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The Tudor period occurred between 1485 and 1603 in
England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows ...
and includes the
Elizabethan period The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603). Historians often depict it as the Golden age (metaphor), golden age in English history. The symbol of Britannia ...
during the
reign A reign is the period of a person's or dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university pres ...
of
Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_an ...

Elizabeth I
until 1603. The Tudor period coincides with the dynasty of the
House of Tudor The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended from the Tudors of Penmynydd. Tudor monarchs ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including their ancestral Wales and the Lordship of Ireland (later the Kingdom of ...

House of Tudor
in England whose first monarch was
Henry VIIHenry VII may refer to: * Henry VII of England (1457–1509), King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1485 until his death in 1509; the founder of the House of Tudor * Henry VII, Duke of Bavaria (died 1047), count of Luxembourg (as Henry II) from 1 ...
(b.1457, r.14851509). Historian John Guy (1988) argued that "England was economically healthier, more expansive, and more optimistic under the Tudors" than at any time since the Roman occupation.


Population and economy

Following the
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by the plague bacterium Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bact ...

Black Death
and the agricultural depression of the late 15th century, the population began to increase. In 1520, it was around 2.3 million. By 1600 it had doubled to 4 million. The growing population stimulated economic growth, accelerated the commercialisation of agriculture, increased the production and export of wool, encouraged trade, and promoted the growth of London. The high wages and abundance of available land seen in the late 15th century and early 16th century were replaced with low wages and a land shortage. Various inflationary pressures, perhaps due to an influx of
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas."America." ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 33: "[16c: from ...
gold and a rising population, set the stage for social upheaval with the gap between the rich and poor widening. This was a period of significant change for the majority of the rural population, with manorial lords beginning the process of
enclosure Enclosure or Inclosure is a term, used in English landownership, that refers to the appropriation of "waste" or "common land Common land is land owned by a person or collectively by a number of persons, over which other persons have certai ...

enclosure
of village lands that previously had been open to everyone.


English Reformation

The English Reformation, Reformation transformed English religion during the Tudor period. The five sovereigns,
Henry VIIHenry VII may refer to: * Henry VII of England (1457–1509), King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1485 until his death in 1509; the founder of the House of Tudor * Henry VII, Duke of Bavaria (died 1047), count of Luxembourg (as Henry II) from 1 ...
,
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged fro ...

Henry VIII
,
Edward VI Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged fr ...

Edward VI
,
Mary I Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, and as "Bloody Mary" by her Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to ...
, and
Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_an ...

Elizabeth I
had entirely different approaches, with Henry VIII replacing the pope as the head of the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
but maintaining
Catholic doctrine The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ri ...
s, Edward imposing a very strict Protestantism, Mary attempting to reinstate Catholicism, and Elizabeth arriving at a compromise position that defined the not-quite-Protestant Church of England. It began with the insistent demands of Henry VIII for an annulment of his marriage that
Pope Clement VII Pope Clement VII (; ; born Giulio de' Medici; 26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, l ...
refused to grant. Historians agreed that the great theme of Tudor history was the Reformation, the transformation of England from Catholicism to Protestantism. The main events, constitutional changes, and players at the national level have long been known, and the major controversies about them largely resolved. Historians until the late 20th century thought that the causes were: a widespread dissatisfaction or even disgust with the evils, corruptions, failures, and contradictions of the established religion, setting up an undertone of
anti-clericalism Anti-clericalism is opposition to religious authority Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as "a G ...
that indicated a rightness for reform. A secondary influence was the intellectual impact of certain English reformers, such as the long-term impact of
John Wycliffe John Wycliffe (; also spelled Wyclif, Wickliffe, and other variants; 1320s – 31 December 1384) was an English scholastic philosopher, theologian, biblical translator, reformer, priest, and a seminary professor at the University of Oxford. H ...

John Wycliffe
(1328–1384) and his "
Lollardy Lollardy, also known as Lollardism or the Lollard movement, was a Proto-Protestant Christian religious movement that existed from the mid-14th century until the 16th-century English Reformation The English Reformation took place in 16th-c ...
" reform movement, together with a stream of Reformation treatises and pamphlets from
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citiz ...

Martin Luther
,
John Calvin John Calvin (; Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family The Indo-European languages are a language fami ...

John Calvin
, and other reformers on the continent. The interpretation by
Geoffrey Elton Sir Geoffrey Rudolph Elton (born Gottfried Rudolf Otto Ehrenberg; 17 August 1921 – 4 December 1994) was a German-born British political and constitutional historian, specialising in the Tudor period The Tudor period occurred between 1485 an ...
in 1960 is representative of the orthodox interpretation. He argued that: :The existing situation proved untenable because the laity feared, resented, and despised much about the Church, its officers, its courts and its wealth. ... A poverty-stricken and ignorant lower clergy, wealthy bishops and abbots, a wide ramification of jurisdiction, a mixture of high claims and low deeds did not make for respect or love among the laity. Social historians after 1960 investigated English religion at the local level, and discovered the dissatisfaction had not been so widespread. The Lollardy movement had largely expired, and the pamphleteering of continental reformers hardly reached beyond a few scholars at the
University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge. , established = , other_name = The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of ...
—King Henry VIII had vigorously and publicly denounced Luther's heresies. More important, the Catholic Church was in a strong condition in 1500. England was devoutly Catholic, it was loyal to the pope, local parishes attracted strong local financial support, religious services were quite popular both at Sunday Mass and at family devotions. Complaints about the monasteries and the bishops were uncommon. The kings backed the popes and by the time Luther appeared on the scene, England was among the strongest supporters of orthodox Catholicism, and seemed a most unlikely place for a religious revolution.


Tudor government


Henry VII: 1485–1509

Henry VIIHenry VII may refer to: * Henry VII of England (1457–1509), King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1485 until his death in 1509; the founder of the House of Tudor * Henry VII, Duke of Bavaria (died 1047), count of Luxembourg (as Henry II) from 1 ...
, founder of the
House of Tudor The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended from the Tudors of Penmynydd. Tudor monarchs ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including their ancestral Wales and the Lordship of Ireland (later the Kingdom of ...

House of Tudor
, became
King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. Alfred styled himself King of the from about 886, and while he was not the first king to claim to rule all of the , his ...
by defeating King
Richard III Richard III (2 October 145222 August 1485) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Ita ...

Richard III
at the
Battle of Bosworth Field The Battle of Bosworth or Bosworth Field was the last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses The Wars of the Roses were a series of fifteenth-century English civil wars for control of the throne of England, fought between supporter ...

Battle of Bosworth Field
, the culmination of the
Wars of the Roses The Wars of the Roses were a series of fifteenth-century English civil wars for control of the throne of England, fought between supporters of two rival cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, represented by a ...
. Henry engaged in a number of administrative, economic and diplomatic initiatives. He paid very close attention to detail and, instead of spending lavishly, concentrated on raising new revenues. His new taxes were unpopular, and when Henry VIII succeeded him, he executed Henry VII's two most hated tax collectors.


