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Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of
Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth smallest of the sixteen German States (including City States). It ...
, Germany. It is located in Central Germany between
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Erfurt
in the west and
Jena Jena (; ) is a German city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...

Jena
in the east, approximately southwest of
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone), it surpasses the Saxon c ...

Leipzig
, north of
Nuremberg Nuremberg ( ; german: link=no, Nürnberg ; in the local East Franconian dialect: ''Nämberch'' ) is the second-largest city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, and its 518,370 (2019) inhabitants ...

Nuremberg
and west of
Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony and its second most populous city, after Leipzig. It is the List of cities in German ...

Dresden
. Together with the neighbour cities Erfurt and Jena, it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia, with approximately 500,000 inhabitants. The city itself has a population of 65,000. Weimar is well known because of its large cultural heritage and its importance in German history. The city was a focal point of the
German Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Reason or simply the Enlightenment); ger, Aufklärung, "Enlightenment"; it, L'Illuminismo, "Enlightenment"; pl, Oświecenie , "Enlightenment"; pt, Iluminismo, "Enlightenment"; es, link=n ...
and home of the leading figures of the literary genre of
Weimar Classicism Weimar Classicism (german: Weimarer Klassik) was a German literary Literature broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, dra ...
, writers
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of G ...

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
and
Friedrich Schiller Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (, short: ; 10 November 17599 May 1805) was a Germans, German playwright, poet, and philosopher. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788–1805), Schiller developed a productive, if complicated, ...

Friedrich Schiller
. In the 19th century, noted composers such as
Franz Liszt Franz Liszt (; hu, Liszt Ferencz, link=no, in modern usage ''Liszt Ferenc'' ; 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a Hungarian composer, virtuoso A virtuoso (from Italian ''virtuoso'' or , "virtuous", Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas ...

Franz Liszt
made Weimar a music centre. Later, artists and architects such as
Henry van de Velde Henry Clemens van de Velde (; 3 April 1863 – 15 October 1957) was a Belgian Belgian may refer to: * Something of, or related to, Belgium Belgium, ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in ...
,
Wassily Kandinsky Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky (; rus, Василий Васильевич Кандинский, Vasiliy Vasilyevich Kandinskiy, vɐˈsʲilʲɪj vɐˈsʲilʲjɪvʲɪtɕ kɐnʲˈdʲinskʲɪj;  – 13 December 1944) was a Russian painter a ...
,
Paul Klee Paul Klee (; 18 December 1879 – 29 June 1940) was a Swiss-born German artist. His highly individual style was influenced by movements in art that included expressionism, cubism, and surrealism. Klee was a natural draftsman who experimented wi ...

Paul Klee
,
Lyonel Feininger Lyonel Charles Feininger (July 17, 1871January 13, 1956) was a German-American painter, and a leading exponent of Expressionism Expressionism is a modernist , Solomon Guggenheim Museum 1946–1959 Modernism is both a philosophy, philosoph ...
, and
Walter Gropius Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (18 May 1883 – 5 July 1969) was a German architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with ...
came to the city and founded the
Bauhaus The Staatliches Bauhaus (), commonly known as the Bauhaus (German: "building house"), was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German an ...

Bauhaus
movement, the most important German design school of the
interwar period In the history of the 20th century, the Interwar period lasted from 11 November 1918 to 1 September 1939 (20 years, 9 months and 21 days), the end of the First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as t ...
. The political history of 20th-century Weimar was volatile: it was the place where
Germany's first democratic constitution
Germany's first democratic constitution
was signed after the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
, giving its name to the
Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic (german: Weimarer Republik ) was the German state from 1918 to 1933 when it functioned as a federal constitutional republic. The state was officially named the German Reich (german: Deutsches Reich, link=no, label=none), ...
period in German politics (1918–33). It was also one of the cities mythologized by
National Socialist Nazism (), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus; ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of beliefs or philosophies attributed to a person or group of persons, especially as held for reasons that are not purely ep ...
propaganda. Until 1948, Weimar was the capital of Thuringia. Since the late 20th century, many places in the city centre have been designated as
UNESCO World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNES ...
s (either as part of the Weimar Classicism complex, or as part of the Bauhaus complex). Heritage tourism is one of the leading economic sectors of Weimar. Noted institutions in Weimar are the Bauhaus University, the Liszt School of Music, the
Duchess Anna Amalia Library The Duchess Anna Amalia Library (German: ''Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek'') in Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located in Central Germany (cultural area), Central German ...
, and two leading courts of Thuringia (the Supreme Administrative Court and Constitutional Court). In 1999, Weimar was the
European Capital of Culture A European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as p ...

European Capital of Culture
.


History


Prehistoric times

Archaeological finds dating back to the
Thuringii The Thuringii, Toringi or Teuriochaimai, were an early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic lan ...
epoch (3rd to 6th centuries) show that the Weimar part of the
Ilm Ilm or ILM may refer to: Acronyms * Identity Lifecycle Manager Microsoft Forefront Identity Manager (FIM) is a state-based identity management software product, designed to manage users' digital identities, credentials and groupings throughout ...
valley was settled early. A tight network of settlements occupied much of the area of today's city.


Middle Ages

The oldest records regarding Weimar date to 899. Its name changed over the centuries from ''Wimares'' through ''Wimari'' to ''Wimar'' and finally Weimar; it is derived from
Old High German Old High German (OHG, german: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. ) is the earliest stage of the German language German ( Standard High German: , ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Euro ...
''wīh-'' (holy) and ''-mari'' (standing water, swamp). The place was the seat of the County of Weimar, first mentioned in 949, which was one of the most powerful jurisdictions in early-Middle Ages Thuringia. In 1062 it was united with the County of Orlamünde to the new County of Weimar-Orlamünde, which existed until the
Thuringian Counts' WarThe Thuringian Counts' War (german: Thüringer Grafenkrieg), or Thuringian Counts' Feud (''Thüringer Grafenfehde'') was a conflict between several ancient aristocratic families and the House of Wettin The House of Wettin () is a dynasty of Germ ...
in 1346. It fell to the Wettins afterwards. The Weimar settlement emerged around the count's wooden castle and two small churches, dedicated to St Peter (which later became the main church), and to St James, respectively. In 1240, the count founded the dynasty's monastery in Oberweimar, which ran under Cistercian nuns. Soon after, the counts of Weimar founded the town, which was an independent parish since 1249 and called ''civitas'' in 1254. From 1262 the citizens used their own seal. The regional influence of the Weimar counts was declining as the influence of the Wettins in Thuringia increased. Hence, the new small town was relatively marginal in a regional context, also due to the fact that it was located far from relevant trade routes, such as the
Via Regia The Via Regia (Royal Highway) is a European Cultural Route A Culture Route of the Council of Europe, sometimes referred to as a European Cultural Route, is a certification awarded by the Council of Europe The Council of Europe (CoE) (fre ...
. The settlement around St James Church developed into a suburb during the 13th century. After becoming part of the Wettin's territory in 1346, urban development improved. The Wettins fostered Weimar by abolishing
socage Socage () was one of the feudal duties Feudal duties were the set of reciprocal financial, military and legal obligations among the warrior nobility in a feudal system Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the leg ...
and granting privileges to the citizens. Now Weimar became equal to other Wettinian cities like Weißensee and grew during the 15th century, with the establishment of a town hall and the current main church. Weimar acquired woad trade privileges in 1438. The castle and the walls were finished in the 16th century, making Weimar into a full city.


