HOME

TheInfoList




The Thuringian states (german: Thüringische Staaten) refers to the following German
federal state A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, ...
s within the
German Reich ''German Reich'' (german: Deutsches Reich, ) was the constitutional name for the German nation state A nation state is a state in which a great majority shares the same culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social b ...
: *The Grand Duchy of
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (german: Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was a historical German state, created as a duchy A duchy, also called a dukedom, is a , territory, , or domain ruled by a or , a high-ranking nobleman hierarchically second to the or ...
, officially the Grand Duchy of Saxony (''Großherzogtum Sachsen'') from 1903 *The duchies of
Saxe-Altenburg Saxe-Altenburg (german: Sachsen-Altenburg, links=no) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine duchies, Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in present-day Thuringia. It was one of the smallest of the German states with an area of 13 ...
,
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (german: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha), or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (), was an Ernestine duchies, Ernestine, Thuringian states, Thuringian duchy ruled by a branch of the House of Wettin, consisting of territories in the present-day ...
and
Saxe-Meiningen Saxe-Meiningen (; german: Sachsen-Meiningen ) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the ErnestineErnestine is a feminine given name. Ernest is the male counterpart of this name. Notable people with the name include: * Ernestine Anderson (1928–2 ...
(''Herzogtum Sachsen-Altenburg, Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha, Herzogtum Sachsen-Meiningen'') *The principalities of
Reuss Elder Line The Principality of Reuss-Greiz (german: Fürstentum Reuß-Greiz), called the Principality of the Reuss Elder Line (german: Fürstentum Reuß älterer Linie) after 1848, was a sovereign state in modern Germany, ruled by members of the House of R ...
(''Fürstentum Reuß Ältere Linie''),
Reuss Younger Line The Principality of Reuss-Gera (german: Fürstentum Reuß-Gera), called the Principality of the Reuss Junior Line (german: Fürstentum Reuß jüngerer Linie) after 1848, was a sovereign state in modern Germany, ruled by members of the House of Reu ...
(''Fürstentum Reuß Jüngere Linie''),
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small historic state in present-day Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State ...
(''Fürstentum Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt'') and
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a small principality in Germany, in the present day state of Thuringia, with its capital at Sondershausen. History Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a Graf, county until 1697. In that year, it became a principality, whi ...
(''Fürstentum Schwarzburg-Sondershausen'')


Territory

These lands were bordered to the north and west by Prussian regions, especially the ''
Regierungsbezirk A ' () means "governmental district" and is a type of administrative division in Germany. Four of sixteen ' (states of Germany) are split into '. Beneath these are rural and urban districts. Saxony has ' (directorate districts) with more resp ...
'' of
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Erfurt
, but also those of
Kassel Kassel (; in Germany, spelled Cassel until 1926) is a city on the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany. It is the administrative seat of the Regierungsbezirk Kassel (region), Kassel and the Districts of Germany, district Kassel (district), of th ...

Kassel
and
Merseburg Merseburg () is a town in central Germany located in the southern part of Saxony-Anhalt on the river Saale, approx. 14 km south of Halle (Saale) and 30 km west of Leipzig. It is the capital of the Saalekreis district. It had a diocese f ...
, in places as
enclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly ...

enclave
s. In addition numerous Prussian
exclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly ...

exclave
s were mixed up among the Thuringian states. These were the county (''
Landkreis In all Germany, German States of Germany, states, except for the three city states, the primary administrative subdivision higher than a Gemeinde (Municipalities of Germany, Municipality) is the (official term in all but two states) or (off ...
'') of
Schleusingen Schleusingen is a city in the district of Hildburghausen, in Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being th ...

Schleusingen
and town of
Suhl Suhl () is a city in Thuringia, Germany, located SW of Erfurt, NE of Würzburg and N of Nuremberg. With its 37,000 inhabitants, it is the smallest of the six urban districts within Thuringia. Together with its northern neighbour-town Zella- ...

