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Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine ''State Magazine'' is a digital magazine published by the U.S. Department of State's Bureau of Global Talent Management. Its mission is to acquaint Department o ...
in southeastern
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
. It is the second-smallest state with a
land area This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories A dependent territory, dependent area, or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence upright=1.0, Pedro I of Brazil, Pedro surr ...
of and the most densely populated state in Australia (28 per km2). Victoria is bordered with
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
to the north and
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Austral ...

South Australia
to the west, and is bounded by the
Bass Strait Bass Strait () is a sea strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both sides and through the strait ...

Bass Strait
to the south (with the exception of a small land border with
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
located along
Boundary Islet Boundary Islet, historically known as North East Islet, is a islet An islet is a very small island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Ver ...
), the
Great Australian Bight The Great Australian Bight is a large oceanic bight (geography), bight, or open bay, off the central and western portions of the southern coastline of mainland Australia. Extent Two definitions of the extent are in use – one used by the Int ...

Great Australian Bight
portion of the
Southern Ocean The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or ...

Southern Ocean
to the southwest, and the
Tasman Sea The Tasman Sea (Māori Māori or Maori can refer to: Relating to the Māori people * Māori people of New Zealand, or members of that group * Māori language, the language of the Māori people of New Zealand * Māori culture * Cook Islanders ...

Tasman Sea
(a
marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% of Water distribution on Earth, Earth's w ...
of the
South Pacific Ocean South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germa ...
) to the southeast. The state encompasses a range of climates and geographical features from its
temperate In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populati ...
coastal and central regions to the
Victorian Alps The Victorian Alps, also known locally as the High Country, is a large mountain system residing in the southeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the ...
in the north-east and the
semi-arid A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning ' ...
north-west. Victoria has a population of over 6.6 million, the majority of which is concentrated in the central south area surrounding
Port Phillip Bay Port Phillip (Kulin languages, Kulin: ''Naarm Naarm''), or Port Phillip Bay, is a horsehead-shaped enclosed bay on the central coast of southern Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. The bay opens into the Bass Strait via a short, narr ...

Port Phillip Bay
, and in particular in the
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...

metropolitan area
of
Greater Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital and List of cities in Australia by population, most-populous city of the States and territories of Australia, Australian state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria, and the second-m ...
, Victoria's
state capital Below is an index of pages containing lists of capital cities A capital or capital city is the municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-gov ...
and
largest city The United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, ...
and also Australia's second-largest city, where over three quarters of the Victorian population live. The state is home to four of Australia's 20 largest cities: Melbourne,
Geelong Geelong () ( Wathawurrung: ''Djilang''/''Djalang'') is a port city A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in ...

Geelong
,
Ballarat Ballarat () is a city in the Central Highlands of Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Vic ...

Ballarat
and
Bendigo Bendigo is a city in Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddes ...

Bendigo
. The population is , with 35.1% of inhabitants being
immigrants Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...
. Victoria is home to numerous
Aboriginal Aborigine, aborigine or aboriginal may refer to: * Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area **List of indigenous peoples, including: ***Aboriginal Australians ****Australian Aboriginal identity ...
groups, including the Boonwurrung, the Bratauolung, the
Djadjawurrung Djadjawurrung or Dja Dja Wurrung, also known as the Djaara or Jajowrong people and Loddon River tribe, are an Aboriginal Australian people who are the Traditional owners of lands including the watersheds of the Loddon and Avoca rivers in the B ...
, the
Gunai Gunai may refer to: * Gunai people The Gunai ( ), also spelt Gunnai, or Kurnai ( ), often now referred to as the Gunai/Kurnai ( ), people are an Aboriginal Australian Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenou ...
, the
Gunditjmara The Gunditjmara or Gunditjamara, also known as Dhauwurd Wurrung, are an Aboriginal Australian Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native peop ...
, the
Taungurong The Taungurong people, also known as the ''Daung Wurrung'', consisted of nine clans who spoke the Daungwurrung language and were part of the Kulin nation, Kulin alliance of indigenous Australians. They lived to the north of, and were closely asso ...
, the
Wathaurong The Wathaurong nation, also called the Wathaurung, Wadawurrung and Wadda Wurrung, are an Aboriginal Australian Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal pe ...
, the
Wurundjeri The Wurundjeri are an Aboriginal Australian Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often ...
, and the
Yorta Yorta The Yorta Yorta, also known as Jotijota, are an Aboriginal Australian Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native people ...
. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to European colonisation. In 1770
James Cook Captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a milit ...

James Cook
claimed the east coast of the
Australian continent The continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science d ...
for the
Kingdom of Great Britain The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called Great Britain,"After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", ''The American Pageant, Volume 1'', Cengage Learning (2012) was a s ...

Kingdom of Great Britain
, and from 1788 the area that is now Victoria was a part of the colony of
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
. The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay. Much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the
Port Phillip District The Port Phillip District was a historical administrative division of the Colony of New South Wales, which existed from September 1836 until 1 July 1851, when it was separated from New South Wales and became the Colony of Victoria. The District ...
of New South Wales. Named in honour of
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
, Victoria was separated from New South Wales and established as a separate
Crown colony A Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original coun ...
in 1851, achieving
responsible government Responsible government is a conception of a system of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ' ...
in 1855. The
Victorian gold rush The Victorian gold rush cut the travel time from New York to San Francisco in seven months to four months in the 1849 California Gold Rush, Gold Rush. A gold rush or gold fever is a discovery of gold—sometimes accompanied by other precious ...
in the 1850s and 1860s significantly increased Victoria's population and wealth. By the time of
Australian Federation The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies In the British Empire, a self-governing colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of fo ...
in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city in
Australasia Australasia is a region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth ...

Australasia
, and served as the federal capital of Australia until
Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that physically encompasses the government's offices an ...

Canberra
was opened in 1927. The state continued to grow strongly through various periods of the 20th and early 21st centuries as a result of high levels of international and interstate migration. Victoria has 38 seats in the
Australian House of Representatives The House of Representatives is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated commun ...

Australian House of Representatives
and 12 seats in the
Australian Senate The Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives (Australia), House of Representatives. The compositioned and powers of the Senate are established in Chapter I of the Con ...
. At state level, the
Parliament of Victoria The Parliament of Victoria is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria that follows a Westminster System, Westminster-derived parliamentary system. It consists of the Monarchy in Australia, Queen, repre ...

Parliament of Victoria
consists of the
Legislative Assembly Legislative assembly is the name given in some countries to either a legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. ...

Legislative Assembly
and the
Legislative Council A legislative council is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with the Ex ...

Legislative Council
. The
Labor Party Labour Party or Labor Party may refer to: Angola *MPLA, known for some years as "Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party" Antigua and Barbuda *Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party Argentina *Labour Party (Argentina) Armenia ...
, led by
Daniel Andrews Daniel Michael Andrews (born 6 July 1972) is an Australian politician who has been the 48th Premier of Victoria The Premier of Victoria is the head of Government of Victoria, government in the States and territories of Australia, Australian ...
as
premier Premier is a title for the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, aut ...
, has governed Victoria since 2014. The
Governor of Victoria The governor of Victoria is the representative of the monarchy of Australia, monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in the Australian state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria. The governor is one of seven viceregal representatives in the country, analogous ...
, the representative of the
Monarchy of Australia The monarchy of Australia is the institution in which a person serves as Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Aus ...
in the state, is currently
Linda Dessau Linda Marion Dessau, (born 8 May 1953) is an Australian jurist, barrister, and the 29th and current governor of Victoria since 1 July 2015. She is the first female and the first Jews, Jewish List of Jewish governors of Australia, holder of the ...

Linda Dessau
. Victoria is divided into 79 local government areas, as well as several
unincorporated areas An unincorporated area is a region not governed by a local municipal corporation A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body An Academy school in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, coun ...
which the state administers directly. Victoria's economy is the second-largest among Australian states and is highly diversified, with service sectors predominating. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, and theatres, and is also described as the world's sporting capital, and the spiritual home of
Australian cricket The Australia men's national cricket team represents Australia in men's international cricket. As the joint oldest team in Test cricket history, playing in the History of Test cricket from 1877 to 1883, first ever Test match in 1877, the team al ...
and
Australian rules football Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, or simply called "Aussie rules", "football Football is a family of team sport A team is a [group (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working ...
.


