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The World Series is the annual championship series of (MLB) in the and , contested since between the champion teams of the (AL) and the (NL). The winner of the World Series championship is determined through a , and the winning team is awarded the . As the series is played during the season in North America, it is also referred to as the Fall Classic. From 2017 to 2019, the event was officially known as the ''World Series presented by '' for . Prior to the AL and NL being split into divisions in 1969, the team with the best regular-season win-loss record in each league automatically clinched its league's and advanced to the World Series, barring a tie necessitating a . Since then, each league has conducted a ( and ) preceding the World Series to determine which teams will advance, while those series have in turn been preceded by ( and ) since 1995 and by in each league since 2012. The World Series has been contested 117 times as of 2021, with the AL winning 66 and the NL winning 51. Until 2002, in the World Series alternated from year to year between the National League and American League. From 2003 to 2016, home-field advantage was given to the league that won that year's . Starting in 2017, home-field advantage was awarded to the league champion team with the better regular-season win-loss record, except in 2020, when a neutral-site ballpark hosted all games of the series.


Precursors to the modern World Series (1857–1902)


The original World Series

Until the formation of the in 1882 as a second major league, the (1871–1875) and then the (founded 1876) represented the top level of organized baseball in the United States. All championships were awarded to the team with the best record at the end of the season, without a postseason series being played. From 1884 to 1890, the National League and the American Association faced each other in a series of games at the end of the season to determine an overall champion. These series were disorganized in comparison to the modern World Series, with the terms arranged through negotiation of the owners of the championship teams beforehand. The number of games played ranged from as few as three in (Providence defeated New York three games to zero), to a high of fifteen in (Detroit beat St. Louis ten games to five). Both the and Series ended in ties, each team having won three games with one tie game. The series was promoted and referred to as "The Championship of the United States", "World's Championship Series", or "World's Series" for short. In his book ''Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: August 27, 1883'', mentions in passing that the World Series was named for the ' newspaper, but this view is disputed. The 19th-century competitions are, however, not officially recognized as part of World Series history by , as it considers 19th-century baseball to be a prologue to the modern baseball era. Until about 1960, some sources treated the 19th-century Series on an equal basis with the post-19th-century series. After about 1930, however, many authorities list the start of the World Series in 1903 and discuss the earlier contests separately. (For example, the 1929 ' lists "Baseball World's Championships 1884–1928" in a single table, but the 1943 edition lists "Baseball World's Championships 1903–1942".)


1892–1900: "The Monopoly Years"

Following the collapse of the after the 1891 season, the National League was again the only major league. The league championship was awarded in 1892 by a playoff between champions. This scheme was abandoned after one season. Beginning in 1893—and continuing until divisional play was introduced in 1969—the pennant was awarded to the first-place club in the standings at the end of the season. For four seasons, 1894–1897, the league champions played the runners-up in the postseason championship series called the . A second attempt at this format was the series, which was played only once, in 1900. In 1901, the was formed as a second major league. No championship series were played in 1901 or 1902 as the National and American Leagues fought each other for business supremacy (in 1902, the top teams instead opted to ).


Modern World Series (1903–present)


First attempt

After two years of bitter competition and player raiding, the National and American Leagues made peace and, as part of the accord, several pairs of teams squared off for interleague exhibition games after the 1903 season. These series were arranged by the participating clubs, as the 1880s World's Series matches had been. One of them matched the two pennant winners, of the NL and (later known as the ) of the AL; that one is known as the played at . It had been arranged well in advance by the two owners, as both teams were league leaders by large margins. Boston upset Pittsburgh by five games to three, winning with pitching depth behind and and with the support of the band of . The Series brought much civic pride to Boston and proved the new American League could beat the Nationals.


Boycott of 1904

The , if it had been held, would have been between the AL's (Boston Red Sox) and the NL's (now the ). At that point there was no governing body for the World Series nor any requirement that a Series be played. Thus the Giants' owner refused to allow his team to participate in such an event, citing the "inferiority" of the upstart American League. , the Giants' manager, even went so far as to say that his Giants were already "world champions" since they were the champions of the "only real major league". At the time of the announcement, their new cross-town rivals, the (now the ), were leading the AL, and the prospect of facing the Highlanders did not please Giants management. Boston won on the last day of the season, and the leagues had previously agreed to hold a World's Championship Series in 1904, but it was not binding, and Brush stuck to his original decision. In addition to political reasons, Brush also factually cited the lack of rules under which money would be split, where games would be played, and how they would be operated and staffed. During the winter of 1904–1905, however, feeling the sting of press criticism, Brush had a change of heart and proposed what came to be known as the "Brush Rules", under which the series were played subsequently. One rule was that player shares would come from a portion of the gate receipts for the first four games only. This was to discourage teams from early games in order to prolong the series and make more money. Receipts for later games would be split among the two clubs and the National Commission, the governing body for the sport, which was able to cover much of its annual operating expense from World Series revenue. Most importantly, the now-official and compulsory World Series matches were operated strictly by the National Commission itself, not by the participating clubs. With the new rules in place and the National Commission in control, McGraw's made it to the and beat the four games to one. Since then the Series has been held every year except 1994, when it was canceled due to a . The name of the event, initially known as the World's Championship Series, was gradually shortened in common usage to "World's Series" and, by the 1930s, to "World Series". The list of postseason rules evolved over time. In 1925, Brooklyn owner persuaded others to adopt as a permanent rule the 2–3–2 pattern used in . Prior to 1924, the pattern had been to alternate by game or to make another arrangement convenient to both clubs. The 2–3–2 pattern has been used ever since save for the and , which followed a 3–4 pattern due to World War II travel restrictions; in , the normal pattern was followed because both teams were based in the same home stadium.


1919 Black Sox Scandal

Gambling and game-fixing had been a problem in professional baseball from the beginning; star pitcher was banned for life in 1877 when the National League was just two years old. Baseball's gambling problems came to a head in 1919, when eight players of the were alleged to have conspired to throw the . The had won the Series in and were heavy favorites to beat the in 1919, but first baseman had other plans. Gandil, in collaboration with gambler Joseph "Sport" Sullivan, approached his teammates and got six of them to agree to throw the Series: starting pitchers and , shortstop , left fielder , center fielder , and utility infielder . Third baseman knew of the fix but declined to participate, hitting .324 for the series from 11 hits and committing no errors in the field. The Sox, who were promised $100,000 for cooperating, proceeded to lose the best-of-nine Series in eight games, pitching poorly, hitting poorly and making many errors. Though he took the money, Jackson insisted to his death that he played to the best of his ability in the series (he was the best hitter in the series, including having hit the series' only home run, but had markedly worse numbers in the games the White Sox lost). During the Series, writer and humorist had facetiously called the event the "World's Serious". The Series turned out to indeed have serious consequences for the sport. After rumors circulated for nearly a year, the players were suspended in September 1920. The "" were acquitted in a criminal conspiracy trial. However, baseball in the meantime had established the office of in an effort to protect the game's integrity, and the first commissioner, , banned all of the players involved, including Weaver, for life. The White Sox would not win a World Series again until . The events of the 1919 Series, segueing into the , marked a point in time of change of the fortunes of several teams. The two most prolific World Series winners to date, the and the , did not win their first championship until the 1920s; and three of the teams that were highly successful prior to 1920 (the , Chicago White Sox and the ) went the rest of the 20th century without another World Series win. The Red Sox and White Sox finally won again in 2004 and 2005, respectively. The Cubs had to wait over a century (until the 2016 season) for their next trophy. They did not appear in the Fall Classic from 1945 until 2016, the longest drought of any MLB club.


