HOME

TheInfoList




The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the
United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), serving as the main deliberative, policymaking, and representative organ of the UN. Its ...
that enshrines the rights and freedoms of all human beings. It was accepted by the General Assembly as Resolution 217 during its third session on 10 December 1948 at the
Palais de Chaillot The Palais de Chaillot () is a building at the top of the in the Trocadéro area in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, France. For the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (1937), Exposition Internationale of 1937, ...
in
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the and from the to the and the ; overseas territories include in , in the N ...

France
. Of the 58 members of the United Nations at the time, 48 voted in favour, none against, eight abstained, and two did not vote. A foundational text in the history of human and civil rights, the Declaration consists of 30 articles detailing an individual's "basic
rights Rights are legal Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', 90. with its precise definition a matter of longstandi ...
and fundamental freedoms" and affirming their universal character as inherent, inalienable, and applicable to all human beings. Adopted as a "common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations", the UDHR commits nations to recognize all humans as being "born free and equal in dignity and rights" regardless of "nationality, place of residence, gender, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status". The Declaration is considered a "milestone document" for its " universalist language", which makes no reference to a particular culture, political system, or religion. It directly inspired the development of
international human rights law International human rights law (IHRL) is the body of international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relations between nations. It est ...
, and was the first step in the formulation of the
International Bill of Human Rights International is an adjective (also used as a noun) meaning "between nations". International may also refer to: Music Albums * International (Kevin Michael album), ''International'' (Kevin Michael album), 2011 * International (New Order album), ' ...
, which was completed in 1966 and came into force in 1976. Although not legally binding, the contents of the UDHR have been elaborated and incorporated into subsequent international treaties, regional
human rights Human rights are Morality, moral principles or Norm (social), normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, 13 December 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of PhilosophyHuman Rights Retrieved 14 August 2014 for ...
instruments, and national constitutions and legal codes. All 193 member states of the United Nations have ratified at least one of the nine binding treaties influenced by the Declaration, with the vast majority ratifying four or more. While there is a wide consensus that the declaration itself is non-binding and not part of
customary international law Customary international law is an aspect of international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relations between nations. It establishes ...
, there is also a consensus that many of its provisions are binding and have passed into
customary international law Customary international law is an aspect of international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relations between nations. It establishes ...
, although courts in some nations have been more restrictive on its legal effect.''Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain'', 542 U.S. 692, 734 (2004). Nevertheless, the UDHR has influenced legal, political, and social developments on both the global and national levels, with its significance partly evidenced by its 530 translations, the most of any document in history.


Structure and content

The underlying structure of the Universal Declaration was influenced by the '' Code Napoléon'', including a preamble and introductory general principles. Its final structure took form in the second draft prepared by French jurist
René Cassin René Samuel Cassin (5 October 1887 – 20 February 1976) was a French jurist known for co-authoring the Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the ...
, who worked on the initial draft prepared by Canadian legal scholar
John Peters Humphrey John Peters Humphrey, Order of Canada, OC (April 30, 1905 – March 14, 1995) was a Canadians, Canadian law, legal scholar, jurist, and human rights advocate. He is most famous as the principal author of the first draft of the Universal Declar ...
. The Declaration consists of the following: * The preamble sets out the historical and social causes that led to the necessity of drafting the Declaration. * Articles 1–2 establish the basic concepts of dignity, liberty, and equality. * Articles 3–5 establish other individual rights, such as the
right to life The right to life is the belief that a being has the right to live and, in particular, should not be killed by another entity including government. The concept of a right to life arises in debates on issues of capital punishment Capital ...
and the prohibition of
slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their . Slavery typically involves the enslaved person bein ...
and
torture Torture is the deliberate infliction of severe pain or suffering Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual. Suffering i ...

torture
. * Articles 6–11 refer to the fundamental legality of human rights with specific remedies cited for their defence when violated. * Articles 12–17 set forth the rights of the individual towards the community, including
freedom of movement Freedom of movement, mobility rights, or the right to travel is a human rights concept encompassing the right of individuals to travel from place to place within the territory of a country,Jérémiee Gilbert, ''Nomadic Peoples and Human Rights'' ...
and
residence A residence is a place (normally a building) used as a home A home, or domicile, is a space used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for one or many Human, humans. It is a fully or semi sheltered space and can have both interior an ...
within each state, the right of
property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of property may have the right to , alter, , , , , , , , or ...
and the right to a
nationality Nationality is a legal identification of a person in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relations between nations. I ...
. * Articles 18–21 sanction the so-called "constitutional liberties" and spiritual, public, and political freedoms, such as
freedom of thought Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience or ideas) is the freedom Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint. Something is "free" if it can change easily and is not constrained in its present s ...
, opinion, expression,
religion Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain v ...
and
conscience Conscience is a cognitive process that elicits emotion and rational associations based on an individual's ethics, moral philosophy or value system. Conscience stands in contrast to elicited emotion or thought due to associations based on immedi ...

