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Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of
volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical body, object, such as the trajectory of a planet a ...

volcano
es,
lava Lava is magma once it has been expelled from the interior of a terrestrial planet (such as Earth) or a Natural satellite, moon onto its surface. Lava may be erupted at a volcano or through a Fissure vent, fracture in the Crust (geology), crust, ...

lava
,
magma Magma () is the molten or semi-molten natural material from which all igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ''ignis'' meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main The three types of rocks, rock types, the others ...

magma
and related
geological Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which th ...

geological
,
geophysical Geophysics () is a subject of natural science Natural science is a Branches of science, branch of science concerned with the description, understanding and prediction of Phenomenon, natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observa ...
and
geochemical Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans. The realm of geochemistry extends beyond the Earth, encompassing the en ...
phenomena (
volcanism Volcanism (or volcanicity) is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the Earth#Surface, surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called ...
). The term ''volcanology'' is derived from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...
word ''
vulcan Vulcan may refer to: Mythology * Vulcan (mythology), the god of fire, volcanoes, metalworking, and the forge in Roman mythology Arts, entertainment and media Film and television * Vulcan (Star Trek), Vulcan (''Star Trek''), name of a fictional rac ...
''. Vulcan was the ancient
Roman god Roman mythology is the body of myths Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include o ...
of fire. A
volcanologist A volcanologist, or volcano scientist, is a geologist A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes Earth and other terrestrial planets, as well as the processes that shape them. Geologists usu ...
is a
geologist A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes Earth and other terrestrial planets, as well as the processes that shape them. Geologists usually study geology, although backgrounds in physics, chem ...

geologist
who studies the eruptive activity and formation of volcanoes and their current and historic eruptions. Volcanologists frequently visit volcanoes, especially active ones, to observe
volcanic eruption Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava Lava is magma once it has been expelled from the interior of a terrestrial planet (such as Earth) or a Natural satellite, moon onto its surface. Lava may be erupted at a volcano or t ...

volcanic eruption
s, collect eruptive products including
tephra Tephra is fragmental material produced by a volcanic eruption Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava Lava is magma once it has been expelled from the interior of a terrestrial planet (such as Earth) or a Natural sa ...

tephra
(such as
ash Ash or ashes are the solid remnants of fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction Product (chemistry), products. Fire is hot because th ...
or
pumice Pumice (), called pumicite in its powdered or dust form, is a volcanic rock Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a formed from erupted from a . In other words, it differs from other by being of origin. ...

pumice
),
rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and the way in w ...
and
lava Lava is magma once it has been expelled from the interior of a terrestrial planet (such as Earth) or a Natural satellite, moon onto its surface. Lava may be erupted at a volcano or through a Fissure vent, fracture in the Crust (geology), crust, ...

lava
samples. One major focus of enquiry is the prediction of eruptions; there is currently no accurate way to do this, but predicting eruptions, like predicting earthquakes, could save many lives.


Modern volcanology

image:Icelandic tephra.JPG, Volcanologist examining
tephra Tephra is fragmental material produced by a volcanic eruption Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava Lava is magma once it has been expelled from the interior of a terrestrial planet (such as Earth) or a Natural sa ...

tephra
horizons in south-central Iceland. In 1841, the first volcanological observatory, the
Vesuvius Observatory The Vesuvius Observatory ( it, Osservatorio Vesuviano) is the surveillance centre for monitoring the three volcanic areas of Campania, Italy: Mount Vesuvius, the Phlegrean Fields and Ischia. Founded in 1841 on the slopes of Mount Vesuvius by Ferdin ...
, was founded in the
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( nap, Regno d’ ’e Ddoje Sicilie; scn, Regnu dî Dui Sicili; it, Regno delle Due Sicilie; es, Reino de las Dos Sicilias) was a kingdom located in Southern Italy from 1816 to 1860. The kingdom was the larg ...
. Seismic observations are made using
seismograph A seismometer is an instrument that responds to ground motions, such as caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and explosions. Seismometers are usually combined with a timing device and a recording device to form a seismograph. The output of ...
s deployed near volcanic areas, watching out for increased seismicity during volcanic events, in particular looking for long period harmonic tremors, which signal
magma Magma () is the molten or semi-molten natural material from which all igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ''ignis'' meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main The three types of rocks, rock types, the others ...