Henry VIII: 1509–1547

Henry VIII, flamboyant, energetic, militaristic and headstrong, remains one of the most visible kings of England, primarily because of his six marriages, all of which were designed to produce a male heir, and his heavy retribution in executing many top officials and aristocrats. In foreign-policy, he focused on fighting France—with minimal success—and had to deal with Scotland, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire, often with military mobilisation or actual highly expensive warfare that led to high taxes. The chief military success came over Scotland. The main policy development was Henry's taking full control of the Church of England. This followed from his break from Rome, which was caused by the refusal of the Pope to annul his original marriage. Henry thereby introduced a very mild variation of the Protestant Reformation. There were two main aspects. First Henry rejected the Pope as the head of the Church in England, insisting that national sovereignty required the Absolute supremacy of the king. Henry worked closely with Parliament in passing a series of laws that implemented the break. Englishmen could no longer appeal to Rome. All the decisions were to be made in England, ultimately by the King himself, and in practice by top aides such as Cardinal Wolsey and Thomas Cromwell. Parliament proved highly supportive, with little dissent. The decisive moves came with the Act of Supremacy in 1534 that made the king the protector and only supreme head of the church and clergy of England. After Henry imposed a heavy fine on the bishops, they nearly all complied. The laws of treason were greatly strengthened so that verbal dissent alone was treasonous. There were some short-lived popular rebellions that were quickly suppressed. The league level in terms of the aristocracy and the Church was supportive. The highly visible main refusals came from Bishop Fisher and Chancellor Thomas More; they were both executed. Among the senior aristocrats, trouble came from the Pole family, which supported
Reginald Pole Reginald Pole (12 March 1500 – 17 November 1558) was an English cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and the last Roman Catholic archbishop of Canterbury, holding the office from 1556 to 1558, during the Counter-Reformation. Early life Pole ...

Reginald Pole
who was in exile in Europe. Henry destroyed the rest of the family, executing its leaders, and seizing all its property. The second stage involved the seizure of the monasteries. The monasteries operating religious and charitable institutions were closed, the monks and nuns were pensioned off, and the valuable lands were sold to friends of the King, thereby producing a large, wealthy, gentry class that supported Henry. In terms of theology and ritual there was little change, as Henry wanted to keep most elements of Catholicism and detested the "heresies" of Martin Luther and the other reformers.


Father of the Royal Navy

Biographer J.J. Scarisbrick says that Henry deserved his traditional title of "Father of the English navy." It became his personal weapon. He inherited seven small warships from his father, and added two dozen more by 1514. In addition to those built in England, he bought up Italian and Hanseatic warships. By March 1513, he proudly watched his fleet sail down the Thames under command of Sir Edmund Howard. It was the most powerful naval force to date in English history: 24 ships led by the 1600 ton "Henry Imperial"; the fleet carried 5000 combat marines and 3000 sailors. It forced the outnumbered French fleet back to its ports, took control of the English Channel, and blockaded Brest. Henry was the first king to organise the navy as a permanent force, with a permanent administrative and logistical structure, funded by tax revenue. His personal attention was concentrated on land, where he founded the royal dockyards, planted trees for shipbuilding, enacted laws for in land navigation, guarded the coastline with fortifications, set up a school for navigation and designated the roles of officers and sailors. He closely supervised the construction of all his warships and their guns, knowing their designs, speed, tonnage, armaments and battle tactics. He encouraged his naval architects, who perfected the Italian technique of mounting guns in the waist of the ship, thus lowering the centre of gravity and making it a better platform. He supervised the smallest details and enjoyed nothing more than presiding over the launching of a new ship. He drained his treasury on military and naval affairs, diverting the revenues from new taxes and the sales of monastery lands. Elton argues that Henry indeed built up the organisation and infrastructure of the Navy, but it was not a useful weapon for his style of warfare. It lacked a useful strategy. It did serve for defence against invasion, and for enhancing England's international prestige.


Cardinal Wolsey

Professor Sara Nair James says that in 1515–1529 Cardinal
Thomas Wolsey Thomas Wolsey (c. March 1473 – 29 November 1530) was an English statesman and Catholic bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a positi ...
, "would be the most powerful man in England except, possibly, for the king." Historian John Guy explains Wolsey's methods: :Only in the broadest respects was he
he king He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun), an English pronoun * He (kana), the romanization of the Japanese kana へ and ヘ * He (letter), the fifth letter of many Semitic alphabets * He (Cyrillic), a letter of the Cyrillic script called '' ...
taking independent decisions....It was Wolsey who almost invariably calculated the available options and ranked them for royal consideration; who established the parameters of each successive debate; who controlled the flow of official information; who selected the king's secretaries, middle-ranked officials, and JPs; and who promulgated decisions himself had largely shaped, if not strictly taken. Operating with the firm support of the king, and with special powers over the church given by the Pope, Wolsey dominated civic affairs, administration, the law, the church, and foreign-policy. He was amazingly energetic and far-reaching. In terms of achievements, he built a great fortune for himself, and was a major benefactor of arts, humanities and education. He projected numerous reforms, but in the end English government had not changed much. For all the promise, there was very little achievement of note. From the king's perspective, his greatest failure was an inability to get a divorce when Henry VIII needed a new wife to give him a son who would be the undisputed heir to the throne. Historians agree that Wolsey was a disappointment. In the end, he conspired with Henry's enemies, and died of natural causes before he could be beheaded.


Thomas Cromwell

Historian Geoffrey Elton argued that
Thomas Cromwell Thomas Cromwell, (; 1485 – 28 July 1540) was an English lawyer and statesman who served as List of English chief ministers, chief minister to King Henry VIII from 1534 to 1540, when he was beheaded on orders of the king. Cromwell was one o ...

Thomas Cromwell
, who was Henry VIII's chief minister from 1532 to 1540, not only removed control of the Church of England from the hands of the Pope, but transformed England with an unprecedented modern, bureaucratic government. Cromwell (1485–1540) replaced medieval government-as-household-management. Cromwell introduced reforms into the administration that delineated the King's household from the state and created a modern administration. He injected Tudor power into the darker corners of the realm and radically altered the role of the
Parliament of England The Parliament of England was the legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who u ...
. This transition happened in the 1530s, Elton argued, and must be regarded as part of a planned revolution. Elton's point was that before Cromwell the realm could be viewed as the King's private estate writ large, where most administration was done by the King's household servants rather than separate state offices. By masterminding these reforms, Cromwell laid the foundations of England's future stability and success. Cromwell's luck ran out when he picked
the wrong bride
the wrong bride
for the King; he was beheaded for treason. More recently historians have emphasised that the king and others played powerful roles as well.