New York Yankees dynasty (1920–1964)

The New York Yankees purchased from the Boston Red Sox after the 1919 season, appeared in their first two years later in , and became frequent participants thereafter. The 1921 World Series was the first to be broadcast on radio. Over a period of 45 years from 1920 to 1964, the Yankees played in 29 World Series championships, winning 20. The team's dynasty reached its apex between 1949 and 1964 when the Yankees reached the World Series 14 times in 16 years, helped by an with the (after that team moved from Philadelphia during 1954–1955 offseason) whereby the teams made several deals advantageous to the Yankees (until ended by new Athletics' owner Charles O. Finley). During that span, the Yankees played in all World Series except and , winning nine of them. From 1949 to 1953, the Yankees won the World Series five years in a row; from 1936 to 1939 the Yankees won four World Series Championships in a row. There are only two other occasions when a team has won at least three consecutive World Series: 1972 to 1974 by the , and 1998 to 2000 by the Yankees.


1947–1964: New York City teams dominate World Series play

In an 18-year span from 1947 to 1964, except for 1948 and 1959, the World Series was played in New York City, featuring at least one of the three teams located in New York at the time. The Dodgers and Giants moved to California after the 1957 season, leaving the Yankees as the lone team in the city until the Mets were enfranchised in 1962. In 1947, 1949, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1955, and 1956, both teams in the World Series were from New York, with the Yankees playing against either the Dodgers or Giants.


1958: The Dodgers and Giants move west

In 1958, the and took their long-time rivalry to the west coast, to and , respectively, bringing Major League Baseball west of and . The Dodgers were the first of the two clubs to contest a World Series on the west coast, defeating the in . The made the first California World Series appearance of that franchise, losing to the Yankees. The Dodgers made three World Series appearances in the 1960s: a 1963 win over the , a 1965 win over the and a 1966 loss to the .


1969: League Championship Series

Prior to 1969, the National League and the American League each crowned its champion (the "pennant winner") based on the best win-loss record at the end of the regular season. A structured playoff series began in 1969 when both the National and American Leagues were reorganized into two divisions each, East and West. The two division winners within each league played each other in a best-of-five to determine who would advance to the World Series. In 1985, the format changed to best-of-seven. The (NLCS) and (ALCS), since the expansion to best-of-seven, are always played in a 2–3–2 format: Games 1, 2, 6, and 7 are played in the stadium of the team that has home-field advantage, and Games 3, 4, and 5 are played in the stadium of the team that does not.


1970s


1971: World Series at night

s were played in the major leagues beginning with the in 1935, but the World Series remained a strictly daytime event for years thereafter. In the fifth and final game of the , a Series game was finished under the lights for the first time due to encroaching darkness in the ninth inning. The first scheduled night World Series game was Game 4 of the at . Afterward, World Series games were frequently scheduled at night, when television audiences were larger. Game 6 of the was the last World Series game played in the daytime, indoors at the in Minnesota. (The last World Series played outdoors during the day was the final game of the in Detroit's .)


1972–1978: Threepeat, repeats, and Fisk's home run

During this seven-year period, only three teams won the World Series: the from 1972 to 1974, in 1975 and 1976, and in 1977 and 1978. This is the only time in World Series history in which three teams have won consecutive series in succession. This period was book-ended by World Championships for the , in 1971 and 1979. However, the made three consecutive World Series appearances: 1969 (losing to the "amazing" seven-year-old franchise ), 1970 (beating the Reds in their first World Series appearance of the decade), and 1971 (losing to the Pittsburgh Pirates, as well their 1979 appearance, when they again lost to the Pirates), and the ' back-to-back World Series appearances in 1977 and 1978 (both losses to the New York Yankees), as well in 1974 losing against the cross-state rival Oakland Athletics. Game 6 of the is regarded by most as one of the greatest World Series games ever played. It found the winning in the 12th inning in , defeating the Cincinnati Reds to force a seventh and deciding game. The game is best remembered for its exciting lead changes, nail-biting turns of events, and a game-winning by , resulting in a 7–6 Red Sox victory.


1976: The designated hitter comes to the World Series

The National and American Leagues operated under essentially identical rules until 1973, when the American League adopted the (DH) rule, allowing its teams to use another hitter to bat in place of the (usually) weak-hitting pitcher. The National League did not adopt the DH rule. This presented a problem for the World Series, whose two contestants would now be playing their regular-season games under different rules. From 1973 to 1975, the World Series did not include a DH. Starting in 1976, the World Series allowed for the use of a DH in even-numbered years only. (The swept the 1976 Series in four games, using the same nine-man lineup in each contest. was the Reds' DH during the series, thereby becoming the National League's first designated hitter.) Finally, in 1986, baseball adopted the current rule in which the DH is used for World Series games played in the AL champion's park but not the NL champion's.


1980s


1984: Anderson becomes first to win in both leagues

The gained distinction as just the third team in major league history (after the 1927 New York Yankees and 1955 Brooklyn Dodgers) to lead a season wire-to-wire, from opening day through their World Series victory. In the process, Tigers skipper became the first manager to win a World Series title in both leagues, having previously won in 1975 and 1976 with the .


1985: Umpiring controversy

The won the series four games to three over the St. Louis Cardinals. The key turning point of the series was a Kansas City win in Game Six aided by a controversial call by at first base. Kansas City later won Game Seven 11–0 to take the series.


1987: Twins First World Series champion to win every home game

The 1987 Minnesota Twins became the first team in the history of the World Series to win the championship by winning all 4 games they hosted when they defeated the St. Louis Cardinals. They repeated this 4 years later in 1991 when they defeated the Atlanta Braves.