magma
movement through volcanic conduits.Robert Decker and Barbara Decker, ''Volcanoes,'' 4th ed., W. H. Freeman, 2005, Surface deformation monitoring includes the use of geodetic techniques such as leveling, tilt, strain, angle and distance measurements through tiltmeters, total stations and EDMs. This also includes GNSS observations and InSAR. Surface deformation indicates magma upwelling: increased magma supply produces bulges in the volcanic center's surface. Gas emissions may be monitored with equipment including portable ultra-violet spectrometers (COSPEC, now superseded by the miniDOAS), which analyzes the presence of
volcanic gas Volcanic gases are gases given off by active (or, at times, by dormant) volcanoes. These include gases trapped in cavities ( vesicles) in volcanic rock Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a Rock (geo ...
es such as
sulfur dioxide Sulfur dioxide (IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering OrganizationsNational Adhering Organizations in chemistry are the organizations that work as the autho ...
; or by infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). Increased gas emissions, and more particularly changes in gas compositions, may signal an impending volcanic eruption. Temperature changes are monitored using thermometers and observing changes in thermal properties of volcanic lakes and vents, which may indicate upcoming activity.Peter Francis and Clive Oppenheimer, ''Volcanoes'', Oxford University Press, USA 2003, 2nd ed.,
Satellite In the context of spaceflight Spaceflight (or space flight) is an application of astronautics to fly spacecraft into or through outer space, either human spaceflight, with or uncrewed spaceflight, without humans on board. Most spaceflight ...

Satellite
s are widely used to monitor volcanoes, as they allow a large area to be monitored easily. They can measure the spread of an ash plume, such as the one from
Eyjafjallajökull Eyjafjallajökull (; ) is one of the smaller ice caps of Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic countries, Nordic island country in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, with a population of 356,991 and an area of , making it ...

Eyjafjallajökull
's 2010 eruption, as well as SO2 emissions. InSAR and thermal imaging can monitor large, scarcely populated areas where it would be too expensive to maintain instruments on the ground. Other (electrical, gravity and magnetic observations) include monitoring fluctuations and sudden change in resistivity, gravity anomalies or magnetic anomaly patterns that may indicate volcano-induced faulting and magma upwelling. includes analyzing
tephra Tephra is fragmental material produced by a volcanic eruption Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava Lava is magma once it has been expelled from the interior of a terrestrial planet (such as Earth) or a Natural sa ...

tephra
and lava deposits and dating these to give volcano eruption patterns, with estimated cycles of intense activity and size of eruptions.


History

Volcanology has an extensive history. The earliest known recording of a volcanic eruption may be on a wall painting dated to about 7,000 BCE found at the
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
site at Çatal Höyük in
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
,
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
. This painting has been interpreted as a depiction of an erupting volcano, with a cluster of houses below shows a twin peaked volcano in eruption, with a town at its base (though archaeologists now question this interpretation).Meece, Stephanie, (2006)''A bird’s eye view - of a leopard’s spots. The Çatalhöyük ‘map’ and the development of cartographic representation in prehistory'' Anatolian Studies 56:1-16. See http://www.dspace.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/195777 The volcano may be either Hasan Dağ, or its smaller neighbour, Melendiz Dağ.Ülkekul, Cevat, (2005)''Çatalhöyük Şehir Plani: Town Plan of Çatalhöyük'' Dönence, Istanbul.


Greco-Roman philosophy

The classical world of Greece and the early
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
explained volcanoes as sites of various gods. Greeks considered that
Hephaestus Hephaestus (; wikt:Hephaestus#Alternative forms, eight spellings; grc-gre, Ἥφαιστος, Hḗphaistos) is the Greek god of blacksmiths, metalworking, carpenters, craftsmen, artisans, sculpture, sculptors, metallurgy, Fire (classical el ...
, the god of fire, sat below the volcano , forging the weapons of
Zeus Zeus or , , ; grc, Δῐός, ''Diós'', label=genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Ling ...

Zeus
. The Greek word used to describe volcanoes was ''etna'', or ''hiera'', after
Heracles Heracles ( ; grc-gre, Ἡρακλῆς, , glory/fame of Hera Hera (; grc-gre, Ἥρα, Hḗrā; grc, Ἥρη, Hḗrē, label=none in Ionic Ionic or Ionian may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Ionic meter, a poetic metre in anci ...