Dissolution of the Monasteries: 1536–1545

The king had an annual income of about £100,000, but he needed much more in order to suppress rebellions and finance his foreign adventures. In 1533, for example, military expenditures on the northern border cost £25,000, while the 1534 rebellion in Ireland cost £38,000. Suppressing the
Pilgrimage of Grace The Pilgrimage of Grace was a popular revolt beginning in Yorkshire in October 1536, before spreading to other parts of Northern England including Cumberland, Northumberland, and north Lancashire, under the leadership of Robert Aske (political l ...
cost £50,000, and the king's new palaces were expensive. Meanwhile, customs revenue was slipping. The Church had an annual revenue of about £300,000; a new tax of 10% was imposed which brought in about £30,000. To get even larger sums it was proposed to seize the lands owned by monasteries, some of which the monks farmed and most of which was leased to local gentry. Taking ownership meant the rents went to the king. Selling the land to the gentry at a bargain price brought in £1 million in one-time revenue and gave the gentry a stake in the administration. The clerical payments from First Fruits and Tenths, which previously went to the pope, now went to the king. Altogether, between 1536 and Henry's death, his government collected £1.3 million; this huge influx of money caused Cromwell to change the Crown's financial system to manage the money. He created a new department of state and a new official to collect the proceeds of the dissolution and the First Fruits and Tenths. The
Court of Augmentations The Court of Augmentations, also called Augmentation Court or simply The Augmentation, was established during the reign of King Henry VIII of England Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death in 15 ...
and number of departments meant a growing number of officials, which made the management of revenue a major activity. Cromwell's new system was highly efficient with far less corruption or secret payoffs or bribery than before. Its drawback was the multiplication of departments whose sole unifying agent was Cromwell; his fall caused confusion and uncertainty; the solution was even greater reliance on bureaucratic institutions and the new Privy Council.


Role of Winchester

In dramatic contrast to his father, Henry VIII spent heavily, in terms of military operations in Britain and in France, and in building a great network of palaces. How to pay for it remained a serious issue. The growing number of departments meant many new salaried bureaucrats. There were further financial and administrative difficulties in 1540–58, aggravated by war, debasement, corruption and inefficiency, which were mainly caused by Somerset. After Cromwell's fall,
William Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester William Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester (c. 1483/1485 – 10 March 1572), styled Lord St John between 1539 and 1550 and Earl of Wiltshire between 1550 and 1551, was an English Lord High Treasurer The post of Lord High Treasurer or Lord T ...
, the
Lord Treasurer The post of Lord High Treasurer or Lord Treasurer was an English government position and has been a British government position since the Acts of Union of 1707. A holder of the post would be the third-highest-ranked Great Officer of State ...
, produced further reforms to simplify the arrangements, reforms which united most of the crown's finance under the exchequer. The courts of general surveyors and augmentations were fused into a new Court of Augmentations, and this was later absorbed into the exchequer along with the First Fruits and Tenths.


Impact of war

At the end of his reign, Henry VII's peacetime income was about £113,000, of which customs on imports amounted to about £40,000. There was little debt, and he left his son a large treasury. Henry VIII spent heavily on luxuries, such as tapestries and palaces, but his peacetime budget was generally satisfactory. The heavy strain came from warfare, including building defences, building a Navy, suppressing insurrections, warring with Scotland, and engaging in very expensive continental warfare. Henry's Continental wars won him little glory or diplomatic influence, and no territory. Nevertheless, warfare 1511 to 1514 with three large expeditions and two smaller ones cost £912,000. The Boulogne campaign of 1544 cost £1,342,000 and the wars against Scotland £954,000; the naval wars cost £149,000 and large sums were spent to build and maintain inland and coastal fortifications. The total cost of war and defence between 1539 and 1547 was well over £2,000,000, although the accounting procedures were too primitive to give an accurate total. Adding it all up, approximately 35% came from taxes, 32% from selling land and monastery holdings, and 30% from debasing the coinage. The cost of war in the short reign of Edward VI was another £1,387,000. After 1540, the Privy Coffers were responsible for 'secret affairs', in particular for the financing of war. The
Royal Mint The Royal Mint is a government-owned mint MiNT is Now TOS (MiNT) is a free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to stud ...
was used to generate revenue by debasing the coinage; the government's profit in 1547–51 was £1.2 million. However, under the direction of regent Northumberland, Edward's wars were brought to an end. The mint no longer generated extra revenue after debasement was stopped in 1551.


Edward VI: 1547–1553

Although Henry was only in his mid-50s, his health deteriorated rapidly in 1546. At the time the conservative faction, led by Bishop
Stephen Gardiner Stephen Gardiner (27 July 1483 – 12 November 1555) was an English bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and over ...

Stephen Gardiner
and
Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk (147325 August 1554), was a prominent English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engla ...
that was opposed to religious reformation seemed to be in power, and was poised to take control of the regency of the nine-year-old boy who was heir to the throne. However, when the king died, the pro-reformation factions suddenly seized control of the new king, and of the Regency Council, under the leadership of Edward Seymour. Bishop Gardiner was discredited, and the Duke of Norfolk was imprisoned for all of the new king's reign. The short reign of Edward VI marked the triumph of Protestantism in England. Somerset, the elder brother of the late Queen
Jane Seymour Jane Seymour (c. 150824 October 1537), also known as Jane Semel, was the third List of English consorts, queen consort of King Henry VIII of England from their Wives of Henry VIII, marriage on 30 May 1536 until her death the next year. She becam ...

Jane Seymour
(married to Henry VIII) and uncle to King Edward VI had a successful military career. When the boy king was crowned, Somerset became
Lord Protector Lord Protector (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ...
of the realm and in effect ruled England from 1547 to 1549. Seymour led expensive, inconclusive wars with Scotland. His religious policies angered Catholics. Purgatory was rejected so there was no more need for prayers to saints, relics, and statues, nor for masses for the dead. Some 2400 permanent endowments called
chantries A chantry is an ecclesiastical term that may have either of two related meanings: # a chantry Church service, service, a Christian liturgy of prayers for the dead, which historically was an obiit, or # a chantry chapel, a building on private land, ...

chantries
had been established that supported thousands of priests who celebrated masses for the dead, or operated schools or hospitals in order to earn grace for the soul in purgatory. The endowments were seized (by the king? Somerset?) in 1547.G.R. Elton, ''The Tudor Constitution'' (1960) pp. 372, 382–85. Historians have contrasted the efficiency of Somerset's takeover of power in 1547 with the subsequent ineptitude of his rule. By autumn 1549, his costly wars had lost momentum, the crown faced financial ruin, and riots and rebellions had broken out around the country. He was overthrown by his former ally
John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland (1504Loades 2008 – 22 August 1553) was an Kingdom of England, English general, admiral, and politician, who led the government of the young King Edward VI from 1550 until 1553, and unsuccessfully tried ...

John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland
. Until recent decades, Somerset's reputation with historians was high, in view of his many proclamations that appeared to back the common people against a rapacious landowning class. In the early 20th century this line was taken by the influential A. F. Pollard, to be echoed by Edward VI's leading biographer W. K. Jordan. A more critical approach was initiated by M. L. Bush and Dale Hoak in the mid-1970s. Since then, Somerset has often been portrayed as an arrogant ruler, devoid of the political and administrative skills necessary for governing the Tudor state. Dudley by contrast moved quickly after taking over an almost bankrupt administration in 1549. Working with his top aide William Cecil, Dudley ended the costly wars with France and Scotland and tackled finances in ways that led to some economic recovery. To prevent further uprisings he introduced countrywide policing, appointed Lords Lieutenants who were in close contact with London, and set up what amounted to a standing national army. Working closely with
Thomas Cramner
Thomas Cramner
, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dudley pursued an aggressively Protestant religious policy. They promoted radical reformers to high Church positions, with the Catholic bishops under attack. The use of the ''
Book of Common Prayer A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of v ...

