HOME

TheInfoList




The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea Treaty, is an
international agreement A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as bi ...

international agreement
that establishes a legal framework for all marine and maritime activities. , 167 countries and the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
are parties. The Convention resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982. UNCLOS replaced the four treaties of the 1958 Convention on the High Seas. UNCLOS came into force in 1994, a year after Guyana became the 60th nation to ratify the treaty. It is uncertain as to what extent the Convention codifies
customary international law Customary international law is an aspect of international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between nation A nation is a ...
. While the
Secretary-General of the United Nations The secretary-general of the United Nations (UNSG or SG) is the chief administrative officer A chief administrative officer (CAO) is a top-tier executive who supervises the daily operations of an organization and is ultimately responsible for ...
receives instruments of
ratification Ratification is a principal Principal may refer to: Title or rank * Principal (academia) The principal is the chief executive and the chief academic officer of a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational inst ...

ratification
and accession and the UN provides support for meetings of states party to the Convention, the
United Nations Secretariat The United Nations Secretariat (french: link=no, Secrétariat des Nations unies) is one of the six major organs of the United Nations, with the others being (a) the United Nations General Assembly, General Assembly; (b) the United Nations Secu ...
has no direct operational role in the implementation of the Convention. A UN
specialized agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the United Nations Economic and Social Council at the intergovernmental level, and through t ...
, the
International Maritime Organization The International Maritime Organization (IMO, French: ''Organisation Maritime Internationale''; known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization until 1982) is a specialised agency of the United Nations United Nations Spec ...
, does play a role, however, as well as other bodies such as the
International Whaling Commission The International Whaling Commission (IWC) is an international body established under the terms of the 1946 International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW) to "provide for the p ...
and the
International Seabed Authority The International Seabed Authority (ISA) (french: Autorité internationale des fonds marins) is an intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental body based in Kingston, Jamaica, that was established to organize, regulate and control all mi ...
(ISA), which was established by the Convention itself.


Background

UNCLOS replaces the older '
freedom of the seas Freedom of the seas ( la, mare liberum, lit. "free sea") is a principle in the international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in ...

freedom of the seas
' concept, dating from the 17th century. According to this concept, national rights were limited to a specified belt of water extending from a nation's
coast The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of and contains 97% of . Anot ...

coast
lines, usually (
three-mile limit The three-mile limit refers to a traditional and now largely obsolete conception of the international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted i ...
), according to the '
cannon A cannon is a large-caliber A 45 ACP hollowpoint (Federal Cartridge, Federal HST) with two .22 Long Rifle, 22 LR cartridges for comparison In gun A gun is a ranged weapon designed to use a shooting tube ( gun barrel) to launc ...

cannon
shot' rule developed by the Dutch jurist
Cornelius van Bynkershoek Cornelis van Bijnkershoek (a.k.a. ''Cornelius van Bynkershoek'') (29 May 1673, Middelburg – 16 April 1743, The Hague The Hague (; nl, Den Haag or ) is a List of cities in the Netherlands by province, city and Municipalities of the Netherl ...

Cornelius van Bynkershoek
. All waters beyond national boundaries were considered
international waters The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basin A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common ou ...

international waters
: free to all nations, but belonging to none of them (the ''
mare liberum ''Mare Liberum'' (or ''The Freedom of the Seas'') is a book in Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, ...

mare liberum
'' principle promulgated by
Hugo Grotius Hugo Grotius (; 10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot () and in Dutch as Hugo de Groot (), was a Dutch humanist Humanism is a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundam ...

Hugo Grotius
). In the early 20th century, some nations expressed their desire to extend national claims: to include mineral resources, to protect
fish stock Fish stock or stock fish may also refer to: *Fish stocks Fish stocks are population, subpopulations of a particular species of fish, for which intrinsic parameters (growth, recruitment, mortality and fishing mortality) are traditionally regarded ...
s, and to provide the means to enforce pollution controls. (The
League of Nations The League of Nations (french: Société des Nations ), was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member state ...
called a 1930 conference at
The Hague The Hague ( ; nl, Den Haag or ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd ed ...