conscience
, word, peaceful association of the individual, and receiving and imparting information and ideas through any media. * Articles 22–27 sanction an individual's economic, social and cultural rights, including
healthcare Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health Health, according to the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical, Mental health, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity".World ...
. It upholds an expansive right to a standard of living, provides for additional accommodations in case of physical debilitation or disability, and makes special mention of care given to those in motherhood or childhood. * Articles 28–30 establish the general means of exercising these rights, the areas in which the rights of the individual cannot be applied, the duty of the individual to society, and the prohibition of the use of rights in contravention of the purposes of the United Nations Organisation. Cassin compared the Declaration to the
portico A portico is a porch A porch (from Old French ''porche'', from Latin ''porticus'' "colonnade", from ''porta'' "passage") is a room or gallery located in front of an entrance of a building. A porch is placed in front of the facade of a bui ...

portico
of a Greek temple, with a foundation, steps, four columns, and a
pediment Pediments are Gable, gables, usually of a triangular shape. They are found in ancient Greek architecture as early as 600 BC (e.g. the archaic Temple of Artemis, Corfu, Temple of Artemis). Variations of the pediment occur in later architectural st ...

pediment
. Articles 1 and 2—with their principles of dignity, liberty, equality and brotherhood—served as the foundation blocks. The seven paragraphs of the preamble, setting out the reasons for the Declaration, represent the steps leading up to the temple. The main body of the Declaration forms the four columns. The first column (articles 3-11) constitutes rights of the individual, such as the right to life and the prohibition of slavery. The second column (articles 12-17) constitutes the rights of the individual in civil and political society. The third column (articles 18-21) is concerned with spiritual, public and political freedoms such as freedom of religion and freedom of association. The fourth column (articles 22-27) sets out social, economic and cultural rights. Finally, the last three articles provide the pediment which binds the structure together, as they emphasise the mutual duties of every individual to one another and to society.


History


Background

During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
, the
Allies An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them. Members of an alli ...
—known formally as the United Nations—adopted as their basic war aims the
Four Freedoms The Four Freedoms were goals articulated by U.S. President The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Fo ...
:
freedom of speech in London, 1974 Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint. Something is "free" if it can change easily and is not constrained in its present state ...

freedom of speech
,
freedom of religion Freedom of religion or religious liberty is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance. It also includes the freed ...
,
freedom from fear Freedom from fear is listed as a fundamental human right Human rights are Morality, moral principles or Norm (social), normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, 13 December 2013, Stanford Encycloped ...
, and
freedom from want The right to an adequate standard of living is a fundamental human rights, human right. It is part of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that was accepted by the United Nations General Assembly, General Assembly of the United Nations on Dec ...
.Bodnar, John, The "Good War" in American Memory. (Maryland:
Johns Hopkins University Press The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press'' or ''JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University The Johns Hopkins University is a private university, private research university in Baltimore, Baltimore, Mar ...
, 2010) 11
Towards the end of the war, the
United Nations Charter The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) is the foundational treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public internation ...

United Nations Charter
was debated, drafted, and ratified to reaffirm "faith in fundamental human rights, and dignity and worth of the human person" and commit all member states to promote "universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion". When the atrocities committed by
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
became fully apparent after the war, the consensus within the world community was that the Charter did not sufficiently define the rights to which it referred. It was deemed necessary to create a universal declaration that specified the rights of individuals so as to give effect to the Charter's provisions on human rights.


Creation and drafting

In June 1946, the (ECOSOC)—a principal organ of the newly founded United Nations responsible for promoting human rights—created the
Commission on Human Rights A human rights commission, also known as a human relations commission, is a body set up to investigate, promote or protect human rights Human rights are moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to th ...
(CHR), a standing body within the UN tasked with preparing what was initially conceived as an
International Bill of Rights The International Bill of Human Rights was the name given tUN General Assembly Resolution 217 (III)and two international treaties established by the United Nations. It consists of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (adopted in 1948), the Inte ...
. It had 18 members from various national, religious, and political backgrounds, so as to be representative of humanity. In February 1947, the Commission established a special Universal Declaration of Human Rights Drafting Committee, chaired by
Eleanor Roosevelt Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (; October 11, 1884November 7, 1962) was an American political figure, diplomat, and activist. She served as the first lady of the United States The first lady of the United States (FLOTUS) is the title held by the ...
of the United States, to write the articles of the Declaration. The Committee met in two sessions over the course of two years. Canadian
John Peters Humphrey John Peters Humphrey, Order of Canada, OC (April 30, 1905 – March 14, 1995) was a Canadians, Canadian law, legal scholar, jurist, and human rights advocate. He is most famous as the principal author of the first draft of the Universal Declar ...
, the newly appointed Director of the Division of Human Rights within the United Nations Secretariat, was called upon by the
UN Secretary-General The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or SG) is the chief administrative officer of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international ...
to work on the project, becoming the Declaration's principal drafter. Other prominent members of the Drafting Committee included
René Cassin René Samuel Cassin (5 October 1887 – 20 February 1976) was a French jurist known for co-authoring the Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the ...
of France; Committee Rapporteur
Charles Malik , 1958 Charles Habib Malik (sometimes spelled ''Charles Habib Malek''; 11 February 1906 – 28 December 1987; ar, شارل مالك) was a Lebanon, Lebanese academic, diplomat, and philosopher. He served as the Lebanese representative to the Unite ...
of
Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is located between Syria to Lebanon–Syria border, the north and east and Israel to Blue Line ...