Book of Common Prayer
'' became law in 1549; prayers were to be in English not Latin. The Mass was no longer to be celebrated, and preaching became the centerpiece of church services.
Purgatory Purgatory (, via Anglo-Norman language, Anglo-Norman and Old French) is, according to the belief of some Christianity, Christians (mostly Catholics), an intermediate state after physical death for expiatory purification. There is disagreement amo ...

Purgatory
, Protestantism declared, was a Catholic superstition that falsified the Scriptures. Prayers for the dead were useless because no one was actually in Purgatory. It followed that prayers to saints, veneration of relics, and adoration of statues were all useless superstitions that had to end. For centuries devout Englishman had created endowments called
chantries A chantry is an ecclesiastical term that may have either of two related meanings: # a chantry Church service, service, a Christian liturgy of prayers for the dead, which historically was an obiit, or # a chantry chapel, a building on private land, ...

chantries
designed as good works that generated grace to help them get out of purgatory after they died. Many chantries were altars or chapels inside churches, or endowments that supported thousands of priests who said Masses for the dead. In addition there were many schools and hospitals established as good works. In 1547 a new law closed down 2,374 chantries and seized their assets. Although the Act required the money to go to "charitable" ends and the "public good," most of it appears to have gone to friends of the Court. Historian A. G. Dickens has concluded: :To Catholic opinion, the problem set by these legal confiscations ... the disappearance of a large clerical society from their midst, the silencing of masses, the rupture of both visible and spiritual ties, which over so many centuries have linked rude provincial man with a great world of the Faith. ... The Edwardian dissolution exerted its profounder effects in the field of religion. In large part it proved destructive, for while it helped to debar a revival of Catholic devotion it clearly contain elements which injured the reputation of Protestantism. The new Protestant orthodoxy for the Church of England was expressed in the Forty-Two Articles of Faith in 1553. But when the king suddenly died, Dudley's last-minute efforts to make his daughter-in-law
Lady Jane Grey Lady Jane Grey ( 1537 – 12 February 1554), later known as Lady Jane Dudley (after her marriage) and as the "Nine Days' Queen", was a teenage English noblewoman who claimed the throne of England and Ireland from 10 July until 19 July 1553. J ...

Lady Jane Grey
the new sovereign failed after only nine days of her reign. Queen Mary took over and had him beheaded and had Jane Grey beheaded after Thomas Wyatt's Protestant rebellion against the marriage of the queen and
Philip II of Spain Philip II) in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption ...

Philip II of Spain
less than a year later.


Mary I: 1553–1558

Mary was the daughter of Henry VIII by
Catherine of Aragon Catherine of Aragon (; 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536) was Queen of England as the first wife of King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom o ...

Catherine of Aragon
; she closely identified with her Catholic, Spanish heritage. She was next in line for the throne. However, in 1553 as Edward VI lay dying, he and the Duke of Northumberland plotted to make his first cousin once removed
Lady Jane Grey Lady Jane Grey ( 1537 – 12 February 1554), later known as Lady Jane Dudley (after her marriage) and as the "Nine Days' Queen", was a teenage English noblewoman who claimed the throne of England and Ireland from 10 July until 19 July 1553. J ...

Lady Jane Grey
as the new Queen. Northumberland, a duke, wanted to keep control of the government, and promote Protestantism. Edward signed a devise to alter the succession, but that was not legal, for only Parliament could amend its own acts. Edward's Privy Council kept his death secret for three days to install Lady Jane, but Northumberland had neglected to take control of Princess Mary. She fled and organised a band of supporters, who proclaimed her Queen across the country. The Privy Council abandoned Northumberland, and proclaimed Mary to be the sovereign after nine days of the pretended Jane Grey. Queen Mary imprisoned Lady Jane and executed Northumberland. Mary is remembered for her vigorous efforts to restore Roman Catholicism after Edward's short-lived crusade to minimise Catholicism in England. Protestant historians have long denigrated her reign, emphasising that in just five years she burned several hundred Protestants at the stake in the
Marian persecutions Protestants were executed in England under heresy laws during the reigns of Henry VIII (1509–1547) and Mary I (1553–1558). Radical Christians also were executed, though in much smaller numbers, during the reigns of Edward VI (1547–1553), E ...
. However, a historiographical revisionism since the 1980s has to some degree improved her reputation among scholars. Christopher Haigh's bold reappraisal of the religious history of Mary's reign painted the revival of religious festivities and a general satisfaction, if not enthusiasm, at the return of the old Catholic practices. Her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her younger half-sister and successor
Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_an ...

Elizabeth I
. Protestant writers at the time took a highly negative view, blasting her as "Bloody Mary".
John Knox John Knox ( – 24 November 1572) was a Scottish Ministers and elders of the Church of Scotland, minister, Christian theology, theologian, and writer who was a leader of Scottish Reformation, the country's Reformation. He was the founder of t ...

John Knox
attacked her in his '' First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women'' (1558), and she was prominently vilified in '''' (1563), by
John Foxe John Foxe (1516/1517 – 18 April 1587), an English historian and martyrologist A martyrology is a catalogue or list of martyrs and other saints and beatification, beati arranged in the calendar order of their anniversaries or feasts. Local mar ...
. Foxe's book taught Protestants for centuries that Mary was a bloodthirsty tyrant. In the mid-20th century, H. F. M. Prescott attempted to redress the tradition that Mary was intolerant and authoritarian by writing more objectively, and scholarship since then has tended to view the older, simpler, partisan assessments of Mary with greater scepticism. Haigh concluded that the "last years of Mary's reign were not a gruesome preparation for Protestant victory, but a continuing consolidation of Catholic strength." Catholic historians, such as
John Lingard Rev Dr John Lingard (5 February 1771 – 17 July 1851) was an English Roman Catholic priest and historian, the author of ''The History of England, From the First Invasion by the Romans to the Accession of Henry VIII'', an 8-volume work publishe ...

John Lingard
, argued Mary's policies failed not because they were wrong but because she had too short a reign to establish them. In other countries, the Catholic Counter-Reformation was spearheaded by Jesuit missionaries; Mary's chief religious advisor, Cardinal Pole, refused to allow the Jesuits in England. Spain was widely seen as the enemy, and her marriage to King
Philip II of Spain Philip II) in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption ...

Philip II of Spain
was deeply unpopular, even though he had practically no role in English government and they had no children. The military loss of Calais to France was a bitter humiliation to English pride. Failed harvests increased public discontent. Although Mary's rule was ultimately ineffectual and unpopular, her innovations regarding fiscal reform, naval expansion, and colonial exploration were later lauded as Elizabethan accomplishments.


Elizabeth I: 1558–1603

Historians often depict Elizabeth's reign as the
golden age#REDIRECT Golden Age The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the ''Works and Days'' of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages of Man, Ages, Gold being the first a ...
in English history in terms of political, social and cultural development, and in comparison with
Continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', lite ...

Continental Europe
. Calling her "Gloriana" and using the symbol of
Britannia Britannia () is the national personification upright=0.9, An early example of National personification in a gospel book dated 990: Germania.html"_;"title="Sclavinia,_Germania">Sclavinia,_Germania,_Sclavinia,_Germania,_Gallia">Germania.ht ...