1988: Kirk Gibson's home run

The is remembered for the iconic home run by the Los Angeles Dodgers' with two outs in the bottom of the ninth inning of Game 1. The Dodgers were huge underdogs against the 104-win Oakland Athletics, who had swept the Boston Red Sox in the ALCS. Baseball's top relief pitcher, , closed out all four games in the ALCS, and he appeared ready to do the same in Game 1 against a Dodgers team trailing 4–3 in the ninth. After getting the first two outs, Eckersley walked of the Dodgers, who were playing without Gibson, their best position player and the NL MVP. Gibson had injured himself in the NLCS and was expected to miss the entire World Series. Yet, despite not being able to walk without a noticeable limp, Gibson surprised all in attendance at Dodger Stadium (and all watching on TV) by pinch-hitting. After two quick strikes and then working the count full, Gibson hit a home run to right, inspiring iconic pronouncements by two legendary broadcasters calling the game, (on TV) and (on radio). On NBC, as Gibson limped around the bases, Scully famously exclaimed, "The impossible has happened!" and on radio, Buck equally famously exclaimed, "I don't believe what I just saw!" Gibson's home run set the tone for the series, as the Dodgers went on to beat the A's 4 games to 1. The severity of Gibson's injury prevented him from playing in any of the remaining games.


1989: Earthquake

When the began, it was notable chiefly for being the first-ever World Series matchup between the two teams, the and . Oakland won the first two games at home, and the two teams crossed the bridge to San Francisco to play Game 3 on Tuesday, October 17. 's broadcast of Game 3 began at 5 pm local time, approximately 30 minutes before the first pitch was scheduled. At 5:04, while broadcasters and were narrating highlights and the teams were warming up, the occurred (having a surface-wave magnitude of 7.1 with an epicenter ten miles (16 km) northeast of Santa Cruz, California). The earthquake caused substantial property and economic damage in the Bay Area and killed 63 people. Television viewers saw the video signal deteriorate and heard Michaels say "I'll tell you what, we're having an earth--" before the feed from was lost. Fans filing into the stadium saw Candlestick sway visibly during the quake. Television coverage later resumed, using backup generators, with Michaels becoming a news reporter on the unfolding disaster. Approximately 30 minutes after the earthquake, Commissioner ordered the game to be postponed. Fans, workers, and the teams evacuated a blacked-out (although still sunlit) Candlestick. Game 3 was finally played on October 27, and Oakland won that day and the next to complete a four-game sweep.


1990s


1991: "The Greatest of All Time"

The saw the Minnesota Twins defeating the Atlanta Braves four games to three to win the championship. ESPN selected it as the "Greatest of All Time" in their "World Series 100th Anniversary" countdown, with five of its games being decided by a single run, four games decided in the final at-bat and three games going into extra innings. The series was also notable for both participants having finished last in their divisions the year prior; no last place team before had ever finished first, let alone reached the World Series, the following year. The series-deciding seventh game was a scoreless tie (0–0) through the regular nine innings, and went into extra innings; Minnesota won by a score of 1–0 in the 10th inning, after their starting pitcher, , pitched a complete 10 inning shutout 7th game. (Morris was named Most Valuable Player for the Series.) With 69 innings in total, the 1991 World Series shares the record for longest seven-game World Series ever, in terms of innings, with the .


1992–1993: The World Series enters Canada

World Series games were contested outside of the United States for the first time in , with the defeating the in six games. The World Series returned to Canada in , with the victorious again, this time against the in six games. No other Series has featured a team from outside of the United States. Toronto is the only expansion team to win successive World Series titles. The 1993 World Series was also notable for being only the second championship concluded by a and the first concluded by a come-from-behind homer, after 's three-run shot in the bottom of the ninth inning sealed an 8–6 Toronto win in Game 6. The first Series to end with a homer was the , when hit a ninth-inning solo shot in Game 7 to win the championship for the over the .


1994: League Division Series

In 1994, each league was restructured into three divisions, with the three division winners and the newly introduced wild card winner advancing to a best-of-five playoff round (the ""), the (NLDS) and (ALDS). The team with the best league record is matched against the wild card team unless they are in the same division, in which case, the team with the second-best record plays against the wild card winner. The remaining two division winners are pitted against each other. The winners of the series in the first round advance to the best-of-seven NLCS and ALCS. Due to a players' strike, however, the NLDS and ALDS were not played until 1995. Beginning in 1998, home-field advantage was given to the team with the better regular-season record, with the exception that the Wild Card team cannot get home-field advantage.


1994–1995 strike

After the boycott of , the World Series was played every year until 1994 despite , the , the of the 1930s, America's involvement in , and even an in the host cities of the . A breakdown in collective bargaining led to a strike in August 1994 and the eventual cancellation of the rest of the season, including the playoffs. As the labor talks began, baseball franchise owners demanded a in order to limit payrolls (while tying revenue-sharing to it), the elimination of , and other various demands, which would have included using replacement players to cross picket lines. The (MLBPA) refused to agree to limit payrolls, noting that the responsibility for high payrolls lay with those owners who were voluntarily offering contracts while working with a de facto in (who was the chairman of the Executive Council for the league), who had replaced when he was forced out in 1992 (Selig did not become a full-time commissioner until 1998). The previous collective bargaining agreement expired on December 31, 1993, and baseball began the 1994 season without a new agreement. Owners and players negotiated as the season progressed, but owners refused to give up the idea of a salary cap and players refused to accept one. On August 12, 1994, the players went on strike. After a month passed with no progress in the labor talks, Selig canceled the rest of the 1994 season and the postseason on September 14. The was not played for the first time in 90 years. The , now the , were the best team in baseball at the time of the stoppage, with a record of 74–40. The labor dispute lasted into the spring of 1995, with owners beginning with replacement players. However, the MLBPA returned to work on April 2, 1995, after a federal judge, , ruled that the owners had engaged in unfair labor practices. The season started on April 25 and the was played as scheduled, with the beating four games to two.


2000s

The was the first World Series to end in November, due to the week-long delay in the regular season after the . Game 4 had begun on Oct. 31 but went into extra innings and ended early on the morning of Nov. 1, the first time the Series had been played in November. Yankee shortstop won the game with a 10th inning and was dubbed "Mr. November" by elements of the media echoing the media's designation of as "Mr. October" for his slugging achievements during the . The broke their 86-year drought, known as the , defeating the Yankees in the after losing the first three games, and then defeating the in the . With the victory by the , Tony La Russa became the second manager to win a World Series in both the American and National Leagues. Other notable World Series victories of the decade include the , in only their fourth season of play, over the Yankees in , The in , the in , and the in .


All-Star Game and home-field advantage (2003–2016)

Prior to 2003, in the World Series alternated from year to year between the NL and AL. After the ended in a tie, MLB decided to award home-field advantage in the World Series to the winner of the . Originally implemented as a two-year trial from 2003 to 2004, the practice was extended. The American League had won every All-Star Game since this change until 2010 and thus enjoyed home-field advantage from 2002, when it also had home-field advantage based on the alternating schedule, through 2009. From 2003 to 2010, the AL and NL had each won the World Series four times, but none of them had gone the full seven games. Since then, the , , , , and have gone the full seven games. This rule was subject to debate, with various writers feeling that home-field advantage should be decided based on the regular season records of the participants, not on an exhibition game played several months earlier. Some writers especially questioned the integrity of this rule after the , when pitcher suggested that he intentionally gave some easy pitches to hit in the ' shortstop's final All-Star appearance before he retired at the end of that season. As of ' wrote in July 2015 about the rule: However, within the last seven seasons, home-field advantage has not decided World Series games: Since 2014, the home team has not won the deciding game of a World Series on their own home field, although the , played on a neutral site due to the , was won by the designated home team (in this case the team that batted second), the , so technically speaking it was the first Series won by the home team since 2013.