Early Modern Period

After the
Treaty of Leipzig The Treaty of Leipzig or Partition of Leipzig (German ''Leipziger Teilung'') was signed on 11 November 1485 between Elector Ernest of Saxony and his younger brother Albert III, the sons of Elector Frederick II of Saxony from the House of Wettin ...
(1485) Weimar became part of the electorate of the Ernestine branch of Wettins with
Wittenberg Wittenberg ( , ; Low Saxon Low Saxon or Lower Saxon may refer to: Geography *Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state (''Land'') situated in Northern Germany, northwestern ...
as capital. The
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abra ...
was introduced in Weimar in 1525;
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citiz ...

Martin Luther
stayed several times in the city. As the Ernestines lost the
Schmalkaldic War The Schmalkaldic War (german: link=no, Schmalkaldischer Krieg) refers to the short period of violence from 1546 until 1547 between the forces of Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire (simultaneously King Charles I of Spain), commanded by t ...
in 1547, their capital Wittenberg went also to the Albertines, so that they needed a new residence. As the ruler returned from captivity, Weimar became his residence in 1552 and remained as such until the end of the monarchy in 1918. The first Ernestine territorial partition in 1572 was followed by various ones, nevertheless Weimar stayed the capital of different
Saxe-Weimar Saxe-Weimar (german: Sachsen-Weimar) was one of the Saxon The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-lin ...
states. The court and its staff brought some wealth to the city, so that it saw a first construction boom in the 16th century. The 17th century brought decline to Weimar, because of changing trade conditions (as in nearby
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Erfurt
). Besides, the territorial partitions led to the loss of political importance of the dukes of Saxe-Weimar and their finances shrunk. The city's polity weakened more and more and lost its privileges, leading to the absolutist reign of the dukes in the early 18th century. On the other hand, this time brought another construction boom to Weimar, and the city got its present appearance, marked by various ducal representation buildings. The city walls were demolished in 1757 and during the following decades, Weimar expanded in all directions. The biggest building constructed in this period was the ''
Schloss Schloss Ludwigslust, Germany ">Germany.html" ;"title="Schloss Ludwigslust, Germany">Schloss Ludwigslust, Germany ''Schloss'' (; pl. ''Schlösser''), formerly written ''Schloß'', is the German language, German term for a building similar to a ...

Schloss
'' as the residence of the dukes (north and east wing: 1789–1803, west wing 1832–1835, south wing: 1913–1914). Between 1708 and 1717
Johann Sebastian Bach Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the late Baroque music, Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Cello Suites (Bach), Cello Suites and ''Brandenburg Concertos''; keyboard ...

Johann Sebastian Bach
worked as the court's organist in Weimar.


Golden or Classical Age (1758–1832)

The period from the start of the regencies of Anna Amalia (1758–1775) and her son Carl August (1775–1828) through to Goethe's death in 1832 is denoted as the "golden" or the "classical" age because of the high level of cultural activity in Weimar. The city became an important cultural centre of Europe, having been home to literary figures including
Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of G ...

Goethe
,
Schiller Johann Christoph Friedrich (von) Schiller (, short: ; 10 November 17599 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788–1805), Schiller developed a productive, i ...

Schiller
,
Herder A herder is a pastoral A pastoral lifestyle is that of shepherds herd A herd is a social group of certain animals of the same species, either wildness, wild or Domestication, domestic. The form of collective animal behavior associ ...
,
Wieland
Wieland
and Bertuch; and in music the piano virtuoso
Hummel
Hummel
. It has been a site of
pilgrimage A pilgrimage is a journey, often into an unknown or foreign place, where a person goes in search of new or expanded meaning about their self, others, nature, or a higher good, through the experience. It can lead to a personal transformation, aft ...
for the German intelligentsia since Goethe first moved to Weimar in 1775. Goethe was also active in civic duties while living there. He served as Privy Councilor to the Grand Duke of
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (german: Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was a historical German state, created as a duchy A duchy, also called a dukedom, is a , territory, , or domain ruled by a or , a high-ranking nobleman hierarchically second to the or ...
for an extended period. The tombs of Goethe and Schiller, as well as their archives, may be found in the city. Goethe's ''
Elective Affinities ''Elective Affinities'' (german: Die Wahlverwandtschaften), also translated under the title ''Kindred by Choice'', is the third novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German poet ...
'' (1809) is set around the city of Weimar. In comparison to many major German states, the dukes' policy was liberal and tolerant in this period. The liberal Saxe-Weimar constitution was brought into effect in 1816.


Silver Ages and The New Weimar (1832–1918)

The time after Goethe's death is denoted as the "silver" age because Weimar remained an influential cultural centre. The first emphasis was fostering music. In 1842,
Franz Liszt Franz Liszt (; hu, Liszt Ferencz, link=no, in modern usage ''Liszt Ferenc'' ; 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a Hungarian composer, virtuoso A virtuoso (from Italian ''virtuoso'' or , "virtuous", Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas ...

Franz Liszt
moved to Weimar to become the Grand Ducal court conductor. Liszt organized the premiere of
Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner ( ; ; 22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemic Polemic () is contentious rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or ...

Richard Wagner
's ''
Lohengrin Lohengrin () is a character in German Arthurian King Arthur ( cy, Brenin Arthur, kw, Arthur Gernow, br, Roue Arzhur) was a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and Romance (heroic literature), romances, led th ...
'' (1850) in the city. The Weimar School of Music was founded in 1872 as Germany's first orchestra school.
Richard Strauss Richard Georg Strauss (; 11 June 1864 – 8 September 1949) was a German composer, conductor, pianist, and violinist. Considered a leading composer of the late Romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, l ...

Richard Strauss
worked in Weimar between 1889 and 1894 as second conductor in the acclaimed Staatskapelle Weimar (the court orchestra founded in 1491). Several of his encores for works such as ''Don Juan'' and ''Macbeth'' were performed by the Staatskapelle Weimar.
Friedrich Nietzsche Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (; or ; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as thos ...

Friedrich Nietzsche
moved to Weimar in 1897, and died there three years later. In 1860 the
Weimar Saxon-Grand Ducal Art School The Grand-Ducal Saxon Art School, Weimar (German:Großherzoglich-Sächsische Kunstschule Weimar) was founded on 1 October 1860, in Weimar, Germany, by a decree of Charles Alexander, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. It existed until 1910, when it ...
, the precursor of today's Bauhaus University, was founded. This was the beginning of academic arts education in Weimar. The institution created its own painting style, the "Weimar School" of painting with representatives such as
Max Liebermann Max Liebermann (20 July 1847 – 8 February 1935) was a Germany, German painter and printmaker of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, and one of the leading proponents of Impressionism in Germany and continental Europe. In addition to his activity as an a ...
and
Arnold Böcklin Arnold Böcklin (16 October 182716 January 1901) was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland *Swiss people Places *Swiss, Missouri *Swiss, North Carolina *Swiss, West Virginia *Swiss, Wisconsin Other uses *Swiss-system ...

Arnold Böcklin
. The
Kunstgewerbeschule A Kunstgewerbeschule (English: ''School of Arts and Crafts'' or S''chool of Applied Arts'') was a type of vocational arts school that existed in German-speaking countries from the mid-19th century. The term Werkkunstschule was also used for these ...
Weimar was found by
Henry van de Velde Henry Clemens van de Velde (; 3 April 1863 – 15 October 1957) was a Belgian Belgian may refer to: * Something of, or related to, Belgium Belgium, ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in ...
with the support of Grand Duke William Ernest in 1902 and represents the other root of the
Bauhaus The Staatliches Bauhaus (), commonly known as the Bauhaus (German: "building house"), was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German an ...