The Hague
, but no agreements resulted.) Using the customary international law principle of a nation's right to protect its natural resources, President
Harry S. Truman Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884December 26, 1972) was the 33rd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs th ...

Harry S. Truman
in 1945 extended United States control to all the natural resources of its
continental shelf A continental shelf is a portion of a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth descriptio ...

continental shelf
. Other nations were quick to follow suit. Between 1946 and 1950, Chile, Peru, and Ecuador extended their rights to a distance of to cover their
Humboldt Current #REDIRECT Humboldt Current The Humboldt Current, also called the Peru Current, is a cold, low-salinity ocean current that flows north along the western coast of South America.Montecino, Vivian, and Carina B. Lange. "The Humboldt Current System: Eco ...
fishing grounds. Other nations extended their territorial seas to . By 1967, only 25 nations still used the old three nautical mile limit, while 66 nations had set a territorial limit and eight had set a limit. , only two countries still use the limit: Jordan and Palau. That limit is also used in certain Australian islands, an area of Belize, some Japanese
strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both sides and through the strait in either direction. Most commonly i ...

strait
s, certain areas of Papua New Guinea, and a few
British Overseas Territories The British Overseas Territories (BOTs), also known as United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), are fourteen dependent territory, territories all with a constitutional and historical link with the United Kingdom. They are remnants of the B ...

British Overseas Territories
, such as
Gibraltar ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen" , song = "Gibraltar Anthem" , image_map = Gibraltar location in Europe.svg , map_alt = Location of Gibraltar in Europe , map_caption = United Kingdom shown in pale green , mapsize = 290px , image_map2 = ...

Gibraltar
. UNCLOS does not deal with matters of territorial disputes or to resolve issues of sovereignty, as that field is governed by rules of customary international law on the acquisition and loss of territory.


UNCLOS I

In 1956, the United Nations held its first Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS I) at
Geneva , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge Carouge () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. History Carouge is first mentioned in the Early Middle Ages as ''Quadruvium'' and ''Quatruvio''. In 124 ...

Geneva
, Switzerland. UNCLOS I resulted in four treaties concluded in 1958: *
Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous ZoneThe Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone of 1958 is an international treaty which entered into force on 10 September 1964, one of four agreed upon at the first United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS I). 52 states are ...
, entry into force: 10 September 1964 *
Convention on the Continental Shelf The Convention on the Continental Shelf was an international treaty created to codify the rules of international law relating to continental shelf, continental shelves. The treaty, after entering into force 10 June 1964, established the rights of ...
, entry into force: 10 June 1964 * Convention on the High Seas, entry into force: 30 September 1962 * Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas, entry into force: 20 March 1966 Although UNCLOS I was considered a success, it left open the important issue of breadth of territorial waters.


UNCLOS II

In 1960, the United Nations held the second Conference on the Law of the Sea ("UNCLOS II"); however, the six-week Geneva conference did not result in any new agreements. Generally speaking, developing nations and third world countries participated only as clients, allies, or dependents of the United States or the Soviet Union, with no significant voice of their own.


UNCLOS III

The issue of varying claims of territorial waters was raised in the UN in 1967 by
Arvid Pardo Arvid Pardo (February 12, 1914 – June 19, 1999) was a Malta, Maltese and Sweden, Swedish diplomat, scholar, and university professor. He is known as the "Father of the UNCLOS#The Third United Nations Conference on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), Law ...

