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The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO; french: Organisation mondiale de la propriété intellectuelle (OMPI)) is one of the 15 specialized agencies of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
(UN). Pursuant to the 1967
Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization The WIPO Convention (formally, the Convention establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization) is the multilateral treatyMultilateral may refer to: * Multilateralism * Multilateration * Flea flicker (American football) {{disambig ... ...
, WIPO was created to promote and protect
intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner o ...
(IP) across the world by cooperating with countries as well as international organizations. It began operations on 26 April 1970 when the convention entered into force. The current Director General is Singaporean Daren Tang, former head of the
Intellectual Property Office of Singapore The Intellectual Property Office of Singapore (IPOS) is a statutory board under the Singapore Ministry of Law of the Singapore Government The Government of the Republic of Singapore is defined by the Constitution of Singapore, Constitution ...
, who began his term on 1 October 2020. WIPO's activities include hosting forums to discuss and shape international IP rules and policies, providing global services that register and protect IP in different countries, resolving transboundary IP disputes, helping connect IP systems through uniform standards and infrastructure, and serving as a general reference database on all IP matters; this includes providing reports and statistics on the state of IP protection or innovation both globally and in specific countries. WIPO also works with governments, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and individuals to utilize IP for socioeconomic development. WIPO administers 26 international
treaties A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relati ...

treaties
that concern a wide variety of intellectual property issues, ranging from the protection of audiovisual works to establishing international patent classification. It is governed by the General Assembly and the Coordination Committee, which together set policy and serve as the main decision making bodies. The General Assembly also elects WIPO's chief administrator, the Director General, currently Daren Tang of Singapore, who took office on 1 October 2020. WIPO is administered by a Secretariat that helps carry out its day-to-day activities. Headquartered in
Geneva , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge Carouge () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. History Carouge is first mentioned in the Early Middle Ages as ''Quadruvium'' and ''Quatruvio''. In 124 ...

Geneva
,
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
, WIPO has "external offices" around the world, including in Algiers (Algeria); Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Beijing (China), Tokyo (Japan); Abuja (Nigeria); Moscow (Russia); and Singapore (Singapore). Unlike most UN organizations, WIPO does not rely heavily on assessed or voluntary contributions from member states; 95 percent of its budget comes from fees related to its global services. WIPO currently has 193 member states, including 190
UN member states UN is an abbreviation for the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states ...

UN member states
and the
Cook Islands ) , image_map = Cook Islands on the globe (small islands magnified) (Polynesia centered).svg , capital = Avarua Avarua (meaning "Two Harbours" in Cook Islands Māori) is a town and district in the north of the island of Rarotonga, and i ...
,
Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian ...
and
Niue Niue ( or ; niu, Niuē) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people wh ...

Niue
;
Palestine Palestine ( or ) most often refers to: * State of Palestine, a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East * Palestine (region), a geographical and historical region in the Middle East Palestine may also refer to: * Palestinian National Aut ...
has permanent observer status. The only non-members, among the countries recognised by the UN are the
Federated States of Micronesia The Federated States of Micronesia (; abbreviated FSM), or simply Micronesia, is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is oft ...
,
Palau Palau (), officially the Republic of Palau ( pau, Beluu er a Belau) and historically ''Belau'', ''Palaos'' or ''Pelew'', is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, t ...

Palau
and
South Sudan South Sudan (), officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East Africa, east/central Africa. It is bordered to the east by Ethiopia, to the north by Sudan, to the west by the Central African Republic, to th ...

South Sudan
.


History


Pre BIRPI


1883 – Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property

The
Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property The Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, signed in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population o ...

Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property
was adopted in 1883 and was one of the first
intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner o ...
treaties A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relati ...

treaties
. It established a Union for the protection of industrial property. It applies to a wide range of industrial property including
patent A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depe ...

patent
s,
trademark A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-mark) is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also r ...

trademark
s,
utility model A utility model is a patent-like intellectual property right to protect inventions. This type of right is available in many countries but, notably, not in the United States, United Kingdom or Canada. Although a utility model is similar to a patent ...
s,
industrial design Industrial design is a process of design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototyp ...

industrial design
s,
trade name A trade name, trading name, or business name is a pseudonym A pseudonym () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) or alias () is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which differs from their original ...
s,
service mark A service mark or servicemark is a trademark A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-mark) is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human ...

service mark
s,
geographical indication A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g., a town, region, or country). The use of a geographical indication, as an indication of the product's source, ...
s as well as the "repression of
unfair competition Unfair may refer to: * The negative form of the adjective ''fair A fair (archaic: faire or fayre) is a gathering of people for a variety of entertainment or commercial activities. It is normally of the essence of a fair that it is temporary wit ...
". The Paris Convention was the first international agreement to protect the works of creators in other countries. The Convention was adopted in diplomatic conferences held in Paris, France in 1880 and 1883, it was then signed on 20 March 1883, on behalf of Brazil, France, Guatemala, Netherlands, Portugal, Serbia, Spain and Switzerland, Belgium, Italy and El Salvador. It consisted of the Convention proper, which contains 19 articles, and the ''Protocole de clôture'' (Final Protocol), which is almost the same length as the Convention proper. The "International Bureau" established by the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property later became part of BIRPI and later WIPO.


1886 – Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works

The Berne Convention was adopted in 1886, it deals with copyright, the protection of works and rights of authors and rights holders. It provides creators including writers, poets, painters, musicians with ways to control how and by who their works are used and the terms of use. It also contains provisions on minimum protections and special provisions for developing countries. The Convention follows three basic principles; that works originating in one of the Contracting States must be given the same protection in each of the other Contracting States (principle of "national treatment"), that there is automatic protection and no formal process is required and that protection under the convention is independent of protection in the country of origin of the work (principle of "independence" of protection). The "International Bureau" was created to oversee the Berne Convention and later became part of BIRPI and later WIPO.


1891 – Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks

In 1891 nine of the 14 States to the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property created the first "special arrangements for the protection of industrial property". Along with the Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement (1989) it created the Madrid System, the primary international system for facilitating the registration of
trademark A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-mark) is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also r ...

trademark
s in multiple jurisdictions around the world.


BIRPI

The Bureaus created to administer the
Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works Bern or Berne (; gsw, Bärn ; french: Berne ; it, Berna ; rm, Berna ) is the ''de facto'' Capital city, capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their "federal city", in german: Bundesstadt, link=no, french: ville fédérale, link=no, ...
and the
Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property The Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, signed in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population o ...

Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property
were under "the high supervision" (''haute surveillance'') of the Government of the Swiss Confederation. In 1893 the Swiss government combined them with the same director and same staff as
United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual PropertyThe United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property (BIRPI) was an international organization. It was set up in 1893 to administer the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works ,german: Berner(in) ...
, ''Bureaux internationaux réunis pour la protection de la propriété intellectuelle'' (BIRPI). BIRPI was the predecessor of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) which superseded it 87 years later, in 1970.


Formation of WIPO

WIPO was formally created by the
Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization The WIPO Convention (formally, the Convention establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization) is the multilateral treatyMultilateral may refer to: * Multilateralism * Multilateration * Flea flicker (American football) {{disambig ... ...
, which entered into force on 26 April 1970. WIPO allowed members who were part of the Berne Convention, Paris Convention or a member of the United Nations system including the United Nations, any of its specialized agencies, the International Atomic Energy Agency or the International Court of Justice. That date is commemorated annually as
World Intellectual Property Day World Intellectual Property Day is List of minor secular observances#April, observed annually on 26 April.WIPO web site''World Intellectual Property Day – 26 April'' Consulted on 20 April 2011. The event was established by the World Intellectua ...
, which raises awareness of the importance of IP. Under Article 3 of this convention, WIPO seeks to "promote the protection of intellectual property throughout the world". WIPO became a specialized agency of the UN in 1974. The Agreement between the United Nations and the World Intellectual Property Organization notes in Article 1 that WIPO is responsible: The Agreement marked a transition for WIPO from the mandate it inherited in 1967 from BIRPI, to promote the protection of intellectual property, to one that involved the more complex task of promoting technology transfer and economic development.