Britannia
starting in 1572, marked the Elizabethan age as a renaissance that inspired national pride through classical ideals, international expansion, and naval triumph over the hated and feared Spanish. Elizabeth's reign marks the decisive turning point in English religious history, as a predominantly Catholic nation at the beginning of her reign was predominantly Protestant by the end. Although Elizabeth executed 250 Catholic priests, she also executed some extreme Puritans, and on the whole she sought a moderately conservative position that mixed Royal control of the church (with no people role), combined with predominantly Catholic ritual, and a predominantly Calvinists theology.


Scotland and Mary, Queen of Scots

Mary, Queen of Scots Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart, was List of Scottish monarchs, Queen of Scotland from 14 December 1542 until her forced abdication in 1567. Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of King ...

Mary, Queen of Scots
(1542–1587) was a devout Catholic and next in line for the throne of England after Elizabeth. Her status became a major domestic and international issue for England. especially after the death of King James IV at the
Battle of Flodden The Battle of Flodden, Flodden Field, or occasionally Branxton, (Brainston Moor) was a battle fought on 9 September 1513 during the War of the League of Cambrai The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy Le ...
in 1513. The upshot was years of struggle for control of the throne, nominally held by the infant king
James V James V (10 April 1512 – 14 December 1542) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of government by which a hereditary mo ...
(1512–1542, r. 1513–42), until he came of age in 1528.
Mary of Guise Mary of Guise (french: Marie de Guise; 22 November 1515 – 11 June 1560), also called Mary of Lorraine, ruled Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland as regent from 1554 until her death. A noblewoman from the Lotharingian House of Guise, she played a promi ...
(1515–1560) was a French woman close to the French throne. She ruled as the regent for her teenaged daughter Queen Mary, 1554–1560. The regent and her daughter were both strong proponents of Catholicism and attempted to suppress the rapidly Growth of Protestantism in Scotland. Mary of Guise was a strong opponent of Protestantism, and worked to maintain a close alliance between Scotland and France, called the
Auld Alliance The Auld Alliance ( Scots for "Old Alliance"; ; ) was an alliance made in 1295 between the kingdoms of Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Brit ...
. In 1559 the Regent became alarmed that widespread Scottish hostility against French rule was strengthening the partisan cause, so she banned unauthorised preaching. But the fiery preacher
John Knox John Knox ( – 24 November 1572) was a Scottish Ministers and elders of the Church of Scotland, minister, Christian theology, theologian, and writer who was a leader of Scottish Reformation, the country's Reformation. He was the founder of t ...

John Knox
sent Scotland aflame with his preaching, leading the coalition of powerful Scottish nobles, calling themselves the
Lords of the Congregation The Lords of the Congregation (), originally styling themselves "the Faithful", were a group of Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceiv ...
raised the rebellion to overthrow the Catholic Church and seize its lands. The Lords appealed to Elizabeth for English help, but she played a very cautious hand. The 1559 treaty with France called for peace and she was unwilling to violate it, especially since England had no allies at the time. Supporting rebels against the lawful ruler violated Elizabeth's deeply held claims to the legitimacy of all royalty. On the other hand, a French victory in Scotland would establish a Catholic state on the northern border supported by a powerful French enemy. Elizabeth first sent money, then sent artillery, then sent a fleet that destroyed the French fleet in Scotland. Finally she sent 8,000 troops north. The death of Mary of Guise allowed England, France and Scotland to come to terms in the
Treaty of Edinburgh The Treaty of Edinburgh (also known as the Treaty of Leith) was a treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of na ...
in 1560, which had a far-reaching impact. France permanently withdrew all its forces from Scotland. It ensured the success of the Reformation in Scotland; it began a century of peace with France; it ended any threat of a Scottish invasion; and it paved the way for a union of the two kingdoms in 1603 when the Scottish king James VI inherited the English throne as James I and launched the Stuart era. When the treaty was signed, Mary was in Paris as the wife of the French King Francis II. When he died in 1561, she returned to Scotland as Queen of Scotland. However, when Elizabeth refused to recognise her as the heir to the English throne, Mary rejected the Treaty of Edinburgh. She made an unfortunate marriage to
Lord Darnley Lord Darnley is a noble title associated with a Scotland, Scottish Lord of Parliament, Lordship of Parliament, first created in 1356 for the family of Stewart of Darnley and tracing a descent to the Duke of Richmond, Dukedom of Richmond in England. ...

Lord Darnley
who mistreated her and murdered her Italian favourite
David Rizzio David Rizzio (; ; – 9 March 1566), sometimes written as David Riccio (; ), was an Italian courtier A courtier () is a person who is often in attendance at the court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institut ...

David Rizzio
. Darnley in turn was murdered by . He was acquitted of murder; she quickly married Bothwell. Most people at the time thought she was deeply involved in adultery or murder; historians have argued at length and are undecided. However rebellion broke out and the Protestant nobles defeated the Queen's forces in 1567. She was forced to abdicate in favour of her infant son James VI; she fled to England, where Elizabeth confined her in house arrest for 19 years. Mary engaged in numerous complex plots to assassinate Elizabeth and become queen herself. Finally Elizabeth caught her plotting the
Babington Plot The Babington Plot was a plan in 1586 to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I, a Protestant, and put Mary, Queen of Scots, her Catholic Church, Roman Catholic cousin, on the English throne. It led to the Queen of Scots' execution, a result of a le ...
and had her executed in 1587.


Troubled later years: 1585–1603

Elizabeth's final two decades saw mounting problems that were left for the Stuarts to solve after 1603. John Cramsie, in reviewing the recent scholarship in 2003, argues: : the period 1585–1603 is now recognised by scholars as distinctly more troubled than the first half of Elizabeth's long reign. Costly wars against Spain and the Irish, involvement in the Netherlands, socio-economic distress, and an authoritarian turn by the regime all cast a pall over Gloriana's final years, underpinning a weariness with the queen's rule and open criticism of her government and its failures. Elizabeth remained a strong leader, but almost all of her earlier advisers had died or retired. (1563–1612) took over the role of leading advisor long held by his father Lord Burghley.
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, Knight of the Garter, KG, Privy Counsellor, PC (; 10 November 1565 – 25 February 1601) was an English nobleman and a favourite of Queen Elizabeth I. Politically ambitious, and a committed general, he was ...

Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex
(1567–1601) was her most prominent general, a role previously held by his stepfather , who was the love of Elizabeth's life; and the adventurer/historian Sir
Walter Raleigh Sir Walter Raleigh (; – 29 October 1618), also spelled Ralegh, was an English statesman, soldier, writer and explorer. One of the most notable figures of the Elizabethan era, he played a leading part in English colonisation of North America, ...

Walter Raleigh
(1552–1618) was a new face on the scene. The three new men formed a triangle of interlocking and opposing forces that was hard to break into. The first vacancy came in 1601, when Devereux was executed for attempting to take the Queen prisoner and seize power. After Elizabeth died the new king kept on Cecil as his chief advisor, and beheaded Raleigh.


