The server's responses are used to modify the current page rather than creating a new page with each response, so the server needs only to provide limited, incremental information. Multiple Ajax requests can be handled at the same time, and users can interact with the page while data is retrieved. Web pages may also regularly <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/polling_(computer_science).html" "title="polling (computer science)">poll</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Poll, polled, or polling may refer to: Figurative head counts * Poll, a formal election ** Election verification exit poll, a survey taken to verify election counts ** Exit poll, a survey of voters taken immediately after they have exited the p ...<br></span></div> the server to check whether new information is available. <h2><br><p> Website</h2></p> <img title="United States Antarctic Program website from 2018 02 22"; style="text-decoration: none; height:150px;float: left; padding: 0px 3px 0px 0px;"src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/United_States_Antarctic_Program_website_from_2018_02_22.png" > A ''website'' is a collection of related web resources including <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/web_page.html" "title="web page">web page</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically acti ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Web_page.jpg" alt="web page" ></span></div>s, <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/multimedia.html" "title="multimedia">multimedia</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different such as , , , , or into a single interactive presentation, in contrast to traditional mass media which featured little to no interaction fr ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/34/Multimedia.jpg" alt="multimedia" ></span></div> content, typically identified with a common <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/domain_name.html" "title="domain name">domain name</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A domain name is an identification string String or strings may refer to: *String (structure), a long flexible structure made from threads twisted together, which is used to tie, bind, or hang other objects Arts, entertainment, and media Films ...<br></span></div>, and published on at least one <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_server.html" "title="web server">web server</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web server is computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, pr ...<br></span></div>. Notable examples are <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/wikipedia.html" "title="wikipedia">wikipedia</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Wikipedia ( or ) is a free content, multilingual online encyclopedia An online encyclopedia, also called an Internet encyclopedia, or a digital encyclopedia, is an encyclopedia An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia (British English) ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/12/Wikipedia.png" alt="wikipedia" ></span></div>.org, <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/google.html" "title="google">google</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8c/Google.jpg" alt="google" ></span></div>.com, and <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Amazon_(company).html" "title="Amazon (company)">amazon.com</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Amazon.com, Inc. ( ) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational ...<br></span></div>. A website may be accessible via a public <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Internet_Protocol.html" "title="Internet Protocol">Internet Protocol</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The Internet Protocol (IP) is the network layer communications protocol A communication protocol is a system of rules that allows two or more entities of a communications system 400px, Communication system A communications system or com ...<br></span></div> (IP) network, such as the <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Internet.html" "title="Internet">Internet</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/Internet.jpg" alt="Internet" ></span></div>, or a private <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/local_area_network.html" "title="local area network">local area network</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A local area network (LAN) is a that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building. By contrast, a (WAN) not only covers a larger geographic distance, but also ge ...<br></span></div> (LAN), by referencing a <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/URL.html" "title="URL">uniform resource locator</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication prot ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/76/URL.png" alt="uniform resource locator" ></span></div> (URL) that identifies the site. Websites can have many functions and can be used in various fashions; a website can be a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/personal_website.html" "title="personal website">personal website</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Personal web pages are world wide web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is ...<br></span></div>, a corporate website for a company, a government website, an organization website, etc. Websites are typically dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/social_networking.html" "title="social networking">social networking</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A social networking service (also social networking site or social media) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relationships with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, back ...<br></span></div> to providing news and education. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites, such as a company's website for its employees, are typically a part of an <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/intranet.html" "title="intranet">intranet</a><span class="linkinfotext"> An intranet is a computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication protocols over digital signal, digital interconnections for the purpose of sharing resources located on or provided by the No ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Intranet.png" alt="intranet" ></span></div>. Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/document.html" "title="document">document</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A document is a written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entities or Organization, groups t ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2a/Document.jpg" alt="document" ></span></div>s, typically composed in <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/plain_text.html" "title="plain text">plain text</a><span class="linkinfotext"> In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and softw ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Plain_text.png" alt="plain text" ></span></div> interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language (<div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/HTML.html" "title="HTML">HTML</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The HyperText Markup Language, or HTML is the standard markup language #REDIRECT Markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntacticall ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/84/HTML.svg" alt="HTML" ></span></div>, <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/XHTML.html" "title="XHTML">XHTML</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML) is part of the family of XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding document A document is a writing, written, drawing, drawn, presented, o ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/XHTML.svg" alt="XHTML" ></span></div>). They may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/HTML_anchor.html" ;"title="HTML anchor">markup anchors</a>. Web pages are accessed and transported with the <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Hypertext_Transfer_Protocol.html" "title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol">Hypertext Transfer Protocol</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application layer An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and Interface (computing), interface methods used by Host (network), hosts in a c ...<br></span></div> (HTTP), which may optionally employ encryption (<div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/HTTP_Secure.html" "title="HTTP Secure">HTTP Secure</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application layer An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared commun ...<br></span></div>, HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the user. The user's application, often a <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/web_browser.html" "title="web browser">web browser</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is application software Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typical ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3/Web_browser.png" alt="web browser" ></span></div>, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Computer_monitor.html" "title="Computer monitor">display terminal</a><span class="linkinfotext"> s, LED display and Vacuum fluorescent display, VF display, top to bottom. A display device is an output device for presentation of information in visual or Touch, tactile form (the latter used for example in Refreshable Braille display, tactile ele ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a4/Computer_monitor.jpg" alt="display terminal" ></span></div>. <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Hyperlink.html" "title="Hyperlink">Hyperlink</a><span class="linkinfotext"> In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and soft ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/46/At_%28%40%29_sign.png" alt="Hyperlink" ></span></div>ing between web pages conveys to the reader the <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/site_map.html" ;"title="site map">site structure</a> and guides the navigation of the site, which often starts with a <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/home_page.html" "title="home page">home page</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A home page (or homepage) is the main web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext File:Douglas Engelbart in 2008.jpg, Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother of All Demos" in San Francisco, a ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d5/Home_page.jpg" alt="home page" ></span></div> containing a directory of the site <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_content.html" "title="web content">web content</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Web content is the textual, visual The visual system comprises the sensory organ (the eye) and parts of the central nervous system (the retina containing photoreceptor cells, the optic nerve The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerv ...<br></span></div>. Some websites require user registration or <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/subscription.html" "title="subscription">subscription</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The subscription business model is a business model in which a customer In sales Sales are activities related to selling or the number of goods sold in a given targeted time period. The delivery of a service for a cost is also conside ...