WIPO joining the United Nations

In 1974 WIPO became a specialized agency of the United Nations through a bilateral agreement between WIPO and the United Nations.This was approved by the General Assembly of WIPO on 27 September 1974, and by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 17 December 1974. A protocol was signed by Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kurt Waldheim and Director General of WIPO Árpád Bogsch, on 21 January 1975, with the Agreement starting on 17 December 1974.


WIPO Development agenda

In October 2004, WIPO agreed to adopt a proposal offered by Argentina and Brazil, the "Proposal for the Establishment of a Development Agenda for WIPO"—from the
Geneva Declaration on the Future of the World Intellectual Property Organization The Geneva Declaration on the Future of the World Intellectual Property Organization is a document signed in 2004 by a number of non-profit organizations, scientists, academics and other individuals urging the World Intellectual Property Organizatio ...
. This proposal was well supported by developing countries. The agreed "WIPO Development Agenda" (composed of over 45 recommendations) was the culmination of a long process of transformation for the organization from one that had historically been primarily aimed at protecting the interests of rightholders, to one that has increasingly incorporated the interests of other stakeholders in the international intellectual property system as well as integrating into the broader corpus of international law on human rights, environment and economic cooperation. A number of civil society bodies have been working on a draft
Access to Knowledge The Access to Knowledge (A2K) movement is a loose collection of civil society Civil society can be understood as the "third sector" of society, distinct from government and business, and including the family and the private sphere. Hulme and Edwa ...
(A2K) treaty which they would like to see introduced. In December 2011, WIPO published its first World Intellectual Property Report on the Changing Face of Innovation, the first such report of the new Office of the Chief Economist. WIPO is also a co-publisher of the Global Innovation Index.


Recent events

In September 2020 China blocked the
Wikimedia Foundation Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. (WMF, or simply Wikimedia) is an American foundation headquartered in San Francisco, California San Francisco (; Spanish language, Spanish for "Francis of Assisi, Saint Francis"), officially the City and ...
from observer status at WIPO citing the existence of a Wikimedia affiliate in
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
. According to the Chinese statement "there is reason to believe that this foundation has been carrying out political activities through its member organizations which could undermine the state's sovereignty and territorial integrity."


Global services


Patent Cooperation Treaty

The
Patent Cooperation Treaty The Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) is an international patent law treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organiza ...

Patent Cooperation Treaty
(PCT) (1970) established a service which assists individuals, companies, and institutions in seeking patent protection internationally for their inventions. It also helps patent offices with their patent granting decisions and facilitates public access to technical information relating to those inventions. 153 countries are currently party to the PCT. Under the PCT, an applicant can file one PCT application in one language, at one patent office, within 12 months from the date of the earliest patent application which has been filed for the same invention (the "priority date"). This one PCT application has the same legal effect as filing separate regional or national patent applications in all PCT member countries. PCT applications are processed in a standardized manner as provided in the Treaty and Regulations, including an international search for documents relevant to the potential patentability of the invention and international publication. Granting patents remains under the control of the regional or national patent Offices in the "national phase". Using the PCT, patent applicants can postpone paying national and regional patent-related fees while they learn about the likelihood of obtaining a patent, benefitting from the additional time and information to help them decide whether, and in which countries, to pursue patents.


Madrid System

The Madrid System for the International Registration of Marks serves as a means to seek protection for
trademarks A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-markThe styling of ''trademark'' as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling ''trade mark'' is used in many other countries around ...

trademarks
worldwide, in over 120 countries. Created in 1891, the Madrid System is now governed by the Madrid Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks (1989). In order to become a member of the Madrid System, a state or intergovernmental organization must already be a party to the
Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property The Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, signed in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population o ...

Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property
(1883). The Madrid System is a centralized trademark registration system: through a single application, in one language and with one set of fees (in one currency, the Swiss franc), protection can be obtained in member states and intergovernmental organizations. International registrations can then be modified, renewed or expanded, centrally through WIPO (rather than through each separate IP Office). The Madrid System can only be used by a
natural person In jurisprudence Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of the propriety of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to ...
or a
legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by ...
, which is a national, is domiciled or has a company in the territory of a member of the Madrid System.