Bauhaus
, known as "Das Neue Weimar" ("The New Weimar") around
Harry Graf Kessler Harry Clemens Ulrich Graf von Kessler (23 May 1868 – 30 November 1937) was an Anglo-German count Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family ...
. It was a foundation against
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
's restrictive arts policy favouring
Historicism Historicism is an approach to explaining the existence of phenomena A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable fact or event. The term came into its modern philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fun ...
instead of international
Arts and Crafts A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by one’s hand or by using only simple, non-automated rela ...
and
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating som ...
. As early as the 19th century, the curation of Weimar and its heritage started. Many archives, societies and museums were founded to present and conserve the cultural sights and goods. In 1846, Weimar was connected by the
Thuringian Railway Thuringian is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part of High German languages, High German. Present-day Standard German as a High G ...
. In the following decades, the city saw a construction and population boom (like most late-19th century cities in Germany). Nevertheless, Weimar did not become industrialised, and remained a city of clerks, artists and rentiers. During the
German Revolution of 1918–19 German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = Ge ...
the last reigning grand duke of
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (german: Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was a historical German state, created as a duchy A duchy, also called a dukedom, is a , territory, , or domain ruled by a or , a high-ranking nobleman hierarchically second to the or ...
, William Ernest, had to abdicate and went in exile to Heinrichau in Silesia.


Weimar Republic

The period in
German history The concept of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germa ...
from 1919 to 1933 is commonly referred to as the
Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic (german: Weimarer Republik ) was the German state from 1918 to 1933 when it functioned as a federal constitutional republic. The state was officially named the German Reich (german: Deutsches Reich, link=no, label=none), ...
, as the Republic's
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

constitution
was drafted here rather than
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
, as the capital was considered too dangerous for the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media L ...
to use as a meeting place, because of its street rioting after the 1918
German Revolution German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, people of German ancestry, or native speakers of the German language ** For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law **Germ ...
. The calm and centrally-located Weimar had a suitable place of assembly (the
theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage. The p ...
), hotels and infrastructure, so it was chosen as the capital. In 1920, the federal state of
Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth smallest of the sixteen German States (including City States). It ...
was founded by an association of eight former microstates (
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (german: Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was a historical German state, created as a duchy A duchy, also called a dukedom, is a , territory, , or domain ruled by a or , a high-ranking nobleman hierarchically second to the or ...
,
Saxe-Gotha Saxe-Gotha (german: Sachsen-Gotha) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the Wettin dynasty in the former Landgraviate of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a stat ...
,
Saxe-Altenburg Saxe-Altenburg (german: Sachsen-Altenburg, links=no) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine duchies, Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in present-day Thuringia. It was one of the smallest of the German states with an area of 132 ...

Saxe-Altenburg
,
Saxe-Meiningen Saxe-Meiningen (; ) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin dynasty, located in the southwest of the present-day German state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuring ...
,
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small historic state in present-day Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State ...
,
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a small principality in Germany, in the present day state of Thuringia, with its capital at Sondershausen. History Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a Graf, county until 1697. In that year, it became a principality, whi ...
, Reuss-Gera and Reuss-Greiz) and Weimar became its capital. Due to that fact, the city experienced another period of growth. In 1919,
Walter Gropius Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (18 May 1883 – 5 July 1969) was a German architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with ...
founded the
Bauhaus The Staatliches Bauhaus (), commonly known as the Bauhaus (German: "building house"), was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German an ...

Bauhaus
School by a merger of the
Weimar Saxon-Grand Ducal Art School The Grand-Ducal Saxon Art School, Weimar (German:Großherzoglich-Sächsische Kunstschule Weimar) was founded on 1 October 1860, in Weimar, Germany, by a decree of Charles Alexander, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. It existed until 1910, when it ...
with the Kunstgewerbeschule Weimar. The Bauhaus in Weimar lasted from 1919 to 1925, when it moved to
Dessau Dessau is a town and former municipality in Germany at the confluence of the rivers Mulde The Mulde () is a river in and , . It is a left tributary of the and is long. The river is formed by the confluence, near , of the (running thro ...
, after the newly elected right-wing Thuringian council put pressure on the school by withdrawing funding and forcing its teachers to quit. Many buildings in Weimar today have influences from the Bauhaus period. However, only one original Bauhaus building was constructed during 1919–1925, the
Haus am Horn The Haus am Horn is a domestic house in Weimar, Germany, designed by Georg Muche. It was built for the Bauhaus ''Werkschau'' (English: ''Work show'') exhibition which ran from July to September 1923. It was the first building based on Bauhaus desi ...
, now used for exhibitions and events on Bauhaus culture. The Weimar Republic era was marked by a constant conflict between "progressive" and national socialist forces, the former represented by
Harry Graf Kessler Harry Clemens Ulrich Graf von Kessler (23 May 1868 – 30 November 1937) was an Anglo-German count Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family ...
and the latter Adolf Bartels in Weimar. After 1929, the right wing forces prevailed and Weimar became an early centre of
Nazism Nazism ( ), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about th ...

Nazism
.


Nazi Germany and World War II

Weimar was important to the Nazis for two reasons: first, it was where the hated Weimar Republic was founded, and second, it had been a centre of German high culture during recent centuries. In 1926, the
NSDAP The Nazi Party, officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (german: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP), was a far-right political party in Germany active between 1920 and 1945, that created and supported th ...

NSDAP
held its party convention in Weimar.
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Cha ...

Adolf Hitler
visited Weimar more than forty times prior to 1933. In 1930,
Wilhelm Frick Wilhelm Frick (12 March 1877 – 16 October 1946) was a prominent German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germa ...

Wilhelm Frick
became minister for internal affairs and education in
Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth smallest of the sixteen German States (including City States). It ...
, the first NSDAP minister in Germany. In 1932, the NSDAP came to power in Thuringia under
Fritz Sauckel Ernst Friedrich Christoph "Fritz" Sauckel (27 October 1894 – 16 October 1946) was a German Nazi Nazism (), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus; ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of beliefs or philosophi ...

Fritz Sauckel
. In 1933, the first
Nazi concentration camps From 1933 to 1945, Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater ...
were established around Weimar in Nohra (the first one in Germany) and
Bad Sulza Bad Sulza is a town in the Weimarer Land district, in Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth sma ...

Bad Sulza
. Most prisoners at this time were communists and social democrats. After
Kristallnacht ''Kristallnacht'' () or the Night of Broken Glass, also called the November Pogrom(s) (german: Novemberpogrome, ), was a pogrom A pogrom is a violent riot aimed at the massacre or expulsion of an ethnic or religious group, particularly on ...