Suhl
, the county of
Herrschaft Schmalkalden The German term ''Herrschaft'' (plural: ''Herrschaften'') covers a broad semantic field and only the context will tell whether it means, "rule", "power", "dominion", "authority", "territory" or "lordship". In its most abstract sense, it refers t ...
and
Barchfeld Barchfeld is a village and a former Municipalities in Germany, municipality in the Wartburgkreis Districts of Germany, district of Thuringia, Germany. Since 31 December 2012, it is part of the municipality Barchfeld-Immelborn. Geography The villag ...
, the region around
Wandersleben Wandersleben is a village and a former municipality in the Gotha (district), district of Gotha, in Thuringia, Germany. Since 1 January 2009, it is part of the municipality Drei Gleichen. Villages in Thuringia Province of Saxony {{Gotha-geo-stub ...

Wandersleben
and Mühlberg, the county of Ziegenrück and town of Ranis, and the villages of
Kamsdorf Kamsdorf is a village and a former municipality in the district Saalfeld-Rudolstadt Saalfeld-Rudolstadt is a ''Kreis'' (district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across ...
, Blankenberg, Sparnberg, Blintendorf and
Gefell Gefell is a town in the Saale-Orla-Kreis district, in Thuringia, Germany. Overview It is situated 16 km south of Schleiz, and 14 km northwest of Hof, Germany, Hof. It is where the Berlin professional audio company Georg Neumann GmbH rel ...
, which belonged to the county of Ziegenrück but were separated from it. Other Prussian exclaves were the villages of Abtlöbnitz near
Camburg Camburg is a town in the Saale-Holzland-Kreis, Saale-Holzland district, in Thuringia, Germany. It is situated on the river Saale, 18 km northeast of Jena, and 13 km southwest of Naumburg. Since 1 December 2008, it is part of the town Do ...

Camburg
and Kischlitz near Eisenberg. To the east, the
Kingdom of Saxony The Kingdom of Saxony (german: Königreich Sachsen), lasting from 1806 to 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in French period, Napoleonic through German Confederation, post-Napoleonic Germany. The kingdom was ...
was the neighbouring state, which also had various exclaves. These were Liebschwitz near
Gera Gera is, with around 93,000 inhabitants, the third-largest city of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , be ...
with the municipalities and lands of Lengefeld, Liebschwitz, Lietzsch, Niebra, Pösneck, and Taubenpreskeln, as well as the neighbouring municipalities of Hilbersdorf, Loitzsch, Rückersdorf, Thonhausen and Grobsdorf. Also worth mentioning are the municipality of Bocka near
Altenburg Altenburg () is a city in Thuringia, Germany, located south of Leipzig, west of Dresden and east of Erfurt. It is the capital of the Altenburger Land district and part of a polycentric old-industrial textile and metal production region betw ...

Altenburg
and Kauritz near
Meerane Meerane () is a town in the Zwickau (district), Zwickau district of Saxony, Germany. It lies midway between the towns of Altenburg and Zwickau, west of Chemnitz. As of 31 December 2015, there were 14,851 inhabitants.http://www.meerane.de/meerane/ ...
. The ''
Kleinstaaterei left, Early 19th century anti-Kleinstaaterei cartoon calling for the elimination of the myriad custom barriers between statelets (, ''"small-state-ery"'') is a German word used, often pejoratively, to denote the territorial fragmentation ...
'' was highly valued, but on the territory of the present Free State of Thuringia in the early 20th century there were eight small states (''Kleinstaaten''), Prussian areas in several provinces (''
Regierungsbezirk A ' () means "governmental district" and is a type of administrative division in Germany. Four of sixteen ' (states of Germany) are split into '. Beneath these are rural and urban districts. Saxony has ' (directorate districts) with more resp ...
en'') and several small Saxon exclaves. The fragmentation of the states was made particularly acute because the little states did not form single enclosed territories, but were scattered in a confusing melange. In 1913 there was an exchange of land between
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (german: Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was a historical German state, created as a duchy A duchy, also called a dukedom, is a , territory, , or domain ruled by a or , a high-ranking nobleman hierarchically second to the or ...
and
Saxe-Meiningen Saxe-Meiningen (; german: Sachsen-Meiningen ) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the ErnestineErnestine is a feminine given name. Ernest is the male counterpart of this name. Notable people with the name include: * Ernestine Anderson (1928–2 ...
. The Meiningen village of Lichtenhain outside
Jena Jena (; ) is a German city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...