<br></span></div> to access content. Examples of <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/paywall.html" ;"title="paywall">subscription websites</a> include many business sites, news websites, <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/academic_journal.html" "title="academic journal">academic journal</a><span class="linkinfotext"> An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The most ...<br></span></div> websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Internet_forum.html" "title="Internet forum">message boards</a><span class="linkinfotext"> An Internet forum, or message board, is an online In computer technology and telecommunications, online indicates a state of connectivity, and offline indicates a disconnected state. In modern terminology this usually refers to an Internet ...<br></span></div>, web-based <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/email.html" "title="email">email</a><span class="linkinfotext"> upThe email_address.html"_;"title="at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address">at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address Electronic_mail_(email_or_e-mail)_is_a_method_of_exchanging_messages_("mail")_between_people_using_electronic_dev ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5c/Email.png" alt="email" ></span></div>, <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/social_networking.html" "title="social networking">social networking</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A social networking service (also social networking site or social media) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relationships with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, back ...<br></span></div> websites, websites providing real-time <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/stock_market.html" "title="stock market">stock market</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A stock market, equity market, or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include ''securities'' listed on a public stock exchange, as w ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/Stock_market.jpg" alt="stock market" ></span></div> data, as well as sites providing various other services. <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/End_user.html" "title="End user">End user</a><span class="linkinfotext"> In product development, an end user (sometimes end-user) is a person who ultimately uses or is intended to ultimately use a product. The end user stands in contrast to users who support or maintain the product, such as sysop A sysop (; an abbrev ...<br></span></div>s can access websites on a range of devices, including <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/desktop_computer.html" ;"title="desktop computer">desktop</a> and <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/laptop.html" "title="laptop">laptop computers</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A laptop or laptop computer is a small, portable personal computer File:Crystal Project computer.png, upright=0.9, An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes a metal case with the computing compone ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0a/Laptop.jpg" alt="laptop computers" ></span></div>, <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/tablet_computer.html" "title="tablet computer">tablet computer</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations auto ...<br></span></div>s, <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/smartphone.html" "title="smartphone">smartphone</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A smartphone is a Mobile device, portable device that combines Mobile phone, mobile telephone and Mobile computing, computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and exten ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Galaxy_note.jpg" alt="smartphone" ></span></div>s and <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/smart_TV.html" "title="smart TV">smart TV</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A smart TV, also known as a connected TV (CTV), is a traditional television set A Sony Wega CRT television set A television set or television receiver, more commonly called a television, TV, TV set, telly, or tele, is a device that combines a ...<br></span></div>s. <h2><br><p> Browser</h2></p> A ''web browser'' (commonly referred to as a ''browser'') is a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/software_application.html" "title="software application">software</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, hardware, from which the system is built and actually performs the work. At the low level lang ...<br></span></div> <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/user_agent.html" "title="user agent">user agent</a><span class="linkinfotext"> In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and softwar ...<br></span></div> for accessing information on the World Wide Web. To connect to a website's <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/web_server.html" ;"title="web server">server</a> and display its pages, a user needs to have a web browser program. This is the program that the user runs to download, format, and display a web page on the user's computer. In addition to allowing users to find, display, and move between web pages, a web browser will usually have features like keeping bookmarks, recording history, managing cookies (see below), and home pages and may have facilities for recording passwords for logging into web sites. The most popular browsers are <div class="linkinfo_pict"><a class = "pict_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Google_Chrome.html" "title="Google Chrome">Chrome</a><span class="linkinfotext"><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Google_Chrome_icon_%282011%29.png" alt="Chrome" ></span></div>, <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Firefox.html" "title="Firefox">Firefox</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Mozilla Firefox or simply Firefox is a free and open-source Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/da/Firefox.jpg" alt="Firefox" ></span></div>, <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Safari_(web_browser).html" "title="Safari (web browser)">Safari</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A safari (; ) is an overland journey to or (in more recent times) observe , especially in or . The so-called animals of Africa – , , , , and – particularly form an important part of the safari market, both for and . Etymology The ...<br></span></div>, <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Internet_Explorer.html" "title="Internet Explorer">Internet Explorer</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer and Windows Internet Explorer, (from August 16, 1995 to March 30, 2021) commonly abbreviated IE or MSIE) is a discontinued series of s developed by and included in the line of s, starti ...<br></span></div>, and <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Microsoft_Edge.html" "title="Microsoft Edge">Edge</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Edge or EDGE may refer to: Technology Computing * Edge computing Edge computing is a distributed computing paradigm that brings computation and data storage closer to the sources of data. This is expected to improve response times and save bandw ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5f/Microsoft_Edge.png" alt="Edge" ></span></div>. <h2><br><p> Server</h2></p> <img title="Inside and Rear of Webserver"; style="text-decoration: none; height:150px;float: left; padding: 0px 3px 0px 0px;"src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/38/Inside_and_Rear_of_Webserver.jpg" > A ''Web server'' is <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/server_software.html" "title="server software">server software</a><span class="linkinfotext"> In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and softw ...<br></span></div>, or hardware dedicated to running said software, that can satisfy World Wide Web client requests. A web server can, in general, contain one or more websites. A web server processes incoming network requests over <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Hypertext_Transfer_Protocol.html" "title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol">HTTP</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application layer An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and Interface (computing), interface methods used by Host (network), hosts in a c ...<br></span></div> and several other related protocols. The primary function of a web server is to store, process and deliver <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/web_page.html" "title="web page">web page</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically acti ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Web_page.jpg" alt="web page" ></span></div>s to <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Client_(computing).html" ;"title="Client (computing)">clients</a>. The communication between client and server takes place using the <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Hypertext_Transfer_Protocol.html" ;"title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol">Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)</a>. Pages delivered are most frequently <div class="linkinfo_pict"><a class = "pict_only" href="/html/ALL/s/HTML.html" "title="HTML">HTML documents</a><span class="linkinfotext"><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/84/HTML.svg" alt="HTML documents" ></span></div>, which may include <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/image.html" "title="image">image</a><span class="linkinfotext"> An image (from la, imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC__ * Natural environment, all living and non- ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/Image.jpg" alt="image" ></span></div>s, <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Style_sheet_(web_development).html" ;"title="Style sheet (web development)">style sheets</a> and <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/JavaScript.html" "title="JavaScript">scripts</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developi ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/Unofficial_JavaScript_logo_2.svg" alt="scripts" ></span></div> in addition to the text content. <img title="Wikimedia Foundation Servers-8055 35"; style="text-decoration: none; height:150px;float: left; padding: 0px 3px 0px 0px;"src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/Wikimedia_Foundation_Servers-8055_35.jpg" > A <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/user_agent.html" "title="user agent">user agent</a><span class="linkinfotext"> In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and softwar ...<br></span></div>, commonly a <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/web_browser.html" "title="web browser">web browser</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is application software Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typical ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3/Web_browser.png" alt="web browser" ></span></div> or <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_crawler.html" "title="web crawler">web crawler</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A Web crawler, sometimes called a spider or spiderbot and often shortened to crawler, is an Internet bot An Internet bot, web Web most often refers to: * Spider web A spider web, spiderweb, spider's web, or cobweb (from the archaic word ...