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The Maritimes, also called the Maritime provinces, is a
region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The ...
of
Eastern Canada Eastern Canada (also the Eastern provinces or the East) is generally considered to be the region of Canada east of Manitoba, consisting of the following provinces and territories of Canada, provinces: * Newfoundland and Labrador * New Brunswick ...

Eastern Canada
consisting of three
provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
:
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital city of the Canadian provinc ...

New Brunswick
,
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
, and
Prince Edward Island (''The small protected by the great'') , image_map = Prince Edward Island in Canada (special marker) 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English English usually ref ...

Prince Edward Island
(PEI). The Maritimes had a population of 1,813,606 in 2016, which makes up 5.6% of Canada's population. Together with Canada's easternmost province,
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador (; sometimes abbreviated as NL) is the easternmost province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) (french: link=no, Province du Canada) was a British North Am ...
, the Maritime provinces make up the region of
Atlantic Canada Atlantic Canada, also called the Atlantic provinces, a term developed for the convenience of the federal government after Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, ...

Atlantic Canada
. Located along the
Atlantic
Atlantic
coast, various aquatic sub-basins are located in the Maritimes, such as the
Gulf of Maine , image = , alt = , caption = , image_bathymetry = GulfofMaine2.jpg , alt_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = Major features of the Gulf of Maine , location = Northeast coast of the ...
and Gulf of St. Lawrence. The region is located northeast of the
United States's
United States's
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
, south and southeast of
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
's
Gaspé Peninsula The Gaspé Peninsula, also known as Gaspesia ( French: ''Gaspésie'') is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from ...
, and southwest of the island of
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
. The notion of a
Maritime Union Maritime Union (french: Union des Maritimes) is a proposed political union of the three Maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Mariti ...
has been proposed at various times in Canada's history; the first discussions in 1864 at the
Charlottetown Conference The Charlottetown Conference (Canada's Conference) was held in Charlottetown Charlottetown is the capital and largest city of the Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national divisions within the geographical ...
contributed to Canadian Confederation. This movement formed the larger Dominion of Canada. The Mi'kmaq,
Maliseet The Wəlastəkwewiyik, or Maliseet (, also spelled Malecite), are an Algonquian-speaking First Nation The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are the largest group of indigenous peoples in Canada, Canadian indigenous peoples, disti ...
and
Passamaquoddy The Passamaquoddy (''Peskotomuhkati'' or ''Pestomuhkati'' in the Passamaquoddy language) are an American Indian/First Nations The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are the largest group of indigenous peoples in Canada, Canadian in ...
people are indigenous to the Maritimes, while
Acadian The Acadians (french: Acadiens, ''Acadiennes'' ) are the descendants of the French colonial empire, French who Old Acadian Villages of Nova Scotia, settled in Acadia during the 17th and 18th centuries. Some are also descended from the Algonqui ...
and
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...

British
settlements date to the 17th century.


Name

The word
maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Maritime Southeast Asia * The Maritimes, the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince ...
is an adjective that means "of the sea", thus any land associated with the sea can be considered a maritime state or province. But the term "Maritimes" has historically been collectively applied to New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, all of which border the
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. In other provinces except
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador (; sometimes abbreviated as NL) is the easternmost province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) (french: link=no, Province du Canada) was a British North Am ...
in the
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and
British Columbia ( en, Splendour without diminishment) , image_map = British Columbia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = None , Slogan = Beautiful British C ...

British Columbia
in the
Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. ...

Pacific Ocean
, human settlement along the sea is sparse. The
Hudson Bay Hudson Bay ( iu, text=ᑲᖏᖅᓱᐊᓗᒃ ᐃᓗᐊ, translit=Kangiqsualuk ilua or iu, text=ᑕᓯᐅᔭᕐᔪᐊᖅ, translit=Tasiujarjuaq; french: baie d'Hudson), sometimes called Hudson's Bay (usually historically), is a large body of sal ...
area is northerly and has a severe climate, and the majority of the populations of
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
,
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
and
Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada at the Centre of Canada, longitudinal centre of the country. It is Canada's Population of Canada by province and territory, fifth-most populous province, with a population o ...