Arvid Pardo
of Malta, and in 1973 the ''Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea'' convened in New York. In an attempt to reduce the possibility of groups of nation-states dominating the negotiations, the conference used a consensus process rather than majority vote. With more than 160 nations participating, the conference lasted until 1982. The resulting convention came into force on 16 November 1994, one year after the 60th state, Guyana, ratified the treaty. The convention introduced a number of provisions. The most significant issues covered were setting limits, navigation, archipelagic status and transit regimes, exclusive economic zones (EEZs), continental shelf jurisdiction, deep seabed mining, the exploitation regime, protection of the marine environment, scientific research, and settlement of disputes. The convention set the limit of various areas, measured from a carefully defined baseline. (Normally, a sea baseline follows the low-water line, but when the coastline is deeply indented, has fringing islands or is highly unstable, straight baselines may be used.) The areas are as follows: ;
Internal waters 300px, Schematic map of maritime zones. According to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, a nation's internal waters include waters on the side of the baseline (sea), baseline of a nation's territorial waters that is facing toward th ...
:Covers all water and waterways on the landward side of the baseline. The coastal state is free to set laws, regulate use, and use any resource. Foreign vessels have no right of passage within internal waters. A vessel in the high seas assumes jurisdiction under the internal laws of its flag State. ;
Territorial waters The term territorial waters is sometimes used informally to refer to any area of water over which a state has jurisdiction, including internal waters, the territorial sea, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and potentially the ...
: Out to from the baseline, the coastal state is free to set laws, regulate use, and use any resource. Vessels were given the right of
innocent passage Innocent passage is a concept in the law of the sea Law of the sea is a body of international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in rel ...
through any territorial waters, with strategic straits allowing the passage of military craft as
transit passage Transit passage is a concept of the law of the sea Law of the sea is a body of international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relat ...
, in that naval vessels are allowed to maintain postures that would be illegal in territorial waters. "Innocent passage" is defined by the convention as passing through waters in an expeditious and continuous manner, which is not "prejudicial to the peace, good order or the security" of the coastal state. Fishing, polluting, weapons practice, and spying are not "innocent", and submarines and other underwater vehicles are required to navigate on the surface and to show their flag. Nations can also temporarily suspend innocent passage in specific areas of their territorial seas, if doing so is essential for the protection of their security. ; Archipelagic waters: The convention set the definition of "Archipelagic States" in Part IV, which also defines how the state can draw its territorial borders. A baseline is drawn between the outermost points of the outermost islands, subject to these points being sufficiently close to one another. All waters inside this baseline are designated "Archipelagic Waters". The state has sovereignty over these waters mostly to the extent it has over internal waters, but subject to existing rights including traditional fishing rights of immediately adjacent states. Foreign vessels have right of innocent passage through archipelagic waters, but archipelagic states may limit innocent passage to designated sea lanes. ;
Contiguous zone The term territorial waters is sometimes used informally to refer to any area of water over which a state has jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin ''Wikt:ius#Latin, juris'' 'law' + ''Wikt:dictio, dictio'' 'declaration') is the practical auth ...
:Beyond the limit, there is a further from the territorial sea baseline limit, the contiguous zone. Here a state can continue to enforce laws in four specific areas (customs, taxation, immigration, and pollution) if the infringement started or is about to occur within the state's territory or territorial waters. This makes the contiguous zone a
hot pursuit Hot pursuit (also known as fresh or immediate pursuit) refers to the urgent and direct pursuit of a criminal suspect by law enforcement officers A law enforcement officer (LEO), or peace officer in North American English, is a public-sector emp ...
area. ; Exclusive economic zones (EEZs): These extend from the baseline. Within this area, the coastal nation has sole exploitation rights over all natural resources. In casual use, the term may include the territorial sea and even the continental shelf. The EEZs were introduced to halt the increasingly heated clashes over fishing rights, although
oil An oil is any nonpolar In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound ...

oil
was also becoming important. The success of an offshore
oil platform An oil platform, offshore platform, or offshore drilling rig is a large structure with facilities for well drilling to explore, extract, store, and process petroleum and natural gas that lies in rock formations beneath the seabed. Many oil pla ...

oil platform
in the
Gulf of Mexico The Gulf of Mexico ( es, Golfo de México) is an ocean basin 400px, Diagrammatic cross-section of an ocean basin, showing the various geographic features In hydrology Hydrology (from Greek: wikt:ὕδωρ, ὕδωρ, "hýdōr" meaning ...