<br></span></div>, initiates communication by making a <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Hypertext_Transfer_Protocol#Request_message.html" ;"title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol#Request message">request</a> for a specific resource using HTTP and the server responds with the content of that resource or an <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/List_of_HTTP_status_codes#4xx_client_errors.html" "title="List of HTTP status codes#4xx client errors">error message</a><span class="linkinfotext"> An error message is information displayed when an unforeseen problem occurs, usually on a Computer science, computer or other device. On modern operating systems with graphical user interfaces, error messages are often displayed using dialog boxes ...<br></span></div> if unable to do so. The resource is typically a real file on the server's <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/secondary_memory.html" "title="secondary memory">secondary storage</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A spindle of DVD-RW's. Computer data storage is a technology consisting of computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perfor ...<br></span></div>, but this is not necessarily the case and depends on how the webserver is <div class="linkinfo_pict"><a class = "pict_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Implementation.html" "title="Implementation">implemented</a><span class="linkinfotext"><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ee/Implementation.jpg" alt="implemented" ></span></div>. While the primary function is to serve content, full implementation of HTTP also includes ways of receiving content from clients. This feature is used for submitting <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Form_(web).html" ;"title="Form (web)">web forms</a>, including <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/upload.html" "title="upload">upload</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Uploading refers to ''transmitting'' data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the nature ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5b/Name.jpg" alt="upload" ></span></div>ing of files. Many generic web servers also support <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/server-side_scripting.html" "title="server-side scripting">server-side scripting</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Server-side scripting is a technique used in web development which involves employing scripts on a web server which produce a response customised for each user's (client's) request to the website. The alternative is for the web server itself to ...<br></span></div> using <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Active_Server_Pages.html" "title="Active Server Pages">Active Server Pages</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Active Server Pages (ASP) is Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports, and sells Soft ...<br></span></div> (ASP), <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/PHP.html" "title="PHP">PHP</a><span class="linkinfotext"> PHP is a general-purpose scripting language geared towards web development Web development is the work involved in developing a Web site, website for the Internet (World Wide Web) or an intranet (a private network). Web development can range ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/74/PHP.png" alt="PHP" ></span></div> (Hypertext Preprocessor), or other <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/scripting_language.html" "title="scripting language">scripting language</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A scripting language or script language is a programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set architecture, set of instructions that produce various kinds of Input/output, output. Programming language ...<br></span></div>s. This means that the behavior of the webserver can be scripted in separate files, while the actual server software remains unchanged. Usually, this function is used to generate HTML documents <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Dynamic_web_page.html" ;"title="Dynamic web page">dynamically</a> ("on-the-fly") as opposed to returning <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Static_web_page.html" ;"title="Static web page">static documents</a>. The former is primarily used for retrieving or modifying information from <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/database.html" "title="database">database</a><span class="linkinfotext"> In computing, a database is an organized collection of Data (computing), data stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal #Design and modeling, design and mode ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9d/Database.jpg" alt="database" ></span></div>s. The latter is typically much faster and more easily <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/web_cache.html" ;"title="web cache">cached</a> but cannot deliver <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/dynamic_content.html" ;"title="dynamic content">dynamic content</a>. Web servers can also frequently be found <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/embedded_system.html" ;"title="embedded system">embedded</a> in devices such as <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/printer_(computing).html" "title="printer (computing)">printers</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Printers may be: Technology * Printer (publishing) In publishing, printers are both companies A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity In law, a legal person is any person A person (plural people or persons) is a being th ...<br></span></div>, <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Router_(computing).html" ;"title="Router (computing)">routers</a>, <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/webcam.html" "title="webcam">webcam</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A webcam is a video camera that feeds or streams an image or video in real time to or through a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern com ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c4/Webcam.jpg" alt="webcam" ></span></div>s and serving only a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Local_area_network.html" "title="Local area network">local network</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Local may refer to: Geography and transportation * Local (train) pulling passenger cars in Nevada, United States File:World railway network.png, Map of world railway network A train is a form of rail transport consisting of a series of ...<br></span></div>. The web server may then be used as a part of a system for monitoring or administering the device in question. This usually means that no additional software has to be installed on the client computer since only a web browser is required (which now is included with most <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/operating_system.html" "title="operating system">operating system</a><span class="linkinfotext"> An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating systems (OS) like macOS, Linux, Android (operating system), Android and Mi ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/41/Operating_system.gif" alt="operating system" ></span></div>s). <h2><br><p> Cookie</h2></p> An ''HTTP cookie'' (also called ''web cookie'', ''Internet cookie'', ''browser cookie'', or simply ''cookie'') is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored on the user's computer by the user's <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/web_browser.html" "title="web browser">web browser</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is application software Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typical ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3/Web_browser.png" alt="web browser" ></span></div> while the user is browsing. Cookies were designed to be a reliable mechanism for websites to remember <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/program_state.html" "title="program state">stateful</a><span class="linkinfotext"> In information technology and computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer sc ...<br></span></div> information (such as items added in the shopping cart in an online store) or to record the user's browsing activity (including clicking particular buttons, <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/access_control.html" "title="access control">logging in</a><span class="linkinfotext"> In computer security, logging in (or logging on, signing in, or signing on) is the process by which an individual gains Access control, access to a computer system by Proof of identity, identifying and Authentication, authenticating themselv ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8b/Physical_security_access_control_with_a_fingerprint_scanner.jpg" alt="logging in" ></span></div>, or recording which pages were visited in the past). They can also be used to remember arbitrary pieces of information that the user previously entered into form fields such as names, addresses, passwords, and credit card numbers. Cookies perform essential functions in the modern web. Perhaps most importantly, ''authentication cookies'' are the most common method used by web servers to know whether the user is logged in or not, and which account they are logged in with. Without such a mechanism, the site would not know whether to send a page containing sensitive information or require the user to authenticate themselves by logging in. The security of an authentication cookie generally depends on the security of the issuing website and the user's <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/comparison_of_web_browsers#Vulnerabilities.html" "title="comparison of web browsers#Vulnerabilities">web browser</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is application software Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typical ...<br></span></div>, and on whether the cookie data is encrypted. Security vulnerabilities may allow a cookie's data to be read by a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/hacker_(computer_security).html" "title="hacker (computer security)">hacker</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A hacker is a person skilled in information technology who uses their technical knowledge to achieve a goal or overcome an obstacle, within a computerized system by non-standard means. Though the term ''hacker'' has become associated in popul ...<br></span></div>, used to gain access to user data, or used to gain access (with the user's credentials) to the website to which the cookie belongs (see <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/cross-site_scripting.html" "title="cross-site scripting">cross-site scripting</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of security vulnerability Vulnerability refers to the inability (of a system or a unit) to withstand the effects of a hostile environment. A window of vulnerability (WOV) is a time frame within which defensi ...<br></span></div> and <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/cross-site_request_forgery.html" "title="cross-site request forgery">cross-site request forgery</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Cross-site request forgery, also known as one-click attack or session riding and abbreviated as CSRF (sometimes pronounced ''sea-surf'') or XSRF, is a type of malicious exploit of a website A website (also written as web site) is a collection ...