Popular uprisings

Numerous popular uprisings occurred; all suppressed by royal authorities. The largest were: * The largest and most serious was the
Pilgrimage of Grace The Pilgrimage of Grace was a popular revolt beginning in Yorkshire in October 1536, before spreading to other parts of Northern England including Cumberland, Northumberland, and north Lancashire, under the leadership of Robert Aske (political l ...
. It disrupted the North of England in 1536 protesting the religious reforms of Henry VIII, his
Dissolution of the Monasteries#REDIRECT Dissolution of the monasteries {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
and the policies of the King's chief minister,
Thomas Cromwell Thomas Cromwell, (; 1485 – 28 July 1540) was an English lawyer and statesman who served as List of English chief ministers, chief minister to King Henry VIII from 1534 to 1540, when he was beheaded on orders of the king. Cromwell was one o ...

Thomas Cromwell
, as well as other specific political, social and economic grievances. * The
Prayer Book Rebellion The Prayer Book Rebellion or Western Rising was a popular revolt in Cornwall Cornwall (; kw, Kernow ) is a Historic counties of England, historic county and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in South West England. It is r ...
or "Western Rising" was a popular revolt in Devon and Cornwall in 1549. The Royal Court introduced the ''Book of Common Prayer'', which was based on Protestant theology and the exclusive use of English. The change was widely unpopular – particularly in areas of still firmly Catholic religious loyalty, and in Cornwall where standard English was not popular. *
Kett's Rebellion Kett's Rebellion was a revolt in Norfolk Norfolk () is a rural and non-metropolitan county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TC ...
began in 1549 in Norfolk; it started as a demonstration against
enclosure Enclosure or Inclosure is a term, used in English landownership, that refers to the appropriation of "waste" or "common land Common land is land owned by a person or collectively by a number of persons, over which other persons have certai ...

enclosure
s of common land. The instigator, Robert Kett, was executed for treason. *
Wyatt's rebellion Wyatt's Rebellion was a popular uprising in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies no ...
in 1554 against Queen Mary I's determination to marry Philip of Spain and named after Thomas Wyatt, one of its leaders. * The
Rising of the North The Rising of the North of 1569, also called the Revolt of the Northern Earls or Northern Rebellion, was an unsuccessful attempt by Catholicism, Catholic nobles from Northern England to depose Queen Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Mar ...
or "Northern Rebellion" of 1569–70 was a failed attempt by Catholic nobles from Northern England to depose Queen Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots. It originated from bitter political factionalism in the royal Privy Council. The extension of Tudor authority in northern England caused discontent among the aristocracy and gentry, as the new Protestant bishop tried to recover former church lands and alienated their new owners. Local Catholic elements were a large fraction of the population and resented the destruction of the rituals and practices. When the Royal army approached, the leadership disbanded their forces and fled to Scotland. A few leaders were executed, but many of the gentry saved their lives by handing over their lands to Queen Elizabeth.


Local government

The main officials of the local government operated at the county level (also called "shire") were the
sheriff A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England where the office originated. There is an analogous although independently developed office in Iceland that is commonly translated ...

sheriff
and the
Lord Lieutenant A lord-lieutenant () is the British monarch's personal representative in each lieutenancy area Lieutenancy areas are the separate areas of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as ...
. the power of the sheriff had declined since medieval days, but he was still very prestigious. He was appointed for a one-year term, with no renewals, by the King's Privy Council. He was paid many small fees, but they probably did not meet the sheriff's expenses in terms of hospitality and hiring his under-sheriffs and bailiffs. The sheriff held court every month to deal with civil and criminal cases. He supervised elections, ran the jail and meted out punishments. His subordinates provided staffing for the county's justices of the peace. The Lord Lieutenant was a new office created by Henry VIII to represent the royal power in each county. He was a person with good enough connections at court to be selected by the king and served at the king's pleasure, often for decades. He had limited powers of direct control, so successful Lord Lieutenants worked with his deputy lieutenants and dealt with the gentry through compromise, consensus, and the inclusion of opposing factions. He was in charge of mobilising the militia if necessary for defence, or to assist the king in military operations. In
Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the most northern area of England England ...

Yorkshire
in 1588, the Lord Lieutenant was the Earl of Huntington, who urgently needed to prepare defences in the face of the threatened invasion from the Spanish Armada. The Queen's Privy Council urgently called upon him to mobilise the militia, and report on the availability of men and horses. Huntington's challenge was to overcome the reluctance of many militia men, the shortages of arms, training mishaps, and jealousy among the gentry as to who would command which unit. Despite Huntingdon's last-minute efforts, the mobilisation of 1588 revealed a reluctant society that only grudgingly answered the call to arms. The Armada never landed, and the militia were not actually used. During the civil wars of the mid-17th century, the Lord Lieutenant played an even more important role in mobilising his county either for king or for Parliament. The day-to-day business of government was in the hands of several dozen
justices of the peace A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer A judicial officer is a person with the responsibilities and powers to facilitate, arbitrate, preside over, and make decisions and directions in regard to the application of the law. Judicial ...
(JP). They handled all the real routine police administrative functions, and were paid through a modest level of fees. Other local officials included constables, church-wardens, mayors, and city aldermen. The JP duties involved a great deal of paperwork – primarily in Latin – and attracted a surprisingly strong cast of candidates. For example, The 55 JPs in
Devon Devon (, archaically known as Devonshire) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Ch ...

Devon
shire holding office in 1592 included: :Sir
Francis Drake Sir Francis Drake ( – 28 January 1596) was an English Exploration, explorer, sea captain, Privateering, privateer, Atlantic slave trade, slave trader, Officer (armed forces), naval officer, and politician. Drake is best known for Franc ...

Francis Drake
, Sir
Ferdinando Gorges Sir Ferdinando Gorges ( – 24 May 1647) was a naval and military commander and governor of the important port of Plymouth in England. He was involved in Essex's Rebellion against the Queen, but escaped punishment by testifying against the main ...
, Gilberts, Carews, Seymours, Courtenays, and other names prominent among the men who laid the foundations of the maritime greatness of England and of the existence of America. Of the fifty-five, twenty-eight were at one time or another high-sheriffs of the county, twenty more were then, or became afterwards, knights, six sat in the House of Commons, and three in the House of Lords.


Social history and daily life

The cultural achievements of the Elizabethan era have long attracted scholars, and since the 1960s they have conducted intensive research on the
social history of England English society comprises the group behaviour of the English people, and of collective social interactions, organisation and political attitudes in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United ...
.


Monarchs

The
House of Tudor The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended from the Tudors of Penmynydd. Tudor monarchs ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including their ancestral Wales and the Lordship of Ireland (later the Kingdom of ...

House of Tudor
produced five monarchs who ruled during this reign. Occasionally listed is Lady Jane Grey, sometimes known as the 'Nine Days' Queen' for the shortness of her
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with ''de jure'' ("by law"), which refers to th ...
reign. File:Henry Seven England.jpg,
Henry VIIHenry VII may refer to: * Henry VII of England (1457–1509), King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1485 until his death in 1509; the founder of the House of Tudor * Henry VII, Duke of Bavaria (died 1047), count of Luxembourg (as Henry II) from 1 ...