Gulf of Mexico
in 1947 was soon repeated elsewhere in the world, and by 1970 it was technically feasible to operate in waters deep. Foreign nations have the freedom of navigation and overflight, subject to the regulation of the coastal states. Foreign states may also lay submarine pipes and cables. ;
Continental shelf A continental shelf is a portion of a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth descriptio ...

Continental shelf
: The continental shelf is defined as the natural prolongation of the land territory to the
continental margin The continental margin is one of the three major zones of the ocean floor, the other two being deep-ocean basins and mid-ocean ridge A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is a seafloor mountain system formed by plate tectonics File:Earth cutaway schemat ...
's outer edge, or from the coastal state's baseline, whichever is greater. A state's continental shelf may exceed until the natural prolongation ends. However, it may never exceed from the baseline; nor may it exceed beyond the
isobath Bathymetry (pronounced ) is the study of underwater depth of ocean floor The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, ocean floor, and ocean bottom) is the bottom of the ocean. All floors of the ocean are known as 'seabeds'. The structu ...
(the line connecting the depth of 2 500 m). Coastal states have the right to harvest mineral and non-living material in the subsoil of its continental shelf, to the exclusion of others. Coastal states also have exclusive control over living resources "attached" to the continental shelf, but not to creatures living in the
water column A water column is a concept Concepts are defined as abstract ideas A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of the mind ...
beyond the exclusive economic zone. The area outside these areas is referred to as the "
high seas The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basin A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common ou ...
" or simply "the Area". Aside from its provisions defining ocean boundaries, the convention establishes general obligations for safeguarding the marine environment and protecting freedom of scientific research on the high seas, and also creates an innovative legal regime for controlling mineral resource exploitation in deep seabed areas beyond national jurisdiction, through an
International Seabed Authority The International Seabed Authority (ISA) (french: Autorité internationale des fonds marins) is an intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental body based in Kingston, Jamaica, that was established to organize, regulate and control all mi ...
and the
common heritage of mankind 200px, '' Earthrise'', photographed during an orbit of the Moon by William Anders">Moon.html" ;"title="Earthrise'', photographed during an orbit of the Moon">Earthrise'', photographed during an orbit of the Moon by William Anders during the 1968 Apo ...
principle.
Landlocked A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institu ...
states are given a right of access to and from the sea, without taxation of traffic through transit states.