Lisbon System

The Lisbon System for the International Registration of Appellations of Origin and Geographical indications provides a means of obtaining international protection for a
geographical indication A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g., a town, region, or country). The use of a geographical indication, as an indication of the product's source, ...
or an appellation of origin. Geographical indications and appellations of origin are
intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner o ...
rights which identify a product that originates from a specific geographical area and that has characteristics that are attributable to its geographical origin. Comté cheese (France), Chulucanas pottery (Peru),
Tequila Tequila (; ) is a liquor, distilled beverage made from the Agave tequilana, blue agave plant, primarily in the area surrounding the city of Tequila, Jalisco, Tequila northwest of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Guadalajara, and in the Jaliscan Highlands ...

Tequila
(Mexico),
Porto Porto or Oporto () is the List of cities in Portugal, second-largest city in Portugal, the capital of the Porto District, and one of the Iberian Peninsula's major urban areas. Porto city proper, which is the entire concelho, municipality of Porto ...

Porto
(Portugal), Herend porcelain (Hungary), and
Kampot pepper Kampot pepper ( km, ម្រេចកំពត, french: poivre de Kampot) is a cultivar of Piper nigrum, pepper (''piper nigrum'') grown and produced in Kampot Province, and Kep Province, Cambodia. It is a certified geographical indication, geogr ...
(Cambodia) are examples of appellations of origin and geographical indications registered under the Lisbon System. Through a single registration and one set of fees, protection can be obtained in the other countries (and intergovernmental organizations, such as the European Union) covered by the Lisbon System. The Lisbon System includes the Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their International Registration of 1958 ('the Lisbon Agreement') and, its latest revision, the Geneva Act of the Lisbon Agreement on Appellations of Origin and Geographical Indications of 2015 ('the Geneva Act') form the Lisbon System. Registrations under the Lisbon System are published in the official bulletin and can be searched through the Lisbon Express Database.


WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center

The WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center was established in 1994 as an international resource for alternatives to court litigation of intellectual property and technology disputes. It offers
alternative dispute resolution Alternative dispute resolution (ADR), or external dispute resolution (EDR), typically denotes a wide range of dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation: a ...
(ADR) options including mediation, arbitration, and expert determination to resolve international commercial disputes between private parties. It is an administrator of cases and a provider of legal and policy expertise. The Center also provides domain name dispute resolution services under the WIPO-designed UDRP. It is based in Geneva, Switzerland and since 2010 the Center has had an office at Maxwell Chambers in Singapore.


Hague System

WIPO’s Hague System for the International Registration of Industrial Designs provides an international mechanism for securing protection of up to 100
designs A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototype, product or process. The verb ''to design'' ...

designs
in multiple countries or regions, through a single international application. The fee is paid in Swiss francs. International design applications are filed directly through WIPO, according to the requirements and procedures established by the Hague Agreements. The domestic legal framework of each designated contracting party governs the design protection provided by the resulting international registrations. According to the rules laid out by the Hague Agreement anyone who is a national of, or who has a domicile, habitual residence or real and effective industrial or commercial establishment in any Hague System contracting party including any country of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
or the
African Intellectual Property Organization African(s) may refer to: * Anything from or pertaining to the continent of Africa: ** People who are native to Africa, descendants of natives of Africa, or individuals who trace their ancestry to indigenous inhabitants of Africa *** Ethnic groups ...
– can use the Hague System. The Hague System does not require the applicant to file a national or regional design application.


Funding

WIPO, unlike other UN agencies, derives most of its income from fees for the Global IP services it provides as opposed to Member States contributions. In 2020, WIPO's revenue amounted to CHF 468.3 million. In 2020 WIPO generated over 94.3% of its revenue from fees that are paid by users of its intellectual property services for patents, trademarks and industrial designs due to international demand for intellectual property titles. These services are provided through the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) (providing 76.6% of revenue), Madrid System (providing 16.3% of revenue) and Hague System (providing 1.4% of revenue).