Kristallnacht
in 1938, harassment of Jews became more intense, so that many of them emigrated or were arrested. The Weimar Synagogue was destroyed in 1938. During the 1930s, the barracks in Weimar was greatly extended. One famous person serving as a soldier in Weimar was
Wolfgang Borchert Wolfgang Borchert (; 20 May 1921 – 20 November 1947) was a German author and playwright whose work was strongly influenced by his experience of dictatorship and his service in the Wehrmacht during the Second World War. His work is among the b ...
, later a well known poet and playwright. As it was the capital of Thuringia, the Nazis built a new Roman-fascist-style administrative centre between the city centre and the main station. This
Gauforum
Gauforum
, designed by
Hermann Giesler Hermann Giesler (2 April 1898, Siegen – 20 January 1987, Düsseldorf) was a German architect during the Nazi era, one of the two architects most favoured and rewarded by Adolf Hitler (the other being Albert Speer). Early life and World War ...
, was the only Nazi governmental building completed outside Berlin (though there were plans for all German state capitals). Today it hosts the Thuringian State Administration. Other Giesler buildings are the "Villa Sauckel", the governor's palace and the "Hotel Elephant" in the city centre. In 1937, the Nazis established
Buchenwald concentration camp Buchenwald (; literally 'beech forest Beech Forest is a town in Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. The area of Beech Forest is largely used for potato farming. The town was named after the many Nothofagus cunninghamii, myrtle beech ...
eight kilometres from Weimar city centre. Between July 1938 and April 1945, some 240,000 people were incarcerated in the camp by the Nazi regime, including 168 Western Allied POWs. The number of deaths in Buchenwald is estimated at 56,545. The Buchenwald concentration camp provided
slave labour Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for another person (a slaver), while treated as property. Slavery typically involves the enslaved person being made ...
for local industry (arms manufacturer ''Wilhelm-Gustloff-Werk''). The city centre was partially damaged by US Air Force bombing in 1945 with some 1,800 people killed and many historic buildings destroyed. Nevertheless, most of the destroyed buildings were restored soon after the war because of their importance in German cultural history. The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Weimar in April 1945, and the city surrendered to the US 80th Infantry Division on 12 April 1945. The residents of Weimar were ordered to walk through Buchenwald, to see what had been happening so close to the city, as documented in
Billy Wilder Billy Wilder (; ; born Samuel Wilder, June 22, 1906 – March 27, 2002) was an Austrian film director, screenwriter and producer, whose career in Hollywood (film industry), Hollywood spanned over five decades. He is regarded as one of the most ...

Billy Wilder
's film '' Death Mills''. The city ended up in the Soviet occupation zone of Germany, so US troops were soon replaced by Soviet forces.


Since 1945

From 1945 to 1950, the Soviet Union used the occupied
Buchenwald concentration camp Buchenwald (; literally 'beech forest Beech Forest is a town in Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. The area of Beech Forest is largely used for potato farming. The town was named after the many Nothofagus cunninghamii, myrtle beech ...
as a
NKVD special camp The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (: ''Naródnyy komissariát vnútrennikh del''; ), abbreviated NKVD ( ), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union. Established in 1917 as NKVD of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republi ...
to imprison defeated Nazis and other Germans. The camp slogan remained . On 6 January 1950, the Soviets handed over Buchenwald to the
East German East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; german: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, , DDR, ), was a state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in New states of Germany, eastern Germany as part of the Eastern Bloc in the Cold War. C ...
Ministry of Internal Affairs An interior ministry (sometimes called ministry of internal affairs or ministry of home affairs) is a government ministry responsible for internal affairs, particularly public security, emergency management, civil registration and identification ...

Ministry of Internal Affairs
. In 1948, the East German government declared
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Erfurt
as Thuringia's new capital, and Weimar lost its influence on German contemporary culture and politics. (The state of Thuringia itself was dissolved in 1952 and replaced by three
Bezirk The German language, German term ''Bezirk'' (plural ''Bezirke'', derived from la, circulus, "circle") translated as "district" can refer to the following types of administrative divisions: * ''Stadtbezirk'', a subdivision of a city in the sense ...
e (districts) in a local government reform; Weimar belonged to the Bezirk of Erfurt.) The city was the headquarters of the Soviet Union's 8th Guards Army as part of the
Group of Soviet Forces in Germany The Western Group of Forces (WGF),. previously known as the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany (GSOFG). and the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (GSFG),. were the troops of the Soviet Army in East Germany. The Group of Soviet Occupati ...
. Due to its fame and importance for tourism, Weimar received more financial subsidies from the GDR government and remained in better condition than most East German cities. After German reunification in 1990, Weimar experienced significant economic hardship, but funding restored much that had deteriorated, and it was designated as a
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
in 1996 (Bauhaus) and 1998 (Classical Weimar). The
European Council of Ministers The Council of the European Union, often referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council, and informally known as the Council of Ministers, is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as ...
selected the city as
European Capital of Culture A European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as p ...

European Capital of Culture
for 1999. Tourism has become an important economic factor over the decades. Weimar is now a popular residence of people working in
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Erfurt
and
Jena Jena (; ) is a German city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...

Jena
, both less than 20 minutes away. In 2004, a fire broke out at the
Duchess Anna Amalia Library The Duchess Anna Amalia Library (German: ''Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek'') in Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located in Central Germany (cultural area), Central German ...
. The library contains a 13,000-volume collection including Goethe's masterpiece ''
Faust Faust is the protagonist 200px, Shakespeare's ''Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.'' William Morris Hunt, oil on canvas, c. 1864 A protagonist (from grc, πρωταγωνιστής, translit=prōtagōnistḗs, lit=one who plays the first part, chief ...
'', in addition to the duchess's music collection. An authentic
Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Jesus Christ and was founded by Martin Luther, a 16th-century German monk and Protestant Reformers, reformer whose efforts to reform the theology ...

Lutheran
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
from 1534 was saved from the fire. The library is one of the oldest in Europe, dating back to 1691, and is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Over one million volumes were housed in the library, of which forty to fifty thousand were damaged beyond repair. A number of books were shock-frozen in
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone), it surpasses the Saxon c ...

Leipzig
to save them from rotting. The library was reopened in 2007.


Geography and demographics


Topography

Weimar is situated within the valley of
Ilm Ilm or ILM may refer to: Acronyms * Identity Lifecycle Manager Microsoft Forefront Identity Manager (FIM) is a state-based identity management software product, designed to manage users' digital identities, credentials and groupings throughout ...
river, a tributary of
Saale The Saale (), also known as the Saxon Saale (german: Sächsische Saale) and Thuringian Saale (german: Thüringische Saale), is a river in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin ...

Saale
river on the southern border of the
Thuringian Basin The Thuringian Basin (german: Thüringer Becken) is a depression (geology), depression in the central and northwest part of Thuringia in Germany which is crossed by several rivers, the longest of which is the Unstrut. It stretches about from north ...
, a fertile agricultural area between the
Harz The Harz () is a highland area in northern Germany. It has the highest elevations for that region, and its rugged terrain extends across parts of Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is ...

Harz
mountains in the north and the
Thuringian Forest The Thuringian Forest (''Thüringer Wald'' in German language, German), is a mountain range in the southern parts of the Germany, German state of Thuringia, running northwest to southeast. Skirting from its southerly source in foothills to a gorg ...
in the southwest. The municipal terrain is hilly; the height of the city centre in Ilm valley is approximately 200 m of elevation. To the north, the terrain rises to Ettersberg, the city's backyard mountain, 482 m in height. The range of hills in the south of Weimar rises up to 370 m and is part of the Ilm Saale Plate Muschelkalk formation. The eastern, central and western parts of the municipal territory are in agricultural use, whereas the Ettersberg and some southern areas are wooded.


Climate

Weimar has a humid continental climate (Dfb) or an oceanic climate (''Cfb'') according to the Köppen climate classification system. ''(direct
Final Revised Paper
''
Summers are warm and sometimes humid with average high temperatures of and lows of . Winters are relatively cold with average high temperatures of and lows of . The city's topography creates a microclimate caused through the basin position with sometimes Inversion (meteorology), inversion in winter (quite cold nights under ). Annual precipitation is only with moderate rainfall throughout the year. Light snowfall occurs, mainly from December through February, but snow cover does not usually remain for long.