Heracles
, the son of Zeus. The Roman poet
Virgil Publius Vergilius Maro (; traditional dates 15 October 7021 September 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil ( ) in English, was an ancient Rome, ancient Roman poet of the Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Augustan period. He composed three ...

Virgil
, in interpreting the Greek mythos, held that the giant
Enceladus Enceladus (; Greek: Εγκέλαδος) is the sixth-largest Moons of Saturn, moon of Saturn. It is about in diameter, about a tenth of that of Saturn, Saturn's largest moon, Titan (moon), Titan. Enceladus is mostly covered by fresh, clean ice ...
was buried beneath Etna by the goddess Athena as punishment for rebellion against the gods; the mountain's rumblings were his tormented cries, the flames his breath and the tremors his railing against the bars of his prison. Enceladus' brother Mimas was buried beneath
Vesuvius Mount Vesuvius ( ; it, Vesuvio ; nap, 'O Vesuvio , also or ; la, Vesuvius , also , or ) is a somma- stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repub ...

Vesuvius
by Hephaestus, and the blood of other defeated giants welled up in the Phlegrean Fields surrounding Vesuvius. The Greek philosopher
Empedocles Empedocles (; grc-gre, Ἐμπεδοκλῆς Empedocles (; grc-gre, wikt:Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Ἐμπεδοκλῆς; , 444–443 BC) was a Ancient Greece, Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a native citizen of Akragas, a Greek city ...

Empedocles
(c. 490-430 BCE) saw the world divided into four elemental forces, of Earth, Air, Fire and Water. Volcanoes, Empedocles maintained, were the manifestation of Elemental Fire. Plato contended that channels of hot and cold waters flow in inexhaustible quantities through subterranean rivers. In the depths of the earth snakes a vast river of fire, the ''Pyriphlegethon'', which feeds all the world's volcanoes. Aristotle considered underground fire as the result of "the...friction of the wind when it plunges into narrow passages." Wind played a key role in volcano explanations until the 16th century.
Lucretius Titus Lucretius Carus ( , ; 99 – c. 55 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Rom ...
, a Roman philosopher, claimed Etna was completely hollow and the fires of the underground driven by a fierce wind circulating near sea level. Ovid believed that the flame was fed from "fatty foods" and eruptions stopped when the food ran out.
Vitruvius Vitruvius (; c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC) was a Roman architect and engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled ''De architectura (''On architecture'', published as ''Ten Books on Architecture'') i ...

Vitruvius
contended that sulfur, alum and bitumen fed the deep fires. Observations by
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
noted the presence of earthquakes preceded an eruption; he died in the eruption of
Vesuvius Mount Vesuvius ( ; it, Vesuvio ; nap, 'O Vesuvio , also or ; la, Vesuvius , also , or ) is a somma- stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repub ...

Vesuvius
in 79 CE while investigating it at
Stabiae Stabiae () was an ancient city situated near the modern town of Castellammare di Stabia and approximately 4.5 km southwest of Pompeii. Like Pompeii, and being only from Mount Vesuvius, this seaside resort was largely buried by tephra ash i ...
. His nephew,
Pliny the Younger Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61 – c. 113), better known as Pliny the Younger (), was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Rom ...

Pliny the Younger
, gave detailed descriptions of the eruption in which his uncle died, attributing his death to the effects of toxic gases. Such eruptions have been named
Plinian , depicting what the AD 79 eruption may have looked like, by the English geologist George Julius Poulett Scrope. Lightning is depicted around the rising column of ash and gas. Plinian eruptions or Vesuvian eruptions are Volcano, volcanic Types of v ...
in honour of the two authors.


Renaissance observations

'' Nuées ardentes'' were described from the Azores in 1580.
Georgius Agricola Georgius Agricola (; born Georg Pawer or Georg Bauer; 24 March 1494 – 21 November 1555) was a German Humanist scholar, mineralogist Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of the chemistry, crystal struct ...

Georgius Agricola
argued the rays of the sun, as later proposed by had nothing to do with volcanoes. Agricola believed vapor under pressure caused eruptions of 'mointain oil' and basalt. Jesuit
Athanasius Kircher Athanasius Kircher (2 May 1602 – 28 November 1680) was a German Society of Jesus, Jesuit scholar and polymath who published around 40 major works, most notably in the fields of comparative religion, geology, and medicine. Kircher has b ...