Governance and normative work


WIPO Assemblies

WIPO Assemblies develop global intellectual property agreements through bringing stakeholders together. The main policy and decision making bodies of WIPO are the Coordination Committee and the General Assembly. Twenty-two Assemblies, the Unions administered by WIPO, and other bodies of the Member States of WIPO meet in ordinary or extraordinary sessions in autumn. The General Assembly appoints the Director General through nomination by the Coordination Committee. Any of the policy and decision making bodies can constitute Permanent Committees or Standing Committees.


Standing Committees

Standing committees are ad hoc groups of experts established for a given purpose and acting as a place for policy discussions and negotiations on the future development of intellectual property. Any WIPO Standing Committee or other bodies also decide to establish a working group to examine a question in more detail, make suggestions or give advice on any subject within the competence of the Organization.


WIPO administered treaties

WIPO administers 26 treaties, including the WIPO Convention. Text was copied from this source, which is available under
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 IGO (CC BY 3.0 IGO)
license.


Intellectual property protection treaties

Intellectual property protection treaties define internationally agreed basic standards of intellectual property (IP) protection in each country.


Global protection system treaties

Global protection system treaties govern WIPO's services, ensuring that one international registration or filing will have effect in any of the relevant signatory States.


Classification treaties

Classification treaties that create classification systems that organize information concerning inventions, trademarks and industrial designs.


Policy work


Genetic resources, traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions

For years, many local communities,
Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific countries), or autochthonous peoples, are culturally distinct e ...
and governments have sought effective
intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner o ...
(IP) protection for traditional cultural expressions (folklore) and
traditional knowledge Traditional knowledge (TK), indigenous knowledge (IK) and local knowledge generally refer to knowledge systems embedded in the cultural traditions of region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ...
as tradition-based forms of ingenuity and creativity. As a living body of knowledge developed, sustained and passed on from generation to generation within a community, it is not easily protected under the current IP system, which typically grants protection for a limited period to new inventions and original works as private rights. Some genetic resources, too, are linked to traditional knowledge and related  practices through their use and conservation by Indigenous peoples and local communities. Although genetic resources, as encountered in nature, are not eligible for IP protection,
inventions An invention is a unique or novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfictional ( memoir, biography, news report, documentar ...

inventions
based on or developed with the use of genetic resources may be patentable.


Global health

WIPO Re:Search is a public-private partnership between WIPO and the non-profit BIO Ventures for Global Health focused on early-stage medical research and development against
neglected tropical diseases Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a diverse group of tropical infections which are common in low-income populations in developing regions of Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after A ...
(NTDs), malaria and
tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), host tissues to the in ...

tuberculosis
. It has 150 members, including eight of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies. WIPO Re:Search supports collaborations between scientific institutions and pharmaceutical companies all over the world with the goal to advance research for medicines, treatment methods and diagnostic techniques against the neglected tropical diseases that affect over 1 billion people worldwide. Through these collaborations as well as its fellowship program, WIPO Re:Search provides shared compound libraries, repurposing methods, capacity building and works on the growth of international scientific networks.


Green technologies

WIPO GREEN is a free to access online marketplace for sustainable technology. It consists of three main elements: WIPO GREEN online database of green technologies and needs, WIPO GREEN Acceleration Projects, and WIPO GREEN partners network. It has a network of 120 partners and aims to bring together organizations in green technology help the implementation and diffusion of green technologies around the world. The WIPO GREEN database is an online platform where green technology inventors can promote their products and businesses, organizations, governments who are looking for green technologies can explain their needs and seek collaboration with providers. WIPO GREEN 'acceleration projects' are organized annually in different countries or regions of the world, in collaboration with local organizations. These projects usually address a particular field and connect providers and seekers of green technologies.


WIPO Judicial Institute

The WIPO Judicial Institute was established in 2019 to coordinate and lead WIPO's work with national and regional
judiciaries The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government i ...
. This work includes convening international meetings between judges, implementing judicial capacity building activities, producing resources and publications for use by judges, and administering the
WIPO Lex WIPO Lex is an online database of national legislation and international treaties in the field of intellectual property. Maintenance and development of the database is exercised by the World Intellectual Property Organization. The database contain ...