2010s

The won the World Series in , , and while failing to qualify to play in the postseason in the intervening seasons. The were twice only one strike away from winning their first World Series title in , but the ' , the eventual Series MVP, drove in both the tying and winning runs late in Game 6 to force a Game 7. In 2013, the won their first World Series of the 2010s by defeating the in six games. They won the final game at , clinching the championship at home for the first time since 1918. The reached the World Series in , which was their first appearance in the postseason since winning the series in 1985. At the time, it was the longest postseason drought in baseball. They lost in seven games to the . The following season, the finished with the American League's best record and won a second consecutive American League pennant. They defeated the in the in five games, capturing their first title in 30 years. The 2015 contest was the first time that two met for the Fall Classic. In , the ended their by defeating the in seven games, rallying from a 3–1 Series deficit in the process. That extended Cleveland's to 68 years and counting – the Indians last won the Series in – now the longest title drought in the major leagues. Beginning in 2017, home-field advantage in the World Series was awarded to the league champion team with the better regular-season win-loss record. If both league champions have the same record, the tie-breaker is a head-to-head record, and if that does not resolve it, the second tie-breaker is the best divisional record. The won the in seven games against the on November 1, 2017, winning their first World Series since their creation in 1962. That title came under controversy two years later in the aftermath of , which implicated the team in engaging in an elaborate scheme involving the use of technology to steal the pitching signs of opposing teams during the 2017 and 2018 seasons. The won the , defeating the in five games for their fourth title since 2004. Major League Baseball would come to find out that the Red Sox were also in a sign stealing scandal, which involved video replay in the booth to relay signs to the dugout. In , the defeated the in seven games. It was the first seven-game World Series in which the road team won every game. The Nationals achieved a couple of historical milestones: becoming the first team to win the World Series without winning a home game and bringing the title back to the capital for the first time since 1924.


2020s

In , the defeated the in six games to win their first World Series since 1988, and their seventh championship in franchise history, during a season that was shortened to 60 games by the . Starting with the Division Series, all postseason games were played at neutral venues, with the World Series being held at , the home stadium of the . Home-field advantage in the was once again awarded to the league champion team with the better regular-season win-loss record, the . The Astros went on to lose the series in six games against the , who won their first championship since 1995, their second while based in Atlanta, and their fourth overall.


Modern World Series appearances by franchise


World Series record by team or franchise, 1903–2021

;Notes (AL) teams have won 66 of the 117 World Series played (56.4%). The have won the World Series the most times with 27 championships, accounting for 23.1% of all series played and 40.9% of the wins by American League teams. The Yankees have also been the American League's representative in the World Series the most times, with 40 total appearances. The have won 11 World Series, second-most among all 30 teams and most among National League franchises, accounting for 9.4% of all series played and 21.6% of the 51 National League victories. However, the have been the National League's representative in the World Series the most times, with 21 total appearances. The Dodgers' 14 World Series losses are the most by any team, while the Yankees' 13 losses are the most among AL teams. The Yankees and the Dodgers have faced off against each other the most times, with eleven total contests between the two franchises. The Yankees won eight of those eleven contests, although the Dodgers defeated the Yankees in their last World Series matchup in 1981. When the first modern World Series was played in 1903, there were eight teams in each league. These 16 franchises, all of which are still in existence, have each won at least two World Series titles. The number of teams was unchanged until 1961, with fourteen joining MLB since then, all of which except the Seattle Mariners have appeared in at least one World Series. Of the 26 Series in which at least one expansion team has played, including two Series (2015 and 2019) in which both teams were expansion teams, expansion teams have won 11 of them, which is 42.3% of all series in which an expansion team played and 9.4% of all 117 series played since 1903. In 2015, the first World Series featuring only expansion teams was played between the Kansas City Royals and New York Mets.


Team patterns in the World Series

This information is up to date through the present time:


Streaks and droughts

: *Since their first championship in , the have won two or more World Series titles in every decade except the 1980s and the 2010s, when they won none. They won at least one American League pennant in every decade from the 1920s until the 2000s; the streak ended in the 2010s. The Yankees are the only team in MLB to win more than three series in a row, winning in four consecutive seasons from 1936 to 1939, and an MLB record five consecutive seasons from 1949 to 1953. The Yankees also won three consecutive World Series from 1998 to 2000. The are the only other team to have won three straight titles, doing so from 1972 to 1974. *The ' four World Series appearances from 1921 to 1924 are the most consecutive appearances for any National League franchise. The Yankees are the only American League franchise to appear in four or more consecutive World Series, doing so from 1936 to 1939, 1949–1953, 1955–1958, 1960–1964, and 1998–2001. *The – Cubs, – Giants and the – Reds are the only National League teams to win back-to-back World Series. No National League team has ever won three consecutive World Series. *The 1907–1909 and the 1911–1913 are the only teams to lose three consecutive World Series. *The hold the record for the longest World Series championship drought of all time, with no titles between and (108 years). They also hold the longest ever pennant drought of all time, which stretched from 1945 to 2016 and ended with a 4–2 series victory over the in the 2016 NLCS. With the Cubs' subsequent victory in the 2016 World Series, the longest active World Series championship drought belongs coincidentally to their opponents in that series, the , who have not won a World Series since 1948. The Indians' drought is the second-longest active championship drought among all four major professional sports leagues in North America (MLB, NBA, NFL, and NHL); only the NFL's , who last won a league championship in 1947, when the team still operated as the Chicago Cardinals, have a longer active championship drought. The team with the longest active pennant drought among AL teams that have played in a World Series at least once is the , who have not reached the World Series since their 1983 title. The team with the longest active pennant drought among NL teams (and overall) that have played in a World Series at least once is the , who have not played in a World Series since winning it in 1979. This also means that the Pirates hold the second-longest active World Series title drought among all teams that have at least one Series and longest championship drought among NL teams that have won a Series. *Twenty-four of the 29 teams who have played in the World Series have won it at least once. The only exceptions are the (formerly Seattle Pilots), , , (formerly Devil Rays), and (formerly Washington Senators). The Padres, Rangers, and Rays have each lost two World Series; the Brewers and Rockies have both lost one Series. As of 2019, every team that has appeared in at least three World Series has won at least one title. *Only one team has never played in the World Series: the American League's . The Mariners have competed in the American League Championship Series three times (in 1995, 2000, and 2001), but lost all three. *The have the most World Series titles before their first World Series loss, winning the championship in their first five appearances—, , , , and —before losing the next series they played, in . *The American League's Toronto Blue Jays (1992 and 1993) and National League's Miami Marlins (1997 and 2003 as the Florida Marlins) hold the record for most appearances without ever losing a Series. Three other franchises have won their lone appearance: the National League's (2001) and (2019) and the American League's Los Angeles Angels (2002 as the Anaheim Angels). *The have the longest active streak of World Series victories (four) since the last time they lost a series. They have won titles in , , and after their last loss in . *The , , and have the longest active World Series wins streak by National League teams, with each team having won 3 times since their last losses. Since their last defeat in , the Pirates have won the Series in , and . After their loss in , the Giants won the Series in , , and . Finally, since their loss in , the Reds have won the Series in , and . *The have the most World Series victories (eight) between World Series losses. After losing the to the , the Yankees won in their next eight appearances, (, , , , , , , and ) before losing in to the Cardinals, who are the National League leader in this category, with four titles (, , , and ) between series losses in 1943 and . *The and Dodgers are tied at seven apiece for most World Series losses between World Series victories. The Dodgers lost their first seven appearances in the Fall Classic in (, , , , , , and ) before winning their first title in . The Cubs' situation was the opposite: between winning their second and third titles (in and 2016), they lost in , , , , , , and . The have four World Series losses (, , , and ) since their last crown in , more than any other team in the American League. *The longest duration without back-to-back World Series champions is currently active at 20 years, from after the to the present. The previous record of 14 years (1979–1992) was broken when the won in and . *The longest sequence of World Series in which each was won by a different franchise is 10, from 1978 through 1987. This streak was broken when the Dodgers, which had won in , won again in .