Manitoba
reside far inland.


History

The pre-history of the Canadian Maritimes begins after the northerly retreat of glaciers at the end of the
Wisconsin glaciation The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, also called the Wisconsin glaciation, was the most recent glacial period of the North American ice sheet complex. This advance included the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, which nucleated in the northern North American Cordil ...
over 10,000 years ago; human settlement by
First Nations The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are groups of Canadian indigenous peoples, who are classified as distinct from the Inuit Inuit (; iu, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, , dual: Inuuk, ) are a group of culturally s ...
began in the Maritimes with
Paleo-Indians Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleo-Americans, were the first peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a ...
during the ''Early Period'', ending around 6,000 years ago. The ''Middle Period'', starting 6,000 years ago, and ending 3,000 years ago, was dominated by
rising sea levels Tide gauge measurements show that the current global sea level rise began at the start of the 20th century. Between 1900 and 2017, the globally averaged sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloquia ...

rising sea levels
from the melting glaciers in polar regions. This is also when what is called the ''Laurentian tradition'' started among Archaic Indians, the term used for First Nations peoples of the time. Evidence of Archaic Indian burial mounds and other ceremonial sites existing in the Saint John River valley has been uncovered. The ''Late Period'' extended from 3,000 years ago until first contact with European settlers. This period was dominated by the organization of First Nations peoples into the
Algonquian Algonquin or Algonquian—and the variation Algonki(a)n—may refer to: Indigenous peoples *Algonquian languages, a large subfamily of Native American languages in a wide swath of eastern North America from Canada to Virginia **Algonquin languag ...
-speaking
Abenaki The Abenaki (Abnaki, Abinaki, ''Alnôbak'') are a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native America ...
Nation, which occupied territory largely in present-day interior Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, and the Mi'kmaq Nation, which inhabited all of Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, eastern New Brunswick and the southern Gaspé. The primarily agrarian
Maliseet The Wəlastəkwewiyik, or Maliseet (, also spelled Malecite), are an Algonquian-speaking First Nation The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are the largest group of indigenous peoples in Canada, Canadian indigenous peoples, disti ...
Nation settled throughout the Saint John River and
Allagash River The Allagash River is a tributary of the Saint John River (Bay of Fundy), Saint John River, approximately long,U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map, accessed June 22, 2011 in northern M ...
valleys of present-day New Brunswick and Maine. The
Passamaquoddy The Passamaquoddy (''Peskotomuhkati'' or ''Pestomuhkati'' in the Passamaquoddy language) are an American Indian/First Nations The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are the largest group of indigenous peoples in Canada, Canadian in ...
Nation inhabited the northwestern coastal regions of the present-day
Bay of Fundy The Bay of Fundy (french: Baie de Fundy) is a bay between the Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada () are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada under the jurisdiction of the Constitution of Cana ...

Bay of Fundy
. The Mi'kmaq Nation is also believed to have crossed the present-day
Cabot Strait 260px, The Cabot Strait lies north of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada. Cabot Strait (; french: détroit de Cabot, ) is a strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of ...

Cabot Strait
at around this time to settle on the south coast of
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
, but they were a minority compared to the
Beothuk The Beothuk ( or ; also spelled Beothuck) were a group of indigenous people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to rel ...
Nation.


European contact

After Newfoundland, the Maritimes were the second area in Canada to be settled by Europeans. There is evidence that
Viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Pro ...

Viking
explorers discovered and settled in the Vinland region around 1000 AD, which is when the
L'Anse aux Meadows L'Anse aux Meadows () is an archaeological site An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the peri ...