History


Indigenous Victorians

The state of Victoria was originally home to many Aboriginal Australian nations that had occupied the land for tens of thousands of years before European settlement of Australia, European settlement. According to Gary Presland, Aboriginal people have lived in Victoria for about 40,000 years, living a semi-nomadic existence of fishing, hunting and gathering, and farming eels. At the Keilor Archaeological Site a human hearth excavated in 1971 was radiocarbon-dated to about 31,000 years BP, making Keilor one of the earliest sites of human habitation in Australia.Gary Presland,
Keilor Archaeological Site
', eMelbourne website. Accessed 3 November 2008
A
cranium The skull is a bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tissue that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton in animals. Bones protect the various organs of the body, produce red blood cell, red and white blood cells, store mi ...
found at the site has been dated at between 12,000 and 14,700 years BP. Archaeological sites in
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
and on the
Bass Strait Bass Strait () is a sea strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both sides and through the strait ...

Bass Strait
Islands have been dated to between 20,000 – 35,000 years ago, when sea levels were 130 metres below present level allowing Aborigines to move across the region of southern Victoria and on to the land bridge of the Bassian plain to
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
by at least 35,000 years ago.David Rhodes, Terra Culture Heritage Consultants,
Channel Deepening Existing Conditions Final Report – Aboriginal Heritage
'', Prepared for Parsons Brinckerhoff & Port of Melbourne Corporation, August 2003. Accessed 3 November 2008
During the Ice Age about 20,000 years BP, the area now the bay of
Port Phillip Port Phillip ( Kulin: ''Naarm Naarm''), or Port Phillip Bay, is a horsehead-shaped enclosed bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (al ...
would have been dry land, and the Yarra and Werribee river would have joined to flow through the heads then south and south west through the Bassian plain before meeting the ocean to the west. Tasmania and the Bass Strait islands became separated from mainland Australia around 12,000 BP, when the sea level was approximately 50m below present levels. Port Phillip was flooded by post-glacial
rising sea levels Tide gauge measurements show that the current global sea level rise began at the start of the 20th century. Between 1900 and 2017, the globally averaged sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloqu ...

rising sea levels
between 8000 and 6000 years ago. Oral history and creation stories from the
Wada wurrung The Wathaurong nation, also called the Wathaurung, Wadawurrung and Wadda Wurrung, are an Aboriginal Australian Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nat ...
,
Woiwurrung The Woiwurrung, also spelt Woi Wurrung, Woiwurrong, Woiworung, Wuywurung, are an Aboriginal Australian people of the Woiwurrung language group, in the Kulin people, Kulin alliance. The Woiwurrung people's territory in Central Victoria (Austral ...
and Bun wurrung languages describe the flooding of the bay. Hobsons Bay was once a kangaroo hunting ground. Creation stories describe how
Bunjil Bunjil is a creator deity, culture hero and ancestral being, often depicted as a wedge-tailed eagle (or eaglehawk) in the Australian Aboriginal mythology of some of the Aboriginal Victorians, Aboriginal peoples of Victoria. Creation stories ...
was responsible for the formation of the bay, or the bay was flooded when the
Yarra river The Yarra River or historically, the Yarra Yarra River, (Kulin languages: ''Berrern'', ''Birr-arrung'', ''Bay-ray-rung'', ''Birarang'', ''Birrarung'', and ''Wongete'') is a perennial stream, perennial river in south-central Victoria (Australia ...

Yarra river
was created (Yarra Creation Story.)


British colonisation

Victoria, like
Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the ...

Queensland
, was named after
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
, who had been on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the
administration Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management, the act of directing people towards accomplishing a goal ** Administration (government), management in or of government *** Administrative division ** Academic administratio ...
of the colonial government in Sydney. The first British settlement in the area later known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor
David CollinsDavid Collins may refer to: Sports * David Collins (Hampshire cricketer), 18th-century cricketer associated with Hampshire * David Collins (New Zealand cricketer) (1887–1967), played for Wellington and Cambridge University * David Collins (Scottis ...
at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people (five government officials, nine officers of marines, two drummers, and 39 privates, five soldiers' wives and a child, 307 convicts, 17 convicts' wives, and seven children). They had been sent from England in under the command of Captain
Daniel Woodriff Captain Daniel Woodriff (17 November 1756 – 25 February 1842) was a British Royal Navy officer and navigator in the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries. He made two voyages to Australia. He was Naval Agent on the convict transport '' ...
, principally out of fear that the French, who had been exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent. In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, and Lieutenant Burchell were sent in (Captain Wetherall) and the brigs ''Dragon'' and ''Amity'', took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point (now Corinella), on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, which was the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was at
Portland Portland most commonly refers to: * Portland, Oregon, the largest city in the state of Oregon, in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States * Portland, Maine, the largest city in the state of Maine, in the New England region of the northeas ...
, on the south west coast of what is now Victoria.
Edward Henty Edward Henty (28 March 1810 – 14 August 1878), Bassett, Marnie,Henty, Edward (1810 - 1878), ''Australian Dictionary of Biography The ''Australian Dictionary of Biography'' (ADB or AuDB) is a national co-operative enterprise founded and ...
settled Portland Bay in 1834.


Batman’s treaty

Melbourne was founded in 1835 by
John Batman John Batman (21 January 18016 May 1839) was an Australian grazier, entrepreneur and explorer, best known for his role in the founding Founding may refer to: * The formation or of a corporation, government, or other organization * The laying o ...
, who set up a base in
Indented Head Indented Head is a small coastal township located on the Bellarine Peninsula The Bellarine Peninsula ( Wathawurrung: ''Balla-wein'' or ''Biteyong'') is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform ...
, and
John Pascoe Fawkner John Pascoe Fawkner (20 October 1792 – 4 September 1869) was an early Australian pioneer, businessman and politician of Melbourne, Australia. In 1835 he financed a party of free settlers from Van Diemen's Land (now called Tasmania), to sail ...
. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne. And in 1838,
Geelong Geelong () ( Wathawurrung: ''Djilang''/''Djalang'') is a port city A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in ...

Geelong
was officially declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826. On 6 June 1835, just under two years before Melbourne was officially recognised as a settlement, John Batman, the leader of the
Port Phillip Association The Port Phillip Association (originally the Geelong and Dutigalla Association) was formally formed in June 1835 to settle land in what would become Melbourne, which the association believed had been acquired by John Batman John Batman (21 Ja ...
presented
Wurundjeri The Wurundjeri are an Aboriginal Australian Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often ...
Elders with a land use agreement. This document, now referred to as the Batman treaty, was later given to the British government to claim that local Aboriginal people had given Batman access to their land in exchange for goods and rations. Today, the meaning and interpretation of this treaty is contested. Some argue it was pretence for taking Aboriginal land in exchange for trinkets, while others argue it was significant in that it sought to recognise
Aboriginal land rights Indigenous land rights are the rights of Indigenous peoples to land law, land and natural resources therein, either individual and collective rights, individually or collectively, mostly in colonised countries. Land and resource-related rights ...
. The exact location of the meeting between Batman and the Kulin Ngurungaeta (head clan-men) with whom he made the treaty is unknown, although it is believed to have been by the
Merri Creek The Merri Creek is a waterway in southern parts of Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia, which flows through the northern suburbs of Northcote, Victoria, Northcote. It begins near Wallan north of Melbourne and flows south for 70 km u ...
. According to historian Meyer Eidelson, it is generally believed to have occurred on the Merri near modern-day Rushall Station.


Colonial Victoria

On 1 July 1851, writs were issued for the election of the first Victorian Legislative Council, and the absolute independence of Victoria from New South Wales was established proclaiming a new Colony of Victoria. Days later, still in 1851 gold was discovered near
Ballarat Ballarat () is a city in the Central Highlands of Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Vic ...

Ballarat
, and subsequently at
Bendigo Bendigo is a city in Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddes ...