Game-by-game

*During the 1960s and 1970s, eight of the 11 World Series to go seven games saw Game 7 won by the road team: the road team won Game 7 in , , , , , , , and , while the home team won Game 7 in , , and . Since 1980, the home team has won Game 7 in nine of the thirteen World Series between 1980 and 2013 that went to seven games. The first nine series to go seven games since 1980 all saw the home team win Game 7 ( , , , and , , , , and ) before the won game 7 on the road in . The three World Series that have gone the full seven games since 2014 have also seen the road team win Game 7 ( , and ). *To date, only six teams have come back to win a World Series when facing elimination going into Game 5 of a best-of-seven contest: the , who defeated the reigning champion ; the , who defeated the reigning champion in a re-match of the ; the , who defeated the ; the , who defeated the ; the , who defeated the ; and the , who defeated the . Only the Pirates have accomplished the feat twice. By contrast, only the St. Louis Cardinals have blown a 3 games to 1 lead twice (1968 and 1985). The 1958 Yankees, 1968 Tigers, 1979 Pirates, and 2016 Cubs all accomplished the feat by winning Games 6 & 7 on the road. *The are the most recent team to win a World Series after losing the first two games on the road. The recent tendency of a team winning the first two games at home and then winning the Series suggests the ''theoretical'' advantage to gaining a home-field advantage (which includes the first two games at home). *The Pittsburgh Pirates won all five of their World Series championships (1909, 1925, 1960, 1971, and 1979) in seven games. *The Minnesota Twins/Washington Senators won all three of their World Series championships (1924, 1987, and 1991) in seven games. *The Boston Red Sox have lost four World Series (1946, 1967, 1975, & 1986), all of which were in Series that went seven games. *There have been 19 World Series four-game (4–0) sweeps, the most recent of which occurred in 2012 when the Giants swept the Tigers. Nine teams have swept a World Series at least once, the having done so most often (8 times). The , , and have all done it twice. The , , , , and have each swept one Series. Six of these teams (all but the Orioles, Red Sox and White Sox) have also been swept 0–4 in at least one World Series. The Red Sox have the most World Series sweeps of any team that has never been swept in one, with two ( and ). The Reds and Yankees are the only teams to have swept each other (the Yankees swept the Reds in , while the Reds swept the Yankees in ). The Giants are the only team to record World Series sweeps in two cities: New York () and San Francisco (). The are the last team to date, and the only one since , to sweep a World Series that began on the road. The are the last National League team to date to sweep a World Series that began on the road. *The Athletics, , , and Yankees are the only teams to be swept in two World Series. The Athletics and Yankees are the only two of these with at least one World Series sweep to their credit, the other two being among nine teams overall that have never swept a World Series, but have been swept in one (the , , , , , , and being the others). *The in and the in won 4 games to 0, but each of those Series' included a tied game and are not considered to be true sweeps. In 1907, the first game was a tie and the Cubs won four straight after that. In , Game 2 was the tie. *The were the only National League team to sweep any World Series between and , sweeping their last two series appearances to date in and . When added to their Game 7 victory in , this means that the Reds have won their last 9 consecutive World Series games, the longest active winning streak in terms of consecutive World Series games won. The Reds are also to date the only team since the inception of the League Championship Series (LCS) in 1969 to sweep the entire postseason. The 1976 "Big Red Machine" swept the Philadelphia Phillies in the National League LCS in three games, and then swept the New York Yankees in the World Series in four games. The longest ever streak of consecutive World Series games won is 14 by the New York Yankees, who won four straight games to win the after losing the first two games of that series, then swept their next two World Series appearances in and , and then won the first two games of the before losing the third game of that Series to the . *The only team to have appeared in a World Series and have no World Series game victories is the , who were swept in their only appearance to date in 2007. *Nine World Series have ended with "walk-off" hits, i.e., that game and the Series ended when the home team won with a base hit in the bottom of the ninth or in extra innings: *, , , , *, *, , *, and *. Five of these (marked with a *) were in a deciding Game 7. In addition, the deciding Game 8 (one game had ended in a tie) of the ended in a walk-off . The in (as the Senators) and are the only franchise to win two Series in this fashion. Two men have ended a World Series with a : in 1960 and in 1993. Mazeroski's was a solo shot in the bottom of the ninth of Game 7 to win a championship for the , while Carter's was a three-run shot in Game 6 that won a championship for the . *There has been one World Series that ended on a runner caught stealing. In the bottom of the ninth inning of Game 7 of the , of the tried to steal second base with two outs and his team trailing the 3–2. Ruth was thrown out by Cardinals catcher after swung at and missed a pitch from . St. Louis second baseman applied the tag on Ruth, who in his career was successful on 51% of his stolen base attempts. Ruth, Alexander, and Hornsby were later inducted into the . *One World Series game has ended with a pick-off of a runner. Kolten Wong of the was picked off first base in Game 4 of the by closer Koji Uehara. The score was 4–2 and rookie Wong was a pinch runner. *The and the are the first and only pair of teams to have a World Series game be suspended because of weather, and not have it cancelled. Game 5 (in Philadelphia) was suspended on October 27, 2008, with a 2–2 score, and resumed in the bottom of the sixth inning two days later on October 29. The Phillies, who entered the game leading the series 3 games to 1, went on to win the game and clinch the series. *Both of the ' World Series titles since relocating to the Twin Cities from Washington, D.C. (where they were the Washington Senators) were in seven-game series in which all games were won by the home team, in over the Cardinals and over the . This same scenario also occurred in , when the defeated the . In all three of those series, a pitcher was named World Series Most Valuable Player (MVP). In the , was the MVP having pitched games 1, 4, and 7, and finishing with a 2–1 record. In , achieved the same feat pitching games 1, 4, and 7 with a 2–0 record and a no-decision in game 4, and winning MVP honors. However, Morris's MVP came on the heels of pitching 10 shutout innings in game 7. Finally, in , and took MVP honors by being the reason the were in a position to win the series. *The ' lone World Series appearance and victory came in the only seven-game World Series to date () in which all seven games were won by the visiting team. Additionally, this is the only time that any of the three major North American professional sports leagues that use a best-of-seven series for their championship round (MLB's World Series, NBA's , and the NHL's ) have had a championship series go seven games with all contests won by the road team. Prior to Game 7, the Series was already the first such instance of a World Series, NBA Final, or Stanley Cup Final in which the road team won the first six games. *One World Series – the between the and the – was played at a neutral site. The Series, won by the Dodgers in six games, was played entirely at in (the home of the ) rather than at the Dodgers' and Rays' respective normal home parks of in and in due to the . *There has only been one instance in World Series history where the Series MVP was selected from the losing team: of the New York Yankees. *The last time a team clinched a World Series championship in their home ballpark occurred in , when the won the clinching game at their home field of . The were the designated home team in the clinching game of the , but every game of that Series was played at a neutral site due to the . *The winning team has scored fewer runs (composite) on 22 occasions, six of these in six-game series: , , , , , and . Seven-game series winners were outscored in , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and . An equal number of runs were scored by the teams in (6 games), , and . A five-game series winner has yet to be outscored, with the closest margin being two runs in . The closest composite margin in a four-game sweep is six runs ( and ).