Part XI and the 1994 Agreement

Part XI of the Convention provides for a regime relating to minerals on the seabed outside any state's territorial waters or EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zones). It establishes an
International Seabed Authority The International Seabed Authority (ISA) (french: Autorité internationale des fonds marins) is an intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental body based in Kingston, Jamaica, that was established to organize, regulate and control all mi ...
(ISA) to authorize seabed exploration and mining and collect and distribute the seabed mining royalty. The United States objected to the provisions of Part XI of the Convention on several grounds, arguing that the treaty was unfavorable to American economic and security interests. Due to Part XI, the United States refused to ratify the UNCLOS, although it expressed agreement with the remaining provisions of the Convention. From 1982 to 1990, the United States accepted all but Part XI as customary international law, while attempting to establish an alternative regime for exploitation of the minerals of the deep seabed. An agreement was made with other seabed mining nations and licenses were granted to four international consortia. Concurrently, the Preparatory Commission was established to prepare for the eventual coming into force of the Convention-recognized claims by applicants, sponsored by signatories of the Convention. Overlaps between the two groups were resolved, but a decline in the demand for minerals from the seabed made the seabed regime significantly less relevant. In addition, the decline of Communism in the late 1980s removed much of the support for some of the more contentious Part XI provisions. In 1990, consultations began between signatories and non-signatories (including the United States) over the possibility of modifying the Convention to allow the industrialized countries to join the Convention. The resulting 1994 Agreement on Implementation was adopted as a binding international Convention. It mandated that key articles, including those on limitation of seabed production and mandatory technology transfer, would not be applied, that the United States, if it became a member, would be guaranteed a seat on the Council of the International Seabed Authority, and finally, that voting would be done in groups, with each group able to block decisions on substantive matters. The 1994 Agreement also established a Finance Committee that would originate the financial decisions of the Authority, to which the largest donors would automatically be members and in which decisions would be made by consensus. On 1 February 2011, the Seabed Disputes Chamber of the
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea 275px, ITLOS seen from Elbchaussee, close to the River Elbe ">Elbe.html" ;"title="Elbchaussee, close to the River Elbe">Elbchaussee, close to the River Elbe The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) is an intergovernmental organi ...
(ITLOS) issued an advisory opinion concerning the legal responsibilities and obligations of States Parties to the Convention with respect to the sponsorship of activities in the Area in accordance with Part XI of the Convention and the 1994 Agreement. The advisory opinion was issued in response to a formal request made by the International Seabed Authority following two prior applications the Authority's Legal and Technical Commission had received from the Republic of Nauru and the Kingdom of Tonga regarding proposed activities (a plan of work to explore for polymetallic nodules) to be undertaken in the Area by two State-sponsored contractors – Nauru Ocean Resources Inc. (sponsored by the Republic of Nauru) and Tonga Offshore Mining Ltd. (sponsored by the Kingdom of Tonga). The advisory opinion set forth the international legal responsibilities and obligations of Sponsoring States and the Authority to ensure that sponsored activities do not harm the marine environment, consistent with the applicable provisions of UNCLOS Part XI, Authority regulations, ITLOS case law, other international environmental treaties, and Principle 15 of the UN Rio Declaration.


Part XII – Protecting the Marine Environment

Part XII of UNCLOS contains special provisions for the protection of the marine environment, obligating all States to collaborate in this matter, as well as placing special obligations on flag States to ensure that ships under their flags adhere to international environmental regulations, often adopted by the IMO. The
MARPOL The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL 73/78, MARPOL is short for International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships and 73/78 short for the years 1 ...
Convention is an example of such regulation. Part XII also bestows coastal and port states with broadened jurisdictional rights for enforcing international environmental regulation within their territory and on the
high seas The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basin A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common ou ...
. The United Nations
Sustainable Development Goal 14 Sustainable Development Goal 14 (Goal 14 or SDG 14) is about "Life below water" and is one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed ...

Sustainable Development Goal 14
additionally has a target regarding conservative and sustainable use of oceans and their resources in line with UNCLOS legal framework.


Biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction

In 2017, the
United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations System consists of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) ...
(UNGA) voted to convene an
intergovernmental conference {{Politics of the European Union In the politics of the European Union, an Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) is the formal procedure for negotiating amendments to the EU's founding treaties. Under the treaties, an IGC is called into being by the ...
(IGC) to consider establishing an international legally-binding instrument (ILBI) on the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ). The IGC will convene for a series of four sessions between 2018 and 2020 to work towards an agreement.


Parties

The convention was opened for signature on 10 December 1982 and entered into force on 16 November 1994 upon deposition of the 60th instrument of ratification. The convention has been ratified by 168 parties, which includes 164 UN member states, 1 UN Observer state (
Palestine Palestine ( or ) most often refers to: * State of Palestine, a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East * Palestine (region), a geographical and historical region in the Middle East Palestine may also refer to: * Palestinian National Aut ...
) and two associated countries (the
Cook Islands ) , image_map = Cook Islands on the globe (small islands magnified) (Polynesia centered).svg , capital = Avarua , coordinates = , largest_city = Avarua , official_languages = , languages_type = Spoken languages , languages = , ethn ...
and
Niue Niue ( or ; niu, Niuē) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people wh ...