Administrative division

Weimar abuts the district of Weimarer Land with the municipalities Berlstedt, Ettersburg, Kleinobringen, Großobringen and Wohlsborn in the north, Kromsdorf, Umpferstedt and Mellingen, Germany, Mellingen in the east, Vollersroda, Buchfart, Hetschburg, Bad Berka and Troistedt in the south and Nohra, Daasdorf am Berge, Hopfgarten, Thuringia, Hopfgarten and Ottstedt am Berge in the west. The city itself is divided into 10 inner urban and 11 suburban districts. The centre is formed by the district ''Altstadt'' (old town) and the Gründerzeit districts ''Nordvorstadt'' in the north, ''Parkvorstadt'' in the east and ''Westvorstadt'' in the south and west. Later additions are ''Südstadt'' in the south and ''Schönblick'' in the southwest. Finally, there are the Plattenbau settlements, constructed during the East Germany, GDR period, ''Weststadt'' and ''Nordstadt'' as well as two industrial areas in the north and west. The 11 suburban districts are villages which became incorporated during the 20th century; however, they have mostly stayed rural to date: *Gaberndorf (incorporated in 1994) *Gelmeroda (1994) *Legefeld/Holzdorf (1994) *Niedergrunstedt (1994) *Oberweimar/Ehringsdorf (1922) *Possendorf (1994) *Schöndorf (1939) *Süßenborn (1994) *Taubach (1994) *Tiefurt (1922) *Tröbsdorf (1994)


Demographics

Over the centuries, Weimar remained a small town of less than 5,000 inhabitants. When it became the capital of
Saxe-Weimar Saxe-Weimar (german: Sachsen-Weimar) was one of the Saxon The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-lin ...
in 1572, population growth was stimulated and population increased from 3,000 in 1650 to 6,000 in 1750. Around the year 1800, Weimar had 7,000 inhabitants. Their number grew constantly over the years to 13,000 in 1850, 28,000 in 1900 and 35,000 at the beginning of World War I. During the interwar period, the new capital of Thuringia saw a population boom, which led to 65,000 inhabitants in 1940. Since that time, the population levels have stagnated. The years 2009 to 2012 brought a moderate growth of approximately 0.35% p. a., whereas the population in bordering rural regions is shrinking with accelerating tendency. Suburbanization played only a small role in Weimar. It occurred after the reunification for a short time in the 1990s, but most of the suburban areas were situated within the administrative city borders. The birth surplus was +3 in 2012, this is +0.0 per 1,000 inhabitants (Thuringian average: −4.5; national average: −2.4). The net migration rate was +4.5 per 1,000 inhabitants in 2012 (Thuringian average: -0.8; national average: +4.6). The most important regions of origin are rural areas of Thuringia, Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony as well as foreign countries like Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. Like other eastern German cities, Weimar has a relatively small foreign population (compared to the German average): circa 4.0% are non-Germans by citizenship, while 7.9% have a migrant background (according to 2011 EU census). Differing from the national average, the biggest groups of migrants in Weimar are Vietnamese people in Germany, Vietnamese people, Russians in Germany, Russians and Ukrainians in Germany, Ukrainians. During recent years, the economic situation of the city improved: the unemployment rate declined from 20% in 2005 to 5.1% in 2019. Due to the official atheism in the former East Germany, GDR, most of the population is non-religious. 21.1% are members of the Evangelical Church in Central Germany and 6.8% are Catholics (according to 2011 EU census).


Culture, sights and cityscape


World Heritage Sites

Two World Heritage Sites converge in Weimar: *The Classical Weimar (World Heritage Site), Classical Weimar World Heritage Site consists of 11 sites related to Weimar as a European centre of the Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. *The Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar, Dessau and Bernau World Heritage Site comprises six separate sites, two in Weimar, which are associated with the
Bauhaus The Staatliches Bauhaus (), commonly known as the Bauhaus (German: "building house"), was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German an ...

Bauhaus
art school, which had a revolutionary influence on 20th century architectural and aesthetic thinking and practice.


Museums

Weimar has a great variety of museums: * The ''Goethe-Nationalmuseum'' at Frauenplan shows the life of
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of G ...

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
in his former residence. * Goethe's garden house in the ''Park an der Ilm'' shows an exhibition about Goethe and his connection to nature. * The ''Schiller-Museum'' at Schillerstraße shows the life of
Friedrich Schiller Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (, short: ; 10 November 17599 May 1805) was a Germans, German playwright, poet, and philosopher. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788–1805), Schiller developed a productive, if complicated, ...

Friedrich Schiller
in his former residence. * The ''Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv'' at Hans-Wahl-Straße collects the estate of Goethe, Schiller and other various artists. In 2001, it became a member of the UNESCO Memory of the World Programme. * The ''Wittumspalais'' at Theaterplatz shows early-modern court lifestyle with items like furniture and porcelain. * The ''Liszt-Haus'' at Marienstraße shows the life of
Franz Liszt Franz Liszt (; hu, Liszt Ferencz, link=no, in modern usage ''Liszt Ferenc'' ; 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a Hungarian composer, virtuoso A virtuoso (from Italian ''virtuoso'' or , "virtuous", Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas ...

Franz Liszt
in his former summer residence. * The ''Nietzsche-Archiv'' at Humboldtstraße shows the life and estate of
Friedrich Nietzsche Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (; or ; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as thos ...

Friedrich Nietzsche
. * The ''Gedenkstätte Buchenwald'' in former
Buchenwald concentration camp Buchenwald (; literally 'beech forest Beech Forest is a town in Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. The area of Beech Forest is largely used for potato farming. The town was named after the many Nothofagus cunninghamii, myrtle beech ...
commemorates the victims of Nazi terror. * The ''Bauhaus Museum, Weimar, Bauhaus-Museum'' at Theaterplatz shows an exhibition about the
Bauhaus The Staatliches Bauhaus (), commonly known as the Bauhaus (German: "building house"), was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German an ...

Bauhaus
design school. * The ''Schlossmuseum'' inside the residence castle exhibits early-modern antiques and other objects of court life. * The ''
Duchess Anna Amalia Library The Duchess Anna Amalia Library (German: ''Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek'') in Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located in Central Germany (cultural area), Central German ...
'' at Platz der Demokratie is an important early-modern library with various print objects. * The ''Neues Museum'' at Weimarplatz shows an exhibition of contemporary art. * The ''Stadtmuseum'' at Karl-Liebknecht-Straße exhibits the municipal history of Weimar. * The ''Kunsthalle Harry Graf Kessler'' at Goetheplatz hosts rotating exhibitions of contemporary artists. * The ''
Haus am Horn The Haus am Horn is a domestic house in Weimar, Germany, designed by Georg Muche. It was built for the Bauhaus ''Werkschau'' (English: ''Work show'') exhibition which ran from July to September 1923. It was the first building based on Bauhaus desi ...
'' at Am Horn street was the first building designed entirely on the design principles of the Bauhaus art school. * The ''Weimarer Fürstengruft, Fürstengruft'' at the historic cemetery is a mausoleum of famous Weimar citizens like Goethe and Schiller as well as the dukes of Saxe-Weimar. * The ''Museum für Ur- und Frühgeschichte Thüringens'' (museum of pre- and protohistory of Thuringia) at Humboldtstraße exhibits various objects of early Thuringian history such as archaeological finds. * The ''Deutsches Bienenmuseum'' (German bee museum) at Ilmstraße in Oberweimar district hosts the only pure exhibition about bees and apiculture in Germany. File:030430-goethehaus.jpg, Goethe-Nationalmuseum File:Schiller Weimar.jpg, Schiller-Museum File:Goethe-Schiller-Archiv Weimar.JPG, Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv File:Bauhaus Museum Weimar 01.JPG, Bauhaus-Museum File:Neues Museum Weimar2.JPG, Neues Museum File:Stadtmuseum Weimar im Bertuchhaus.jpg, Stadtmuseum File:Museum für Ur- und Frühgeschichte Thüringens (Westansicht).jpg, Museum für Ur- und Frühgeschichte Thüringens