Lebanon
, and Vice-Chairman P.C. Chang of the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
.The Declaration was drafted during the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
. P.C. Chang was appointed as a representative by the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
, then the recognised government of China, but which was driven from
mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies b ...

mainland China
and now administers only
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
and nearby islands
history.com
.
A month after its creation, the Drafting Committee was expanded to include representatives of Australia, Chile, France, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom, in addition to the inaugural members from China, France, Lebanon, and the United States. Humphrey is credited with devising the "blueprint" for the Declaration, while Cassin composed the first draft. Both received considerable input from other members, each of whom reflected different professional and ideological backgrounds. The Declaration's pro-family phrases allegedly derived from Cassin and Malik, who were influenced by the Christian Democracy movement; Malik, a Christian theologian, was known for appealing across religious lines, as well as to different Christian sects. Chang urged removing all references to religion to make the document more universal, and used aspects of Confucianism to settle stalemates in negotiations. Hernán Santa Cruz of Chile, an educator and judge, strongly supported the inclusion of socioeconomic rights, which had been opposed by some Western nations. In her memoirs, Roosevelt commented on the debates and discussions that informed the UDHR, describing one such exchange during the Drafting Committee's first session in June 1947:
Dr. Chang was a pluralist and held forth in charming fashion on the proposition that there is more than one kind of ultimate reality. The Declaration, he said, should reflect more than simply Western ideas and Dr. Humphrey would have to be eclectic in his approach. His remark, though addressed to Dr. Humphrey, was really directed at Dr. Malik, from whom it drew a prompt retort as he expounded at some length the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas. Dr. Humphrey joined enthusiastically in the discussion, and I remember that at one point Dr. Chang suggested that the Secretariat might well spend a few months studying the fundamentals of Confucianism!
In May 1948, roughly a year after its creation, the Drafting Committee held its second and final session, where it considered the comments and suggestions of member states and international bodies, principally the UN Conference on Freedom of Information, which took place the prior March and April; the Commission on the Status of Women, a body within ECOSOC that reported on the state of women's rights worldwide; and the Ninth International Conference of American States, held in Bogota, Colombia in spring of 1948, which adopted the
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man The American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, also known as the Bogota Declaration, was the world's first international human rights instruments, international human rights instrument of a general nature, predating the Universal Declar ...
, the world's first general
international human rights instrument International is an adjective (also used as a noun) meaning "between nations". International may also refer to: Music Albums * International (Kevin Michael album), ''International'' (Kevin Michael album), 2011 * International (New Order album), ' ...
. Delegates and consultants from several UN bodies, international organisations, and nongovernmental organisations also attended and submitted suggestions. It was also hoped that an International Bill of Human Rights with legal force could be drafted and submitted for adoption alongside the Declaration. Upon the session's conclusion on 21 May 1948, the Committee submitted to the Commission on Human Rights a redrafted text of the "International Declaration of Human Rights" and the "International Covenant of Human Rights", which together would form an International Bill of Rights. The redrafted Declaration was further examined and discussed by the Commission on Human Rights in its third session in Geneva 21 May through 18 June 1948. The so-called "Geneva text" was circulated among member states and subject to several proposed amendments; for example,
Hansa Mehta Hansa Jivraj Mehta (3 July 1897 – 4 April 1995) was a reformist, social activist, educator, independence activist, feminist and writer from India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It ...
of India notably suggested that the Declaration assert that "all human beings are created equal", instead of "all men are created equal", to better reflect gender quality.
Charles Theodore Te Water Charles Theodore Te Water (4 February 1887 – 6 June 1964) was a South African barrister, diplomat and politician who was appointed as List of Leaders of the League of Nations, President of the Assembly of the League of Nations. Diplomat in Lo ...
of South Africa fought very hard to have the word dignity removed from the declaration, saying that "dignity had no universal standard and that it was not a 'right'". Te Water believed correctly as it turned out that listing human dignity as a universal human right would lead to criticism of the ''apartheid'' system that had just been introduced by the new National Party government of South Africa. Malik in response stated it was Prime Minister
Jan Smuts Field Marshal Jan Christian Smuts, (24 May 1870 11 September 1950) was a South African statesman, military leader, and philosopher. In addition to holding various military and cabinet posts, he served as Prime Minister of South Africa, prime m ...
of South Africa who had played an important role in drafting the UN Charter in 1945 and it was Smuts who inserted the word dignity as a universal human right into the charter. Despite te Water's efforts, the word dignity was included in the declaration as a universal human right. With a vote of 12 in favour, none opposed, and four abstaining, the CHR approved the proposed Declaration, though was unable to examine the contents and implementation of the proposed Covenant. The Commission forwarded the approved text of the Declaration, as well as the Covenant, to the for its review and approval during its seventh session in July and August 1948. The Council adopted Resolution 151(VII) of 26 August 1948, transmitting the draft International Declaration of Human Rights to the UN General Assembly. The Third Committee of the
General Assembly A general assembly or general meeting is a meeting of all the members of an organization or shareholders of a company. Specific examples of general assembly include: Churches * General Assembly (presbyterian church), the highest court of presbyt ...
, which convened from 30 September to 7 December 1948, held 81 meetings concerning the draft Declaration, including debating and resolving 168 proposals for amendments by UN member states. On its 178th meeting on 6 December, the Third Committee adopted the Declaration with 29 votes in favour, none opposed and seven abstentions. The document was subsequently submitted to the wider General Assembly for its consideration on 9 and 10 December 1948.