WIPO Lex
database that provides free public access to intellectual property (IP) laws, treaties and judicial decisions from around the world. WIPO has also established an advisory board of Judges, currently comprising 12 members who serve in their personal capacity.


WIPO Academy

The WIPO Academy is the training arm of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), it was established in 1998. It offers intellectual property (IP) education, training and IP skills-building to
government officials An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an ...

government officials
, , creators, business professionals,
small and medium enterprises Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) or small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) are businesses whose personnel numbers fall below certain limits. The abbreviation "SME" is used by international organizations such as the World Bank, the Europe ...
(SMEs), academics, students and individuals interested in IP. The Academy hosts IP courses through its four programs: the Professional Development Program, University Partnerships, Distance Learning and WIPO Summer Schools.


The Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights

The Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights (SCCR) was created in the 1998 to examine issues in the field of
copyright Copyright is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. ...

copyright
and related rights on
substantive law Substantive law is the set of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its envir ...
and
harmonization In music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its associated co ...
. The Committee includes all member states of WIPO, some member states of the United Nations who are not members of WIPO, and a number of non-governmental and intergovernmental observers. The Committee meets twice per year and formulates recommendations for consideration by the WIPO General Assembly. The main topics currently under discussion are the protection of broadcasting organizations and limitations and exceptions. Copyright in the digital environment, the resale royalty right and the rights of theater directors are also being discussed within the Committee.


World Intellectual Property Day

World Intellectual Property Day is an annual global public awareness campaign to "highlight the role and contribution of intellectual property in the economic, cultural and social development of all countries as well as to raise public awareness and understanding in this field of human endeavor." In 2000, WIPO's Member States formally designated 26 April – the day on which the WIPO Convention came into force in 1970 – as World Intellectual Property Day. The first World Intellectual Property Day was held in 2001.


Sectors and divisions


Economics and Statistics Division

WIPO's Economics and Statistics Division gathers data on intellectual property activity worldwide and publishes statistics to the public. The Division also conducts economic analysis on how government IP and innovation policies affect economic performance.


Infrastructure and Platforms Sector

The Infrastructure and Platforms sector develops, implements and maintains the various databases, tools and platforms of the Organization that are targeted at and used by intellectual property offices, legal professionals, researchers, and other specialized users. The sector also covers the use of 'frontier technologies' such as artificial intelligence and coordinates WIPO's overall customer goals, strategies and tools.


Diplomatic Engagement and Assemblies Affairs Division

The Diplomatic Engagement and Assemblies Affairs Division is directly under the supervision of the Director General, it focuses on engagement with the diplomatic community in Geneva through events, meetings and overseeing the administrative, logistical and other aspects of key meetings including the Assemblies of WIPO. The Division is also responsible for supervising the full range of protocol services across the Organization. Specifically, the Division is responsible for meeting all the Director General's representation and hospitality protocol-related needs and protocol-related needs for meetings and events.


Traditional Knowledge Division

The Traditional Knowledge Division carries out WIPO’s work on genetic resources, traditional cultural expressions and
traditional knowledge Traditional knowledge (TK), indigenous knowledge (IK) and local knowledge generally refer to knowledge systems embedded in the cultural traditions of region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ...
through its seven service areas. These include supporting indigenous and local community entrepreneurship in making strategic and effective use of intellectual property tools in their businesses; providing intellectual property advice on the documentation of traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions; organizing hands-on training, mentoring and distance learning programs; and acting as a global reference of information resources on the intersection of IP and genetic resources, traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions, as well as maintaining a repository of regional, national and community experiences. The Traditional Knowledge Division is also responsible for facilitating multilateral negotiations in the WIPO Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore.


Publications and databases

WIPO publishes around 40 new titles a year, which are translated and published in the
official languages of the United Nations The official language An official language is a language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically the term "official language" does not refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its g ...
: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish. The WIPO Knowledge Repository holds the archive of WIPO publications and documentations since 1885, as well as a library of academic research literature on intellectual property. WIPO adopted an
Open Access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis o ...
Policy in 2016. Its publications are free to reuse and modify, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license.