Local rivalries

When two teams share the same state or metropolitan area, fans often develop strong loyalties to one and antipathies towards the other, sometimes building on already-existing rivalries between cities or neighborhoods. Before the introduction of in 1997, the only opportunity for two teams playing in the same area but in different leagues to face each other in official competition would have been in a World Series.


= Cross-town Series

= The first city to host an entire World Series was Chicago in . The were known as "the Hitless Wonders" that year, with the worst team batting average in the American League. The had a winning percentage of .763, a record that still stands. But in an upset, the White Sox beat the Cubs four games to two. Fourteen "" have been played entirely within New York City, all including the American League's . Thirteen of them matched the Yankees with either the or the of the National League. The initial instances occurred in and , when the Giants beat the Yankees in consecutive World Series that were not technically "subway series" since the teams shared the as their home ballpark. The Yankees finally beat the Giants , their first in their brand-new , and won the two teams' three subsequent Fall Classic match-ups in , and . The Yankees faced Brooklyn seven times in October, winning their first five meetings in , , , and , before losing to the Dodgers in , Brooklyn's sole World Championship. The last Subway Series involving the original New York ballclubs came in , when the Yankees again beat the Dodgers. The trio was separated in 1958 when the Dodgers and Giants moved to California (although the Yankees subsequently met and beat the now- in , and played the now- four times, losing to them in a four-game sweep in , beating them back-to-back in and and losing to them in ). An all-New York Series did not recur until , when the defeated the in five games. Before the COVID-19 pandemic forced the to be played entirely at a neutral site ( in ), the last World Series played entirely in one ballpark was the between the and the . The Cardinals won in six games, all held in their shared home, . The , sometimes called the " Series" or the " Series" (after the connecting transit line), featured the and the , teams that play just across from each other. The series is most remembered for the that struck the just before game 3 was scheduled to begin. The quake caused significant damage to both communities and that connects them, forcing the postponement of the series. Play resumed ten days later, and the A's swept the Giants in four games. (The earthquake disruption of the Series almost completely overshadowed the fact that the 1989 Series represented a resumption after many decades of the October rivalry between the Giants and the A's dating back to the early years of the 20th Century, when the then-New York Giants had defeated the then- in and had lost to them in and again in .) The Giants are the only team to have played in cross-town World Series in two cities, having faced the Yankees six times while located in New York, and the Athletics once while based in San Francisco. Two cross-town World Series match-ups were formerly possible but did not occur — the Boston Red Sox vs. the Boston Braves, and the Philadelphia Phillies vs. the Philadelphia Athletics. (The Braves moved to Milwaukee in 1953, and the Athletics moved to Kansas City in 1955.) Currently, there are five metropolitan areas that have two Major League Baseball teams — New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco-Oakland, and Baltimore-Washington. Of the five, Los Angeles and Baltimore-Washington have never hosted a cross-town World Series. Such contests would pit the Dodgers against the Angels and the Orioles against the Nationals, respectively. Below is a chronological list of the 17 World Series played between teams from the same metropolitan area, with the winning teams listed in boldface.


Cross-state rivalries

The historic rivalry between and added to the interest in the Oakland Athletics- series in and and in the San Francisco Giants' series against the then- in . Other than the St. Louis World Series of 1944, the only postseason tournament held entirely within was the in 1985 (named for the ) between the and the , who won at home in the seventh game. Going into the 2021 season, there has never been an in-state World Series between the teams in Ohio ( and ), Florida ( and ), Texas ( and – who now both play in the American League since the Astros changed leagues in 2013, making any future joint World Series appearance an impossibility unless one of the teams switches leagues), or Pennsylvania (the and the have been traditional National League rivals going back to the late 19th Century). Neither the Phillies nor the Pirates ever faced the Athletics in October during the latter team's tenure in Philadelphia, through 1954. The never similarly faced the while the latter team played in Boston through 1952. There also was never an all-Canada World Series between the and the former , who never won a National League pennant when they played in that Canadian city from 1969 through 2004. The Expos became the in 2005 – raising the possibility of a potential future " World Series" between the National League team and the AL's , who play just to the north of Washington. Finally, the Los Angeles and/or Anaheim Angels have never faced off in October against either the Dodgers or against the for bragging rights in Southern California, although all three of those teams have appeared in the World Series at various times.


Pennants won in different cities

# The are the only team to have both won and lost a World Series in three home cities (Boston, Milwaukee, and Atlanta). # The have had three home cities (Philadelphia, Kansas City, and Oakland), but have appeared in the World Series (both winning and losing) while based in only two of them (Philadelphia and Oakland). # Three other teams have both won and lost the Fall Classic in two home cities: The (Brooklyn and Los Angeles), the (New York and San Francisco), and the (Washington, as the first Senators and Minneapolis). # The are the only other team to have played in the World Series in two home cities (St. Louis, as the Browns and Baltimore), but all three of their titles (and three of their four losses) have come while based in Baltimore.