<br></span></div> for examples). Tracking cookies, and especially <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/#Cookie.html" ;"title="#Cookie">third-party tracking cookies</a>, are commonly used as ways to compile long-term records of individuals' browsing histories a potential <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Internet_privacy#HTTP_cookies.html" ;"title="Internet privacy#HTTP cookies">privacy concern</a> that prompted European and U.S. lawmakers to take action in 2011.<ref name="eulaw"></ref> European law requires that all websites targeting <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/European_Union.html" "title="European Union">European Union</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/European_Union.png" alt="European Union" ></span></div> member states gain "informed consent" from users before storing non-essential cookies on their device. Google <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Project_Zero_(Google).html" ;"title="Project Zero (Google)">Project Zero</a> researcher Jann Horn describes ways cookies can be read by <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Man-in-the-middle_attack.html" "title="Man-in-the-middle attack">intermediaries</a><span class="linkinfotext"> An intermediary (or go-between) is a third party that offers intermediation services between two parties, which involves conveying messages between principals in a dispute, preventing direct contact and potential escalation of the issue. In la ...<br></span></div>, like <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Wi-Fi.html" "title="Wi-Fi">Wi-Fi</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Wi-Fi () is a family of wireless network A wireless network is a computer network that uses wireless data connections between network nodes. Wireless networking is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks and business installatio ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0c/Wi-Fi.jpg" alt="Wi-Fi" ></span></div> hotspot providers. He recommends using the browser in <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/incognito_mode.html" "title="incognito mode">incognito mode</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Google Chrome is a cross-platform In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both ...<br></span></div> in such circumstances. <h2><br><p> Search engine</h2></p> <img title="Mayflower Wikimedia Commons image search engine screenshot"; style="text-decoration: none; height:150px;float: left; padding: 0px 3px 0px 0px;"src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/ba/Mayflower_Wikimedia_Commons_image_search_engine_screenshot.png" > A ''web search engine'' or ''Internet search engine'' is a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/software_system.html" "title="software system">software system</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A software system is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as ...<br></span></div> that is designed to carry out ''web search'' (''Internet search''), which means to search the World Wide Web in a systematic way for particular information specified in a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_search_query.html" "title="web search query">web search query</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web search query is a query based on a specific search term that a user enters into a web search engine A search engine is a software system that is designed to carry out web searches (Internet searches), which means to search the World Wide ...<br></span></div>. The search results are generally presented in a line of results, often referred to as <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/search_engine_results_page.html" "title="search engine results page">search engine results page</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Search Engine Results Pages (SERP) are the pages displayed by search engines in response to a query by a user. The main component of the SERP is the listing of results that are returned by the search engine A search engine is a software syste ...<br></span></div>s (SERPs). The information may be a mix of <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/web_page.html" "title="web page">web page</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically acti ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Web_page.jpg" alt="web page" ></span></div>s, images, videos, infographics, articles, research papers, and other types of files. Some search engines also <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/data_mining.html" ;"title="data mining">mine data</a> available in <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/database.html" "title="database">database</a><span class="linkinfotext"> In computing, a database is an organized collection of Data (computing), data stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal #Design and modeling, design and mode ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9d/Database.jpg" alt="database" ></span></div>s or <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/web_directory.html" ;"title="web directory">open directories</a>. Unlike <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_directories.html" "title="web directories">web directories</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A web directory or link directory is an online list or catalog of website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web serv ...<br></span></div>, which are maintained only by human editors, search engines also maintain <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/real-time_computing.html" ;"title="real-time computing">real-time</a> information by running an <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/algorithm.html" "title="algorithm">algorithm</a><span class="linkinfotext"> In and , an algorithm () is a finite sequence of , computer-implementable instructions, typically to solve a class of problems or to perform a computation. Algorithms are always and are used as specifications for performing s, , , and other ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ad/Algorithm.png" alt="algorithm" ></span></div> on a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_crawler.html" "title="web crawler">web crawler</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A Web crawler, sometimes called a spider or spiderbot and often shortened to crawler, is an Internet bot An Internet bot, web Web most often refers to: * Spider web A spider web, spiderweb, spider's web, or cobweb (from the archaic word ...<br></span></div>. Internet content that is not capable of being searched by a web search engine is generally described as the <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/deep_web.html" "title="deep web">deep web</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The deep web, invisible web, or hidden web are parts of the World Wide Web whose contents are not Search engine indexing, indexed by standard web search engine, web search-engines. The opposite term to the deep web is the "surface web", which is ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/27/Deep_web.jpg" alt="deep web" ></span></div>. <h2><br><p> Deep web</h2></p> The deep web,<ref name="nhamilton"></ref> ''invisible web'',<ref name="jal"></ref> or ''hidden web''<ref name="cthw"></ref> are parts of the World Wide Web whose contents are not <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Search_engine_indexing.html" "title="Search engine indexing">indexed</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Index may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Fictional entities * Index (A Certain Magical Index), Index (''A Certain Magical Index''), a character in the light novel series ''A Certain Magical Index'' * The Index, an item on a Halo (megastr ...<br></span></div> by standard <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_search_engine.html" "title="web search engine">web search engine</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A search engine is a software system A software system is a system of intercommunicating software component, components based on forming part of a computer system (a combination of Computer hardware, hardware and software). It "consists of a nu ...<br></span></div>s. The opposite term to the deep web is the <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/surface_web.html" "title="surface web">surface web</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The Surface Web (also called the Visible Web, Indexed Web, Indexable Web or Lightnet) is the portion of the World Wide Web that is readily available to the general public and searchable with standard web search engines. It is the opposite of the d ...<br></span></div>, which is accessible to anyone using the Internet. <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Computer_science.html" "title="Computer science">Computer scientist</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques ...<br></span></div> Michael K. Bergman is credited with coining the term ''deep web'' in 2001 as a search indexing term.<ref name="wright2009"/> The content of the deep web is hidden behind <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/HTTP.html" "title="HTTP">HTTP</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application layer An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and Interface (computing), interface methods used by Host (network), hosts in a c ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0c/HTTP.png" alt="HTTP" ></span></div> forms, and includes many very common uses such as <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_mail.html" "title="web mail">web mail</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Webmail (or web-based email) is an email service that can be accessed using a standard web browser. It contrasts with email service accessible through a specialised email client software. Examples of webmail providers are AOL Mail, Gmail ...<br></span></div>, <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/online_banking.html" "title="online banking">online banking</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Online banking, also known as internet banking, web banking or home banking, is an electronic payment system An e-commerce payment system (or an electronic payment system) facilitates the acceptance of electronic payment for e-commerce, online t ...<br></span></div>, and services that users must pay for, and which is protected by a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/paywall.html" "title="paywall">paywall</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A paywall is a method of restricting access to content (media), content, with a purchase or a subscription business model, paid subscription, especially news. Beginning in the mid-2010s, newspapers started implementing paywalls on their websites ...<br></span></div>, such as <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/video_on_demand.html" "title="video on demand">video on demand</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Video on demand (VOD) is a media distribution system that allows users to access videos without a traditional video playback device and the constraints of a typical static broadcasting schedule. In the 20th century, broadcasting in the form of ...