Wadi ( ar|وَادِي|wādī), alternatively ''wād'' ( ar|وَاد), North African Arabic
Oued, is the Arabic term traditionally referring to a valley
. In some instances, it may refer to a dry (ephemeral
that contains water only when heavy rain
The term ' is very widely found in Arabic toponym
s. Some Spanish toponyms are derived from Andalusian Arabic
where ' was used to mean a permanent river, for example: Guadalcanal
from ''wādī al-qanāl'' ( ar|وَادِي الْقَنَال, "river of refreshment stalls"), Guadalajara
from ''wādī al-ḥijārah'' ( ar|وَادِي الْحِجَارَة, "river of stones"), or Guadalquivir
, from ''al-wādī al-kabīr'' ( ar|اَلْوَادِي الْكَبِير, "the great river").
General morphology and processes
Wadis are located on gently sloping, nearly flat parts of deserts; commonly they begin on the distal portions of alluvial fans
and extend to inland sabkha
s or dry lakes
. In basin and range topography
, wadis trend along basin axes at the terminus of fans. Permanent channels do not exist, due to lack of continual water flow. Wadis have braided stream
patterns because of the deficiency of water and the abundance of sediment
s. Water percolates down into the stream bed, causing an abrupt loss of energy and resulting in vast deposition. Wadis may develop dams of sediment that change the stream patterns in the next flash flood
Wind also causes sediment deposition. When wadi sediments are underwater or moist, wind sediments are deposited over them. Thus, wadi sediments contain both wind and water sediments.
Sediments and sedimentary structures
Wadi sediments may contain a range of material, from gravel to mud, and the sedimentary structures vary widely. Thus, wadi sediments are the most diverse of all desert environments.
Flash floods result from severe energy conditions and can result in a wide range of sedimentary structures, including ripples and common plane beds. Gravels commonly display imbrications
, and mud drapes show desiccation cracks. Wind activity also generates sedimentary structures, including large-scale cross-stratification and wedge-shaped cross-sets. A typical wadi sequence consists of alternating units of wind and water sediments; each unit ranging from about . Sediment laid by water shows complete fining upward sequence. Gravels show imbrication. Wind deposits are cross-stratified and covered with mud-cracked deposits. Some horizontal loess
may also be present.
Modern English usage differentiates wadis from canyons
by the action and prevalence of water. Wadis, as drainage courses, are formed by water, but are distinguished from river valleys or gullies in that surface water is intermittent or ephemeral. Wadis are generally dry year round, except after a rain. The desert environment is characterized by sudden but infrequent heavy rainfall, often resulting in flash flood
s. Crossing wadis at certain times of the year can be dangerous as a result.
Wadis tend to be associated with centers of human population because sub-surface water is sometimes available in them. Nomadic and pastoral desert peoples will rely on seasonal vegetation found in wadis, even in regions as dry as the Sahara
, as they travel in complex transhumance
The centrality of wadis to water — and human life — in desert environments gave birth to the distinct sub-field of wadi hydrology in the 1990s.
Deposition in a wadi is rapid because of the sudden loss of stream velocity
and seepage of water into the porous sediment. Wadi deposits are thus usually mixed gravels and sands. These sediments are often altered by eolian
Over time, wadi deposits may become "inverted wadis," where former underground water caused vegetation and sediment to fill in the eroded channel, turning previous washes into ridges running through desert regions.
File:Wadi Bani Khalid East RB.jpg|Wadi Bani Khalid in the Northern Governorate of Ash-Sharqiyyah Region, Oman,
File:NachalParan1.jpg|Wadi in Nahal Paran, Negev, Israel
File:Oued Tissint.jpg|Oued Tissint, Morocco, North Africa
File:Dry riverbed and basalt columns (Namibia).jpg|Dry fluvial channel cutting through columnar basalt in Namibia, southern Africa
File:Al Bithnah Fort viewed from the Wadi Ham.jpg|The Al Bithnah Fort in the Wadi Ham, United Arab Emirates.
File:Wadi Shawka looking North.jpg|The Wadi Shawkah in the United Arab Emirates.
File:Wadi Maydaq at Marbad.jpg|The Wadi Maydaq, in the United Arab Emirates.
File:Wadi Helo - Eisa Al Thahabi's House.jpg|Ruined farmhouse in the Wadi Helo, United Arab Emirates.
File:Wadi Qor.jpg|The Wadi Qor in the United Arab Emirates.
File:Wadi Asimah trippers.jpg|The Wadi Asimah in the United Arab Emirates.
File:Wadi Esfai Water Damage.jpg|A road washed away by the powerful winter flash floods of the Wadi Esfai, United Arab Emirates.
File:Wadi Hayl.jpg|The Wadi Hayl in Fujairah, United Arab Emirates.
File:Wadi Hilu 1.jpg|The important heritage site of Wadi Helo spans both Sharjah and Fujairah, United Arab Emirates.
* in the Sinai peninsula, holy Muslim site
Summary: Drainage Courses, Wadis
United States Army Corps of Engineers. Desert Processes Working Group; Knowledge Sciences, Inc. (n.d), retrieved 2008-08-26.
United States Army Corps of Engineers. Desert Processes Working Group; Knowledge Sciences, Inc. (n.d), retrieved 2008-08-2onments
* Gelennie, K. W., 1970 Deserts sedimentary Environments. Developments in Sedimentology, v.14. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 222p.
IHP REGIONAL WADI HYDROLOGY NETWORK International Hydrological Programme
Arab Center for Studies of Arid Zones and Dry lands (ACSAD)
Water resources division.
Category:Dry or seasonal streams
Category:Canyons and gorges
Category:Arabic words and phrases