Athanasius Kircher
(1602–1680) witnessed eruptions of Mount Etna and Stromboli, then visited the crater of Vesuvius and published his view of an Earth with a central fire connected to numerous others caused by the burning of sulfur, bitumen and coal.
Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (; ; 27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) was a German astronomer An astronomer is a in the field of who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of . They observe s such as s, s, , s and ...

Johannes Kepler
considered volcanoes as conduits for the tears and excrement of the Earth, voiding bitumen, tar and sulfur. Descartes, pronouncing that God had created the Earth in an instant, declared he had done so in three layers; the fiery depths, a layer of water, and the air. Volcanoes, he said, were formed where the rays of the sun pierced the earth. Science wrestled with the ideas of the combustion of
pyrite The mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.John P. R ...

pyrite
with water, that rock was solidified bitumen, and with notions of rock being formed from water (
Neptunism Neptunism is a superseded scientific theory of geology Geology (from the γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is a branch of concerned with both the liquid and , the of which it is composed, and ...
). Of the volcanoes then known, all were near the water, hence the action of the sea upon the land was used to explain
volcanism Volcanism (or volcanicity) is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the Earth#Surface, surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called ...
.


Interaction with religion and mythology

Tribal legends of
volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical body, object, such as the trajectory of a planet a ...

volcano
es abound from the
Pacific Ring of Fire The Ring of Fire (also known as the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Rim of Fire, the Girdle of Fire or the Circum-Pacific belt) is a region around much of the rim of the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth ...

Pacific Ring of Fire
and the Americas, usually invoking the forces of the supernatural or the divine to explain the violent outbursts of volcanoes.
Taranaki Taranaki is a regions of New Zealand, region in the west of New Zealand's North Island. It is named after its main geographical feature, the stratovolcano of Mount Taranaki, also known as Mount Egmont. The main centre is the city of New Plymout ...
and , according to Māori mythology, were lovers who fell in love with
Pihanga Mount Pihanga is a volcano, volcanic peak in the North Island Volcanic Plateau, located to the north of Mount Tongariro, between Tongariro and Lake Taupo. Lake Rotoaira lies to the south-west of Pihanga, and the smaller Lake Rotopounamu is situat ...
, and a spiteful jealous fight ensued. Māori will not to this day live between Tongariro and Taranaki for fear of the dispute flaring up again. In the
Hawaiian religion Hawaiian religion encompasses the ethnic religion, indigenous religious beliefs and practices of native Hawaiians. It is polytheism, polytheistic and animism, animistic, with a belief in many deities and spirits, including the belief that spirits ...
, Pele ( Pel-a; ) is the goddess of volcanoes and a popular figure in
Hawaiian mythology Hawaiian religion encompasses the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of native Hawaiians Native Hawaiians, or simply Hawaiians ( haw, kānaka ʻōiwi, , and ), are the of the . The traditional name of the Hawaiian people is ''Kā ...
. Pele was used for various scientific terms as for
Pele's hair Pele's hair (closest Hawaiian translation: "''lauoho o Pele''") is a form of lava. It is named after Pele, the Hawaiian goddess of volcanoes. It can be defined as volcanic glass Volcanic glass is the amorphous (uncrystallized) product of rapid ...
, Pele's tears, and (Pele's seaweed). A volcano on the
Jovian Jovian is the adjectival form of Jupiter Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a gas giant A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element wit ...

Jovian
moon Io is also named Pele.
Saint Agatha Agatha of Sicily (c. 231 – c. 251 AD) is a Christian saint. Her memorial A memorial is an object which serves as a focus for the memory or the commemoration of something, usually an influential, deceased person or a historical, tragic even ...
is patron saint of
Catania Catania (, , Sicilian and , grc, Κατάνη) is the second largest city in Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , d ...

Catania
, close to mount Etna, and an important highly venerated (till todayFoley O.F.M., Leonard. ''Saint of the Day'', (revised by Pat McCloskey O.F.M.), Franciscan Media
) example of virgin martyrs of Christian antiquity.
/ref> In 253 CE, one year after her violent death, the stilling of an eruption of Mt. Etna was attributed to her intercession. Catania was however nearly completely destroyed by the eruption of Mt. Etna in 1169, and over 15,000 of its inhabitants died. Nevertheless, she was invoked again for the
1669 Etna eruption The 1669 eruption of Mount Etna is the largest-recorded historical eruption of Mount Etna, the volcano on the east coast of Sicily, Italy. After several weeks of increasing seismic activity that damaged the town of Nicolosi and other settleme ...
and, for an outbreak danginering
Nicolosi Nicolosi ( scn, Niculùsi) is a ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public se ...