<br></span></div>, some online magazines and newspapers, among others. The content of the deep web can be located and accessed by a direct <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/URL.html" "title="URL">URL</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication prot ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/76/URL.png" alt="URL" ></span></div> or <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/IP_address.html" "title="IP address">IP address</a><span class="linkinfotext"> An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label such as that is connected to a computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication protocols over digital signal, digital inte ...<br></span></div>, and may require a password or other security access past the public website page. <h2><br><p> Caching </h2></p> A <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_cache.html" "title="web cache">web cache</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A Web cache (or HTTP cache) is a system for optimizing the World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (ST ...<br></span></div> is a server computer located either on the public Internet or within an enterprise that stores recently accessed web pages to improve response time for users when the same content is requested within a certain time after the original request. Most web browsers also implement a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/browser_cache.html" "title="browser cache">browser cache</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A Web cache (or HTTP cache) is a system for optimizing the World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (S ...<br></span></div> by writing recently obtained data to a local data storage device. HTTP requests by a browser may ask only for data that has changed since the last access. Web pages and resources may contain expiration information to control caching to secure sensitive data, such as in <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/online_banking.html" "title="online banking">online banking</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Online banking, also known as internet banking, web banking or home banking, is an electronic payment system An e-commerce payment system (or an electronic payment system) facilitates the acceptance of electronic payment for e-commerce, online t ...<br></span></div>, or to facilitate frequently updated sites, such as news media. Even sites with highly dynamic content may permit basic resources to be refreshed only occasionally. Web site designers find it worthwhile to collate resources such as CSS data and JavaScript into a few site-wide files so that they can be cached efficiently. Enterprise <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Firewall_(networking).html" "title="Firewall (networking)">firewalls</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Firewall may refer to: * Firewall (computing), a technological barrier designed to prevent unauthorized or unwanted communications between computer networks or hosts * Firewall (construction), a barrier inside a building, designed to limit the sprea ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/38/Firewall_%28networking%29.png" alt="firewalls" ></span></div> often cache Web resources requested by one user for the benefit of many users. Some <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/search_engines.html" "title="search engines">search engines</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A search engine is a software system that is designed to carry out web searches (Internet searches), which means to search the World Wide Web upright=1.35, A global map of the web index for countries in 2014 The World Wide Web (WWW), ...<br></span></div> store cached content of frequently accessed websites. <h1><br><p> Security </h1></p> For <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/criminal.html" "title="criminal">criminal</a><span class="linkinfotext"> In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper) ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/62/Criminal.png" alt="criminal" ></span></div>s, the Web has become a venue to spread <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/malware.html" "title="malware">malware</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Malware (a portmanteau for malicious software) is any software intentionally designed to cause disruption to a computer, server (computing), server, Client (computing), client, or computer network, leak private information, gain unauthorized acc ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2e/Malware.png" alt="malware" ></span></div> and engage in a range of <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/cybercrime.html" "title="cybercrime">cybercrime</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Cybercrime is a crime that involves a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Com ...<br></span></div>s, including (but not limited to) <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/identity_theft.html" "title="identity theft">identity theft</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Identity theft occurs when someone uses another person's personal identifying information, like their name, identifying number, or , without their permission, to commit fraud or other crimes. The term ''identity theft'' was coined in 1964. Since ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/Identity_theft.svg" alt="identity theft" ></span></div>, <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/fraud.html" "title="fraud">fraud</a><span class="linkinfotext"> In , fraud is to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right. Fraud can violate (e.g., a fraud victim may sue the fraud perpetrator to avoid the fraud or recover monetary compensation) or (e.g., a fraud perpetrat ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/62/Fraud.jpg" alt="fraud" ></span></div>, <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/espionage.html" "title="espionage">espionage</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Espionage or spying is the act of obtaining secret Secrecy is the practice of hiding information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both it ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b6/Espionage.jpg" alt="espionage" ></span></div> and <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/intelligence_gathering.html" "title="intelligence gathering">intelligence gathering</a><span class="linkinfotext"> This is a list of intelligence gathering disciplines. HUMINT Human intelligence (HUMINT) are gathered from a person in the location in question. Sources can include the following: * Advisors or foreign internal defense Foreign internal ...<br></span></div>.<ref name=Ben-Itzhak /> Web-based <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/vulnerability_(computing).html" "title="vulnerability (computing)">vulnerabilities</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Vulnerability refers to the inability (of a system or a unit) to withstand the effects of a hostile environment. A window of vulnerability (WOV) is a time frame within which defensive measures are diminished, compromised or lacking. The understan ...<br></span></div> now outnumber traditional computer security concerns, and as measured by <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Google.html" "title="Google">Google</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8c/Google.jpg" alt="Google" ></span></div>, about one in ten web pages may contain malicious code. Most web-based <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/attack_(computing).html" ;"title="attack (computing)">attacks</a> take place on legitimate websites, and most, as measured by <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Sophos.html" "title="Sophos">Sophos</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Sophos Group plc is a British based security software Computer security software or cybersecurity software is any computer program A computer program is a collection of instructions that can be executed by a computer to perform a specif ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Sophos.png" alt="Sophos" ></span></div>, are hosted in the United States, China and Russia.<ref name=Sophos-Q1-2008></ref> The most common of all malware <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Threat_(computer).html" "title="Threat (computer)">threats</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A threat is a ''communicated'' intent to inflict harm or loss on another person. Intimidation is widely observed in animal behavior (particularly in a ritualized form) chiefly in order to avoid the unnecessary physical violence that can lead to ...<br></span></div> is <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/SQL_injection.html" "title="SQL injection">SQL injection</a><span class="linkinfotext"> SQL injection is a code injection technique used to attack data-driven applications, in which malicious SQL statements are inserted into an entry field for execution (e.g. to dump the database contents to the attacker). SQL injection must exp ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2a/SQL_injection.png" alt="SQL injection" ></span></div> attacks against websites. Through HTML and URIs, the Web was vulnerable to attacks like <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/cross-site_scripting.html" "title="cross-site scripting">cross-site scripting</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of security vulnerability Vulnerability refers to the inability (of a system or a unit) to withstand the effects of a hostile environment. A window of vulnerability (WOV) is a time frame within which defensi ...<br></span></div> (XSS) that came with the introduction of JavaScript<ref name=FGHR></ref> and were exacerbated to some degree by <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Web_2.0.html" "title="Web 2.0">Web 2.0</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Web 2.0 (also known as participative (or participatory) web and social web) refers to website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext File:Douglas Engelbart in 2008. ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f1/Web_2.0.png" alt="Web 2.0" ></span></div> and Ajax <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_design.html" "title="web design">web design</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Web design encompasses many different skills and disciplines in the production and maintenance of website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext File:Douglas Engelbar ...<br></span></div> that favours the use of scripts. Today by one estimate, 70% of all websites are open to XSS attacks on their users. <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Phishing.html" "title="Phishing">Phishing</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Phishing is a type of where an attacker sends a fraudulent (e.g., spoofed, fake, or otherwise deceptive) message designed to trick a human victim into revealing to the attacker or to deploy malicious software on the victim's infrastructure l ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Phishing.jpg" alt="Phishing" ></span></div> is another common threat to the Web. In February 2013, RSA (the security division of EMC) estimated the global losses from phishing at $1.5 billion in 2012.