(1485–1509) File:Hans Holbein, the Younger, Around 1497-1543 - Portrait of Henry VIII of England - Google Art Project.jpg,
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged fro ...

(1509–1547) File:Edward VI of England c. 1546.jpg,
Edward VI Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged fr ...

(1547–1553) File:Mary1 by Eworth 3.jpg,
Mary I Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, and as "Bloody Mary" by her Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to ...

Mary I

(1553–1558) File:Streathamladyjayne.jpg, File:Elizabeth I in coronation robes.jpg,
Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_an ...

Elizabeth I

( 1558–1603)


The Tudor myth

The Tudor myth is a particular tradition in History of England, English history, historiography and English literature, literature that presents the period of the 15th century, including the
Wars of the Roses The Wars of the Roses were a series of fifteenth-century English civil wars for control of the throne of England, fought between supporters of two rival cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, represented by a ...
, as a dark age of anarchy and bloodshed, and sees the Tudor period of the 16th century as a golden age of peace, law, order, and prosperity.
Tillyard, E. M. W. ''Shakespeare’s History Plays.'' Chatto & Windus (1944)


See also

* Tudor architecture * Tudor Revival architecture * Tudor navy * Tudor rose * Early modern Britain * English Reformation


References


Book sources

*


Further reading


Reference books

* ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'' (2008

* Bindoff, S.T. ''Tudor England'' (1950), short scholarly survey
online
* Bucholz, Robert, and Newton Key. ''Early modern England 1485–1714: A narrative history'' (2009); University textbook * Collinson, Patrick, ed. ''The Sixteenth Century: 1485–1603'' (Short Oxford History of the British Isles) (2002) * Elton, G. R. ''England Under the Tudors'' (1974
online complete copy
* Fritze, Ronald H. ed. ''Historical Dictionary of Tudor England, 1485–1603'' (1991), 818pp; 300 short essays by experts emphasis on politics, religion, and historiography
excerpt
* Gunn, Steven. ''Henry VII's New Men and the Making of Tudor England'' (2016)/ * Guy, J. A. ''The Tudors: A Very Short Introduction'' (2010
excerpt and text search
* Guy, J. A. ''Tudor England'' (1990) a leading comprehensive surve
excerpt and text search
* Kinney, Arthur F. et al. ''The Routledge Encyclopedia of Tudor England'' (2000) 837 pp; also published as ''Tudor England: An Encyclopedia '' * Lockyer, Roger. ''Tudor and Stuart Britain: 1485–1714'' (3rd ed. 2004), 576 p
excerpt
* Mackie, J. D. ''The Earlier Tudors, 1485–1558'' (1952), comprehensive scholarly survey * Morrill, John, ed. ''The Oxford illustrated history of Tudor & Stuart Britain'' (1996
online
survey essays by leading scholars; heavily illustrated * O'Day, Rosemary. ''The Routledge Companion to the Tudor Age'' (2010); also published as ''The Longman Companion to the Tudor Age'' (1995
online
* Rogers, Caroline, and Roger Turvey. ''Henry VII'' (Access to History, 3rd. ed. 2005), textbook, 176pp. * Tittler, Robert and Norman Jones. ''A Companion to Tudor Britain''. Blackwell Publishing, 2004. . * Wagner, John A. ''Historical Dictionary of the Elizabethan World: Britain, Ireland, Europe, and America'' (1999) * Wagner, John A. and Susan Walters Schmid, eds. ''Encyclopedia of Tudor England'' (3 vol. 2011). * Williams, Penry. '' The Later Tudors: England, 1547–1603'' (1995)


Political history

* Black, J. B. ''The Reign of Elizabeth: 1558–1603'' (2nd ed. 1958) survey by leading scholar
online
* * MacCulloch, Diarmaid. ''Thomas Cranmer: A Life'' (1996). * Edwards, Philip. ''The Making of the Modern English State: 1460–1660'' (2004) * Elton, G. R. ed. ''Studies in Tudor and Stuart politics and government: papers and reviews 1946–1972'' (1974
online
* Elton, G. R. ''The Parliament of England, 1559–1581'' (1986
online
* * Levine, Mortimer. ''Tudor England 1485–1603'' (Cambridge University Press: 1968) * Levine, Mortimer. ''Tudor Dynastic Problems 1460–1571'' (Allen & Unwin: 1973) * MacCaffrey Wallace T. ''Elizabeth I'' (1993), scholarly biography * McLaren, Anne N. ''Political Culture in the Reign of Elizabeth I: queen and commonwealth 1558–1585'' (Cambridge UP, 1999). * Neale, J. E. ''Queen Elizabeth I: A Biography'' (1934), scholarly biograph
online
* Scarisbrick, J. J. ''Henry VIII'' (1968), scholarly biography
online
* Starkey, David, and Susan Doran. ''Henry VIII: Man and Monarch'' (2009) * Starkey, David. ''The Reign of Henry VIII: Personalities and Politics'' (2002); 176pp * Turvey, Roger, and Keith Randell. ''Access to History: Henry VIII to Mary I: Government and Religion, 1509–1558'' (Hodder, 2008), 240 pp; textbook * Williams, Penry. '' The Later Tudors: England, 1547–1603'' (The New Oxford History of England) (1998
excerpt and text search
* Wernham, Richard Bruce. ''Before the Armada: the growth of English foreign policy, 1485–1588'' (1966), a standard history of foreign policy ** Wernham, Richard Bruce. ''After the Armada : Elizabethan England and the struggle for Western Europe, 1588–1595'' (1985) * Williams, Penry. '' The Tudor Regime'' (1981)


Religious, social, economic and cultural history

* Butler, Katherine.''Music in Elizabethan Court Politics'' (2015) * Campbell, Mildred. ''English yeoman under Elizabeth and the early Stuarts'' (1942). * Clapham, John. ''A concise economic history of Britain: From the earliest times to 1750'' (1916), pp. 185 to 305 covers 1500 to 1750
online
* Dickens, A.G. ''The English Reformation'' (1965
online
* Doran, Susan, and Norman Jones, eds. ''The Elizabethan World'' (2010) essays by scholars * Duffy, Eamon. ''Reformation Divided: Catholics, Protestants and the Conversion of England'' (2017
excerpt
* * Lipson, Ephraim. ''The economic history of England: vol 2: The Age of Mercantilism'' (7th ed. 1964). * Manley, Lawrence, ed. ''London in the Age of Shakespeare: an Anthology'' (1986). * Marshall, Peter. ''Heretics and Believers: A History of the English Reformation'' (2017
excerpt
* Notestein, Wallace. ''English people on the eve of colonization, 1603–1630'' (1954). scholarly study of occupations and role
online
* Norton, Elizabeth, ''The Hidden Lives of Tudor Women: A Social History'' (2017)
excerpt
* Notestein, Wallace. ''A history of witchcraft in England from 1558 to 1718'' (1911
online
* Palliser, D. M. ''The Age of Elizabeth: England Under the Later Tudors, 1547–1603'' (2nd ed 2014) wide-ranging survey of social and economic history * Ponko, Vincent. "The Privy Council and the spirit of Elizabethan economic management, 1558–1603." ''Transactions of the American Philosophical Society'' 58.4 (1968): 1–63
online
* Rex, Richard. ''Henry VIII and the English Reformation'' (2nd ed. 2006
online
* Rowse, A. L. ''The England of Elizabeth'' (2003). * Sim, Alison. ''The Tudor Housewife'' (McGill-Queen's Press-MQUP, 2001). * Tawney, R.H. ''The agrarian problem in the sixteenth century'' (1912
online
* Traill, H.D. and J.S. Mann, eds. ''Social England: a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day: Volume iii: From the accession of Henry VIII to the death of Elizabeth"'' (1895
online
876 pp; short essays by experts * Williams, Penry. ''Life in Tudor England'' (1969) * Williamson, James A. ''The Tudor Age'' (1961) 500 pp * Willis, Deborah. ''Malevolent nurture: Witch-hunting and maternal power in early modern England'' (Cornell UP, 1995). * Youings, Joyce. ''Sixteenth Century England'' (The Penguin Social History of Britain) (1991)