Adoption

The Universal Declaration was adopted by the
General Assembly A general assembly or general meeting is a meeting of all the members of an organization or shareholders of a company. Specific examples of general assembly include: Churches * General Assembly (presbyterian church), the highest court of presbyt ...
as UN Resolution A/RES/217(III) on 10 December 1948 in Palais de Chaillot, Paris.UN headquarters in New York , after which it became the permanent seat of the General Assembly. Of the 58 UN members at the time, 48 voted in favour, none against, eight abstained, and
Honduras Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras, is a country in Central America Central America ( es, América Central, , ''Centroamérica'' ) is a region of the Americas. It is bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the south, the ...

Honduras
and
Yemen ) , image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a (''Houthi takeover in Yemen, De jure'')Aden (Temporary capital Yemeni government, in exile) , coordinates = , capital_exile = ...

Yemen
failed to vote or abstain. Eleanor Roosevelt is credited with having been instrumental in mustering support for the Declaration's adoption, both in her native U.S. and across the world, owing to her ability to appeal to different and often opposing political blocs. The meeting record provides firsthand insight into the debate on the Declaration's adoption. South Africa's position can be seen as an attempt to protect its system of apartheid, which clearly violated several articles in the Declaration. Saudi Arabia's abstention was prompted primarily by two of the Declaration's articles: Article 18, which states that everyone has the right "to change his religion or belief", and Article 16, on equal marriage rights. The abstentions by the six communist nations centred on the view that the Declaration did not go far enough in condemning fascism and Nazism; Eleanor Roosevelt attributed the actual point of contention as being Article 13, which provided the right of citizens to leave their countries. Other observers point to the Soviet bloc's opposition to the Declaration's "
negative rights Negative and positive rights are rights Rights are law, legal, social, or ethics, ethical principles of Liberty, freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people acco ...
", such as provisions calling on governments not to violate certain civil and political rights. The
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...
delegation, while voting in favor of the Declaration, expressed frustration that the proposed document had moral obligations but lacked legal force; it would not be until 1976 that the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the c ...
came into force, giving a legal status to most of the Declaration. The 48 countries that voted in favour of the Declaration are: with group=lower-alpha was used in the infobox, and is not expected to be displayed until the Notes section is encountered below --> *
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...
* *
Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning South America and an Insular region of Colombia, insular region in North America. It is bordered by the Carib ...
*
Costa Rica Costa Rica (, ; ; literally "Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( es, República de Costa Rica), is a country in , bordered by to the north, the to the northeast, to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, an ...

Costa Rica
* * *
Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic ( ; es, República Dominicana, ) is a country located on the island of in the archipelago of the region. It occupies the eastern five-eighths of the island, which it shares with , making Hispaniola one of only tw ...
* * *
El Salvador , national_anthem = '' Himno Nacional de El Salvador''( en, "National Anthem of El Salvador") , image_map = El Salvador (orthographic projection).svg , image_map2 = , capital = San Salvador , coordinates = , largest_city = San Salvador ...
* * * *
Guatemala Guatemala ( ; ), officially the Republic of Guatemala ( es, República de Guatemala, links=no), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, Belize and the Caribbean Sea, Caribbean to the northeast, Honduras to t ...
* * * * * * *
Liberia Liberia (), officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape ...
* * * * *
Nicaragua Nicaragua (; ), officially the Republic of Nicaragua (), is the largest country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective iden ...
* * * *
Paraguay Paraguay (; ), officially the Republic of Paraguay ( es, República del Paraguay, links=no; gn, Tetã Paraguái, links=no), is a country in South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively sma ...
* *
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...
*
Siam ) , royal_anthem = '' Sansoen Phra Barami''( en, "Glorify His prestige") , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Bangkok Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai language, ...

Siam
* * *
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and ...
* * * * : Eight countries abstained: Two countries did not vote: * * The majority of gained sovereignty and joined the organisation later, which accounts for the relatively small number of states entitled to the historical vote.


International Human Rights Day

10 December, the anniversary of the adoption of the Universal Declaration, is celebrated annually as World Human Rights Day or International Human Rights Day. The commemoration is observed by individuals, community and religious groups, human rights organizations, parliaments, governments, and the United Nations. Decadal commemorations are often accompanied by campaigns to promote awareness of the Declaration and of human rights general. 2008 marked the 60th anniversary of the Declaration, and was accompanied by year-long activities around the theme "Dignity and justice for all of us". Likewise, the 70th anniversary in 2018 was marked by the global ''#StandUpForHumanRights'' campaign, which targeted youth.