L'Anse aux Meadows
settlement in
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador (; sometimes abbreviated as NL) is the easternmost province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) (french: link=no, Province du Canada) was a British North Am ...
has been dated. They may have made further exploration into the present-day Maritimes and northeastern United States. Both
Giovanni Caboto John Cabot ( it, Giovanni Caboto ; 1450 – 1500) was an Italian navigator and explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncerta ...

Giovanni Caboto
(John Cabot) and
Giovanni da Verrazzano Giovanni da Verrazzano ( , , often misspelled Verrazano in English; 1485–1528) was an Italian (Florentine) explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery Discovery may refer to: * Discovery (observation) ...
are reported to have sailed in or near Maritime waters during their voyages of discovery for
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
and
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
, respectively. Several
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
explorers/cartographers have also documented various parts of the Maritimes, namely
Diogo Homem Diogo Homem (1521–1576) was a Portuguese cartographer, son of Lopo Homem Lopo Homem (16th century) was a Portuguese cartographer and cosmographer. Biography In 1517, King Manuel I of Portugal Manuel I (; 31 May 146913 December 1521), k ...
. However, it was French explorer
Jacques Cartier Jacques Cartier ( , also , , ; br, Jakez Karter; 31 December 14911 September 1557) was a French people, French-Breton people, Breton List of maritime explorers, maritime explorer for Kingdom of France, France. Jacques Cartier was the first ...

Jacques Cartier
who made the first detailed reconnaissance of the region for a European power and, in so doing, claimed the region for the King of France. Cartier was followed by nobleman
Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts Pierre Dugua de Mons (or Du Gua de Monts; c. 1558 – 1628) was a French merchant, explorer and colonizer. A Calvinist, he was born in the Château de Mons, in Royan, Saintonge (southwestern France France (), officially the French Rep ...
, who was accompanied by explorer/cartographer
Samuel de Champlain Samuel de Champlain (; c. 13 August 1567 Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date nor his place of birth. – 25 Decemb ...
in a 1604 expedition. During this they established the second permanent European settlement in what is now the United States and Canada, following
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
's settlement at St. Augustine in present-day Florida in the American South. Champlain's settlement at Saint Croix Island, later moved to Port-Royal, survived. By contrast, the ill-fated English settlement at
Roanoke Colony The establishment of the Roanoke Colony (; ') was an attempt by Sir Walter Raleigh Sir Walter Raleigh (; – 29 October 1618), also spelled Ralegh, was an English statesman, soldier, writer and explorer. One of the most notable figure ...
off the southern American coast did not. The French settlement pre-dated the more successful English settlement at Jamestown in present-day Virginia by three years. Champlain was considered the founder of
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
's province of Canada, which comprises much of the present-day lower
St. Lawrence River The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a roughly north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes File:Location of the Great Lakes in North America.jpg, upr ...
valley in the province of
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
.


Acadia

Champlain's success in the region, which came to be called ''
Acadie
Acadie
'', led to the fertile tidal marshes surrounding the southeastern and northeastern reaches of the
Bay of Fundy The Bay of Fundy (french: Baie de Fundy) is a bay between the Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada () are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada under the jurisdiction of the Constitution of Cana ...

Bay of Fundy
being populated by French immigrants who called themselves '' Acadien''. The Acadians eventually built small settlements throughout what is today mainland
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
and
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital city of the Canadian provinc ...

New Brunswick
, as well as Île-Saint-Jean (
Prince Edward Island (''The small protected by the great'') , image_map = Prince Edward Island in Canada (special marker) 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English English usually ref ...

Prince Edward Island
), Île-Royale (
Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (french: link=no, Île du Cap-Breton, formerly '; gd, Ceap Breatainn or '; mic, Unamaꞌki) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia ) , image_map = No ...

Cape Breton Island
), and other shorelines of the Gulf of
St. Lawrence Saint Lawrence or Laurence ( la, Laurentius, lit. "laurelled"; 31 December AD 225 – 10 August 258) was one of the seven deacons of the city of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder ...