<ref name="First_Post"></ref> Two of the well-known phishing methods are Covert Redirect and Open Redirect. Proposed solutions vary. Large security companies like <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/McAfee.html" "title="McAfee">McAfee</a><span class="linkinfotext"> McAfee Corp. (; formerly known as McAfee Associates, Inc. from 1987 to 1997 and 2004 to 2014, Network Associates Inc. from 1997 to 2004, and Intel Security Group from 2014 to 2017) is an American global computer security software Computer sec ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/McAfee.jpg" alt="McAfee" ></span></div> already design governance and compliance suites to meet post-9/11 regulations, and some, like <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Finjan.html" ;"title="Finjan">Finjan</a> have recommended active real-time inspection of programming code and all content regardless of its source.<ref name="Ben-Itzhak"></ref> Some have argued that for enterprises to see Web security as a business opportunity rather than a <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/cost_centre_(business).html" ;"title="cost centre (business)">cost centre</a>, while others call for "ubiquitous, always-on <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/digital_rights_management.html" "title="digital rights management">digital rights management</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Digital rights management (DRM) tools or technological protection measures (TPM) are a set of access control In the fields of physical security and information security, access control (AC) is the selective restriction of access to a place o ...<br></span></div>" enforced in the infrastructure to replace the hundreds of companies that secure data and networks. <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Jonathan_Zittrain.html" "title="Jonathan Zittrain">Jonathan Zittrain</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Jonathan L. Zittrain (born 24 December 1969) is an American professor of Internet law and the George Bemis Professor of International Law at Harvard Law School. He is also a professor at the Harvard Kennedy School The Harvard Kennedy School ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cc/Jonathan_Zittrain.jpg" alt="Jonathan Zittrain" ></span></div> has said users sharing responsibility for computing safety is far preferable to locking down the Internet. <h1><br><p> Privacy </h1></p> Every time a client requests a web page, the server can identify the request's <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/IP_address.html" "title="IP address">IP address</a><span class="linkinfotext"> An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label such as that is connected to a computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication protocols over digital signal, digital inte ...<br></span></div>. Web servers usually log IP addresses in a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/log_file.html" "title="log file">log file</a><span class="linkinfotext"> In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and softw ...<br></span></div>. Also, unless set not to do so, most web browsers record requested web pages in a viewable ''history'' feature, and usually <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Web_cache.html" "title="Web cache">cache</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Cache, caching, or caché may refer to: Places * Cache (Aosta) Cache is a frazione of the city of Aosta, in the Aosta Valley region of Italy. Frazioni of Aosta Valley Aosta {{Aosta-geo-stub ..., a frazione in Italy * Cache Creek (disambig ...<br></span></div> much of the content locally. Unless the server-browser communication uses HTTPS encryption, web requests and responses travel in plain text across the Internet and can be viewed, recorded, and cached by intermediate systems. Another way to hide <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/personally_identifiable_information.html" "title="personally identifiable information">personally identifiable information</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Personal data, also known as personal information or personally identifiable information (PII), is any information related to an identifiable person. The abbreviation PII is widely accepted in the United States The United States of Amer ...<br></span></div> is by using a <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/virtual_private_network.html" "title="virtual private network">virtual private network</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network In IP network The Internet protocol suite is the Conceptual model (computer science), conceptual model and set of communications protocols used in the Internet and similar comput ...<br></span></div>. A VPN <div class="linkinfo_pict"><a class = "pict_only" href="/html/ALL/s/encryption.html" "title="encryption">encrypts</a><span class="linkinfotext"><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/27/Encryption.jpg" alt="encrypts" ></span></div> online traffic and masks the original IP address lowering the chance of user identification. When a web page asks for, and the user supplies, personally identifiable information—such as their real name, address, e-mail address, etc. web-based entities can associate current web traffic with that individual. If the website uses <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/HTTP_cookie.html" "title="HTTP cookie">HTTP cookie</a><span class="linkinfotext"> HTTP cookies (also called web cookies, Internet cookies, browser cookies, or simply cookies) are small blocks of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are ...<br></span></div>s, username, and password authentication, or other tracking techniques, it can relate other web visits, before and after, to the identifiable information provided. In this way, a web-based organization can develop and build a profile of the individual people who use its site or sites. It may be able to build a record for an individual that includes information about their leisure activities, their shopping interests, their profession, and other aspects of their <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/demographic_profile.html" "title="demographic profile">demographic profile</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Demographic profiling is a form of Demographic Analysis Demographic analysis includes the things that allow us to measure the dimensions and dynamics of populations. These methods have primarily been developed to study human populations, but a ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e8/Demographic_profile.png" alt="demographic profile" ></span></div>. These profiles are of potential interest to marketers, advertisers, and others. Depending on the website's <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/terms_and_conditions.html" "title="terms and conditions">terms and conditions</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A contractual term is "any provision forming part of a contract". Each term gives rise to a contractual Law of obligations, obligation, Breach of contract, breach of which can give rise to lawsuit, litigation. Not all terms are stated expressly ...<br></span></div> and the local laws that apply information from these profiles may be sold, shared, or passed to other organizations without the user being informed. For many ordinary people, this means little more than some unexpected e-mails in their in-box or some uncannily relevant advertising on a future web page. For others, it can mean that time spent indulging an unusual interest can result in a deluge of further targeted marketing that may be unwelcome. Law enforcement, counter-terrorism, and espionage agencies can also identify, target, and track individuals based on their interests or proclivities on the Web. <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Social_networking.html" "title="Social networking">Social networking</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A social networking service (also social networking site or social media) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relationships with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, back ...<br></span></div> sites usually try to get users to use their real names, interests, and locations, rather than pseudonyms, as their executives believe that this makes the social networking experience more engaging for users. On the other hand, uploaded photographs or unguarded statements can be identified to an individual, who may regret this exposure. Employers, schools, parents, and other relatives may be influenced by aspects of social networking profiles, such as text posts or digital photos, that the posting individual did not intend for these audiences. <div class="linkinfo_pict"><a class = "pict_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Cyberbullying.html" "title="Cyberbullying">Online bullies</a><span class="linkinfotext"><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d5/Cyberbullying.jpg" alt="Online bullies" ></span></div> may make use of personal information to harass or <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/cyberstalking.html" "title="cyberstalking">stalk</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Stalk or stalking may refer to: Behaviour * Stalk, the stealthy approach (phase) of a predator towards its prey * Stalking, an act of intrusive behaviour or unwanted attention towards a person * Deer stalking, the pursuit of deer for sport Biology ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/27/Cyberstalking.jpg" alt="stalk" ></span></div> users. Modern social networking websites allow fine-grained control of the privacy settings for each posting, but these can be complex and not easy to find or use, especially for beginners. Photographs and videos posted onto websites have caused particular problems, as they can add a person's face to an online profile. With modern and potential <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Facial_recognition_system.html" ;"title="Facial recognition system">facial recognition technology</a>, it may then be possible to relate that face with other, previously anonymous, images, events, and scenarios that have been imaged elsewhere. Due to image caching, mirroring, and copying, it is difficult to remove an image from the World Wide Web. <h1><br><p> Standards </h1></p> Web standards include many interdependent standards and specifications, some of which govern aspects of the <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Internet.html" "title="Internet">Internet</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/Internet.jpg" alt="Internet" ></span></div>, not just the World Wide Web. Even when not web-focused, such standards directly or indirectly affect the development and administration of websites and <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_service.html" "title="web service">web service</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The term Web service (WS) is either: * a service offered by an electronic device to another electronic device, communicating with each other via the World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information ...