The original sixteen teams

At the time the first modern World Series began in 1903, each league had eight clubs, all of which survive today (although sometimes in a different city or with a new nickname), composing the "original sixteen". # Every original team has won at least two World Series titles. The (National League) were the last of the original teams to win their first Series, in . They were also the last to win at least two, with their second Series victory in . The were the first team to win the series twice, in 1907 and 1908. # The last original American League team to win its first World Series was the (former , originally the Milwaukee Brewers), winning in . # The Orioles were also the last original team in the majors to make their first World Series appearance, as the St. Louis Browns in . Although they never won another American League pennant while in St. Louis, they have won three World Series in six appearances since moving to Baltimore. The were the last original National League team to appear in a modern World Series, in their championship victory. They have subsequently won more World Series than any other National League club: 11 championships through 2019. # The New York Yankees have defeated all eight original NL teams in a World Series. Conversely, they have lost at least one World Series to six of the original NL teams, never losing to the or the . The have played at least one Series against seven original National League teams, missing only the , with whom they shared a home city through 1952. The have faced seven original teams of the American League in the World Series, missing only the . # The St. Louis Cardinals are currently the only club of the National League's original eight that holds an overall Series lead over the Yankees, 3 to 2, taking that lead in 1964. The Giants won their first two Series over the Yankees (1921 and 1922), but the Yankees have faced the Giants five times since then and have won all five, taking the overall lead over the Giants in 1937. The Pittsburgh Pirates and Yankees have faced each other twice (1927 and 1960), with the Yankees winning in 1927 and the Pirates winning in 1960, making the two teams .500 against each other. # Since the two leagues expanded beyond eight teams apiece in 1961, the American League's are the only original team that has not won a World Series against the larger field of competitors. # Out of 116 Series, all but two have featured at least one of the original sixteen teams. The only exceptions are the between the and and the between the (formerly the Montreal Expos) and the .


Expansion teams (after 1960)

# The won their first pennant and World Series in fewer seasons than any other expansion team (both attained in their fourth season). The achieved these milestones in the second-fewest seasons (fifth season). The fastest AL expansion franchise to win a pennant was the in 2008 (11th season) and the fastest AL expansion franchise to win a World Series was the in 1992 (16th season). # While the (NL) were the first expansion team to win or appear in the World Series (doing both in 1969), the American League would have to wait until for its first expansion-team World Series appearance, and until for its first expansion-team win. Both were by the . The AL also had two expansion teams appear in the World Series (the being the second, in ) before the National League's second expansion team to appear—the in . # There have been two World Series in which both teams were expansion franchises. The first instance occurred in between the National League's (who started play in 1962) and the American League's (who started play in 1969), with the Royals winning in five games. The second instance occurred in between the National League's (started play in 1969 as the Montreal Expos; moved to Washington, D.C. and renamed the Nationals beginning in 2005) and the American League's (started play as the Colt .45s in 1962 as a member of the National League; renamed the Astros beginning in 1965 and began playing in the American League in 2013), with the Nationals winning in seven games. # In the first World Series to only have expansion teams, the and the were each the first expansion team in each respective league to appear in the World Series, the Mets in 1969 and the Royals in 1980. Each team was also the first team in each respective league to win the World Series, the Mets in 1969 and the Royals in 1985. Each team has the most appearances by an expansion team in each respective league in the World Series, with five for the Mets in 1969, 1973, 1986, 2000, and 2015, and four for the Royals in 1980, 1985, 2014, and 2015. # 13 expansion teams have now played in at least one Series. As of the end of the 2020 edition, expansion teams were 11–13 in the 24 editions of the World Series to feature at least one expansion team, with four teams (the , , and ) each winning two. The then-, the , the , and the had each won one Series by the end of the 2019 season. # The (1992 and 1993), (1997 and 2003 as the Florida Marlins), (2001), the (2002 as the Anaheim Angels) and the (2019) have never lost a World Series appearance. # Five expansion teams have appeared in the World Series without ever winning a championship: twice each for the (formerly the second Washington Senators), , and (formerly Devil Rays), and once each for the (formerly Seattle Pilots) and . # One expansion team has not yet won a league pennant (and therefore has also not appeared in a World Series): the American League's .


Other notes

# Three World Series have featured teams with identical regular-season records (1949, 1958, 2013). In the remaining 113 Series, the team with the better regular-season winning percentage has won the World Series 55 times, or 48.67% (54 of 113) of the time. # The are the only Canadian team to win a pennant or a World Series, doing both feats twice, in and . # The , the and the are the only teams with a World Series title that have never clinched one at home. # The , , , , and are the only teams with a World Series title that have never clinched one on the road. # Three World Series have matched up the previous two champions, with all three featuring and won by the New York Yankees. The was contested by the Cardinals (won in 1926) and Yankees (won in 1927), which the Yankees won 4–0. In , the Yankees (won in 1941) met the Cardinals (won in 1942); the Yankees won this series 4–1. In , the Yankees (won in 1956) faced the Milwaukee Braves (won in 1957); the Yankees won this series 4–3. # The only two teams that have changed leagues, the and are also the only teams to have played in both the (ALCS) and (NLCS). The Brewers won their lone ALCS appearance in 1982 against the and lost both of their NLCS appearances, in 2011 against the and in 2018 against the , making them 1–2 all time between both League Championship Series. The Astros, meanwhile, have a 3–5 all-time record between both League Championship Series, having gone 1–3 in four NLCS appearances (lost in 1980 to the , lost in 1986 to the , lost in 2004 to the Cardinals, and won in 2005 versus the Cardinals) and 2–2 in four ALCS appearances (winning in 2017 and 2019 against the and losing to the in 2018 and the in 2020). The Astros are the only team in MLB to appear in the World Series as a member of both the (2005) and the (2017 and 2019); they have gone 1-2 overall across three World Series appearances, going 0-1 as a member of the National League (lost to the in 2005) and 1-1 as a member of the American League (defeated the Los Angeles Dodgers in 2017 and lost to the in 2019). # Game 1 of the 2015 World Series between the New York Mets and the Kansas City Royals was the longest game 1 in history at 5 hours and 9 minutes. # of the holds the record for most World Series championships by a player with ten. of the Yankees is second with nine. # and are tied for the most World Series titles by a manager with seven apiece, all 14 of them with the Yankees. managed the Philadelphia Athletics to five World Series crowns. # The all-time World Series single-game attendance record is 92,706, set in Game 5 of the at the , the temporary home of the until opened in 1962. The defeated the Dodgers 1–0 in the record-setting game. Games 3 and 4 of that series also drew crowds in excess of 92,000. # Game 3 of the 2018 World Series between the Boston Red Sox and Los Angeles Dodgers was the longest single game in series history at 7 hours and 20 minutes, which took longer than the entire , with a cumulative duration of 7 hours and 5 minutes. # Two divisions - the and the - exclusively comprise teams that have won at least one World Series. In the AL Central, the , , , , and have each won the World Series at least twice; the Twins are the only one to win a title under a different name, having won the 1924 title as the , while only the White Sox and Royals have won as members of this division. All five current NL East members have won as members of this division: the have won four titles (in as the , as the , and and as Atlanta), the , (as the Florida Marlins) and the have each won twice, and the have won one title. # The was the first and only postseason Series in the history of the major North American professional sports leagues (MLB, NBA, NHL) in which the home team lost all seven games; no prior Series had featured the home team losing the first six games. # The between the and the and the between the and the are the only two World Series matchups that cannot have a rematch under the current alignment, as the Cardinals and Brewers have both played in the National League since the Brewers switched over from the American League in 1998 and the White Sox and Astros have both played in the American League since the Astros switched over from the National League in 2013. For the same reason, these two World Series are the only ones that are capable of having a rematch in the postseason outside of the World Series. The Cardinals and Brewers have met once in the postseason since the Brewers switched leagues, in the 2011 National League Championship Series, which the Cardinals won 4 games to 2; the White Sox and Astros have also met once in the postseason since the Astros switched leagues, doing so in the 2021 American League Division Series, which the Astros won 3 games to 1. # The are the only team to play all five teams in a division in the World Series, against the current American League East: the in 1915, the in both 1950 and 2009, the in 1983, the in 1993, and the in 2008. Before their 2008 victory against the Rays, the Phillies were 0–4 in the World Series against current American League East teams, and 1–0 against all other American League teams (beat the , then in the American League West, in 1980).