Bendigo
. Later discoveries occurred at many sites across Victoria. This triggered one of the largest gold rushes the world has ever seen. The colony grew rapidly in both population and economic power. In 10 years, the population of Victoria increased sevenfold from 76,000 to 540,000. All sorts of gold records were produced, including the "richest shallow alluvial goldfield in the world" and the . In the decade 1851–1860 Victoria produced 20 million ounces of gold, one-third of the world's output. Immigrants arrived from all over the world to search for gold, especially from Ireland and China. By 1857, 26,000 Chinese miners worked in Victoria, and their legacy is particularly strong in Bendigo and its environs. In 1854 at Ballarat, an armed rebellion against the government of Victoria was made by miners protesting against mining taxes (the "
Eureka Stockade The Eureka Rebellion occurred in 1854, instigated by gold miners in Ballarat Ballarat () is a city in the Central Highlands of Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia ...

Eureka Stockade
"). This was crushed by British troops, but the confrontation persuaded the colonial authorities to reform the administration of mining concessions (reducing the hated mining licence fees) and extend the electoral franchise. The following year, the Imperial Parliament granted Victoria responsible government with the passage of the Colony of Victoria Act 1855. Some of the leaders of the Eureka rebellion went on to become members of the Victorian Parliament. In 1857, reflecting the growing presence of Irish Catholic immigrants,
John O'Shanassy Sir John O'Shanassy, Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, KCMG (18 February 1818 – 5 May 1883), was an Irish-Australian politician who served as the 2nd Premier of Victoria. O'Shanassy was born near Thurles in County Tipperary, Ireland, t ...
became the colony's second Premier with the former
Young Ireland Young Ireland ( ga, Éire Óg, ) was a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relatio ...
er,
Charles Gavan Duffy Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George, KCMG, Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, PC (12 April 1816 – 9 February 1903), was an Irish poet and journalist (editor of ''The Nation (Irish news ...
as his deputy. Melbourne's Protestant establishment was ill-prepared "to countenance so startling a novelty". In 1858–59, ''Melbourne Punch'' cartoons linked Duffy and O'Shanassy to the terrors of the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
. In 1862 Duffy's Land Act attempted, but failed, through a system of extended pastoral licences, to break the land-holding monopoly of the so-called "squatter" class. In 1871, having led, on behalf of small farmers, opposition to Premier Sir James McCulloch's
land tax A land value tax (LVT) is a levy on the value of land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and c ...
, Duffy, himself, was briefly Premier. In 1893 widespread bank failures brought to an end a sustained period of prosperity and of increasingly wild speculation in land and construction. Melbourne nonetheless retained, as the legacy of the gold rush, its status as Australia's primary financial centre and largest city. In 1901, Victoria became a state in the
Commonwealth of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from ...
. While
Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that physically encompasses the government's offices an ...

Canberra
was being built, Melbourne served until 1927 as country's first federal capital.


Geography and geology

Victoria's northern border follows a straight line from
Cape Howe Cape Howe is a coastal headland A headland, also known as a head, is a coastal landform, a point of land usually high and often with a sheer drop, that extends into a body of water. It is a type of promontory. A headland of considerable size of ...
to the start of the
Murray River The Murray River (in South Australia: River Murray) (Ngarrindjeri language, Ngarrindjeri: ''Millewa'', Yorta Yorta language, Yorta Yorta: ''Tongala'') is a river in south-eastern Australia. It is list of rivers of Australia#Longest river ...

Murray River
and then follows the Murray River as the remainder of the northern border. On the Murray River, the border is the southern bank of the river. This precise definition was not established until 1980, when a ruling by Justice Ninian Stephen of the
High Court of Australia The High Court of Australia is Australia's apex court The supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions. Other descriptions for such courts include court of last resort, apex court, and hi ...

High Court of Australia
settled the question as to which state had jurisdiction in the unlawful death of a man on an island in the middle of the river. The ruling clarified that no part of the watercourse is in Victoria. The border also rests at the southern end of the
Great Dividing Range The Great Dividing Range, also known as the East Australian Cordillera or the Eastern Highlands, is a cordillera A cordillera is an extensive chain of mountains A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust 350px, Plates in ...

Great Dividing Range
, which stretches along the east coast and terminates west of Ballarat. It is bordered by South Australia to the west and shares Australia's shortest land border with
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
. The official border between Victoria and Tasmania is at 39°12' S, which passes through
Boundary Islet Boundary Islet, historically known as North East Islet, is a islet An islet is a very small island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Ver ...
in the
Bass Strait Bass Strait () is a sea strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both sides and through the strait ...

Bass Strait
for 85 metres. Victoria contains many topographically, geologically and climatically diverse areas, ranging from the wet,
temperate In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populati ...
climate of
Gippsland Gippsland is a rural In general, a rural area or a countryside is a geographic area that is located outside town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary ...
in the southeast to the snow-covered Victorian alpine areas which rise to almost , with
Mount Bogong Mount Bogong, , located in the Alpine National Park and part of the Victorian Alps of the Great Dividing Range, is the highest mountain in Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia, at Australian Height Datum, above sea level. The Big Ri ...

Mount Bogong
the highest peak at . There are extensive semi-arid plains to the west and northwest. There is an extensive series of river systems in Victoria. Most notable is the
Murray River The Murray River (in South Australia: River Murray) (Ngarrindjeri language, Ngarrindjeri: ''Millewa'', Yorta Yorta language, Yorta Yorta: ''Tongala'') is a river in south-eastern Australia. It is list of rivers of Australia#Longest river ...

Murray River
system. Other rivers include:
Ovens River The Ovens River, a perennial river of the north-east Murray River, Murray catchment, part of the Murray-Darling basin, is located in the Victorian Alps, alpine and Hume (region), Hume regions of the Australian state of Victoria (Australia), Victor ...
,
Goulburn River The Goulburn River, a major inland perennial river The Gangi River of Arrah, India">Arrah.html" ;"title="Gangi River of Arrah">Gangi River of Arrah, India A perennial stream or perennial river is a stream or river (channel) which has constan ...
,
Patterson River The Patterson River is a partly man-made urban river of the Port Phillip Port Phillip (Kulin languages, Kulin: ''Naarm''), also commonly referred to as Port Phillip Bay, is a horsehead-shaped bay on the central coastline of southern Victori ...
, King River,
Campaspe River The Campaspe River, an inland intermittent river of the northcentral catchment, part of the Murray-Darling basin, is located in the lower Riverina Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia, bioregion and Victorian Central Highlands, C ...
,
Loddon River The Loddon River, an inland river of the northcentral catchment, part of the Murray-Darling basin, is located in the lower Riverina The Riverina is an agricultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by phy ...
,
Wimmera River The Wimmera River, an inland intermittent river of the Wimmera The Wimmera is a region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study o ...
, Elgin River, Barwon River, Thomson River,
Snowy River The Snowy River is a major river in south-eastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the ...
,
Latrobe River The Latrobe River (or sometimes La Trobe or LaTrobe) is a perennial river The Gangi River of Arrah, India">Arrah.html" ;"title="Gangi River of Arrah">Gangi River of Arrah, India A perennial stream or perennial river is a stream or river (cha ...
,
Yarra River The Yarra River or historically, the Yarra Yarra River, (Kulin languages: ''Berrern'', ''Birr-arrung'', ''Bay-ray-rung'', ''Birarang'', ''Birrarung'', and ''Wongete'') is a perennial stream, perennial river in south-central Victoria (Australia ...

Yarra River
,
Maribyrnong River The Maribyrnong River is a perennial river The Gangi River of Arrah, India">Arrah.html" ;"title="Gangi River of Arrah">Gangi River of Arrah, India A perennial stream or perennial river is a stream or river (channel) which has constant str ...
,
Mitta River Mitta Mitta River, a perennial river The Gangi River of Arrah, India">Arrah.html" ;"title="Gangi River of Arrah">Gangi River of Arrah, India A perennial stream or perennial river is a stream or river (channel) which has constant stream throu ...
,
Hopkins River The Hopkins River, a perennial river of the Glenelg River (Victoria), Glenelg Hopkins catchment, is located in the Western District (Victoria), Western District of Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. Course and features The Hopkins River ...
,
Merri River The Merri River, a perennial river The Gangi River of Arrah, India">Arrah.html" ;"title="Gangi River of Arrah">Gangi River of Arrah, India A perennial stream or perennial river is a stream or river (channel) which has constant stream thro ...
and
Kiewa River Kiewa River, a perennial stream, perennial river that is part of the Murray River, Murray catchment within the Murray-Darling basin, is located in the Victorian Alps, Alpine bioregion, in the Australian States and territories of Australia, state o ...
. The state symbols include the pink heath (state flower), Leadbeater's possum (state animal) and the
helmeted honeyeater The helmeted honeyeater (''Lichenostomus melanops cassidix'') is a passerine bird in the honeyeater family (biology), family. It is a distinctive and critically endangered subspecies of the yellow-tufted honeyeater, that exists in the wild only ...

helmeted honeyeater
(state bird). According to
Geoscience Australia Geoscience Australia is an agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mechanisms which ...