Historiography

* Anglo, Sydney. "Ill of the dead. The posthumous reputation of Henry VII," ''Renaissance Studies'' 1 (1987): 27–47
online
* Breen, Dan. "Early Modern Historiography." ''Literature Compass'' (2005) 2#1 * Doran, Susan and Thomas Freeman, eds. ''Mary Tudor: Old and New Perspectives'' (Palgrave MacMillan, 2011). * Duffy, Eamon. "The English Reformation After Revisionism." ''Renaissance Quarterly'' 59.3 (2006): 720–31. * Elton, G.R. ''Modern Historians on British History 1485–1945: A Critical Bibliography 1945–1969'' (1969), annotated guide to 1000 history books on every major topic, plus book reviews and major scholarly articles
online
* Freeman, Thomas S. "'Restoration and Reaction: Reinterpreting the Marian Church'." ''Journal of Ecclesiastical History'' (2017)
online
* Furber, Elizabeth Chapin, ed. ''Changing Views on British History'' (1966) ch 3 * Fussner, F. Smith. ''Tudor history and the historians'' (1970
online
* Haigh, Christopher. "The recent historiography of the English Reformation." ''Historical Journal'' 25.4 (1982): 995–1007. * Lewycky, Nadine. "Politics and religion in the reign of Henry VIII: A historiographical review." (2009)
online paper
* Loades, David. "The Reign of Mary Tudor: Historiography and Research." ''Albion: A Quarterly Journal Concerned with British Studies'' (1989): 547–558
in JSTOR
* McCaffrey, Wallace. "Recent Writings on Tutor History", in Richard Schlatter, ed., ''Recent Views on British History: Essays on Historical Writing since 1966'' (Rutgers UP, 1984), pp. 71–98 * MacCulloch, Diarmaid. "The myth of the English Reformation" ''History Today'' (July 1991) 41#7 * O'Day, Rosemary. ''The debate on the English Reformation'' (2nd ed. 2015)
excerpt
* O'Day, Rosemary, ed. ''The Routledge Companion to the Tudor Age'' (2010) * Patterson, Annabel. "Rethinking Tudor Historiography." ''South Atlantic Quarterly'' (1993) 92#2 pp: 185–208. * Pugliatti, Paola. ''Shakespeare the historian'' (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996) * Trimble, William Raleigh. "Early Tudor Historiography, 1485–1548." ''Journal of the History of Ideas'' (1950): 30–41 * Zagora, Perez. "English History, 1558–1640: A Bibliographical Survey", in Elizabeth Chapin Furber, ed. ''Changing views on British history: essays on historical writing since 1939'' (Harvard University Press, 1966), pp. 119–40


Primary sources

* Archer, Ian W. and F. Douglas Price, eds. ''English Historical Documents, 1558–1603'' (2011), a wide-ranging major collection * Bland, A.E., P.A. Brown and R.H. Tawney, eds. ''English economic history: select documents'' (1919)
online
733pp; covers 1086 to 1840s. * Elton, G.R. ed. ''The Tudor constitution : documents and commentary'' (1960
online
* Felch, Susan M. ed. ''Elizabeth I and Her Age'' (Norton Critical Editions) (2009); 700pp; primary and secondary sources, with an emphasis on literature * Marcus, Leah S.; Rose, Mary Beth; and Mueller, Janel eds. ''Elizabeth I: The Collected Works'' (U of Chicago Press, 2002). . * Stater, Victor, ed. ''The Political History of Tudor and Stuart England: A Sourcebook'' (Routledge, 2002) * Tawney, R. H., and Eileen Power, eds. ''Tudor Economic Documents'' (3 vols. 1924). * Williams, C.H. ed. ''English Historical Documents, 1485–1558'' (1957), a wide-ranging major collection * ''Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII'' (21 vol 1862–1932) '
most volumes are online here
'' ** Vol. 1. 1509–1514 and Index.- Vol. 2., pt. 1. 1515–1516.- Vol. 2., pt. 2. 1517–1518.- Vol. 3, pt. 1–2. 1519–1523.- Vol. 4. Introduction and Appendix, 1524–1530.- Vol. 4, pt. 1. 1524–1526.- Vol. 4, pt. 2. 1526–1528.- Vol. 4, pt. 3. 1529–1530, with a general index.- Vol. 5. 1531–1532.- Vol. 6. 1533.- Vol. 7. 1534.- Vol. 8. 1535, Jan.-July.- Vol. 9. 1535, Aug.-Dec.- Vol. 10. 1536, Jan.-July.- Vol. 11. 1536, July–Dec.- Vol. 12, pt. 1. 1537, Jan.-May.- Vol. 12, pt. 2. 1537, June–Dec.- Vol. 13, pt. 1. 1538, Jan.-July.- Vol. 13, pt. 2. 1538, Aug.-Dec.- Vol. 14, pt [i.e. pt.]. 1. 1539, Jan.-July.- Vol. 14, pt. 2. 1539, Aug.-Dec.- Vol. 15. 1540, Jan.-Aug.- Vol. 16. 1540, Sept.- 1541, Dec.- Vol. 17. 1542.- Vol. 18, pt. 1 1543, Jan.-July.- Vol. 18, pt. 2. 1543, Aug.-Dec.- Vol. 19, pt. 1. 1544, Jan.-July.- Vol. 19, pt. 2. 1544, Aug.-Dec.- Vol. 20, pt. 1. 1545, Jan.-July.- Vol. 20, pt. 2. 1545, Aug.-Dec.- Vol. 21, pt. 1. 1546, Jan.-Aug.- Vol. 21, pt. 2. 1546, Sept.-1547, Jan.- Addenda: Vol. 1, pt. 1. 1509–1537 and undated. Nos. 1–1293.- Addenda: Vol. 1, pt. 2. 1538–1547 and undated. Nos. 1294-end and index


External links


The Tudors
information page edited by historian John Guy
Tudor food
learning resources from the British Library
BBC History – Tudor Period

Tudor and Stuart Ireland Conference

"The Tudor State"
''In Our Time'', BBC Radio 4 discussion with John Guy, Christopher Haigh and Christine Carpenter (Oct, 26, 2000) {{DEFAULTSORT:Tudor Period Tudor England, Tudor rebellions English Renaissance Historical eras History of the United Kingdom by period