Niue
) plus the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
.


Role

The significance of UNCLOS stems from the fact that it systemizes and codifies the standards and principles of international maritime law, which are based on centuries of maritime experience and are expressed to a great extent in the United Nations Charter and current international maritime law norms, such as the Geneva Conventions of 1958. A large portion of these requirements were further strengthened and expanded.capt. Enchev, V. (2012), Fundamentals of Maritime Law


See also

*
Automatic Identification System The automatic identification system (AIS) is an automatic tracking system that uses transceiver In radio communication, a transceiver is an electronic device which is a combination of a radio transmitter, ''trans''mitter and a Radio receiv ...
*
Admiralty law Admiralty law or maritime law is a body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influen ...
*
Fisheries management The goal of Fisheries management is to produce sustainable biological, social, and economic benefits from renewable aquatic resources. Fisheries are classified as renewable because the organisms of interest (e.g., fish, shellfish, reptiles, amphi ...
*
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea 275px, ITLOS seen from Elbchaussee, close to the River Elbe ">Elbe.html" ;"title="Elbchaussee, close to the River Elbe">Elbchaussee, close to the River Elbe The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) is an intergovernmental organi ...
*
Law of the sea Law of the sea is a body of international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between nation A nation is a community A ...

Law of the sea
*
Law of salvage The law of salvage is a principle of maritime law whereby any person who helps recover another person's ship or cargo in peril at sea is entitled to a reward commensurate with the value of the property salved. Maritime law is inherently internation ...
*
Legal assessments of the Gaza flotilla raidMany legal assessments of the Gaza flotilla raid were published subsequent to the event. International law experts (and non-lawyers) differed over the legality of the action by Israel. Most agree that Israel is entitled to impose and enforce a naval ...
*
Maritime Security Regimes Maritime Security Regimes are codes and conventions of behavior agreed upon by coastal states to provide a degree of security within territorial waters and on the high seas. Purpose One of the best known International Maritime Regimes is the Unit ...
*
Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits Montreux (, , ) is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is ...
*
Operation Sharp Guard Operation Sharp Guard was a multi-year joint naval blockade File:C-47s at Tempelhof Airport Berlin 1948.jpg, 300px, Douglas C-47 Skytrain, C47s unloading at Tempelhof Airport in Berlin, part of the airlift of supplies which broke the Soviet Unio ...
*
Territorial waters The term territorial waters is sometimes used informally to refer to any area of water over which a state has jurisdiction, including internal waters, the territorial sea, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and potentially the ...
*
United States non-ratification of the UNCLOS United may refer to: Places * United, Pennsylvania, an unincorporated community * United, West Virginia, an unincorporated community Arts and entertainment Films * United (2003 film), ''United'' (2003 film), a Norwegian film * United (2011 film), ...
* USA/USSR Joint Statement on Uniform Acceptance of Rules of International Law Governing Innocent Passage *
United Nations General Assembly resolution A United Nations General Assembly Resolution is a decision or declaration voted on by all member states of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and interna ...
* * * List of territories governed by the United Nations


Further reading

* Sara McLaughlin Mitchell and Andrew P. Owsiak. 2021.
Judicialization of the Sea: Bargaining in the Shadow of UNCLOS
" ''American Journal of International Law.''