Geoscience Australia
, the geographic centre of Victoria is located in
Mandurang Mandurang, derived from an Aboriginal word meaning black cicada, is a rural locality in the City of Greater Bendigo,Map ...
at 36° 51' 15"S, 144° 16' 52" E. The small rural town is located 10 km (6 mi) south of
Bendigo Bendigo is a city in Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddes ...

Bendigo
. Due to its central location and the region's historical ties to the gold rush, the town is widely regarded as the "Heart of Gold". The state's capital, Melbourne, contains about 70% of the state's population and dominates its economy, media, and culture. For other cities and towns, see
list of localities (Victoria) This is a list of locality names and populated place names in the state of Victoria, Australia, outside the Melbourne, Victoria, Melbourne metropolitan area. It is organised by region from the south-west of the state to the east and, for convenie ...
and
local government areas of Victoria This is a list of local government in Australia, local government areas (LGAs) in Victoria (Australia), Victoria, sorted by region. Also referred to as municipalities, the 79 Victorian LGAs are classified as cities (34), shires (38), rural citie ...
. File:Island Archway, Great Ocean Rd, Victoria, Australia - Nov 08.jpg, Island Archway on the Great Ocean Road in Victoria, Australia. File:Aireys Inlet Lighthouse.jpg, Aireys Inlet File:Highways of Victoria.PNG, Victorian cities, towns, settlements and
road networkA street network is a system of interconnecting lines and points (called ''edges'' and ''nodes'' in network science) that represent a system of street 250px, Street in downtown Bucharest (Romania) A street is a public thoroughfare in a built e ...


Cities and towns

This is a list of places in the
Australian Australians, colloquially referred to as "Aussies", are the citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines ...

Australian
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine ''State Magazine'' is a digital magazine published by the U.S. Department of State's Bureau of Global Talent Management. Its mission is to acquaint Department o ...
of Victoria by population. Urban centres are defined by the
Australian Bureau of Statistics The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statutory agency of the Australian Government The Australian Government, also known as the Commonwealth Government, is the national government of Australia Austra ...
as being a population cluster of 1,000 or more people. The below figures broadly represent the populations of the
contiguous Contiguity or contiguous may refer to: *Contiguous data storage, in computer science *Contiguity (probability theory) *Contiguity (psychology) *Contiguous distribution of species, in biogeography *Geographic contiguity of territorial land *Contigu ...
built-up areas of each city.


Climate

Victoria has a varied climate despite its small size. It ranges from semi-arid temperate with hot summers in the north-west, to temperate and cool along the coast. Victoria's main land feature, the Great Dividing Range, produces a cooler, mountain climate in the centre of the state. Winters along the coast of the state, particularly around
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Melbourne
, are relatively mild (''see chart at right)''. The coastal plain south of the Great Dividing Range has Victoria's mildest climate. Air from the
Southern Ocean The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or ...

Southern Ocean
helps reduce the heat of summer and the cold of winter. Melbourne and other large cities are located in this temperate region.
The Mallee The Mallee covers the most northwesterly part of Victoria, bounded by the South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the ...
and upper
Wimmera The Wimmera is a region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and ...

Wimmera
are Victoria's warmest regions with hot winds blowing from nearby semi-deserts. Average temperatures exceed during summer and in winter. Except at cool mountain elevations, the inland monthly temperatures are warmer than around Melbourne (see chart). Victoria's highest maximum temperature of was recorded in Hopetoun on 7 February 2009, during the
2009 southeastern Australia heat wave The 2009 southeastern Australia heat wave was a heat wave that commenced in late January and led to record-breaking prolonged high temperatures in the region. The heat wave is considered one of the, if not the, most extreme in the region's histor ...
. The Victorian Alps in the northeast are the coldest part of Victoria. The Alps are part of the Great Dividing Range mountain system extending east–west through the centre of Victoria. Average temperatures are less than in winter and below in the highest parts of the ranges. The state's lowest minimum temperature of was recorded at
Omeo Omeo ( ) is a town in Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman godde ...
on 15 June 1965, and again at Falls Creek on 3 July 1970. Temperature extremes for the state are listed in the table below:


Rainfall

Rainfall in Victoria increases from south to the northeast, with higher averages in areas of high altitude. Mean annual rainfall exceeds in some parts of the northeast but is less than in the Mallee. Rain is heaviest in the
Otway Ranges The Great Otway National Park is a national park located in the Barwon South West The Barwon South West is an economic An economy (from Greek language, Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the ...
and Gippsland in southern Victoria and in the mountainous northeast. Snow generally falls only in the mountains and hills in the centre of the state. Rain falls most frequently in winter, but summer precipitation is heavier. Rainfall is most reliable in Gippsland and the Western District, making them both leading farming areas. Victoria's highest recorded daily rainfall was at
Tidal River A tidal river is a river whose flow and level are influenced by tides. A section of a larger river affected by the tides is a tidal reach, but it may sometimes be considered a tidal river if it has been given a separate name. Generally, tidal ri ...

Tidal River
in
Wilsons Promontory National Park The Wilsons Promontory National Park, commonly known as Wilsons Prom or The Prom, is a national park in the Gippsland region of Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia, located approximately southeast of Melbourne. The national park is the ...

Wilsons Promontory National Park
on 23 March 2011. File:Victoria_summer.jpg, Average January maximum temperatures:
Victoria's north is almost always hotter than coastal and mountainous areas. File:Victoria_winter.jpg, Average July maximum temperatures:
Victoria's hills and ranges are coolest during winter. Snow also falls there. File:Victoria_rainfall.jpg, Average yearly precipitation:
Victoria's rainfall is concentrated in the mountainous north-east and coast.


Demographics

At March 2020 Victoria had a population of 6,689,377. The
Australian Bureau of Statistics The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statutory agency of the Australian Government The Australian Government, also known as the Commonwealth Government, is the national government of Australia Austra ...
estimates that the population may well reach 7.2 million by 2050. Victoria's founding
Anglo-Celtic Anglo-Celtic people are descended primarily from British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, t ...
population has been supplemented by successive waves of migrants from
Southern The name Southern may refer to: * South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earl ...

Southern
and
Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical reg ...

Eastern Europe
,
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...

Asia
and, most recently,
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
and the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
. Victoria's population is ageing in proportion with the average of the remainder of the Australian population. About 72% of Victorians are Australian-born. This figure falls to around 66% in Melbourne but rises to higher than 95% in some rural areas in the north west of the state. Less than 1% of Victorians identify themselves as
Aboriginal Aborigine, aborigine or aboriginal may refer to: * Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area **List of indigenous peoples, including: ***Aboriginal Australians ****Australian Aboriginal identity ...
. More than 75% of Victorians live in Melbourne, located in the state's south. The greater Melbourne metropolitan area is home to an estimated 4,850,740 people. Estimated resident population, 30 June 2017. Urban centres outside Melbourne include
Geelong Geelong () ( Wathawurrung: ''Djilang''/''Djalang'') is a port city A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in ...

Geelong
,
Ballarat Ballarat () is a city in the Central Highlands of Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Vic ...

Ballarat
,
Bendigo Bendigo is a city in Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddes ...

Bendigo
,
Shepparton Shepparton () (Yorta Yorta language, Yortayorta: ''Kanny-goopna'') is a city located on the floodplain of the Goulburn River (Victoria), Goulburn River in northern Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia, approximately north-northeast of Mel ...
,
Mildura Mildura is a regional city in north-west Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. Located on the Victorian side of the Murray River, Mildura had a population of 33,444 in 2016. When nearby Wentworth, New South Wales, Wentworth, Irymple, Victor ...
,
Warrnambool Warrnambool (Maar A maar is a broad, low-relief Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term ''wikt:relief, relief'' is from the Latin verb ''relevo'', ...