<br></span></div>s. Considerations include the <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/interoperability.html" "title="interoperability">interoperability</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Interoperability is a characteristic of a product or system, whose interfaces are completely understood, to work with other products or systems, at present or in the future, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions. While the ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a2/Interoperability.svg" alt="interoperability" ></span></div>, <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/accessibility.html" "title="accessibility">accessibility</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Accessibility in the sense considered here refers to the design of products, devices, services, or environments so as to be usable by people with disabilities. The concept of accessible design and practice of accessible development ensures b ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/79/Accessibility.png" alt="accessibility" ></span></div> and <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/usability.html" "title="usability">usability</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Usability can be described as the capacity of a system to provide a condition for its users to perform the tasks safely, effectively, and efficiently while enjoying the experience. In software engineering Software engineering is the systematic ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ac/Usability.png" alt="usability" ></span></div> of web pages and web sites. Web standards, in the broader sense, consist of the following: * ''Recommendations'' published by the <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/World_Wide_Web_Consortium.html" "title="World Wide Web Consortium">World Wide Web Consortium</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary ...<br></span></div> (W3C) * "Living Standard" made by the <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Web_Hypertext_Application_Technology_Working_Group.html" "title="Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group">Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) is a community of people interested in evolving HTML The HyperText Markup Language, or HTML is the standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web br ...<br></span></div> (WHATWG) * ''<div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Request_for_Comments.html" "title="Request for Comments">Request for Comments</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A Request for Comments (RFC) is a publication in a series, from the principal technical development and standards-setting bodies for the Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of interconn ...<br></span></div>'' (RFC) documents published by the <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Internet_Engineering_Task_Force.html" "title="Internet Engineering Task Force">Internet Engineering Task Force</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is an open standards organization, which develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the technical standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP). It has no formal ...<br></span></div> (IETF) * ''Standards'' published by the <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/International_Organization_for_Standardization.html" "title="International Organization for Standardization">International Organization for Standardization</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization develops and publish ...<br></span></div> (ISO) * ''Standards'' published by <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Ecma_International.html" "title="Ecma International">Ecma International</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Ecma International () is a nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social ben ...<br></span></div> (formerly ECMA) * ''The <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Unicode.html" "title="Unicode">Unicode</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Unicode, formally the Unicode Standard, is an information technology standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requireme ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Unicode.jpg" alt="Unicode" ></span></div> Standard'' and various ''Unicode Technical Reports'' (UTRs) published by the <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Unicode_Consortium.html" "title="Unicode Consortium">Unicode Consortium</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The Unicode Consortium (legally Unicode, Inc.) is a 501(c)(3) A 501(c)(3) organization is a corporation, trust, unincorporated association, or other type of organization exempt from federal income tax under section 501(c)(3) of Title 26 of the ...<br></span></div> * Name and number registries maintained by the <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Internet_Assigned_Numbers_Authority.html" "title="Internet Assigned Numbers Authority">Internet Assigned Numbers Authority</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is a standards organization that oversees global IP address An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label such as that is connected to a computer network A computer ne ...<br></span></div> (IANA) Web standards are not fixed sets of rules but are constantly evolving sets of finalized technical specifications of web technologies. Web standards are developed by <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/standards_organization.html" "title="standards organization">standards organization</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary function is developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpr ...<br></span></div>s—groups of interested and often competing parties chartered with the task of standardization—not technologies developed and declared to be a standard by a single individual or company. It is crucial to distinguish those specifications that are under development from the ones that already reached the final development status (in the case of <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/W3C.html" "title="W3C">W3C</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary f ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/W3C.svg" alt="W3C" ></span></div> specifications, the highest maturity level). <h1><br><p> Accessibility </h1></p> There are methods for accessing the Web in alternative mediums and formats to facilitate use by individuals with <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/disability.html" "title="disability">disabilities</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A disability is any condition that makes it more difficult for a person to do certain activities or effectively interact with the world around them (socially or materially). These conditions, or impairments, may be cognitive Cognition () ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/17/Disability.jpg" alt="disabilities" ></span></div>. These disabilities may be visual, auditory, physical, speech-related, cognitive, neurological, or some combination. Accessibility features also help people with temporary disabilities, like a broken arm, or ageing users as their abilities change.<ref name=WAI></ref> The Web receives information as well as providing information and interacting with society. The World Wide Web Consortium claims that it is essential that the Web be accessible, so it can provide equal access and <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/equal_opportunity.html" "title="equal opportunity">equal opportunity</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Equal opportunity is a state of fairness in which individuals are treated similarly, unhampered by artificial barriers or prejudices Prejudice can be an affective feeling towards a person based on their perceived group membership. The word is ...<br></span></div> to people with disabilities. Tim Berners-Lee once noted, "The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect."<ref name=WAI /> Many countries regulate <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/web_accessibility.html" "title="web accessibility">web accessibility</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Web accessibility is the inclusive practice of ensuring there are no barriers that prevent interaction with, or access to, website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a ...<br></span></div> as a requirement for websites. International co-operation in the W3C <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Web_Accessibility_Initiative.html" "title="Web Accessibility Initiative">Web Accessibility Initiative</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The World Wide Web Consortium The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is ...<br></span></div> led to simple guidelines that web content authors as well as software developers can use to make the Web accessible to persons who may or may not be using <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/assistive_technology.html" "title="assistive technology">assistive technology</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Hearing aid Assistive technology (AT) is assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for People with disability or the elderly population. People with disability often have difficulty performing activities of daily living Activities of da ...<br></span></div>.<ref name=WAI /> <h1><br><p> Internationalisation </h1></p> The W3C <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Internationalization_and_localization.html" "title="Internationalization and localization">Internationalisation</a><span class="linkinfotext"> In economics, internationalization or internationalisation is the process of increasing involvement of enterprises in international markets, although there is no agreed definition of internationalization. Internationalization is a crucial strategy ...<br></span></div> Activity assures that web technology works in all languages, scripts, and cultures. Beginning in 2004 or 2005, <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/Unicode.html" "title="Unicode">Unicode</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Unicode, formally the Unicode Standard, is an information technology standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requireme ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Unicode.jpg" alt="Unicode" ></span></div> gained ground and eventually in December 2007 surpassed both <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/ASCII.html" "title="ASCII">ASCII</a><span class="linkinfotext"> ASCII ( ), abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the stu ...<br></span></div> and Western European as the Web's most frequently used <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/character_encoding.html" "title="character encoding">character encoding</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Character encoding is the process of assigning numbers to Graphics, graphical character (computing), characters, especially the written characters of Language, human language, allowing them to be Data storage, stored, Data communication, transmi ...<br></span></div>. Originally allowed resources to be identified by <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/URI.html" "title="URI">URI</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a unique sequence of characters that identifies a logical or physical resource used by web technologies. URIs may be used to identify anything, including real-world objects, such as people and places, concep ...<br></span></div> in a subset of US-ASCII. allows more characters—any character in the <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Universal_Character_Set.html" "title="Universal Character Set">Universal Character Set</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The Universal Coded Character Set (UCS, Unicode) is a standard set of characters Character(s) may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * Character (novel), ''Character'' (novel), a 1936 Dutch novel by Ferdinand Bordewijk * Ch ...