References


External links


(pdf)


* ttp://www.itlos.org/ International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea
Permanent Court of Arbitration – Past and Pending Cases

Decisions of the World Court Relevant to the UNCLOS (2010)
an
Contents & Indexes


* ttps://www.un.org/Depts/los/clcs_new/clcs_home.htm UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf*  
UNEP Shelf Programme, UN organisation set up to assist States in delineating their continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles (370 km)



EEZ/CS Boundaries Canadian Database

Digital Map of the World's Exclusive Economic Zones

SOPAC Maritime Boundaries Database


procedural history note and audiovisual material on the ''1958 Geneva Conventions on the Law of the Sea'' in th

* ttp://legal.un.org/avl/ha/uncls/uncls.html Introductory note by Tullio Treves procedural history note and audiovisual material on the ''United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea'' in th
Historic Archives of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law


Lectures

*Lectures in th

** ttp://legal.un.org/avl/ls/Moore_LS.html_Shabtai_Rosenne_Memorial_Lecture.html" ;"title="Shabtai_Rosenne.html" ;"title="ttp://legal.un.org/avl/ls/Moore_LS.html Shabtai Rosenne">ttp://legal.un.org/avl/ls/Moore_LS.html Shabtai Rosenne Memorial Lecture">Shabtai_Rosenne.html" ;"title="ttp://legal.un.org/avl/ls/Moore_LS.html Shabtai Rosenne">ttp://legal.un.org/avl/ls/Moore_LS.html Shabtai Rosenne Memorial Lectureby John Norton Moore entitled ''The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: One of the Greatest Achievements in the International Rule of Law'' *
Lecture series
in six parts by Tullio Treves entitled ''The Law of the Sea on the Thirtieth Anniversary of the United Nations Law of the Sea Convention'' *

by Helmut Türk entitled ''The Landlocked States and the Law of the Sea'' *
Lecture
by Tullio Treves entitled ''The New Law of the Sea and the Settlement of Disputes'' *

by Emmanuel Roucounas entitled ''Non-State Users of the Law of the Sea'' *

by David Freestone entitled ''25 Years of the Law of the Sea Convention – Has it Been a Success?'' *

by
Tommy Koh Tommy Koh Thong Bee (born 12 November 1937) is a Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north ...
entitled ''The Art and Science of Chairing Major Inter-governmental Conferences'' and ''The Negotiating Process of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea'' *
Lecture
by Jin-Hyun Paik entitled ''International Legal Regime of Fisheries'' *