Jena
was exchanged for parts of
Kranichfeld Kranichfeld is a town in the Weimarer Land district, in Thuringia. It is situated on the river Ilm (Thuringia), Ilm, 18 km southeast of Erfurt, and 16 km southwest of Weimar. History Within the German Empire (1871-1918), Kranichfeld was ...
that belonged to Weimar. In principle less sensible: it did lead to a tidying up of the boundaries in Kranichfeld, but the Meiningen
exclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly ...

exclave
of Kranichfeld was not removed, but enlarged. Apparently
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (german: Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was a historical German state, created as a duchy A duchy, also called a dukedom, is a , territory, , or domain ruled by a or , a high-ranking nobleman hierarchically second to the or ...
could not or would not offer other land for exchange.


History

During the period of the
German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Bennington, Vermont Bennington is a New England town, town ...
the Thuringian states each had a voice in the Bundesrat - in all eight votes (the duchies of Coburg and Gotha only had a joint vote). They thus formed a significant block, especially when one considers that the
Kingdom of Saxony The Kingdom of Saxony (german: Königreich Sachsen), lasting from 1806 to 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in French period, Napoleonic through German Confederation, post-Napoleonic Germany. The kingdom was ...
, for example, only had four votes. However the Thuringian states rarely agreed with one another. Until 1903 only five states were represented by the Weimar delegates in the Bundesrat.
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (german: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha), or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (), was an Ernestine duchies, Ernestine, Thuringian states, Thuringian duchy ruled by a branch of the House of Wettin, consisting of territories in the present-day ...
had its own delegate,
Saxe-Meiningen Saxe-Meiningen (; german: Sachsen-Meiningen ) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the ErnestineErnestine is a feminine given name. Ernest is the male counterpart of this name. Notable people with the name include: * Ernestine Anderson (1928–2 ...
was represented by
Bavaria Bavaria (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...
and
Reuss Elder Line The Principality of Reuss-Greiz (german: Fürstentum Reuß-Greiz), called the Principality of the Reuss Elder Line (german: Fürstentum Reuß älterer Linie) after 1848, was a sovereign state in modern Germany, ruled by members of the House of R ...
by
Mecklenburg-Schwerin The Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a duchy in northern Germany created in 1701, when Frederick William, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Frederick William and Adolphus Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Adolphus Frederick II divided the ...
. The Higher Regional Court (''Oberlandesgericht'') of
Jena Jena (; ) is a German city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...

Jena
was, according to the new Imperial Court Constitution Act (''Reichsgerichtsverfassungsgesetz'') of 1 October 1878 the only institution, that was responsible for all the Thuringian states. Only
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a small principality in Germany, in the present day state of Thuringia, with its capital at Sondershausen. History Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a Graf, county until 1697. In that year, it became a principality, whi ...
fell under the jurisdiction of the ''Oberlandesgericht'' in
Naumburg Naumburg () is a town in (and the administrative capital of) the district Burgenlandkreis, in the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Central Germany (cultural area), Central Germany. It has a population of around 33,000. The Naumburg Cathedral became a UNES ...
. A second common institution was the
University of Jena The University of Jena, officially the Friedrich Schiller University Jena (german: Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, abbreviated FSU, shortened form ''Uni Jena''), is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the prac ...
with the
Ernestine duchies The Ernestine duchies (), also known as the Saxon duchies (''Sächsische Herzogtümer'', although the Albertine appanage An appanage, or apanage (; french: apanage ), is the grant of an estate, title, office or other thing of value to a youn ...
as their sponsor states. From 1817 the Duchy of
Saxe-Coburg Saxe-Coburg (german: Sachsen-Coburg) was a duchy A duchy, also called a dukedom, is a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentatio ...
was no longer part of them. In November 1918 the centuries-long, territorial fragmentation of the Thuringian region came to an end. In the federal states, as in the whole of the
German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Bennington, Vermont Bennington is a New England town, town ...
, the
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...