<br></span></div>—and now a resource can be identified by <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Internationalized_Resource_Identifier.html" ;"title="Internationalized Resource Identifier">IRI</a> in any language. <!--</h1></p> Statistics </h1></p> Between 2005 and 2010, the number of Web users doubled, and was expected to surpass two billion in 2010. Early studies in 1998 and 1999 estimating the size of the Web using capture/recapture methods showed that much of the Web was not indexed by search engines and the Web was much larger than expected. According to a 2001 study, there was a massive number, over 550 billion, of documents on the Web, mostly in the invisible Web, or <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Deep_Web_(search_indexing).html" "title="Deep Web (search indexing)">Deep Web</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The deep web, invisible web, or hidden web are parts of the World Wide Web whose contents are not Search engine indexing, indexed by standard web search engine, web search-engines. The opposite term to the deep web is the "surface web", which is ...<br></span></div>. A 2002 survey of 2,024 million web pages determined that by far the most web content was in the English language: 56.4%; next were pages in German (7.7%), French (5.6%), and Japanese (4.9%). A more recent study, which used web searches in 75 different languages to sample the Web, determined that there were over 11.5 billion web pages in the <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Surface_Web.html" ;"title="Surface Web">publicly indexable web</a> as of the end of January 2005. , the indexable web contains at least 25.21 billion pages. On 25 July 2008, Google software engineers Jesse Alpert and Nissan Hajaj announced that <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Google_Search.html" "title="Google Search">Google Search</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Google Search (also known simply as Google), is a search engine provided by Google. Handling over 3.5 billion searches per day, it has a 92% share of the global search engine market. It is also the most-visited website in the world. The order ...<br></span></div> had discovered one trillion unique URLs.<ref></ref> , over 109.5 million domains operated.<ref name=NI></ref> Of these, 74% were commercial or other domains operating in the <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/generic_top-level_domain.html" "title="generic top-level domain">generic top-level domain</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Generic top-level domains (gTLDs) are one of the categories of top-level domain A top-level domain (TLD) is one of the Domain name, domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name System of the Internet after the root domain. T ...<br></span></div> ''com''.<ref name=NI /> Statistics measuring a website's popularity, such as the <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Alexa_Internet.html" "title="Alexa Internet">Alexa Internet</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Alexa Internet, Inc. is an American web traffic Web traffic is the amount of data sent and received by visitors to a website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a co ...<br></span></div> rankings, are usually based either on the number of <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/page_view.html" "title="page view">page view</a><span class="linkinfotext"> A pageview or page view, abbreviated in business to PV and occasionally called page impression, is a request to load a single HTML The HyperText Markup Language, or HTML is the standard markup language In computer text processing, a markup ...<br></span></div>s or on associated server " <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/hit_(internet).html" ;"title="hit (internet)">hits</a>" (file requests) that it receives.--> <h1><br><p> See also </h1></p> * <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Electronic_publishing.html" "title="Electronic publishing">Electronic publishing</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Electronic publishing (also referred to as publishing, digital publishing, or online publishing) includes the digital publication of e-book An ebook (short for electronic book), also known as an e-book or eBook, is a publication made availabl ...<br></span></div> * <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Internet_metaphors.html" ;"title="Internet metaphors">Internet metaphors</a> * <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Internet_security.html" "title="Internet security">Internet security</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Internet security is a branch of computer security. It encompasses the Internet, browser security, web site security, and network security as it applies to other Application software, applications or operating systems as a whole. Its objective i ...<br></span></div> * <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Lists_of_websites.html" ;"title="Lists of websites">Lists of websites</a> * <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Prestel.html" "title="Prestel">Prestel</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Prestel (abbrev. from press telephone), the brand name for the UK Post Office Telecommunications's Viewdata technology, was an interactive videotex File:Minitel1.jpg, Minitel was perhaps the most successful videotex service worldwide, using t ...<br></span></div> * <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/Streaming_media.html" "title="Streaming media">Streaming media</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Streaming media is multimedia that is delivered and consumed in a continuous manner from a source, with little or no intermediate storage in network elements. ''Streaming'' refers to the delivery method of content, rather than the content its ...<br></span></div> * <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Web_development_tools.html" ;"title="Web development tools">Web development tools</a> * <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Web_literacy.html" ;"title="Web literacy">Web literacy</a> <h1><br><p> References </h1></p> <h1><br><p> Further reading </h1></p> * * * Brügger, Niels, ed, ''Web25: Histories from the first 25 years of the World Wide Web'' (Peter Lang, 2017). * * Niels Brügger, ed. ''Web History'' (2010) 362 pages; Historical perspective on the World Wide Web, including issues of culture, content, and preservation. * * Skau, H.O. (March 1990). "The World Wide Web and Health Information". ''New Devices''. <h1><br><p> External links </h1></p> <br><a href="http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html" target="_blank" class="mw-redirect" title="The first website">The first website</a><br><br><a href="http://www.w3.org/History/19921103-hypertext/hypertext/WWW/" target="_blank" class="mw-redirect" title="Early archive of the first Web site">Early archive of the first Web site</a><br><br><a href="https://www.mit.edu/people/mkgray/net/" target="_blank" class="mw-redirect" title="Internet Statistics: Growth and Usage of the Web and the Internet">Internet Statistics: Growth and Usage of the Web and the Internet</a><br><br><a href="ttp://www.livinginternet.com/w/w" target="_blank" class="mw-redirect" title=""></a><br>A comprehensive history of the Internet, including the World Wide Web * <br><a href="http://www.w3.org/" target="_blank" class="mw-redirect" title="World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)">World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)</a><br><br><a href="ttp://www.w3.org/Protocols/NL-PerfNote" target="_blank" class="mw-redirect" title=""></a><br><br><a href="http://www.worldwidewebsize.com/" target="_blank" class="mw-redirect" title="World Wide Web Size">World Wide Web Size</a><br>Daily estimated size of the World Wide Web <br><a href="https://web.archive.org/web/20110501162838/http://cle.ens-lyon.fr/40528325/0/fiche___pagelibre/" target="_blank" class="mw-redirect" title="Antonio A. Casilli, Some Elements for a Sociology of Online Interactions">Antonio A. Casilli, Some Elements for a Sociology of Online Interactions</a><br><br><a href="http://web-graph.org/" target="_blank" class="mw-redirect" title="The Erdős Webgraph Server">The Erdős Webgraph Server</a><br>offers weekly updated graph representation of a constantly increasing fraction of the WWW <br><a href="http://techchange.org/work/u-s-global-development-lab-25th-anniversary-of-the-world-wide-web/" target="_blank" class="mw-redirect" title="The 25th Anniversary of the World Wide Web">The 25th Anniversary of the World Wide Web</a><br>is an animated video produced by <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/USAID.html" "title="USAID">USAID</a><span class="linkinfotext"> The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance. With a budget of ov ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/37/USAID.jpg" alt="USAID" ></span></div> and <div class="linkinfo_desc"><a class = "desc_only" href="/html/ALL/s/TechChange.html" "title="TechChange">TechChange</a><span class="linkinfotext"> TechChange is a US social enterprise A social enterprise is an organization that applies commercial strategies to make a positive difference for social benefit. The social impact is funded wholly or partly by reinvesting profits made by the organi ...<br></span></div> which explores the role of the WWW in addressing extreme <div class="linkinfo_both"><a class = "pict_both" href="/html/ALL/s/poverty.html" "title="poverty">poverty</a><span class="linkinfotext"> Poverty is the state of having little material possessions or income In microeconomics, income is the Consumption (economics), consumption and saving opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expresse ...<br><br><img class = "link_image"; src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/58/Poverty.jpg" alt="poverty" ></span></div> {{Authority control <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/World_Wide_Web.html" ;"title="World Wide Web"> </a> <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Computer-related_introductions_in_1989.html" ;"title="Computer-related introductions in 1989">Computer-related introductions in 1989</a> <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/English_inventions.html" ;"title="English inventions">English inventions</a> <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/British_inventions.html" ;"title="British inventions">British inventions</a> <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Human–computer_interaction.html" ;"title="Human–computer interaction">Human–computer interaction</a> <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Information_Age.html" ;"title="Information Age">Information Age</a> <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/CERN.html" ;"title="CERN">CERN</a> <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Tim_Berners-Lee.html" ;"title="Tim Berners-Lee">Tim Berners-Lee</a> <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/Web_technology.html" ;"title="Web technology">Web technology</a> <a class="link_plain"; href="/html/ALL/s/20th-century_inventions.html" ;"title="20th-century inventions">20th-century inventions</a> </div> <center> <script type="text/javascript"> atOptions = { 'key' : '2d401f57010507e9ea3246f55c53027f', 'format' : 'iframe', 'height' : 90, 'width' : 728, 'params' : {} }; document.write('<scr' + 'ipt type="text/javascript" src="http' + (location.protocol === 'https:' ? 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