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Tiwa (
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
''Tigua'', also ''E-nagh-magh'') is a group of two, possibly three, related
Tanoan languages Tanoan , also Kiowa–Tanoan or Tanoan–Kiowa, is a family of languages spoken by indigenous peoples in present-day New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , Larg ...
spoken by the
TiwaTiwa and Tigua may refer to: * Tiwa Puebloans, an ethnic group of New Mexico, US * Tiwa (Lalung), an ethnic group of north-eastern India * Tiwa language (India), a Sino-Tibetan language of India * Tiwa languages, a group of Tanoan languages of the U ...

Tiwa
Pueblo In the Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural list of regions of the United States, region of the United States that generally inc ...
, and possibly
Piro Pueblo Piro Pueblo : The Piros (not to be confused with the Piros of the Ucayali The Ucayali River ( es, Río Ucayali, ) is the main headstream of the Amazon River The Amazon River (, ; es, Río Amazonas, pt, Rio Amazonas) in South America ...
, in the
U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all ...

U.S.
state of
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Greater Albuquerque , OfficialLang = None , Languages = English English usually refer ...

New Mexico
.


Subfamily members and relations

Southern Tiwa The Southern Tiwa language is a Tanoan language Tanoan , also Kiowa–Tanoan or Tanoan–Kiowa, is a family of languages spoken by indigenous peoples in present-day New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Most of the languages – Tiwa langu ...
is spoken in by around 1,600 people in
Isleta Pueblo Pueblo of Isleta or Isleta Pueblo ( tix, Shiewhibak , kjq, Dîiw'a'ane ; nv, Naatoohó ) is an unincorporated community An unincorporated area is a region not governed by a local municipal corporation. Similarly, an unincorporated com ...
,
Sandia Pueblo Sandia Pueblo (; TiwaTiwa and Tigua may refer to: * Tiwa Puebloans, an ethnic group of New Mexico, US * Tiwa (Lalung), an ethnic group of north-eastern India * Tiwa language (India), a Sino-Tibetan language of India * Tiwa languages, a group of T ...
, and Ysleta del Sur Pueblo (Tigua Pueblo). The remaining two languages form a subgrouping known as ''Northern Tiwa''. Northern Tiwa consists of Taos spoken by 800 people in
Taos Pueblo Taos Pueblo (or Pueblo de Taos) is an ancient pueblo In the Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural list of regions of the Uni ...

Taos Pueblo
and Picuris spoken by around 220 people in
Picuris Pueblo Picuris Pueblo (; Tiwa language, Tiwa: P'įwweltha ’ī̃wːēltʰà is a historic pueblo in Taos County, New Mexico, Taos County, New Mexico, United States. It is also a census-designated place (CDP) and a federally recognized tribe of Native ...
. The extinct language of
Piro Pueblo Piro Pueblo : The Piros (not to be confused with the Piros of the Ucayali The Ucayali River ( es, Río Ucayali, ) is the main headstream of the Amazon River The Amazon River (, ; es, Río Amazonas, pt, Rio Amazonas) in South America ...
may also have been a Tiwan language, but this is uncertain (see
Piro Pueblo language Piro is a poorly attested, extinct Tanoan language Tanoan , also Kiowa–Tanoan or Tanoan–Kiowa, is a family of languages spoken by indigenous peoples in present-day New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Most of the languages – Tiwa l ...
).


History

After the
Pueblo Revolt The Pueblo Revolt of 1680, also known as Popé's Rebellion or Popay's Rebellion, was an uprising of most of the indigenous Pueblo people The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common ...
against the
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
conquistador Conquistadors (, ) or conquistadores (, ; meaning 'conquerors') were the invaders, knights A knight is a person granted an honorary title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may sign ...

conquistador
s in 1680, some of the Tigua and Piro peoples fled south with the Spanish to El Paso del Norte (present-day
Ciudad Juárez Ciudad Juárez ( ; ''Juarez City''. ) is the most populous city in the Mexican state The states of Mexico are first-level administrative territorial entities of the country of Mexico, which officially is named United Mexican States Me ...

Ciudad Juárez
,
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
). There they founded Ysleta del Sur, Texas;
Socorro, Texas Socorro is a city in El Paso County, Texas Texas (, ) is a state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States. It is the second largest U.S. state by both List of U.S. states and territories by area, area (a ...
; and Senecú del Sur, Mexico. Their descendants continued to live in these communities as late as 1996.Eickhoff, Randy Lee (1996) ''Exiled: The Tigua Indians of Ysleta del Sur,'' Republic of Texas Press, Plano, Texas,


See also

*
Jornada del Muerto The name Jornada del Muerto translates from Spanish as "Single Day's Journey of the Dead Man" or even "Route of the Dead Man, though the modern literal translation is closer to "The Working Day of the Dead". It was the name given by the Spanish ...


Notes

Tanoan languages Languages of the United States Indigenous languages of the Southwestern United States Indigenous languages of the North American Southwest Tiwa Pueblo culture {{indigenousAmerican-lang-stub