Warrnambool
,
Wodonga Wodonga ( Waywurru: ''Wordonga'') is a city on the Victorian Victorian or Victorians may refer to: 19th century * Victorian era, British history during Queen Victoria's 19th-century reign ** Victorian architecture ** Victorian house ** Victor ...

Wodonga
and the
Latrobe Valley The Latrobe Valley is an inland geographical district and urban area of the Gippsland region in the state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. The traditional owners are the Braiakaulung people, Brayakaulung of the Gunai language, Gun ...
. Victoria is Australia's most urbanised state: nearly 90% of residents living in cities and towns. State Government efforts to decentralise population have included an official campaign run since 2003 to encourage Victorians to settle in regional areas, however Melbourne continues to rapidly outpace these areas in terms of population growth.


Ancestry and immigration

At the 2016 census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were:http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/CensusOutput/copsub2016.NSF/All%20docs%20by%20catNo/2016~Community%20Profile~2/$File/GCP_2.zip?OpenElement 0.8% of the population, or 47,788 people, identified as
Indigenous Australians Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continen ...
(
Aboriginal Australians Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific ...
and
Torres Strait Islanders Torres Strait Islanders () are the Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific cou ...
) in 2016. At the 2016 census, 64.9% of residents were born in Australia. The other most common countries of birth were
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
(2.9%),
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
(2.9%),
Mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies ...

Mainland China
(2.7%),
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
(1.6%) and
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
(1.4%).


Language

As of the 2016 census, 72.2% of Victorians speak English at home. Speakers of other languages include
Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration o ...
(3.2%),
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the people of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps ...

Italian
(1.9%),
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
(1.9%),
Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Vietnam ** Oversea ...

Vietnamese
(1.7%), and
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
(1.3%).


Religion

In the 2016 Census, 47.9% of Victorians described themselves as Christian, 10.6% stated that they followed other religions and 32.1% stated that they had no religion or held secular or other spiritual beliefs. 31.7% of Victorians stated they had no religion, Roman Catholics were 23.2%, 9.4% did not answer the question, 9% were Anglican and 3.5% were Eastern Orthodox. In 2017 the proportion of couples marrying in a civil ceremony in Victoria was 77.3%; the other 22.7% were married in a religious ceremony.


Age structure and fertility

The government predicts that nearly a quarter of Victorians will be aged over 60 by 2021. The 2016 census revealed that Australian
median age A population pyramid or "age-sex pyramid" is a graphical illustration of the distribution of a population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, country, or the world. Governme ...

median age
has crept upward from 35 to 37 since 2001, which reflects the
population growth Population growth is the increase in the number of people in a population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, country, or the world. Governments typically quantify the size ...
peak of 1969–72. In 2017, Victoria recorded a TFR of 1.724.


Average demographic

The "average Victorian" according to the demographic statistics may be described as follows:


Crime

In the year ending September 2020, the statistics were skewed by the introduction of six new public safety offences relating to the
COVID-19 pandemic in Australia The COVID-19 pandemic in Australia is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 () caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) ...
. Total offences numbered 551,710, with 32,713 of these were breaches of Chief Health Officer Directions. The total offences occurred at a rate of 8,227 per 100,000 people, up 4.4% on the previous year. While there have been some dips along the way, the rate of recorded offences have increased year on year since 2011, when the figure was 6,937.7 offences per 100,000 people.


Government


Parliament

Victoria has a parliamentary form of government based on the Westminster System. Legislative power resides in the Parliament consisting of the Governor (the representative of the Queen), the executive (the Government), and two legislative chambers. The
Parliament of Victoria The Parliament of Victoria is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria that follows a Westminster System, Westminster-derived parliamentary system. It consists of the Monarchy in Australia, Queen, repre ...

Parliament of Victoria
consists of the lower house
Legislative Assembly Legislative assembly is the name given in some countries to either a legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. ...

Legislative Assembly
, the upper house
Legislative Council A legislative council is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with the Ex ...

Legislative Council
and the Queen of Australia. Eighty-eight members of the Legislative Assembly are elected to four-year terms from single-member electorates. In November 2006, the Victorian Legislative Council elections were held under a new multi-member proportional representation system. The State of Victoria was divided into eight electorates with each electorate represented by five representatives elected by Single Transferable Vote. The total number of upper house members was reduced from 44 to 40 and their term of office is now the same as the lower house members—four years. Elections for the Victorian Parliament are now fixed and occur in November every four years. Prior to the 2006 election, the Legislative Council consisted of 44 members elected to eight-year terms from 22 two-member electorates.


Premier and cabinet

The Premier of Victoria is the leader of the political party or coalition with the most seats in the Legislative Assembly. The Premier is the public face of government and, with cabinet, sets the legislative and political agenda. Cabinet consists of representatives elected to either house of parliament. It is responsible for managing areas of government that are not exclusively vested in the Commonwealth, by the Australian Constitution, such as education, health and law enforcement. The current Premier of Victoria is
Daniel Andrews Daniel Michael Andrews (born 6 July 1972) is an Australian politician who has been the 48th Premier of Victoria The Premier of Victoria is the head of Government of Victoria, government in the States and territories of Australia, Australian ...
.


Governor

Executive authority is vested in the
Governor of Victoria The governor of Victoria is the representative of the monarchy of Australia, monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in the Australian state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria. The governor is one of seven viceregal representatives in the country, analogous ...
who represents and is appointed by Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia. The post is usually filled by a retired prominent Victorian. The governor acts on the advice of the premier and cabinet. The current Governor of Victoria is
Linda Dessau Linda Marion Dessau, (born 8 May 1953) is an Australian jurist, barrister, and the 29th and current governor of Victoria since 1 July 2015. She is the first female and the first Jews, Jewish List of Jewish governors of Australia, holder of the ...

Linda Dessau
.


Constitution

Victoria has a written constitution enacted in 1975, but based on the 1855 colonial constitution, passed by the United Kingdom Parliament as the ''Victoria Constitution Act 1855'', which establishes the Parliament as the state's law-making body for matters coming under state responsibility. The Victorian Constitution can be amended by the Parliament of Victoria, except for certain "entrenched" provisions that require either an absolute majority in both houses, a three-fifths majority in both houses, or the approval of the Victorian people in a referendum, depending on the provision.


Politics

Victorians, and Melburnians in particular, are considered by some analysts to be more progressive than other Australians. The state recorded the highest ''Yes'' votes of any state in the 1999 Australian republic referendum, republic referendum and Australian Marriage Law Postal Survey, same-sex marriage survey. Victorians are said to be "generally socially progressive, supportive of multiculturalism, wary of extremes of any kind". Premier
Daniel Andrews Daniel Michael Andrews (born 6 July 1972) is an Australian politician who has been the 48th Premier of Victoria The Premier of Victoria is the head of Government of Victoria, government in the States and territories of Australia, Australian ...
leads the Australian Labor Party that won the 2014 Victorian state election, November 2014 Victorian state election. The centre-left Australian Labor Party (ALP), the centre-right Liberal Party of Australia, the rural-based National Party of Australia, and the left-wing environmentalist Australian Greens are Victoria's main political parties. Traditionally, Labor is strongest in Melbourne's working and middle class western, northern and inner-city suburbs, and the regional cities of
Ballarat Ballarat () is a city in the Central Highlands of Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Vic ...

Ballarat
,
Bendigo Bendigo is a city in Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddes ...

Bendigo
and
Geelong Geelong () ( Wathawurrung: ''Djilang''/''Djalang'') is a port city A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in ...

Geelong
. The Liberals' main support lies in Melbourne's more affluent eastern suburbs and outer suburbs, and some rural and regional centres. The Nationals are strongest in Victoria's North Western and Eastern rural regional areas. The Greens, who won their first lower house seats in 2014, are strongest in inner Melbourne.


Federal government

Victorian voters elect 50 representatives to the Parliament of Australia, including 38 members of the Australian House of Representatives, House of Representatives and 12 members of the Australian Senate, Senate. Since 18 May 2019, the ALP has held 21 Victorian house seats, the Liberals 12, the Nationals three, the Greens one, and one held by an Independent. As of 1 July 2019, the Liberals have held five senate seats, the Nationals one, the ALP four, and the Greens two.