Television coverage and ratings

When the World Series was first broadcast on television in , it was only televised to a few surrounding areas via coaxial inter-connected stations: New York City (); (); / (); () and surrounding suburbs/environs. In , games in were only seen in the . Meanwhile, games in were only seen in the and . The games were open to all channels with a network affiliation. In all, the 1948 World Series was televised to fans in seven Midwestern cities: Cleveland, , , , , and . By , World Series games could be seen east of the . The games were open to all channels with a network affiliation. By , World Series games could be seen in most of the country, but not all. marked the first time that the World Series was televised to . Meanwhile, marked the first time that the World Series was .


Sponsorship

As part of a multiyear partnership that began in 2017, the television service became the of the World Series.


Naming and international participation

Despite its name, the World Series remains solely the championship of the major-league baseball teams in the United States and Canada, although MLB, its players, and North American media sometimes informally refer to World Series winners as "world champions of baseball". in the victory celebration in exclaimed "We're world's champions, baby!" At the close of the , Baseball Commissioner called the "champions of the world". Likewise, the cover of ' magazine for November 6, 2006, featured and was subtitled "World Champions". Immediately after the final putout of the , broadcaster commented that "the are 2008 World Champions of baseball!" The United States, Canada, and (', established 1925) were the only professional baseball countries until a few decades into the 20th century. The first efforts began in 1920. The current Japanese leagues date from the late 1940s (after World War II). Various Latin American leagues also formed around that time. By the 1990s, baseball was played at a highly skilled level in many countries. Reaching North America's high-salary major leagues is the goal of many of the best players around the world, which gives a strong international flavor to the Series. Many talented players from Latin America, the Caribbean, the , and elsewhere now play in the majors. One notable exception is Cuban citizens, because of the since 1959 (yet a number of Cuba's finest ballplayers have still managed to defect to the United States over the past half-century to play in the American professional leagues). Japanese professional players also have a difficult time coming to the North American leagues. They become free agents only after nine years playing service in the (Japan's premier baseball league), although their Japanese teams may at any time "" them for bids from MLB teams, which commonly happens at the player's request. Several tournaments feature teams composed only of players from one country, similar to national teams in other sports. The , sponsored by Major League Baseball and sanctioned by the sport's world governing body, the (WBSC), uses a format similar to the to promote competition between nations every four years. The WBSC has since added the , a tournament also involving national teams; the first event was held in 2015, and is planned to be held every four years (in the middle of the World Baseball Classic cycle). The World Baseball Classic is held in March and the Premier12 is held in November, allowing both events to feature top-level players from all nations. The predecessor to the WBSC as the sport's international governing body, the , also sponsored a to crown a world champion. However, because the World Cup was held during the Northern Hemisphere summer, during the playing season of almost all top-level leagues, its teams did not feature the best talent from each nation. As a result, baseball fans paid little or no attention to the World Cup and generally disregarded its results. The features competition among the league champions from Mexico, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Venezuela but unlike the , there is no club competition that features champions from all professional leagues across the world.


Image gallery

File:WorldSeries1903-640.jpg, Rooftop view of a game in Boston File:West Side Park 1906 World Series.JPG, Game action in the in Chicago (the only all-Chicago World Series to date) File:Wamby19201010UATP.JPG, completes his unassisted triple play in File:1924worldseries.jpg, scores his home run in the fourth inning of Game 7 (October 10, ) File:The Cubs celebrate after winning the 2016 World Series. (30709972906).jpg, The Chicago Cubs celebrate winning the , which ended the club's .


See also

* (1901–1968) * (since 1994) * * * * * * * * * * * * * (International Baseball Federation (IBAF)) * * * * * * * * * (1876–1968) * (since 1994) * * * * *


Notes


References

* , ''Baseball Cyclopedia'', 1922, originally published by ''Baseball Magazine'', available as a reprint fro
McFarland
* * * Jordan A. Deutsch, , , Roland T. Johnson, ''The Scrapbook History of Baseball'', 1975, . * * * ', ''Baseball Record Book'' and ''Baseball Guide'', published annually since ca. 1941. * *


Further reading

* Auf Der Mar, Nick.   "World Series Fever Offers No Relief from Agony of Stadium Envy." ''The ontrealGazette.''   October 30, 1991   (p. A2). * Dickey, Glenn.   ''The History of the World Series Since 1903.'' New York: Stein and Day, 1984. * Seymour, Harold.   ''Baseball: The Early Years.'' New York: Oxford University Press, 1960.   . * Sutherland, Norman.   "Unhappy Start for Yankees." ''The lasgowHerald.''   March 20, 1999   (p. 9). * Thorn, John et al.   ''Total Baseball.'' Kingston, New York: Total Sports Publishing, 2000.     (pp. 265–280). * ''Minneapolis Star Tribune.''   "Q & A on the News." October 29, 1999   (p. A2).


External links

*
Baseball Reference
"postseason" page, listing every World Series, with links to play-by-play summaries of every game
Sporting News: History of the World Series

Baseball Almanac: World Series



Coolest World Series teams ever


{{Authority control Annual events in Major League Baseball