St. Lawrence
in present-day
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
and
Labrador , nickname = "The Big Land" , etymology = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name = Canada , subdivision_type1 = Provinces and territories of ...

Labrador
, and
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
. Acadian settlements had primarily agrarian economies. Early examples of Acadian fishing settlements developed in southwestern Nova Scotia and in Île-Royale, as well as along the south and west coasts of
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
, the
Gaspé Peninsula The Gaspé Peninsula, also known as Gaspesia ( French: ''Gaspésie'') is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from ...
, and the present-day
Côte-Nord Côte-Nord (, French language, French for "North Coast" (land area ) is the second largest administrative region by land area in Quebec, Canada, after Nord-du-Québec. It covers much of the northern shore of the Saint Lawrence River estuary and th ...

Côte-Nord
region of Quebec. Most Acadian fishing activities were overshadowed by the much larger seasonal European fishing fleets that were based out of Newfoundland and took advantage of proximity to the
Grand Banks The Grand Banks of Newfoundland are a series of underwater plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Eart ...

Grand Banks
. The growing
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
colonies along the American seaboard to the south and various European wars between
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
and
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
during the 17th and 18th centuries brought Acadia to the centre of world-scale geopolitical forces. In 1613, Virginian raiders captured Port-Royal, and in 1621 France ceded Acadia to
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
's
Sir William Alexander William Alexander, 1st Earl of Stirling Earl of Stirling was a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created on 14 June 1633 for William Alexander, 1st Earl of Stirling, William Alexander, 1st Viscount of Stirling. He had already been cr ...
, who renamed it as ''Nova Scotia''. By 1632, Acadia was returned from Scotland to
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
under the '' Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.'' The Port Royale settlement was moved to the site of nearby present-day
Annapolis Royal Annapolis Royal, formerly known as Port Royal, is a town located in the western part of Annapolis County, Nova Scotia Annapolis County is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesCham ...
. More French immigrant settlers, primarily from the
Brittany Brittany (; french: link=no, Bretagne ; br, Breizh, or ; Gallo: ''Bertaèyn'' ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to ...
,
Normandie
Normandie
, and
Vienne Vienne () is a landlocked department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and admin ...

Vienne
regions of
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
, continued to populate the colony of Acadia during the latter part of the 17th and early part of the 18th centuries. Important settlements also began in the
Beaubassin Beaubassin was an important Acadian village and trading centre on the Isthmus of Chignecto in what is now Nova Scotia, Canada. The area was a significant place in the Geopolitics, geopolitical struggle between the British and French empires. I ...
region of the present-day
Isthmus of Chignecto The Isthmus of Chignecto is an isthmus bordering the Canadian Maritimes, Maritime provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia that connects the Nova Scotia peninsula with North America. The isthmus separates the waters of Chignecto Bay, a sub-bas ...
, and in the Saint John River valley, as well as smaller communities on Île-Saint-Jean and Île-Royale. In 1654,
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
raiders attacked Acadian settlements on the Annapolis Basin. Acadians lived with uncertainty throughout the English constitutional crises under
Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English general and statesman who, first as a subordinate and later as Commander-in-Chief, led armies An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" e ...

Oliver Cromwell
, and it was not until the Treaty of Breda in 1667 that France's claim to the region was reaffirmed. Colonial administration by France throughout the history of Acadia was of low priority. France's priorities were in settling and strengthening its claim on the larger territory of
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
and the exploration and settlement of interior
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
and the
Mississippi River The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and b ...

Mississippi River
valley.


Colonial wars

Over 74 years (1689–1763) there were six colonial wars, which involved continuous warfare between New England and
Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanni ...