Cityscape

The historic city centre of Weimar is situated between the Ilm river in the east, Grabenstraße in the north, Goetheplatz and Theaterplatz in the west and Schillerstraße in the south. Its two central squares are the Marktplatz in the south (with the town hall) and the Herderplatz in the north (with the main church). Despite its medieval origin, there are only a few medieval buildings, many being destroyed by frequent fires throughout the city's history. Most buildings in this area date back to the 17th and 18th century. Furthermore, Weimar has two old suburbs: in the north, the ''Jakobsvorstadt'' around St. James' Church (medieval origin) and another one in the south around Frauenplan square. The majority of buildings in these areas are also of 17th- and 18th-century origin. During the late 19th and early 20th century, Weimar grew in all directions. Because of its function as an "officials' city", the houses in these areas are more substantial than in many comparable Gründerzeit quarters in Germany. The most uptown areas are those right and left of the ''Park an der Ilm'' in the southeast, whereas the western and northern quarters are more basic and mixed with industrial areas in their outer parts. During the GDR period, two new Plattenbau settlements were developed in the west and the north of the city. After 1990, suburbanization occurred for a short time and the rural districts of Weimar saw significant growth as part of the larger city.


Sights and architectural heritage


Religious buildings

The city's main church is the Evangelical St. Peter und Paul, Weimar, St. Peter and Paul on the Herderplatz (known as Die Herderkirche). It was rebuilt in late Gothic style after a fire around 1500. Between 1726 and 1735, the interior underwent a Baroque remodelling by Johann Adolf Richter. Johann Gottfried Herder was the dean of the church between 1766 and 1803. The second old Evangelical church of Weimar is St. James on Rollplatz, rebuilt in 1712 in Baroque style. The Roman Catholic parish church of Weimar is dedicated to the Sacred Heart and was built between 1888 and 1891 in historicist forms imitating Florence Cathedral. Another church is the Russian Orthodox Chapel within the historic cemetery. It was built in 1862 as the funerary chapel of Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia (1786–1859), Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna and was one of the first Russian-styled buildings in Germany. Interesting churches in the suburban districts are the Lutheran parish church of Gelmeroda, which was the inspiration for many paintings by
Lyonel Feininger Lyonel Charles Feininger (July 17, 1871January 13, 1956) was a German-American painter, and a leading exponent of Expressionism Expressionism is a modernist , Solomon Guggenheim Museum 1946–1959 Modernism is both a philosophy, philosoph ...
, and the Lutheran parish church of Oberweimar, which was a former monastery, and is a good example of Gothic architecture in Weimar. File:Weimar Stadtkirche Peter Pa.jpg, St. Peter and Paul's Church File:Die Jakobskirche in Weimar.jpg, St. James' Church File:Herz-Jesu-Kirche Weimar2.JPG, Sacred Heart Church File:Russ orthodoxe kirche we2.JPG, Russian-Orthodox Chapel File:GelmerodaKirche1.JPG, Gelmeroda Parish Church File:Kirche Oberweimar.jpg, Oberweimar Parish Church


Castles and palaces

Due to its function as a ducal residence, Weimar is rich in early-modern castles and palaces. The biggest one is the ''Schloss Weimar, Stadtschloss'' at Burgplatz in the city centre. Today's four-wing building was started after a great fire in 1774. The tower and the Bastille building at its south-western edge are relics of older castles in this place. The ''Fürstenhaus'' at Platz der Demokratie was the first parliament building in Weimar, established in the 1770s. Today it is in use by the Weimar School of Music. The ''Green Castle'' next to the Fürstenhaus was built in the 1560s in Renaissance style and hosts today the
Duchess Anna Amalia Library The Duchess Anna Amalia Library (German: ''Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek'') in Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located in Central Germany (cultural area), Central German ...
. The ''Yellow Castle'' at Grüner Markt was built in 1703 and is the municipal library today. The neighbouring ''Red Castle'' is also part of the library and was built in the 1570s. The ''Wittumspalais'' is a smaller widow mansion near Theaterplatz, established in 1768. Outbildings of the ducal residence are the ''Husarenstall'' (1770), the later residence of Charlotte von Stein at Ackerwand street, the ''Marstall'' (1870s) at Kegelplatz, today used as Thuringian State Archive and the ''Reithaus'' (1710s) within the ''Park an der Ilm''. File:Weimar, castello 06.JPG, Court of the Stadtschloss File:Weimar Fürstenhaus 2012.jpg, Fürstenhaus File:Weimar Grünes Schloss (HAAB).jpg, Green Castle File:Rotes Schloss in Weimar.jpg, Red Castle File:Weimar Wittumspalais2.jpg, Wittumspalais File:Weimar Charlotte von Stein.jpg, Husarenstall File:Reithaus im Ilmpark.jpg, Reithaus Furthermore, there are some impressive ducal country residences around Weimar. They are marked by their beautiful parks and gardens. Schloss Belvedere, Weimar, Schloss Belvedere, south-east of Weimar was built between 1724 and 1732 in Baroque style with an orangery near to a ducal hunting forest. North-east of Weimar, at Ettersburg lies another ducal hunting lodge next to the Ettersberg mountain and its forest. It was established between 1706 and 1711 also in Baroque style. The third summer residence, Schloss Tiefurt, is located in Tiefurt, north-east of Weimar. The small lodge in a wide park in Ilm valley was rebuilt in 1775 in late-Baroque forms. File:Belvedere weimar1.jpg, Schloss Belvedere, main building File:Beethovenhaus & Bachhaus des Schloss Belvedere (Weimar).jpg, Schloss Belvedere, side buildings File:Schloss Ettersburg.JPG, Schloss Ettersburg File:Schloss Tiefurt.JPG, Schloss Tiefurt