Local government

Victoria is incorporated into 79 municipalities for the purposes of local government, including 39 shires, 32 cities, seven rural cities and one borough. Shire and city councils are responsible for functions delegated by the Victorian parliament, such as city planning, road infrastructure and waste management. Council revenue comes mostly from property taxes and government grants.


Education


Primary and secondary

Victoria's Public school (government funded), state school system dates back to 1872, when the colonial government legislated to make schooling both free and compulsory. The state's public secondary school system began in 1905. Before then, only private secondary schooling was available. Today, a Victorian school education consists of seven years of primary schooling (including one preparatory year) and six years of secondary schooling. The final years of secondary school are optional for children aged over 17. Victorian children generally begin school at age five or six. On completing secondary school, students earn the Victorian Certificate of Education, Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) or Victorian Certificate of Applied Learning, Victorian Certificate of Applied Learning (VCAL). Students who successfully complete their VCE also receive an ATAR, to determine university admittance. Victorian schools are either publicly or privately funded. Public schools, also known as state or government schools, are funded and run directly by the Government of Victoria#Department of Education (DoE), Victoria Department of Education]

Students do not pay tuition fees, but some extra costs are levied. Private fee-paying schools include parish schools run by the Roman Catholic Church and independent schools similar to British public schools. Independent schools are usually affiliated with Protestant churches. Victoria also has several private Jewish and Islamic primary and secondary schools. Private schools also receive some public funding. All schools must comply with government-set curriculum standards. In addition, Victoria has six government selective schools, Melbourne High School for boys, MacRobertson Girls' High School for girls, the coeducational schools John Monash Science School, Nossal High School and Suzanne Cory High School, and the Victorian College of the Arts Secondary School. Students at these schools are exclusively admitted on the basis of an academic selective entry test. As of February 2019, Victoria had 1,529 public schools, 496 Catholic schools and 219 independent schools. Just under 631,500 students were enrolled in public schools, and just over 357,000 in private schools. Over 58 per cent of private students attend Catholic schools. More than 552,300 students were enrolled in primary schools and more than 418,600 in secondary schools. Retention rates for the final two years of secondary school were 84.3 per cent for public school students and 91.5 per cent for private school students. Victoria has about 46,523 full-time teachers.


Tertiary education

Victoria has List of universities in Australia#Victoria, nine universities. The first to offer degrees, the University of Melbourne, enrolled its first student in 1855. The largest, Monash University, has an enrolment of over 83,000 students—more than any other Australian university. The number of students enrolled in Victorian universities was 418,447 in 2018, an increase of 5.3% on the previous year. International students made up 40% of enrolments and account for the highest percentage of pre-paid university tuition fees. The largest number of enrolments were recorded in the fields of business, administration and economics, with nearly 30% of all students, followed by arts, humanities, and social science, with 18% of enrolments. Victoria has 12 government-run institutions of technical and further education (TAFE#Victoria, TAFE). The first vocational institution in the state was the Melbourne Mechanics' Institute (established in 1839), which is now the Athenaeum, Melbourne, Melbourne Athenaeum. More than 1,000 adult education organisations are registered to provide recognised TAFE programs. In 2014, there were 443,000 students enrolled in vocational education in the state. By 2018, the number of students in the sector had dropped by 40 per cent to 265,000—a five-year low which the education department attributed to withdrawal of funding to low-quality providers and a societal shift to university education.


Libraries

The State Library Victoria is the State's research and reference library. It is responsible for collecting and preserving Victoria's documentary heritage and making it available through a range of services and programs. Material in the collection includes books, newspapers, magazines, journals, manuscripts, maps, pictures, objects, sound and video recordings and databases. In addition, Local Government Areas of Victoria, local governments maintain local lending libraries, typically with multiple branches in their respective municipal areas.


Economy

The state of Victoria is the second largest economy in Australia after New South Wales, accounting for a quarter of the nation's gross domestic product. The total gross state product (GSP) at current prices for Victoria was A$459 billion in June 2020, with a GSP per capita of A$68,996. Finance and insurance is Victoria's largest income producing sector, while the health care and social assistance sector is the state's biggest employer. The shift towards service industries in the preceding decades has seen manufacturing lose its mantle as Victoria's largest employer and income producer.


Agriculture

During 2003–04, the gross value of Victorian agricultural production increased by 17% to $8.7 billion. This represented 24% of national agricultural production total gross value. As of 2004, an estimated 32,463 farms occupied around 136,000 square kilometres (52,500 sq mi) of Victorian land. This comprises more than 60% of the state's total land surface. Victorian farms range from small horticultural outfits to large-scale livestock and grain productions. A quarter of farmland is used to grow consumable crops. More than 26,000 square kilometres (10,000 sq mi) of Victorian farmland are sown for grain, mostly in the state's west. More than 50% of this area is sown for wheat, 33% for barley and 7% for oats. A further 6,000 square kilometres (2,300 sq mi) is sown for hay. In 2003–04, Victorian farmers produced more than 3 million tonnes of wheat and 2 million tonnes of barley. Victorian farms produce nearly 90% of Australian pears and third of apples. It is also a leader in stone fruit production. The main vegetable crops include asparagus, broccoli, carrots, potatoes and tomatoes. Last year, 121,200 tonnes of pears and 270,000 tonnes of tomatoes were produced. More than 14 million sheep and 5 million lambs graze over 10% of Victorian farms, mostly in the state's north and west. In 2004, nearly 10 million lambs and sheep were slaughtered for local consumption and export. Victoria also exports live sheep to the Middle East for meat and to the rest of the world for breeding. More than 108,000 tonnes of wool clip was also produced—one-fifth of the Australian total. Victoria is the centre of dairy farming in Australia. It is home to 60% of Australia's 3 million dairy cattle and produces nearly two-thirds of the nation's milk, almost 6.4 billion litres. The state also has 2.4 million beef cattle, with more than 2.2 million cattle and calves slaughtered each year. In 2003–04, Victorian commercial fishing crews and aquaculture industry produced 11,634 tonnes of seafood valued at nearly A$109 million. Blacklipped abalone is the mainstay of the catch, bringing in A$46 million, followed by southern spiny lobster, rock lobster worth A$13.7 million. Most abalone and rock lobster is exported to Asia.


Manufacturing

Victoria has a diverse range of manufacturing enterprises and Melbourne is considered Australia's most important industrial city. The post-World War II manufacturing boom was fuelled by international investment; attracted to the state by the availability of cheap land close to the city and inexpensive energy from the
Latrobe Valley The Latrobe Valley is an inland geographical district and urban area of the Gippsland region in the state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. The traditional owners are the Braiakaulung people, Brayakaulung of the Gunai language, Gun ...
. Victoria produced 26.4% of total manufacturing output in Australia in 2015–16, behind New South Wales at 32.4%. Machinery and equipment manufacturing is the state's most valuable manufacturing activity, followed by food and beverage products, petrochemicals and chemicals. Prominent manufacturing plants in the state include the Portland aluminium smelter, Portland and Point Henry smelter, Point Henry aluminium smelters, owned by Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals, Alcoa; Geelong Oil Refinery, Geelong and Altona Refinery, Altona oil refineries; a major petrochemical facility at Laverton, Victoria, Laverton; and Victorian-based CSL Limited, CSL, a global biotechnology company that produces vaccines and plasma products, among others. Victoria also plays an important role in providing goods for the Defence industry of Victoria, defence industry. Victoria proportionally relies on manufacturing more than any other state in Australia, constituting 8.6% of total state product; slightly higher than South Australia at 8.0%. However, this proportion has been declining for three decades; in 1990 at the time of the Early 1990s recession in Australia, early 1990s recession manufacturing constituted 20.3% of total state output. Manufacturing output peaked in absolute terms in 2008, reaching $28.8 billion and has slowly fallen over the decade to $26.8 billion in 2016 (−0.77% per annum). Since 1990, manufacturing employment has also fallen in both aggregate (367,700 to 274,400 workers) and proportional (17.8% to 9.0%) terms. The strong Australian dollar as a result of the Mining in Australia, 2000s mining boom, small population and isolation, high wage base and the general shift of manufacturing production towards developing countries have been cited as some of the reasons for this decline. Historically, Victoria has been a hub for the manufacturing plants of the major car brands Ford Motor Company of Australia, Ford, Toyota Australia, Toyota and Holden; however, closure announcements by all three companies in the 2010s has meant Australia will completely lose their car manufacturing industry by the end of 2017. Holden's announcement occurred in May 2013 following Ford's decision in December the previous year (Ford's Victorian plants, in Broadmeadows and Geelong, closed in October 2016). Toyota followed suit in February 2014 with an expected announcement as without Holden or Ford, local supply chains would struggle to create the economics of scale required to supply one manufacturer.