by Tullio Scovazzi entitled ''The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and Beyond'' {{DEFAULTSORT:Law of the Sea Convention 1994 in the environment *
Convention on the Law of the Sea Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty, an agreement in international law * Convention (meeting), meeting of a (usually large) group of individuals and/or companies in a ...
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea Treaty, is an international agreement A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in inter ...
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea Treaty, is an international agreement A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in inter ...
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea Treaty, is an international agreement A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in inter ...
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea Treaty, is an international agreement A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in inter ...
Treaties of Albania Treaties of Algeria Treaties of the People's Republic of Angola Treaties of Antigua and Barbuda Treaties of Argentina
Treaties of Armenia Treaties concluded or ratified by . Where appropriate, articles should be placed in the subcategories. This category may contain articles about treaties concluded or ratified by Armenia since 25 December 1991, which was the date on which Armenia fo ...
Treaties of Australia Treaties of Austria Treaties of Azerbaijan Treaties of the Bahamas Treaties of Bahrain Treaties of Bangladesh Treaties of Barbados Treaties of Belarus Treaties of Belgium Treaties of Belize Treaties of Benin Treaties of Bolivia Treaties of Bosnia and Herzegovina Treaties of Botswana Treaties of Brazil Treaties of Brunei Treaties of Bulgaria Treaties of Burkina Faso Treaties of Cameroon Treaties of Canada Treaties of Cape Verde Treaties of Chad Treaties of Chile Treaties of the People's Republic of China Treaties of the Comoros Treaties of the Republic of the Congo Treaties of the Cook Islands Treaties of Costa Rica Treaties of Ivory Coast Treaties of Croatia Treaties of Cuba Treaties of Cyprus Treaties of the Czech Republic Treaties of Zaire Treaties of Denmark Treaties of Djibouti Treaties of Dominica Treaties of the Dominican Republic Treaties of Ecuador Treaties of Egypt Treaties of Equatorial Guinea Treaties of Estonia Treaties of Fiji Treaties of Finland Treaties of France Treaties of Gabon Treaties of the Gambia Treaties of Germany Treaties of East Germany Treaties of Ghana Treaties of Greece Treaties of Grenada Treaties of Guatemala Treaties of Guinea Treaties of Guinea-Bissau Treaties of Guyana Treaties of Haiti Treaties of Honduras Treaties of Hungary Treaties of Iceland Treaties of India Treaties of Indonesia Treaties of Ba'athist Iraq Treaties of Ireland Treaties of Italy Treaties of Jamaica Treaties of Japan Treaties of Jordan Treaties of Kenya Treaties of Kiribati Treaties of Kuwait Treaties of Laos Treaties of Latvia Treaties of Lebanon Treaties of Lesotho Treaties of Liberia Treaties of Lithuania Treaties of Luxembourg Treaties of Madagascar Treaties of Malawi Treaties of Malaysia Treaties of the Maldives Treaties of Mali Treaties of Malta Treaties of the Marshall Islands Treaties of Mauritania Treaties of Mauritius Treaties of Mexico Treaties of the Federated States of Micronesia Treaties of Monaco Treaties of Mongolia Treaties of Montenegro Treaties of Morocco Treaties of Mozambique Treaties of Myanmar Treaties of Namibia Treaties of Nauru Treaties of Nepal Treaties of the Netherlands Treaties of New Zealand Treaties of Nicaragua Treaties of Niger Treaties of Nigeria Treaties of Norway Treaties of Oman Treaties of Pakistan Treaties of Palau Treaties of the State of Palestine Treaties of Panama Treaties of Papua New Guinea Treaties of Paraguay Treaties of the Philippines Treaties of Poland Treaties of Portugal Treaties of Qatar Treaties of South Korea Treaties of Moldova Treaties of Romania Treaties of Russia Treaties of Samoa Treaties of São Tomé and Príncipe Treaties of Saudi Arabia Treaties of Senegal Treaties of Serbia and Montenegro Treaties of Seychelles Treaties of Sierra Leone Treaties of Singapore Treaties of Slovakia Treaties of Slovenia Treaties of the Solomon Islands Treaties of the Somali Democratic Republic Treaties of South Africa Treaties of Spain Treaties of Sri Lanka Treaties of Saint Kitts and Nevis Treaties of Saint Lucia Treaties of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Treaties of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan Treaties of Suriname Treaties of Eswatini Treaties of Sweden Treaties of Switzerland Treaties of Thailand Treaties of North Macedonia Treaties of East Timor Treaties of Togo Treaties of Tonga Treaties of Trinidad and Tobago Treaties of Tunisia Treaties of Tuvalu Treaties of Uganda Treaties of Ukraine Treaties of the United Kingdom Treaties of Tanzania Treaties of Uruguay Treaties of Vanuatu Treaties of Vietnam Treaties of the Yemen Arab Republic Treaties of Yugoslavia Treaties of Zambia Treaties of Zimbabwe Treaties entered into by the European Union 1982 in Jamaica Law of the sea treaties, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Treaties establishing intergovernmental organizations Treaties extended to Aruba Treaties extended to the Netherlands Antilles Treaties extended to Jersey Treaties extended to Guernsey Treaties extended to the Isle of Man Treaties extended to Anguilla Treaties extended to Bermuda Treaties extended to the British Antarctic Territory Treaties extended to the British Indian Ocean Territory Treaties extended to the British Virgin Islands Treaties extended to the Cayman Islands Treaties extended to the Falkland Islands Treaties extended to Gibraltar Treaties extended to Montserrat Treaties extended to the Pitcairn Islands Treaties extended to Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Treaties extended to South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Treaties extended to the Turks and Caicos Islands Treaties extended to the Faroe Islands Treaties extended to Greenland