Impact


Significance

At the time of the Declaration's adoption by the General Assembly in 1948, Eleanor Roosevelt said:
In giving our approval to the declaration today, it is of primary importance that we keep clearly in mind the basic character of the document. It is not a treaty; it is not an international agreement. It is not and does not purport to be a statement of law or of legal obligation. It is a declaration of basic principles of human rights and freedoms, to be stamped with the approval of the General Assembly by formal vote of its members, and to serve as a common standard of achievement for all peoples of all nations.
The UDHR is considered groundbreaking for providing a comprehensive and universal set of principles in a secular, apolitical document that explicitly transcends cultures, religions, legal systems, and political ideologies. Its claim to universality has been described as "boundlessly idealistic" and the "most ambitious feature". The Declaration was officially adopted as a bilingual document in
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
and , with official translations in
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
,
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
and
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
, all of which are official working languages of the UN. Due to its inherently universalist nature, the UN has made a concerted effort to translate the document into as many languages as possible, in collaboration with private and public entities and individuals. In 1999, the ''
Guinness Book of Records ''Guinness World Records'', known from its inception in 1955 until 1999 as ''The Guinness Book of Records'' and in previous United States editions as ''The Guinness Book of World Records'', is a reference book published annually, listing world r ...
'' described the Declaration as the world's "Most Translated Document", with 298 translations; the record was once again certified a decade later when the text reached 370 different languages and dialects. The UDHR achieved a milestone of over 500 translations in 2016, and as of 2021, has been translated into 530 languages, remaining the most translated document. In its preamble, governments commit themselves and their people to progressive measures that secure the universal and effective recognition and observance of the human rights set out in the Declaration.
Eleanor Roosevelt Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (; October 11, 1884November 7, 1962) was an American political figure, diplomat, and activist. She served as the first lady of the United States The first lady of the United States (FLOTUS) is the title held by the ...
supported the adoption of the text as a declaration, rather than as a treaty, because she believed that it would have the same kind of influence on global society as the
United States Declaration of Independence The United States Declaration of Independence is the pronouncement adopted by the Second Continental Congress The Second Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies in America which united in the American Re ...

United States Declaration of Independence
had within the United States. Even though it is not legally binding, the Declaration has been incorporated into or influenced most national constitutions since 1948. It has also served as the foundation for a growing number of national laws, international laws, and treaties, as well as for a growing number of regional, subnational, and national institutions protecting and promoting human rights. The Declaration's all-encompassing provisions serve as a "yardstick" and point of reference by which countries' commitments to human rights are judged, such as through the treaty bodies and other mechanisms of various human rights treaties that monitor implementation.


Legal effect

In international law, a declaration is distinct from a treaty in that it generally states aspirations or understandings among the parties, rather than binding obligations. The Declaration was explicitly adopted to reflect and elaborate on the customary international law reflected in the " fundamental freedoms" and "human rights" referenced in the United Nations Charter, which is binding on all member states. For this reason, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a fundamental constitutive document of the United Nations and, by extension, all 193 parties of the UN Charter. Nevertheless, the status of the Declaration as a legally enforceable document varies widely around the world: some countries have incorporated it into their domestic laws, while other countries consider it merely a statement of ideals, with no binding provisions. Many international lawyers believe that the Declaration forms part of
customary international law Customary international law is an aspect of international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relations between nations. It establishes ...
and is a powerful tool in applying diplomatic and moral pressure to governments that violate its articles. One prominent international jurist described the UDHR as being "universally regarded as expounding generally accepted norms." Other legal scholars have further argued that the Declaration constitutes ''jus cogens'', fundamental principles of international law from which no state may deviate or Derogation, derogate. The 1968 United Nations International Conference on Human Rights advised that the Declaration "constitutes an obligation for the members of the international community" to all persons. The Declaration has served as the foundation for two binding UN human rights covenants: the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the c ...
and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The principles of the Declaration are elaborated in other binding international treaties such as the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, International Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, the United Nations Convention Against Torture, and many more. The Declaration continues to be widely cited by governments, academics, advocates, and constitutional courts, and by individuals who appeal to its principles for the protection of their recognised human rights.


