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In
zoological nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted Convention (norm), convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific name, scientific naming of organisms treated as animals. It is also informally known as the IC ...
, a type species (''species typica'') is the
species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanis ...

species
name with which the name of a
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classification, viruses. In the hierarchy of biolog ...
or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological
type Type may refer to: Science and technology Computing * Typing, producing text via a keyboard, typewriter, etc. * Data type, collection of values used for computations. * File type * TYPE (DOS command), a command to display contents of a file. * Type ...
specimen(s). Article 67.1 A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups and called a
type genus In biological taxonomy the type genus is the genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. T ...
. In
botanical nomenclature Botanical nomenclature is the formal, scientific naming of plants. It is related to, but distinct from taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such ...
, these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature, but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name. Names of genus and family ranks, the various subdivisions of those ranks, and some higher-rank names based on genus names, have such types.''International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants'' (ICN)
articles 7 through 10 (Melbourne Code, 2012)
In
bacteriology Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactio ...
, a type species is assigned for each genus. Every named genus or subgenus in zoology, whether or not currently recognized as valid, is theoretically associated with a type species. In practice, however, there is a backlog of untypified names defined in older publications when it was not required to specify a type.


Use in zoology

A type species is both a concept and a practical system that is used in the
classification Classification is a process related to categorization Categorization is the human ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience of the world (such as Object (philosophy), objects, eve ...
and nomenclature (naming) of animals. The "type species" represents the reference species and thus "definition" for a particular genus name. Whenever a taxon containing multiple species must be divided into more than one genus, the type species automatically assigns the name of the original taxon to one of the resulting new taxa, the one that includes the type species. The term "type species" is regulated in
zoological nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted Convention (norm), convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific name, scientific naming of organisms treated as animals. It is also informally known as the IC ...
by article 42.3 of the ''
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty, an agreement in international law * Co ...
'', which defines a type species as the
name-bearing typeUnder the ''International Code of Zoological Nomenclature'' (''Code''), the name-bearing type is the biological type that determines the application of a name. Each animal taxon regulated by the ''Code'' at least potentially has a name-bearing type.' ...
of the name of a genus or subgenus (a " genus-group name"). In the Glossary, type species is defined as The type species permanently attaches a formal name (the generic name) to a
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure ...
by providing just one
species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanis ...

species
within that genus to which the genus name is permanently linked (i.e. the genus must include that species if it is to bear the name). The species name in turn is fixed, in theory, to a type specimen. For example, the type species for the
land snail A land snail is any of the numerous species of snail that live on land, as opposed to the sea snails and freshwater snails. ''Land snail'' is the common name for terrestrial molluscs, terrestrial gastropod mollusks that have gastropod shell, shel ...

land snail
genus '' Monacha'' is ''Helix cartusiana'', the name under which the species was first described, known as ''
Monacha cartusiana
Monacha cartusiana
'' when placed in the genus ''Monacha''. That genus is currently placed within the family
Hygromiidae Hygromiidae is a taxonomic family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to main ...
. The type genus for that family is the genus ''
Hygromia ''Hygromia'' is a genus of air-breathing land snails, terrestrial molluscs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Hygromiidae, the hairy snails and their allies. MolluscaBase eds. (2021). MolluscaBase. Hygromia Risso, 1826. Access ...
''. The concept of the type species in zoology was introduced by
Pierre André Latreille Pierre André Latreille (29 November 1762 – 6 February 1833) was a French zoologist, specialising in arthropods. Having trained as a Roman Catholic priest before the French Revolution, Latreille was imprisoned, and only regained his freedom ...
.


Citing

The ''International Code of Zoological Nomenclature'' states that the original name (binomen) of the type species should always be cited. It gives an example in Article 67.1. '' Astacus marinus'' was later designated as the type species of the genus ''Homarus'', thus giving it the name '' Homarus marinus'' . However, the type species of ''Homarus'' should always be cited using its original name, i.e. ''Astacus marinus'' .On Wikipedia, both names redirect to ''
Homarus gammarus ''Homarus gammarus'', known as the European lobster or common lobster, is a species of lobster, clawed lobster from the eastern Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and parts of the Black Sea. It is closely related to the American lobster, ''H.  ...
'' , which discusses the type species.
Although the ''
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants The ''International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants'' (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical name A botanical name is a formal scientific name Science (from the Latin Latin (, ...
'' does not contain the same explicit statement, examples make it clear that the original name is used, so that the "type species" of a genus name need not have a name within that genus. Thus in Article 10, Ex. 3, the type of the genus name ''Elodes'' is quoted as the type of the species name '''', not as the type of the species name ''Elodes aegyptica''. (''Elodes'' is not now considered distinct from ''
Hypericum ''Hypericum'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to ...

Hypericum
''.)


See also

*
Glossary of scientific naming This is a list of terms and symbols used in scientific names for organisms, and in describing the names. For proper parts of the names themselves, see List of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names. Note that many of the abbreviati ...
* Genetypes – genetic sequence data from type specimens. *
Holotype A holotype is a single physical example (or illustration) of an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organis ...
*
Paratype Image:Lepidothrix vilasboasi MNB 59.27 DSCF5194 kl.png, 230px, Paratype of ''Lepidothrix vilasboasi'' (Helmut Sick, Sick, 1959) in Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin In zoology and botany, a paratype is a specimen of an organism that helps define wha ...
* Principle of Typification *
Type Type may refer to: Science and technology Computing * Typing, producing text via a keyboard, typewriter, etc. * Data type, collection of values used for computations. * File type * TYPE (DOS command), a command to display contents of a file. * Type ...
(and
type specimen In biology, a type is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodi ...
) *
Type genus In biological taxonomy the type genus is the genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. T ...


References

{{Authority control Botanical nomenclature Taxonomy (biology) Zoological nomenclature