Other sights

* The town hall at Marktplatz was built between 1837 and 1841 in Neo-Gothic style by ''Heinrich Heß'' after the former one (15th-century) burnt down. * The two main buildings of Bauhaus University at Marienstraße are icons of 20th-century early-modern architecture. Both were built by
Henry van de Velde Henry Clemens van de Velde (; 3 April 1863 – 15 October 1957) was a Belgian Belgian may refer to: * Something of, or related to, Belgium Belgium, ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in ...
between 1904 and 1911. They mark the transition from older Historicism and Art Nouveau to the new international modern style in Germany by their functional forms (e. g. skylights for better working conditions inside). * The German National Theatre at Theaterplatz was built in 1906/07 in neo-classicist forms. Two predecessors were in use after 1779 and 1825 as ducal court theatres during Weimar's golden age. In 1919, the Weimar National Assembly developed the Weimar Constitution in this theatre. * The ''Gauforum'' at Weimarplatz is a Roman-fascist style representative government district between the city centre and the main station. This Gauforum, designed by
Hermann Giesler Hermann Giesler (2 April 1898, Siegen – 20 January 1987, Düsseldorf) was a German architect during the Nazi era, one of the two architects most favoured and rewarded by Adolf Hitler (the other being Albert Speer). Early life and World War ...
, was the only realized Nazi government district outside Berlin (whereas there were plans for all German state capitals). Today it hosts the Thuringian Administration State Department. * The ''Park an der Ilm'' is the city's largest park along
Ilm Ilm or ILM may refer to: Acronyms * Identity Lifecycle Manager Microsoft Forefront Identity Manager (FIM) is a state-based identity management software product, designed to manage users' digital identities, credentials and groupings throughout ...
river between the ducal palace and the district of Oberweimar. It was established between 1778 and 1833 and is an English landscape garden today, part of UNESCO world heritage. Sights inside the park are ''Goethe's garden house'' (1690s) and ''Römisches Haus'' (in the style of a Roman temple, 1790s). * The Historic Cemetery at Karl-Haußknecht-Straße was opened in 1818 and hosts the graves of Goethe, Schiller and many other famous people from Weimar. * The ''Goethe-Schiller-Denkmal'' at Theaterplatz is the most famous memorial in Weimar. It was made by Ernst Rietschel between 1852 and 1857 and is dedicated to Goethe and Schiller, the most important poets of German classical literature. * A rather unknown monument is the Lenin-light-box inside the theatre hall "La Redoute". It's a copy of a stained window by Alexander Leonidovich Korolev that shows Lenin in Petrograd. (today: St. Petersburg). File:Rathaus, Weimar - 1.jpg, Town hall File:Bauhaus University Weimar 03.JPG, Southern main building of Bauhaus University File:Van-de-Velde-Bau in Weimar (Südgiebel).jpg, Northern main building of Bauhaus University File:Theater Weimar.JPG, Theatre and Goethe-Schiller-Denkmal File:Weimar - Goethe und Schiller Statuen am Theaterplatz.jpg, Goethe-Schiller-Denkmal File:Gauforum Weimar Westseite.JPG, One building of the Gauforum File:Römisches Haus im Park an der Ilm (Weimar).jpg, The Römisches Haus in Park an der Ilm


Events

The Onion Market (Weimarer Zwiebelmarkt) is an annual festival held in October in Weimar and it is Thuringia's largest festival. The festival is held over 3 days and approximately 500 stalls and more than 100 stage performances are put up across the city. Weimar first celebrated the Onion Market in 1653. Stalls typically offer onion plaits, themed arts and crafts and numerous onion-based foods, including onion cakes, onion soups and onion breads. The festival also hosts numerous beer gardens, live music, fairground attractions and a Ferris wheel. There are several clubs with live music once or twice a week. There is also a student club in the city centre which also features disco and live music events on Friday- and Saturday nights (Kasseturm). There are several smaller theatre and cabaret venues other than the large "DNT" (Deutsches National Theater). There are four cinemas including a 3-D cinema, and a Bowling Alley in the Weimar Atrium, the local mall.


Economy and infrastructure


Agriculture, industry and services

The area around Weimar is relatively fertile and 48% of the municipal surface are used for agricultural production. Most common agricultures are cereals, maize and rapeseed, while famous agricultural products from the Weimar region are potatoes (especially from Heichelheim, to the north) for dishes with :de:Thüringer Klöße, Thuringian dumplings (Knödel from potatoes), onions (from Heldrungen and Oldisleben, to the north), which are sold at Weimar Onion Market in October, and Saale-Unstrut wine from
Bad Sulza Bad Sulza is a town in the Weimarer Land district, in Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth sma ...

Bad Sulza
, to the north-east. Industry has never been dominant in Weimar, nevertheless there were several big factories from different sectors until 1990. After reunification, nearly all factories got closed, either because they failed the adoption of free market economy or because the German government sold them to west German businessmen who closed them to avoid competition to their own enterprises. On the other hand, the federal government started early in the 1990s to subsidize the foundation of new companies, but it took long time before the economic situation got stabilized around 2006. Since this time, unemployment decreased and overall, new jobs develop. Today, there are many small and medium-sized companies in Weimar with electro-technics and engineering in focus. Nevertheless, settlement of new factories isn't much in focus of the local government, because it concentrates itself on developing tourism and services. The biggest companies with production in Weimar are Bayer (pharmaceutical factory), The Coca-Cola Company, Coca-Cola (beverages) and Hydrema (dump truck factory). A new big commercial zone was established in the 1990s in the neighbouring municipality of Nohra with focus on logistics and distribution. Due to its tradition as a capital, Weimar is a centre of governmental services to date. Furthermore, creative branches like media, advertising, architecture and design are important for Weimar's economy. The most important sector is tourism with 3,500 hotel beds, 350,000 visitors and 650,000 overnight stays in hotels in 2012 and a large number of German one-day visitors. Other services like retail, trade fairs and specialized hospitals are more brought by the near neighbour cities Erfurt and Jena with their infrastructure.


Transport


By rail

Weimar is connected by the
Thuringian Railway Thuringian is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part of High German languages, High German. Present-day Standard German as a High G ...
to
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone), it surpasses the Saxon c ...

Leipzig
in the east and to Frankfurt/Kassel in the west. Furthermore, there are some regional railways to Gera via
Jena Jena (; ) is a German city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...

Jena
and to Kranichfeld via Bad Berka. Today, there are long-distance trains to Frankfurt via
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Erfurt
and Fulda and to
Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony and its second most populous city, after Leipzig. It is the List of cities in German ...

Dresden
via Leipzig and regional trains to Göttingen and Eisenach via Erfurt, to Halle (Saale), Halle via Naumburg (Saale), Naumburg, to Altenburg, Glauchau, Zwickau and Greiz via
Jena Jena (; ) is a German city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...

Jena
and Gera and to Kranichfeld. When the new Erfurt–Leipzig/Halle high-speed railway will open (in 2015), Weimar will be disconnected from the German long-distance train network. However the regional train service will be augmented to connect Weimar with Intercity-Express, ICE-stops in Erfurt, Halle and Leipzig. In freight transport exists an Intermodal freight transport, intermodal terminal in Vieselbach ''(Güterverkehrszentrum/GVZ)'' with connection to rail and Autobahn, west of Weimar.


By road

Weimar is located at the Bundesautobahn 4 (Frankfurt–
Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony and its second most populous city, after Leipzig. It is the List of cities in German ...

Dresden
). Furthermore, there are two federal roads to Erfurt and Jena (Bundesstraße 7) and to Rudolstadt and Kölleda (Bundesstraße 85) as well as some regional roads to Sömmerda, Oßmannstedt and Magdala. A bypass road around Weimar was built in the 2000s in the north and west; the eastern and southern continuation are in discussion, but not in definite planning because of some difficulties in routing.


By aviation

The Erfurt-Weimar Airport lies approximately west of Weimar. It was largely extended in the 1990s, but the anticipated rise in passengers did not occur so that there is only rare air traffic, mostly to Mediterranean holiday regions. Other flights are carried out via Frankfurt Airport, which can be reached in 3 hours, and in the future via Berlin Brandenburg Airport, which is scheduled to open in 2020 and is about 3 hours away.