Land

Victoria adopted the Torrens title, Torrens system of land registration with the ''Real Property Act 1862''. The Torrens system did not replace the common law system but applied only to new land grants and to land that has been voluntarily registered under the Act, and its successors. The common law system continues to apply to all other private landholdings. Crown land#Australia, Crown land held in Victoria is managed under the ''Crown Land (Reserves) Act 1978'' and the ''Land Act 1958''.


Mining

Mining in Victoria contributes around A$6 billion to the gross state product (~2%) but employs less than 1% of workers. The Victorian mining industry is concentrated on energy producing minerals, with brown coal, petroleum and natural gas, gas accounting for nearly 90% of local production. The oil and gas industries are centred off the coast of
Gippsland Gippsland is a rural In general, a rural area or a countryside is a geographic area that is located outside town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary ...
in the state's east, while brown coal mining and power generation is based in the
Latrobe Valley The Latrobe Valley is an inland geographical district and urban area of the Gippsland region in the state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. The traditional owners are the Braiakaulung people, Brayakaulung of the Gunai language, Gun ...
. In the 2005–06 fiscal year, the average gas production was over per day (M cuft/d) and represented 18% of the total national gas sales, with demand growing at 2% per year. In 1985, oil production from the offshore Gippsland Basin peaked to an annual average of per day. In 2005–2006, the average daily oil production has declined to /d, but despite the decline Victoria still produces almost 19.5% of crude oil in Australia. Brown coal is Victoria's leading mineral, with 66 million tonnes mined each year for electricity generation in the Latrobe Valley, Gippsland. The region is home to the world's largest known reserves of brown coal. Despite being the historic centre of Australia's gold rush, Victoria today contributes a mere 1% of national gold production. Victoria also produces limited amounts of gypsum and kaolin.


Service industry

The service industries sector is the fastest growing component of the Victorian economy. It includes the wide range of activities generally classified as financial and professional services; health care and social assistance, education, transportation, IT and communication services, government services and wholesale and retail trade. Most service industries are located in Melbourne and the state's larger regional centres. As of 2015–16, service industries employed over three-quarters of Victorian workers and more than three-quarters of the state's GSP. Finance and insurance as a group provide more value-add to the economy than any other economic activity in Victoria while health care and social assistance employ the most workers.


Tourism

Some major tourist destinations in Victoria are: * The metropolis of Melbourne, particular its inner city suburbs (known also for shopping tourism) and the attractions of the Melbourne city centre, city centre such as Melbourne Zoo, Melbourne Museum, the Melbourne Aquarium and Scienceworks Museum (Melbourne), Scienceworks, tourism precincts such as Melbourne Docklands, Southbank, Victoria, Southbank and St Kilda, Victoria, St Kilda as well as cultural and sporting tourist icons such as Arts Centre Melbourne, the East End Theatre District, the National Gallery of Victoria, the Melbourne Cricket Ground, also known as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, MCG, and the Eureka Tower, with the highest observation deck in the Southern Hemisphere, Skydeck 88. * Victoria has more than 2000 kilometres of coastline with hundreds of beaches. * The Goldfields region featuring the historic cities of Ballarat, Beechworth, Bendigo, Castlemaine, Victoria, Castlemaine, Maldon, Victoria, Maldon and Daylesford, Victoria, Daylesford. * Natural attractions, such as The Twelve Apostles, Victoria, The Twelve Apostles, Wilsons Promontory, Grampians National Park, The Grampians, the Little penguin, fairy penguins (particularly at Phillip Island (Victoria), Phillip Island and St Kilda, Victoria, St Kilda), the Buchan Caves and the Gippsland Lakes. * The Dandenong Ranges (in particular the Puffing Billy Railway). * Healesville Sanctuary, which specialises in local Australian species. * Towns along the Murray River and Riverina including Echuca, Victoria, Echuca and
Mildura Mildura is a regional city in north-west Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. Located on the Victorian side of the Murray River, Mildura had a population of 33,444 in 2016. When nearby Wentworth, New South Wales, Wentworth, Irymple, Victor ...
including waterskiing. * Geelong, Victoria, Geelong and its famous Waterfront, Eastern Beach and Geelong West's Pakington Street * The Bellarine Peninsula which features vineyards and historic resort towns such as Queenscliff, Victoria, Queenscliff, Drysdale, Victoria, Drysdale and Portarlington, Victoria, Portarlington * The Werribee, Victoria, Werribee Mansion and Werribee Open Range Zoo * The Surf Coast which features famous beaches such as Bells Beach, Victoria, Bells Beach, Torquay, Victoria, Torquay and Lorne * Mornington Peninsula, particularly for its wineries in Red Hill, Victoria, Red Hill and secluded beaches in Mount Eliza, Victoria, Mount Eliza and Mornington, Victoria, Mornington, The Pillars in Mount Martha, Victoria, Mount Martha, Arthur's Seat, Victoria, Arthur's Seat and the coastal attractions of Portsea, Victoria, Portsea, Sorrento, Victoria, Sorrento and Flinders, Victoria, Flinders. * Yarra Valley (in particular Healesville Sanctuary and wineries). * Great Ocean Road, which features The Twelve Apostles, historic towns of Port Fairy, Victoria, Port Fairy and
Portland Portland most commonly refers to: * Portland, Oregon, the largest city in the state of Oregon, in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States * Portland, Maine, the largest city in the state of Maine, in the New England region of the northeas ...
, cliffs and whale watching and resort towns such as Lorne, Victoria, Lorne. * The Victorian Alpine Region, part of the Australian Alps, particularly for Skiing in Victoria, skiing * The Central Victorian Highlands, 'High country' are very well known for winter sports and bushwalking * Victorian wine, Wine regions across the entire state. Other popular tourism activities are gliding, hang-gliding, hot air ballooning and scuba diving. Major events that explore cultural diversity, music and sports play a big part in Victoria's tourism. The V8 Supercars and Australian Motorcycle Grand Prix at Phillip Island, the Grand Annual Steeplechase at Warrnambool and the Australian International Airshow at Avalon and numerous local festivals such as the popular Port Fairy Folk Festival, Queenscliff Music Festival, Pako Festa in Geelong West, Bells Beach Surf Classic and the Bright, Victoria, Bright Autumn Festival amongst others. File:Urban river banks (Unsplash).jpg, The Melbourne skyline at night File:Brighton Beach and Beach Huts, Australia - panoramio (37).jpg, Brighton, Victoria, Brighton Beach bathing boxes File:Mornington Mills Beach W from carpark.jpg, Mornington, Victoria, Mornington Mills Beach File:Autumn in the Dandenong Ranges.jpg, Autumn in the Dandenong Ranges File:TwelveApostles-Gaz.jpg, The Twelve Apostles, Victoria, The Twelve Apostles File:Sunset at Jan Juc, Torquay (6758802783).jpg, Jan Juc, Torquay, Victoria, Torquay