Nicolosi
in 1886. The way she is invoked and dealt with in Italian
Folk religion In religious studies Religious studies, also known as the study of religion, is an academic field devoted to research into religion, religious beliefs, behaviors Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and Bri ...
, a sort of quid pro quo way approach to saints, has been related (in the tradition of
James Frazer Sir James George Frazer (; 1 January 1854 – 7 May 1941) was a Scottish social anthropologist and folklorist Folklore studies, also known as folkloristics, and occasionally tradition studies or folk life studies in the United Kingdom, i ...
) to earlier pagan believes. In 1660 the eruption of Vesuvius rained twinned
pyroxene The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to ''Px'') are a group of important rock-forming Silicate minerals#Inosilicates, inosilicate minerals found in many Igneous rock, igneous and metamorphic rock, metamorphic rock (geology), rocks. Pyroxenes have t ...
crystals and ash upon the nearby villages. The crystals resembled the crucifix and this was interpreted as the work of
Saint Januarius Januarius ( ; la, Ianuarius; Neapolitan and it, Gennaro), also known as , was Bishop of Benevento and is a martyr A martyr ( Greek: μάρτυς, ''mártys'', "witness"; stem μαρτυρ-, ''martyr-'') is someone who suffers persecution ...

Saint Januarius
. In
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
, the relics of St Januarius are paraded through town at every major eruption of Vesuvius. The register of these processions and the 1779 and 1794 diary of Father Antonio Piaggio allowed British diplomat and amateur naturalist Sir William Hamilton to provide a detailed chronology and description of Vesuvius' eruptions.The Lure of VolcanoesJames HamiltonHistory TodayVolume 60 Issue 7 July 2010
/ref>


Notable volcanologists

*
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought and the Platoni ...

Plato
(428–348 BC) *
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
(23–79 AD) *
Pliny the Younger Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61 – c. 113), better known as Pliny the Younger (), was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Rom ...

Pliny the Younger
(61 – ) * (1707–1788) *
James Hutton James Hutton (; 3 June 172614 June 1726 New Style Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) indicate a dating system from before and after a calendar change, respectively. Usually this is the change from the Julian calendar The Julian c ...

James Hutton
(1726–1797) * Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801) *
George Julius Poulett Scrope George Julius Poulett Scrope FRS (10 March 1797 – 19 January 1876) was an English geologist A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes the Earth and other terrestrial planets, as well ...
(1797–1876) *
Giuseppe Mercalli Giuseppe Mercalli (21 May 1850 – 19 March 1914) was an Italy, Italian volcanologist and Catholic Church, Catholic priest. He is known best for the Mercalli intensity scale for measuring earthquake intensity. Biography Born in Milan, Mercalli ...
(1850–1914) *
Thomas Jaggar Thomas Augustus Jaggar, Jr. (January 24, 1871 – January 17, 1953) was an American volcanologist. He founded the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory and directed it from 1912 to 1940. Biography He was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1871, son of E ...

Thomas Jaggar
(1871–1953), founder of the
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is an agency of the U.S. Geological Survey, with temporary offices located in Hilo Hilo () is a census-designated place (CDP) and the largest city in Hawaii County, Hawaii, Hawaii County, Hawaii, United S ...
*
Haroun Tazieff Haroun Tazieff ( Warsaw, 11 May 1914 – Paris, 2 February 1998) was a Polish, Belgian and French volcanologist and geologist A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes the Earth and other ...
(1914–1998), advisor to the
French Government The Government of the French Republic (french: Gouvernement de la République française ) exercises executive power ''Executive Power'' is Vince Flynn's fifth novel, and the fourth to feature Mitch Rapp, an American agent that works for t ...