By bike

Biking is becoming more popular since the construction of quality cycle tracks began in the 1990s. For tourism, there are the ''Ilm track'' and the ''Thuringian city string track (Radweg Thüringer Städtekette)''. Both connect points of tourist interest, the first along the
Ilm Ilm or ILM may refer to: Acronyms * Identity Lifecycle Manager Microsoft Forefront Identity Manager (FIM) is a state-based identity management software product, designed to manage users' digital identities, credentials and groupings throughout ...
valley from the
Thuringian Forest The Thuringian Forest (''Thüringer Wald'' in German language, German), is a mountain range in the southern parts of the Germany, German state of Thuringia, running northwest to southeast. Skirting from its southerly source in foothills to a gorg ...
to the
Saale The Saale (), also known as the Saxon Saale (german: Sächsische Saale) and Thuringian Saale (german: Thüringische Saale), is a river in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin ...

Saale
river and the second close to medieval
Via Regia The Via Regia (Royal Highway) is a European Cultural Route A Culture Route of the Council of Europe, sometimes referred to as a European Cultural Route, is a certification awarded by the Council of Europe The Council of Europe (CoE) (fre ...
from Eisenach via Gotha,
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Erfurt
, Weimar, and
Jena Jena (; ) is a German city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...

Jena
to Altenburg. Additionally, there are themed routes like the Goethe cycle track and the Feininger cycle track. For inner city everyday traffic, some cycle lanes exist along several main streets. Bike rental is offered in the city centre.


Bus service

For a small city, Weimar is well served by city bus routes, which also serve all of the surrounding towns and villages. An hourly bus route serves the Buchenwald Memorial and Classic car, oldtimer buses operate in the city's historical centre. All bus routes are connected at Goethe Square in the city centre, and many also serve the main railway station. Trams served the city from 1899 to 1937. Trolleybus service started in 1948 and was discontinued in 1993.


Education

After the reunification, the educational system was realigned. Some academies were combined into the new Bauhaus University, founded in 1996 with approximately 4,200 students and focus on architecture, design and media. The Liszt School of Music is a university focussed on music and music education founded in 1872 with 850 students today. Furthermore, there are three regular Gymnasium (Germany), Gymnasiums, the ''Musikgymnasium Schloss Belvedere'', an elite boarding school with focus on music, and the Thuringia International School with an international (and foreign language) curriculum. The most important archives in Weimar are the ''Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv'' (member of UNESCO Memory of the World Programme) with focus on German literary history and the Thuringia Main State Archive with governmental documents from last 500 years. The
Duchess Anna Amalia Library The Duchess Anna Amalia Library (German: ''Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek'') in Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located in Central Germany (cultural area), Central German ...
hosts books and documents of German literary and cultural history.


Politics


Mayor and city council

The most recent mayoral election was held on 15 April 2018, and the results were as follows: ! colspan=2, Candidate ! Party ! Votes ! % , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Peter Kleine , align=left, Independent politician, Independent (Christian Democratic Union of Germany, CDU/Weimarwerk) , 15,069 , 60.3 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Stefan Wolf , align=left, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democratic Party , 5,359 , 21.5 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Jan Kreyßig , align=left, Alliance 90/The Greens , 3,800 , 15.2 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Hagen Hultzsch , align=left, Free Democratic Party (Germany), Free Democratic Party , 745 , 3.0 , - ! colspan=3, Valid votes ! 24,973 ! 99.1 , - ! colspan=3, Invalid votes ! 232 ! 0.9 , - ! colspan=3, Total ! 25,205 ! 100.0 , - ! colspan=3, Electorate/voter turnout ! 51,778 ! 48.7 , - , colspan=5, Source
Wahlen in Thüringen
The most recent city council election was held on 26 May 2019, and the results were as follows: ! colspan=2, Party ! Lead candidate ! Votes ! % ! +/- ! Seats ! +/- , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne) , align=left, Ann-Sophie Bohm-Eisenbrandt , 16,830 , 18.5 , 3.0 , 8 , 1 , - , , align=left, Weimarwerk Citizens' Alliance , align=left, Wolfgang Hölzer , 16,325 , 17.9 , 3.5 , 7 , 1 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christian Democratic Union (CDU) , align=left, Peter Krause , 15,972 , 17.5 , 6.1 , 7 , 3 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, The Left (Germany), The Left (Die Linke) , align=left, Jana Körber , 14,812 , 16.2 , 3.2 , 7 , 1 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democratic Party (SPD) , align=left, Thomas Hartung , 12,050 , 13.2 , 4.9 , 6 , 2 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Alternative for Germany (AfD) , align=left, Heike Gnatowski , 10,074 , 11.0 , New , 5 , New , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Free Democratic Party (Germany), Free Democratic Party (FDP) , align=left, Hagen Hultzsch , 3,322 , 3.6 , 0.4 , 1 , ±0 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Pirate Party Germany (Piraten) , align=left, Oliver Kröning , 1,797 , 2.0 , 0.9 , 1 , ±0 , - ! colspan=3, Valid votes ! 30,686 ! 96.4 ! ! ! , - ! colspan=3, Invalid votes ! 1,155 ! 3.6 ! ! ! , - ! colspan=3, Total ! 31,841 ! 100.0 ! ! 42 ! ±0 , - ! colspan=3, Electorate/voter turnout ! 51,736 ! 61.5 ! 11.9 ! ! , - , colspan=8, Source
Wahlen in Thüringen


Lord Mayor

List of mayors and lord mayors (since 1793) The years behind the names indicate the years of office, whereby the year of office did not correspond to the calendar year. Since 1838, the city has had a lord mayor. * 1793–1797: Johann Heinrich Siegmund Rentsch * 1798–1811: * 1811–1813: Daniel Wilhelm Brunnquell * 1813: * 1814–1820: Bernhard Friedrich Rudolph Kuhn * 1820–1838: * 1838–1850: Carl Georg Hase * 1851–1866: * 1867–1873: Otto Schäffer * 1873–1875: (conservative) * 1875–1910: Karl Pabst (liberal) * 1910–1920: (non-party) * 1920–1937: (non-party) * 1937–1945: (Nazi Party, NSDAP) * 15–30 April 1945: (non-party) * 1 April–5 November 1945: (SPD) * 1945–1946: (SPD/Socialist Unity Party of Germany, SED) * 1946–1948: Gerhard Hempel (Liberal Democratic Party of Germany, LDP) * 1948–1953: (CDU) * 1953–1959: (CDU) * 1960–1969: Luitpold Steidle (CDU) * 1969–1970: (CDU) * 1970–1982: (CDU) * 1982–1989: (CDU) * 1989–1990: (acting) (SED) * 6–2 June. July 1990: Wolfgang Hentzschel (CDU) * 27 July 1990 – 1994: Klaus Büttner (CDU) * 1994–2006: Volkhardt Germer (non-party) * 2006–2018: (SPD) * since 1 July 2018: Peter Kleine (independent, for CDU and Weimarwerk Civic Alliance)


Twin towns – sister cities

Weimar is Sister city, twinned with: * Blois, France * Hämeenlinna, Finland * Siena, Italy * Trier, Germany * Zamość, Poland


Friendly cities

Weimar also has friendly relations with: * Fulda, Germany * Kamakura, Japan * Shiraz, Iran


Notable residents of Weimar


References


Further reading

*


External links

*
Historic tour in 49 pictures

Deutsches Nationaltheater (German National Theater)

The Weimar Story

Ginkgo Museum, Weimar


{{Authority control Weimar, World Heritage Sites in Germany Landmarks in Germany Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Bezirk Erfurt Holocaust locations in Germany