National law

One scholar estimates that at least 90 national constitutions drafted since the Declaration's adoption in 1948 "contain statements of fundamental rights which, where they do not faithfully reproduce the provisions of the Universal Declaration, are at least inspired by it."Hurst Hannum,
THE UDHR IN NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LAW
', pp. 151-152.
At least 20 African nations that attained independence Decolonisation of Africa, in the decades immediately following 1948 explicitly referenced the UDHR in their constitutions. As of 2014, the constitutions that still directly cite the Declaration are those of Afghanistan, Benin, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Guinea, Haiti, Mali, Mauritania, Nicaragua, Niger, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Somalia, Spain, Togo and Yemen. Moreover, the constitutions of Portugal, Romania, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Spain compel their courts to "interpret" constitutional norms consistently with the Universal Declaration. Judicial and political figures in many nations have directly invoked the UDHR as an influence or inspiration on their courts, constitutions, or legal codes. Indian courts have ruled the Constitution of India, Indian Constitution "[embodies] most of the articles contained in the Declaration".''Bombay Education Society v. State of Bombay,'' 1954 Bom. 271, at 1350. Nations as diverse as Antigua, Chad, Chile, Kazakhstan, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Zimbabwe have derived constitutional and legal provisions from the Declaration. In some cases, specific provisions of the UDHR are incorporated or otherwise reflected in national law. The right to health or to protection of health is found in the constitutions of Belgium, Kyrgyzstan, Paraguay, Peru, Thailand, and Togo; constitutional obligations on the government to provide health services exist in Armenia, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Finland, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Paraguay, Thailand, and Yemen. A survey of U.S. cases through 1988 found five references to the Declaration by the United States Supreme Court; sixteen references by United States courts of appeals, federal courts of appeal; twenty-four references by United States district court, federal district courts; one reference by a United States bankruptcy court, bankruptcy court; and several references by five state courts. Likewise, research conducted in 1994 identified 94 references to the Declaration by federal and state courts across the U.S. In 2004, the Supreme Court of the United States, U.S. Supreme Court ruled in ''Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain'' that the Declaration "does not of its own force impose obligations as a matter of international law", and that the political branches of the U.S. federal government can "scrutinize" the nation's obligations to international instruments and their enforceability. However, U.S. courts and legislatures may still use the Declaration to inform or interpret laws concerned with human rights,G. Christenson, "Using Human Rights Law to Inform Due Process and Equal Protection Analyses," University of Cincinnati Law Review 52 (1983), p. 3. a position shared by the courts of Belgium, the Netherlands, India, and Sri Lanka.


Reaction


Praise and support

The Universal Declaration has received praise from a number of notable activists, jurists, and political leaders. Lebanon, Lebanese philosopher and diplomat
Charles Malik , 1958 Charles Habib Malik (sometimes spelled ''Charles Habib Malek''; 11 February 1906 – 28 December 1987; ar, شارل مالك) was a Lebanon, Lebanese academic, diplomat, and philosopher. He served as the Lebanese representative to the Unite ...
called it "an international document of the first order of importance", while
Eleanor Roosevelt Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (; October 11, 1884November 7, 1962) was an American political figure, diplomat, and activist. She served as the first lady of the United States The first lady of the United States (FLOTUS) is the title held by the ...
—first chairperson of the Commission on Human Rights (CHR) that helped draft the Declaration—stated that it "may well become the international Magna Carta of all men everywhere." At the 1993 UN World Conference on Human Rights, one of the largest international gatherings on human rights, diplomats and officials representing 100 nations reaffirmed their governments' "commitment to the purposes and principles contained in the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights" and emphasized that the Declaration as "the source of inspiration and has been the basis for the United Nations in making advances in standard setting as contained in the existing international human rights instruments." In a speech on 5 October 1995, Pope John Paul II called the Declaration "one of the highest expressions of the human conscience of our time", despite the Vatican never adopting it. In a statement on 10 December 2003 on behalf of the European Union, Marcello Spatafora said that the Declaration "placed human rights at the centre of the framework of principles and obligations shaping relations within the international community." As a pillar of international human rights, the UDHR enjoys widespread support among international and nongovernmental organizations. The International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH), one of the oldest human rights organizations, has as its core mandate the promotion of the respect for all rights set out in the Declaration, the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the c ...
, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Amnesty International, the third oldest international human rights organization, has regularly observed Human Rights Day and organised worldwide events to bring awareness and support of the UDHR. Some organisations, such as the Quaker United Nations Office, the American Friends Service Committee, and Youth for Human Rights International (YHRI) have developed curriculum or programs to educate young people on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Specific provisions of the UDHR are cited or elaborated by Lobbying, interest groups in relation to their specific area of focus. In 1997, the council of the American Library Association (ALA) endorsed Articles 18 through 20 concerning freedoms of thought, opinion, and expression, which were codified in the ALA Universal Right to Free Expression and the Library Bill of Rights. The Declaration formed the basis of the ALA's claim that censorship, invasion of privacy, and interference of opinions are human rights violations.