World Intellectual Property Indicators

Since 2009, WIPO has published the annual World Intellectual Property Indicators, providing a wide range of indicators covering the areas of
intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner o ...
. It draws on data from national and regional IP offices, the WIPO, the
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...
, and
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
.


Global Innovation Index

The
Global Innovation Index The Global Innovation Index is an annual ranking of countries by their capacity for, and success in, innovation. It was started in 2007 by INSEAD and ''World Business'', a British magazine. Until 2021 it was published by the World Intellectual ...

Global Innovation Index
is an annual ranking of countries by their capacity for, and success in,
innovation Innovation is the practical implementation of ideas A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of the mind and its relation ...

innovation
. It is published by the World Intellectual Property Organization, in partnership with
Cornell University Cornell University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
,
INSEAD INSEAD (contraction of "Institut Européen d'Administration des Affaires.") is a non-profit business school A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration Business administration (also known ...
, and other organisations and institutions, and is based on both subjective and objective data derived from several sources, including the
International Telecommunication Union The International Telecommunication Union is a list of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communications technology, information and co ...

International Telecommunication Union
, the
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...
and the
World Economic Forum The World Economic Forum (WEF) is an international non-governmental organization, international non-governmental and Lobbying organization, lobbying organisation based in Cologny, canton of Geneva, Switzerland. It was founded on 24 January 197 ...

World Economic Forum
. It was started in 2007 by
INSEAD INSEAD (contraction of "Institut Européen d'Administration des Affaires.") is a non-profit business school A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration Business administration (also known ...
and ''World Business'', a British magazine.


PATENTSCOPE


PATENTSCOPE
is a public patent database provided by WIPO that serves as an official publication source for patent applications filed under the
Patent Cooperation Treaty The Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) is an international patent law treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organiza ...

Patent Cooperation Treaty
and covers numerous national and regional patent collections. In 2021 it held over 100 million patent documents including 4.2 million published international patent applications.


Directors General

On 1 October 2020, Daren Tang of Singapore succeeded Gurry as Director General. His candidacy was backed by the United States and 54 other countries over China's preferred candidate, Wang Binying, who received 28 votes out of the 83 voting members.


See also

*
Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement es, Acuerdo Comercial Anti-Falsificación , image = Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement map (English).svg , image_width = 260 , caption = , type = Plurilateral agreement , date_drafted ...
*
Intellectual property organizationIntellectual property organizations are organizations that are focused on copyright Copyright is a type of intellectual property that gives its owner the exclusive right to make copies of a creative work, usually for a limited time. The creati ...
*
List of parties to international copyright agreementsBelow is a list of countries which have signed and ratified one or more multilateral international copyright treaties. This list covers only Multilateral treaty, multilateral treaties (i.e., treaties by more than two countries). It does not incl ...
*
Member states of the World Intellectual Property Organization The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the 16 specialized agencies of the United Nations. WIPO currently has 193 member states. 190 of the List of United Nations member states, UN Members as well as the Holy See, Niue and the ...
* Substantive Patent Law Treaty (SPLT) *
Uniform Domain-Name Dispute-Resolution PolicyThe Uniform Domain-Name Dispute-Resolution Policy (UDRP) is a process established by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN ) is an American multistakeh ...
*
United States and the United Nations The United States of America The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, state ...
*
WIPO Lex WIPO Lex is an online database of national legislation and international treaties in the field of intellectual property. Maintenance and development of the database is exercised by the World Intellectual Property Organization. The database contain ...

WIPO Lex
*
World Intellectual Property Organization treaties The world is the Earth and all life on it, including civilization, human civilization. In a philosophical context, the "world" is the whole of the physical Universe, or an Ontology, ontological world (the "world" of an individual). In a theo ...


Further reading


Research Handbook on the World Intellectual Property Organization: The First 50 Years and Beyond


Notes


References


External links

* *
List of member states
{{Authority control International trade organizations Patent law organizations Patent offices
United Nations specialized agencies United Nations specialized agencies may or may not have been originally created by the United Nations, but they are incorporated into the United Nations System by the United Nations Economic and Social Council acting under Articles 57 and 63 of th ...
Organizations established in 1967 United Nations organizations based in Geneva