Acadia
(see the
French and Indian Wars The French and Indian Wars were a series of conflicts that occurred in North America between 1688 and 1763, some of which indirectly were related to the European dynastic wars. The title ''French and Indian War'' in the singular is used in the U ...
reflecting English and French tensions in Europe, as well as
Father Rale's War The Dummer's War (1722–1725, also known as Father Rale's War, Lovewell's War, Greylock's War, the Three Years War, the 4th Anglo-Abenaki War, or the Wabanaki-New England War of 1722–1725) was a series of battles between New England and the Waba ...
and
Father Le Loutre's War Father Le Loutre's War (1749–1755), also known as the Indian War, the Micmac War and the Anglo-Micmac War, took place between King George's War and the French and Indian War in Acadia and Nova Scotia. On one side of the conflict, the Kingdom ...
). Throughout these wars, New England was allied with the
Iroquois Confederacy The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous pe ...
based around the southern Great Lakes and west of the Hudson River. Acadian settlers were allied with the
Wabanaki Confederacy The Wabanaki Confederacy (''Wabenaki, Wobanaki'', translated to "People of the Dawn" or "Easterner") is a North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It can ...
. In the first war,
King William's War King William's War (1688–1697, also known as the Second Indian War, Father Baudoin's War, Jean-Vincent d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin, Castin's War, or the First Intercolonial War in French language, French) was the North American theater of the Nin ...
(the North American theatre of the
Nine Years' War The Nine Years' War (1688–1697), often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg, was a conflict between France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a ...
), natives from the Maritime region participated in numerous attacks with the French on the Acadia/ New England border in southern Maine (e.g., Raid on Salmon Falls). New England retaliatory raids on Acadia, such as the
Raid on Chignecto (1696) The Raid on Chignecto occurred during King William's War when New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. It is bor ...
, were conducted by Benjamin Church. In the second war,
Queen Anne's War Queen Anne's War (1702–1713) was the second in a series of French and Indian Wars fought in North America involving the colonial empires of Great Britain, France, and Spain; it took place during the reign of Anne, Queen of Great Britain Ann ...
(the North American theatre of the
War of the Spanish Succession The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was an early-18th-century European war, triggered by the death in November 1700 of the childless Charles II of Spain. It established the principle that dynastic rights were secondary to maintaini ...
), the British conducted the Conquest of Acadia, while the region remained primarily in control of Maliseet militia, Acadia militia and Mi'kmaw militia. In 1719, to further protect strategic interests in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and
St. Lawrence River The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a roughly north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes File:Location of the Great Lakes in North America.jpg, upr ...
, France began the 20-year construction of a large
fortress A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, gov ...

fortress
at
Louisbourg Louisbourg is an unincorporated community and former town in Cape Breton Regional Municipality Cape Breton Regional Municipality (often referred to as simply "CBRM") is the Canada, Canadian province of Nova Scotia's second largest municipality ...
on Île-Royale. Massachusetts was increasingly concerned over reports of the capabilities of this fortress, and of
privateer A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war. Since robbery under arms was a common aspect of seaborne trade, until the early 19th century all merchant ships carried arms. A sovereign or deleg ...
s staging out of its harbour to raid New England fishermen on the Grand Banks. In the fourth war,
King George's War King George's War (1744–1748) is the name given to the military operations in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as ...
(the North American theatre of the
War of the Austrian Succession The War of the Austrian Succession () was the last Great Power conflict with the House of Bourbon, Bourbon-Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg dynastic conflict at its heart. It occurred from 1740 to 1748 and marked the rise of Kingdom of Prussia, Prus ...
), the British engaged successfully in the
Siege of Louisbourg (1745) The siege of Louisbourg took place in 1745 when a New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, an ...
. The British returned control of Île-Royale to France with the fortress virtually intact three years later under the
Treaty of Aix-la-ChapelleThere were three Treaties of Aix-la-Chapelle. Although "Aix-la-Chapelle", the French name of the German city of Aachen, is an exonym now rarely used in English, the name Treaty of Aachen is rarely used. *Pax Nicephori, also sometimes called Treaty of ...
and the French reestablished their forces there. In 1749, to counter the rising threat of Louisbourg,
Halifax Halifax commonly refers to: *Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada *Halifax, West Yorkshire, England *Halifax (bank), a British bank Halifax may also refer to: Places Australia *Halifax, Queensland *Halifax Bay, North Queensland Canada Nova Scotia *Hali ...
was founded and the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
established a major naval base and
citadel A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city. It may be a castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brooke ...
. The founding of Halifax sparked
Father Le Loutre's War Father Le Loutre's War (1749–1755), also known as the Indian War, the Micmac War and the Anglo-Micmac War, took place between King George's War and the French and Indian War in Acadia and Nova Scotia. On one side of the conflict, the Kingdom ...
. During the sixth and final colonial war, the
French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a theater of the Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Great Britain ...