French Government
and
Jacques Cousteau Jacques-Yves Cousteau, (, also , ; 11 June 191025 June 1997) was a French naval officer, explorer, Conservation movement, conservationist, filmmaker, scientist, photographer, author and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in w ...
* George P. L. Walker (1926–2005), pioneering volcanologist who transformed the subject into a quantitative science *
Haraldur Sigurdsson Haraldur is a masculine Icelandic given name. Notable people with the name include: *Haraldur Freyr Guðmundsson (born 1981), Icelandic professional football defender *Haraldur Ingólfsson (born 1970), Icelandic former footballer *Haraldur Jón Han ...
(born 1939), Icelandic volcanologist and geochemist *
Katia and Maurice Krafft Catherine Joséphine "Katia" Krafft (née__NOTOC__ A birth name is the name of the person given upon their birth. The term may be applied to the surname, the given name or to the entire name. Where births are required to be officially register ...
(1942–1991 and 1946–1991, respectively), died at
Mount Unzen is an active volcanic group of several overlapping stratovolcanoes, near the city of Shimabara, Nagasaki on the island of Kyushu, Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep ...
in
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
, 1991 * David A. Johnston (1949–1980), killed during the 1980 eruption of
Mount St. Helens Mount St. Helens (known as Lawetlat'la to the Indigenous Cowlitz people The term Cowlitz people covers two culturally and linguistically distinct indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest; the Lower Cowlitz or Cowlitz proper, and th ...

Mount St. Helens
* Harry Glicken (1958–1991), died at
Mount Unzen is an active volcanic group of several overlapping stratovolcanoes, near the city of Shimabara, Nagasaki on the island of Kyushu, Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep ...
in
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
, 1991


Gallery

Arenal at night.jpg,
Arenal Volcano Arenal Volcano ( es, Volcán Arenal) is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica Costa Rica (, ; ; literally "Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( es, República de Costa Rica), is a country in C ...

Arenal Volcano
, Costa Rica at night. Krysuvik Iceland 037.JPG, , a thermal area in the Southwest of Iceland. Halemaumau.jpg,
Sulphur Sulfur (in nontechnical British English: sulphur) is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consis ...

Sulphur
deposit at
Halemaʻumaʻu Halemaumau (''six syllables: HAH-lay-MAH-oo-MAH-oo'') is a pit crater within the much larger Kīlauea Caldera at the summit of Kīlauea volcano on island of Hawaii_(island), Hawaiʻi. The roughly circular crater was x before collapses that ...
on
Kīlauea Kīlauea ( , ) is an active shield volcano A shield volcano is a type of volcano A volcano is a rupture in the of a , such as , that allows hot , , and to escape from a below the surface. On Earth, volcanoes are most often found wh ...
in Big Island, Hawaii Pinatubo - pyroclastic fall.jpg, Erosional dissection of an ash deposit at
Pinatubo Mount Pinatubo ( xsb, Bakil nin Pinatobo; pam, Bunduk/Bulkan ning Pinatubu, Bunduk ning Apu Malyari; pag, Palandey/Bulkan na Pinatubu; ilo, Bantay Pinatubo; tgl, Bundok/Bulkang Pinatubo ) is an active volcano, active stratovolcano in the ...

Pinatubo
volcano in the Philippines. Strokkur geyser eruption, close-up view.jpg, The eruption of the geysir
Strokkur Strokkur (Icelandic language, Icelandic , "churn") is a fountain-type geyser located in a geothermal area beside the Hvítá, Árnessýsla, Hvítá River in Iceland in the southwest part of the country, east of Reykjavík. It typically erupts every ...

Strokkur
in early morning.


See also

*
Global Volcanism Program The Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) documents Earth's volcanoes and their eruptive history over the past 10,000 years. The GVP reports on current eruptions from around the world as well as maintaining a database repository o ...
*
GNS Science GNS Science ( mi, Te Pū Ao), officially registered as the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited, is a New Zealand Crown Research Institutes, Crown Research Institute. It focuses on geology, geophysics (including seismology and volc ...
(formerly the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences) (in New Zealand) *
Igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ''ignis'' meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main The three types of rocks, rock types, the others being Sedimentary rock, sedimentary and metamorphic rock, metamorphic. Igneous rock i ...
* * Kiyoo Mogi, developer of the Mogi model of volcano deformation *
Tephrochronology 250px, Tephra horizons in south-central Iceland. The thick and light coloured layer at the height of the volcanologist's hands is rhyolitic tephra from Hekla. Tephrochronology is a Geochronology, geochronological technique that uses discrete lay ...
* Volcano Number *Volcanism


References


External links


European Volcanological Society

United States Geological Survey- Volcanic Hazards Program


*
World Organization of Volcano Observatories
* and {{Authority control Volcanology, Earth sciences