Criticism


Islamic countries

Most Muslim-majority countries that were then members of the UN signed the Declaration in 1948, including Afghanistan, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, and Syria; Turkey, which had an overwhelmingly Muslim population but an officially secular government, also voted in favor. Saudi Arabia was the sole abstainer on the Declaration among Muslim nations, claiming that it violated Sharia, ''Sharia'' law. Pakistan, officially an Islamic state, signed the declaration and critiqued the Saudi position, strongly arguing in favour of including freedom of religion.Hashemi, Nader and Emran Qureshi. "Human Rights." In ''The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford Islamic Studies Online''. Moreover, some Muslim diplomats would later help draft other UN human rights treaties. For example, Iraq's representative to the UN, Bedia Afnan's insistence on wording that recognized gender equality resulted in Article 3 within the ICCPR and ICESCR, which, together with the UDHR, form the International Bill of Rights. Pakistani diplomat Shaista Suhrawardy Ikramullah influenced the drafting of the Declaration, especially with respect to women's rights, and played a role in the preparation of the 1951 Genocide Convention. In 1982, the Iranian representative to the United Nations, who represented the country's newly installed Islamic republic, said that the Declaration was "a Secularism, secular understanding of the Judeo-Christian tradition" that could not be implemented by Muslims without conflict with Sharia. On 30 June 2000, member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, which represents most of the Muslim world, officially resolved to support the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, an alternative document that says people have "freedom and right to a dignified life in accordance with the Islamic Shari'ah", without any discrimination on grounds of "race, colour, language, sex, religious belief, political affiliation, social status or other considerations". The Cairo Declaration is widely acknowledged to be a response to the UDHR, and uses similar universalist language, albeit derived solely from Islamic jurisprudence. Regarding the promulgation of the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, T. Jeremy Gunn, Professor of Law and Political Science at the International University of Rabat in Morocco, has stated:
the twenty-two-member League of Arab States (Arab League)–each of whose members also belongs to the OIC and is majority-Muslim–created its own human rights instruments and institutions (based in Cairo) that set it apart from the international human rights regime. While the term “Arab” denotes an ethnicity and “Muslim” references a religion, all majority-Arab countries are also majority-Muslim countries, though the opposite does not hold. Indeed, the preponderance of Muslim-majority countries is not Arab. It has long been recognized that the Muslim-majority Arab world ranks particularly poorly with respect to human rights. According to the Arab Human Development Report, 2009 Arab Human Development Report, written by Arab experts for the United Nations Development Programme Regional Bureau for Arab States, “Arab states seem content to ratify certain international human rights treaties, but do not go so far as to recognize the role of international mechanisms in making human rights effective.” [...] The resistance to implementation of international human rights standards in parts of the Muslim and Arab worlds is perhaps most salient with the panoply of rights related to religion. In terms of the UDHR, the core of the resistance is centered on issues of the right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion (Article 18), prohibition of discrimination on the basis of religion (Article 2), and the prohibition of discrimination against women (preamble, Article 2, Article 16). The same resistance to universal standards, already present in the UDHR, continued in subsequent elaborations of human rights, including the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the c ...
(ICCPR), the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the 1981 Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief.
A number of scholars in different fields have expressed concerns with the Declaration's alleged Western world, Western bias. Abdulaziz Sachedina observes that Muslims broadly agree with the Declaration's universalist premise, which is shared by Islam, but differ on specific contents, which many find "insensitive to particular Muslim cultural values, especially when it comes to speaking about individual rights in the context of collective and family values in Muslim society". However, he notes that most Muslim scholars, while opposing the inherently secular framework of the document, do respect and acknowledge some of its "foundations". Sachedina adds that many Christians similarly criticise the Declaration for reflecting a secular and liberal bias in opposition to certain religious values. Kazakh Religious studies, religion scholars Galym Zhussipbek and Zhanar Nagayeva have argued that the rejection or failed implementation of human rights in Muslim-majority countries and their seeming incompatibility with ''Sharia'' law originates from the current "epistemological crisis of conservative Islamic scholarship and Muslim mind", rooted in the centuries-old confinement of a role for reason within strict limits, and in the disappearance of rationalistic discursive theology (''kalam'') as a dynamic science. Furthermore, they affirm the necessity of undertaking an epistemological reform in Islamic scholarship, which denotes the incorporation of international standards of human rights and justice into the epistemology and methodology of Islamic jurisprudence (''usul al-fiqh''). Riffat Hassan, a Pakistani-born Muslim theologian, has argued:
What needs to be pointed out to those who uphold the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to be the highest, or sole, model, of a charter of equality and liberty for all human beings, is that given the Western origin and orientation of this Declaration, the "universality" of the assumptions on which it is based isat the very leastproblematic and subject to questioning. Furthermore, the alleged incompatibility between the concept of human rights and religion in general, or particular religions such as Islam, needs to be examined in an unbiased way.
Faisal Kutty, a Muslim Canadian human rights activist, opines that a "strong argument can be made that the current formulation of international human rights constitutes a cultural structure in which western society finds itself easily at home ... It is important to acknowledge and appreciate that other societies may have equally valid alternative conceptions of human rights." Irene Oh, the director of the peace studies program at Georgetown University, has proposed that Muslim opposition to the UDHR, and the broader debate about the document's secular and Western bias, could be resolved through mutual dialogue grounded in Descriptive ethics, comparative descriptive ethics.