French and Indian War
(the North American theatre of the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
), the military conflicts in Nova Scotia continued. The British Conquest of Acadia happened in 1710. Over the next forty-five years, the Acadians refused to sign an unconditional oath of allegiance to Britain. During this time period Acadians participated in various militia operations against the British and maintained vital supply lines to the French Fortress of Louisbourg and Fort Beausejour. The British sought to neutralize any military threat Acadians posed and to interrupt the vital supply lines Acadians provided to Louisbourg by deporting Acadians from Acadia. The British began the
Expulsion of the Acadians The Expulsion of the Acadians, also known as the Great Upheaval, the Great Expulsion, the Great Deportation, and the Deportation of the Acadians ( French: or ), was the forced removal by the British of the Acadian people The Acadians ( ...
with the
Bay of Fundy Campaign (1755) The Bay of Fundy campaign occurred during the French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754–1763) pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France, each side supported by military units from the parent country and b ...
. Over the next nine years over 12,000 Acadians of 15,000 were removed from Nova Scotia. In 1758, the fortress of Louisbourg was laid siege for a second time within 15 years, this time by more than 27,000 British soldiers and sailors with over 150 warships. After the French surrender, Louisbourg was thoroughly destroyed by British engineers to ensure it would never be reclaimed. With the fall of Louisbourg, French and Mi'kmaw resistance in the region crumbled. British forces seized remaining French control over Acadia in the coming months, with Île-Saint-Jean falling in 1759 to British forces on their way to Quebec City for the Siege of Quebec and ensuing Battle of the Plains of Abraham. The war ended and Britain had gained control over the entire Maritime region and the Indigenous people signed the
Halifax Treaties The Halifax Treaties were 11 written documents signed by the various bands of the Miꞌkmaq and the British in Halifax, Nova Scotia between 1760 and 1761. The Treaties ended the conflict that had persisted between the two peoples for 85 years. T ...
.


American Revolution

Following the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
, empty Acadian lands were settled first by 8,000
New England Planters New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Boyz or The Boyz may refer to: Music Bands *The Boyz (German band), a German boy band of th ...
and then by immigrants brought from
Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the most northern area of England England ...
. Île-Royale was renamed Cape Breton Island and incorporated into the Colony of Nova Scotia. Some of the Acadians who had been deported came back but went to the eastern coasts of New Brunswick. Both the colonies of Nova Scotia (present-day Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) and St. John's Island (Prince Edward Island) were affected by the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from Thirteen Colonies, thirteen American colonies of British America in Continental Congress ...
, largely by privateering against American shipping, but several coastal communities were also the targets of American raiders. Charlottetown, the capital of the new colony of St. John's Island, was ransacked in 1775 with the provincial secretary kidnapped and the Great Seal stolen. The largest military action in the Maritimes during the revolutionary war was the attack on Fort Cumberland (the renamed
Fort Beausejour A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also used to establish rule in a region during peacetime. The term is derived from Latin ''fortis'' ("strong") and ''facere'' ( ...