Transport

Victoria has the highest population density in any state in Australia, with population centres spread out over most of the state; only the far northwest and the
Victorian Alps The Victorian Alps, also known locally as the High Country, is a large mountain system residing in the southeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the ...
lack permanent settlement. The Road transport in Victoria, Victorian road network services the population centres, with highways generally radiating from Melbourne and other major cities and rural centres with secondary roads interconnecting the highways to each other. Many of the highways are built to freeway standard ("M" freeways), while most are generally sealed and of reasonable quality. Rail transport in Victoria is provided by several private and public railway operators who operate over government-owned lines. Major operators include: Metro Trains Melbourne which runs an extensive, electrified, passenger system throughout Melbourne and suburbs; V/Line which is now owned by the Victorian Government, operates a concentrated service to major regional centres, as well as long-distance services on other lines; Pacific National, CFCL Australia which operate freight services; Great Southern Rail (Australia), Great Southern Rail which operates ''The Overland'' Melbourne—Adelaide; and NSW TrainLink which operates New South Wales XPT, XPTs Melbourne—Sydney. There are also several smaller freight operators and numerous tourist railways operating over lines which were once parts of a state-owned system. Victorian lines mainly use the Victorian broad gauge, broad gauge. However, the interstate trunk routes, as well as a number of freight lines in the north and west of the state have been converted to standard gauge. Two tourist railways operate over Narrow gauge lines of the Victorian Railways, narrow gauge lines, which are the remnants of five formerly government-owned lines which were built in mountainous areas. Melbourne has the world's largest Trams in Melbourne, tram network, currently operated by Yarra Trams. As well as being a popular form of public transport, over the last few decades trams have become one of Melbourne's major tourist attractions. There are also tourist trams operating over portions of the former Ballarat Tramway Museum, Ballarat and Bendigo systems. There are also tramway museums at Tramway Museum Society of Victoria, Bylands and Haddon. Melbourne Airport is the major domestic and international gateway for the state. Avalon Airport is the state's second busiest airport, which complements Essendon Airport, Essendon and Moorabbin Airports to see the remainder of Melbourne's air traffic. Hamilton Airport (Australia), Hamilton Airport, Mildura Airport, Mount Hotham and Portland Airport (Australia), Portland Airport are the remaining airports with scheduled domestic flights. There are no fewer than 27 List of airports in Australia, other airports in the state with no scheduled flights. The Port of Melbourne is the largest port for containerised and general cargo in Australia, and is located in Melbourne on the mouth of the
Yarra River The Yarra River or historically, the Yarra Yarra River, (Kulin languages: ''Berrern'', ''Birr-arrung'', ''Bay-ray-rung'', ''Birarang'', ''Birrarung'', and ''Wongete'') is a perennial stream, perennial river in south-central Victoria (Australia ...

Yarra River
, which is at the head of
Port Phillip Port Phillip ( Kulin: ''Naarm Naarm''), or Port Phillip Bay, is a horsehead-shaped enclosed bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (al ...
. Additional seaports are at Westernport, Port of Geelong, Geelong, and
Portland Portland most commonly refers to: * Portland, Oregon, the largest city in the state of Oregon, in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States * Portland, Maine, the largest city in the state of Maine, in the New England region of the northeas ...
. As of October 2013, smoking tobacco is prohibited in the sheltered areas of train stations, and tram and bus stops—between 2012 and 2013, 2002 people were issued with infringement notices. The state government announced a plan in October 2013 to prohibit smoking on all Victorian railway station platforms and raised tram stops.


Utilities


Energy

Victoria's major utilities include a collection of brown-coal-fired power stations, particularly in the Latrobe Valley. One of these was the recently decommissioned Hazelwood Power Station, which was number 1 on the worldwide List of least carbon efficient power stations. The Victorian government is aiming to cut 40.6 mega tonnes of greenhouse gases emissions by 2025.


Water

Victoria's water infrastructure includes a series of dams and reservoirs, predominantly in Central Victoria, that hold and collect water for much of the state. The water collected is of a very high quality and requires little chlorination treatment, giving the water a taste more like water collected in a rainwater tank. In regional areas however, such as in the west of the state, chlorination levels are much higher. The Victorian Water Grid consists of a number of new connections and pipelines being built across the State. This allows water to be moved around Victoria to where it is needed most and reduces the impact of localised droughts in an era thought to be influenced by climate change. Major projects already completed as part of the Grid include the Wimmera Mallee Pipeline and the Goldfields Superpipe.


Sport

Victoria is the home of
Australian rules football Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, or simply called "Aussie rules", "football Football is a family of team sport A team is a [group (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working ...
, with ten of the 18 Australian Football League (AFL) clubs based in the state. The AFL Grand Final is traditionally held at the Melbourne Cricket Ground on the last Saturday of September. The state has a public holiday the day before the Grand Final, which coincides with the AFL Grand Final parade. The Victoria cricket team, Victorian cricket team play in the national Sheffield Shield cricket competition. Victoria is represented in the National Rugby League by the Melbourne Storm and in Super Rugby by the Melbourne Rebels. It is represented in the National Basketball League (Australia), National Basketball League by Melbourne United and South East Melbourne Phoenix. It is also represented in soccer by Melbourne Victory, Melbourne City FC, Melbourne City and Western United FC, Western United in the A-League. Melbourne has held the 1956 Summer Olympics, 2006 Commonwealth Games and the FINA World Swimming Championship. Melbourne is also home to the Australian Open tennis tournament in January each year, the first of the world's four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, and the Australian Formula One Australian Grand Prix in March. It hosted the Australian Masters golf tournament from 1979 to 2015. Victoria's Bells Beach hosts one of the world's longest-running surfing competition, the Bells Beach SurfClassic, which is part of The ASP World Tour. The Melbourne Vixens and Collingwood Magpies Netball represent Victoria in the Suncorp Super Netball, National Netball League. Victoria's Phillip Island (Victoria), Phillip Island is home of the Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit which hosts the Australian motorcycle Grand Prix which features Grand Prix motorcycle racing, MotoGP (the world's premier motorcycling class), as well as the Australian round of the World Superbike Championship and the domestic V8 Supercar racing, which also visits Sandown Raceway and the rural Winton Motor Raceway circuit. Australia's most prestigious footrace, the Stawell Gift, is an annual event. Victoria is also home to the Aussie Millions poker tournament, the richest in the Southern Hemisphere. The main horse racing tracks in Victoria are Caulfield Racecourse, Flemington Racecourse and Sandown Racecourse. The Melbourne Spring Racing Carnival is one of the biggest horse racing events in the world and is one of the world's largest sporting events. The main race is for the $6 million Melbourne Cup, and crowds for the carnival usually exceed 700,000. Major professional teams include: *
Australian rules football Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, or simply called "Aussie rules", "football Football is a family of team sport A team is a [group (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working ...
(Australian Football League, AFL): Carlton Football Club, Carlton, Collingwood Football Club, Collingwood, Essendon Football Club, Essendon, Geelong Football Club, Geelong Cats, Hawthorn Football Club, Hawthorn, Melbourne Football Club, Melbourne, North Melbourne Football Club, North Melbourne, Richmond Football Club, Richmond, St Kilda Football Club, St Kilda, Western Bulldogs * Basketball (National Basketball League (Australia), NBL): Melbourne United, South East Melbourne Phoenix * Cricket (Big Bash League, BBL): Melbourne Renegades, Melbourne Stars * Cricket (Sheffield Shield and Marsh One-Day Cup): Victoria cricket team * Netball (Suncorp Super Netball, NNL): Melbourne Vixens, Collingwood Magpies Netball, Collingwood Magpies * Rugby league (National Rugby League, NRL): Melbourne Storm *Rugby union (Super Rugby): Melbourne Rebels *Association football, Soccer (A-League): Melbourne City FC, Melbourne City, Melbourne Victory, Western United FC, Western United


Sister states

Victoria has four sister city, sister states: * Jiangsu, China (1979) * Aichi Prefecture, Japan (1980) * Busan, South Korea (1994) * Sichuan, China (2016)


See also

* List of highways in Victoria * Protected areas of Victoria (Australia) * Vicmap Topographic Map Series


Explanatory notes


Geography


Demographics


References


Further reading


Victorian frontier history

* Jan Critchett (1990), ''A distant field of murder: Western district frontiers, 1834–1848'', Melbourne University Press (Carlton, Vic. and Portland, Or.) * Ian D Clark (1990), ''Aboriginal languages and clans: An historical atlas of western and central Victoria, 1800–1900'', Dept. of Geography & Environmental Science, Monash University (Melbourne), * Ian D Clark (1995), ''Scars in the landscape: A register of massacre sites in western Victoria, 1803–1859'', Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (Canberra), * Ian D Clark (2003), ''"That's my country belonging to me": Aboriginal land tenure and dispossession in nineteenth century Western Victoria'', Ballarat Heritage Services, Ballarat.


External links

*
Official Government tourism website

Victorian Places website

Tourism Victoria's Online Image Library

Victoria's Households Schemes
* {{Authority control Victoria (Australia), States and territories of Australia Former British colonies and protectorates in Oceania States and territories established in 1851 1851 establishments in Australia