"The Right to Refuse to Kill"

Groups such as Amnesty InternationalOut of the margins: the right to conscientious objection to military service in Europe: An announcement of Amnesty International's forthcoming campaign and briefing for the UN Commission on Human Rights
31 March 1997. Amnesty International.
and War Resisters InternationalA Conscientious Objector's Guide to the UN Human Rights System
Parts 1, 2 & 3, Background Information on International Law for COs, Standards which recognise the right to conscientious objection, War Resisters' International.
have advocated for "The Right to Refuse to Kill" to be added to the Universal Declaration, as has Seán MacBride, a former Assistant Secretary-General of the United Nations and Nobel Peace Prize laureate. War Resisters International has stated that the right to Conscientious objector, conscientious objection to military service is primarily derived from Article 18 of the UDHR, which preserves the right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion. Some Conscientious objector#Universal Declaration of Human Rights, steps have been taken within the UN to make the right more explicit, with the Human Rights Council repeatedly affirming that Article 18 enshrines "the right of everyone to have conscientious objection to military service as a legitimate exercise of the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion".


American Anthropological Association

The American Anthropological Association criticized the UDHR during its drafting process, warning that its definition of universal rights reflected a Western Culture, Western paradigm that was unfair to non-Western nations. They further argued that the West's history of colonialism and evangelism made them a problematic moral representative for the rest of the world. They proposed three notes for consideration with underlying themes of cultural relativism: #The individual realizes his personality through his culture, hence respect for individual differences entails a respect for cultural differences. #Respect for differences between cultures is validated by the scientific fact that no technique of qualitatively evaluating cultures has been discovered. #Standards and values are relative to the culture from which they derive so that any attempt to formulate postulates that grow out of the beliefs or moral codes of one culture must to that extent detract from the applicability of any Declaration of Human Rights to mankind as a whole.


Bangkok Declaration

During the lead up to the World Conference on Human Rights held in 1993, ministers from several Asian states adopted the Bangkok Declaration, reaffirming their governments' commitment to the principles of the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. They stated their view of the interdependence and indivisibility of human rights and stressed the need for universality, objectivity (philosophy), objectivity, and non-selectivity of human rights. However, at the same time, they emphasised the principles of sovereignty and non-interference, calling for greater emphasis on economic, social, and cultural rights—in particular, the right to economic development by establishing international collaboration directives between the signatories. The Bangkok Declaration is considered to be a landmark expression of Asian values with respect to human rights, which offers an extended critique of human rights Moral universalism, universalism.


See also


Human rights

* History of human rights * Yogyakarta Principles


Non-binding agreements

* Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam (1990) * Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action (1993) * United Nations Millennium Declaration (2000)


International human rights law

* Fourth Geneva Convention (1949) * European Convention on Human Rights (1952) * Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (1951) * Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1969) *
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the c ...
(1976) * International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1976) * Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1981) * Convention on the Rights of the Child (1990) * Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (2000) * Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2007)


Thinkers influencing the Declaration

* Thomas Aquinas * Jean de Gerson * Hugo Grotius * Samuel von Pufendorf * John Locke * Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui * Jean-Jacques Rousseau * Thomas Jefferson * Jacques Maritain


Other

* Slavery in the United States * Slavery in Russia * Slavery in international law * Slave Trade Acts * Human rights in China, Human rights in China (PRC) * LGBT rights at the United Nations * Command responsibility * Moral universalism * Declaration on Great Apes, an as-yet unsuccessful effort to extend some human rights to other Hominidae, great apes * United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights * Consent of the governed * Paris Peace Conference, 1919#Japanese approach, Racial equality proposal (1919) * The Farewell Sermon (632 Common Era, CE) * Youth for Human Rights International * List of literary works by number of translations * Monica Ross * Right to education


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * *


Further reading

* * Nurser, John. "For All Peoples and All Nations. Christian Churches and Human Rights.". (Geneva: WCC Publications, 2005).
Universal Declaration of Human Rights pages at Columbia University (Centre for the Study of Human Rights), including article by article commentary, video interviews, discussion of meaning, drafting and history.


by Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade an
procedural history
on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in th


External links


Text of the UDHR

Official translations of the UDHR

Resource Guide on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
at the UN Library, Geneva.
Drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
– documents and meetings records — United Nations Dag Hammarskjöld Library



* [http://www.universalrights.net/main/educat.htm UDHR – Education]
UDHR in Unicode

Revista Envío – A Declaration of Human Rights For the 21st Century


by Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade an
procedural history note
on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in th

* [http://blogs.loc.gov/law/2012/12/the-laws-of-burgos-500-years-of-human-rights/ The Laws of Burgos: 500 Years of Human Rights] from the Law Library of Congress blog.


Audiovisual materials


UDHR Audio/Video Project
(recordings in 500+ languages by native speakers)
Librivox: Human-read audio recordings in several Languages


at AmericanRhetoric.com * [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=epVZrYbDVis Animated presentation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights] by Amnesty International on YouTube (in English duration 20 minutes and 23 seconds).
Audio: Statement by Charles Malik as Representative of Lebanon to the Third Committee of the UN General Assembly on the Universal Declaration, 6 November 1948

UN Department of Public Information introduction to the drafters of the Declaration


on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in th

{{Authority control 1948 in Paris 1948 in law 1948 in the United Nations 1948 documents December 1948 events Humanism Human rights instruments United Nations General Assembly resolutions History of human rights Global ethics