republic
was declared and the reigning dukes and princes abdicated. The old Thuringian duchies and principalities became free states. The two free states of Reuss E.L. and Reuss Y.L. merged on 21 December 1918 to form the
Republic of Reuss The People's State of Reuss (german: Volksstaat Reuß) was a short-lived country in what is now Thuringia. The state was formed on 4 April 1919 after the reigning princes of the two Reuss (state), Reuss principalities abdicated and elections were ...
, the union between Saxe-Gotha and Saxe-Coburg was dissolved on 12 April 1919 and they formed their own free states. The governments of
Saxe-Altenburg Saxe-Altenburg (german: Sachsen-Altenburg, links=no) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine duchies, Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in present-day Thuringia. It was one of the smallest of the German states with an area of 13 ...
,
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (german: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha), or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (), was an Ernestine duchies, Ernestine, Thuringian states, Thuringian duchy ruled by a branch of the House of Wettin, consisting of territories in the present-day ...
,
Saxe-Gotha Saxe-Gotha (german: Sachsen-Gotha) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch The House of Wettin () is a dynasty of Germany, German counts, dukes, Prince Elector, prince-electors and monarch, kings that once ruled territories in ...
,
Saxe-Meiningen Saxe-Meiningen (; german: Sachsen-Meiningen ) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the ErnestineErnestine is a feminine given name. Ernest is the male counterpart of this name. Notable people with the name include: * Ernestine Anderson (1928–2 ...
,
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (german: Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was a historical German state, created as a duchy A duchy, also called a dukedom, is a , territory, , or domain ruled by a or , a high-ranking nobleman hierarchically second to the or ...
,
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small historic state in present-day Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State ...
,
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a small principality in Germany, in the present day state of Thuringia, with its capital at Sondershausen. History Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a Graf, county until 1697. In that year, it became a principality, whi ...
and the
Republic of Reuss The People's State of Reuss (german: Volksstaat Reuß) was a short-lived country in what is now Thuringia. The state was formed on 4 April 1919 after the reigning princes of the two Reuss (state), Reuss principalities abdicated and elections were ...
took part in negotiations about a merger of all Thuringian states, if possible including the Prussian elements. But because
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
was not prepared for any kind of land exchange, the founding of the state as a so-called "Little Thuringian Solution" was taken forward. In the course of the foundation discussions the state governments voiced misgivings from Saxe-Meiningen and Coburg as to whether being annexed by the new state would be advantageous for them, because the Franconian-influenced region south of the
Rennsteig The () is a ridge walk as well as an historical boundary path in the Thuringian Forest, Thuringian Highland and Franconian Forest in Central Germany (cultural area), Central Germany. The long-distance trail runs for about from and the valley ...

Rennsteig
path had always been more strongly linked to
Bavaria Bavaria (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...

Bavaria
, both linguistically and socially. For this reason on 30 November 1919 in Saxe-Coburg a
plebiscite A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number th ...
was held in which the majority of the people voted against being merged into the state of Thuringia. The misgivings of Saxe-Meiningen were resolved ''inter alia'' by a "guarantee of existence" (''Bestandsgarantie'') for the IHK
Sonneberg Sonneberg is a town in Thuringia, Germany, which is the seat of the Sonneberg (district), Sonneberg district. Sonneberg is a city in the Franconia, Franconian south of Thuringia. It is a medium-sized center and forms a geographically and economic ...
and for the counties. On 1 May 1920 the
Free State of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine ''State Magazine'' is a digital magazine published by the U.S. D ...
was founded with its capital at
Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located in Central Germany (cultural area), Central Germany between Erfurt in the west and Jena in the east, approximately southwest of Leipzig, nor ...

Weimar
. This excluded the Free State of Coburg which was united with the
Free State of Bavaria Free may refer to: Concept * Freedom Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint. Something is "free" if it can change easily and is not constrained in its present state. In philosophy and religion, it is ...
on 1 July 1920. The region of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Thuringia corresponds, even today, apart from a few small Prussian enclaves, to the boundaries of the State of Thuringia in 1920. Only the
exclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly ...

exclave
of
Ostheim Ostheim vor der Rhön is a town in Northern Bavaria Bavaria (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germa ...
, which used to belong to Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach went to the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Bavaria in 1972, in line with the political situation of the time.


See also

*
History of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth smallest of the sixteen German States (including City States). It ...

History of Thuringia


External links


The Thuringian states (with many individual maps)


{{coord missing, Thuringia