Fort Beausejour
) in 1776 by a force of American sympathizers led by
Jonathan Eddy Jonathan Eddy (Circa, c. 1726–1804) was a British-American soldier, who fought for the British in the French and Indian War and for the Americans in the American Revolution. After the French and Indian War, he settled in Nova Scotia as a New Engl ...
. The fort was partially overrun after a month-long siege, but the attackers were ultimately repelled after the arrival of British reinforcements from Halifax. The most significant impact from this war was the settling of large numbers of
Loyalist Loyalism, in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdo ...
refugees in the region (34,000 to the 17,000 settlers already there), especially in Shelburne and Parrtown (Saint John). Following the Treaty of Paris in 1783, Loyalist settlers in what would become New Brunswick persuaded British administrators to split the Colony of Nova Scotia to create the new colony of New Brunswick in 1784. At the same time, another part of the Colony of Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, was split off to become the Colony of Cape Breton Island. The Colony of St. John's Island was renamed to
Prince Edward Island (''The small protected by the great'') , image_map = Prince Edward Island in Canada (special marker) 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English English usually ref ...

Prince Edward Island
on November 29, 1798. The
War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It ...
had some effect on the shipping industry in the Maritime colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Cape Breton Island; however, the significant
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
presence in Halifax and other ports in the region prevented any serious attempts by American raiders. Maritime and American
privateer A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war. Since robbery under arms was a common aspect of seaborne trade, until the early 19th century all merchant ships carried arms. A sovereign or deleg ...
s targeted unprotected shipping of both the United States and Britain respectively, further reducing trade. New Brunswick's section of the Canada–US border did not have any significant action during this conflict, although British forces did occupy a portion of coastal
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...
at one point. The most significant incident from this war which occurred in the Maritimes was the British capture and detention of the American
frigate A frigate () is a type of warship A warship or combatant ship is a that is built and primarily intended for . Usually they belong to the of a state. As well as being armed, warships are designed to withstand damage and are usually faste ...

frigate
USS ''Chesapeake'' in Halifax.


19th century

In 1820, the Colony of
Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (french: link=no, Île du Cap-Breton, formerly '; gd, Ceap Breatainn or '; mic, Unamaꞌki) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia ) , image_map = No ...

Cape Breton Island
was merged back into the Colony of Nova Scotia for the second time by the British government. British settlement of the Maritimes, as the colonies of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island came to be known, accelerated throughout the late 18th century and into the 19th century with significant immigration to the region as a result of
Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Scotland *Scottish English *Scottish national identity, the Scottish iden ...

Scottish
migrants displaced by the
Highland Clearances The Highland Clearances ( gd, Fuadaichean nan Gàidheal , the "eviction of the Gaels The Gaels ( ; ga, Na Gaeil ; gd, Na Gàidheil ; gv, Ny Gaeil ) are an ethnolinguistic group An ethnolinguistic group (or ethno-linguistic group) is ...
and
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
escaping the Great Irish Famine (1845–1849). As a result, significant portions of the three provinces are influenced by
Celt The Celts (, see Names of the Celts#Pronunciation, pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic a collection of Indo-European languages, ...

Celt
ic heritages, with
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups o ...
(and to a lesser degree,
Irish Gaelic Irish ( in Standard Irish Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a d ...
) having been widely spoken, particularly in Cape Breton, although it is less prevalent today. During the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon nove ...
, a significant number of Maritimers volunteered to fight for the armies of the Union, while a small handful joined the Confederate Army. However, the majority of the conflict's impact was felt in the shipping industry. Maritime shipping boomed during the war due to large-scale Northern imports of war supplies which were often carried by Maritime ships as Union ships were vulnerable to Confederate naval raiders. Diplomatic tensions between
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
and the Unionist North had deteriorated after some interests in Britain expressed support for the secessionist
Confederate South
Confederate South
. The Union navy, although much smaller than the British
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
and no threat to the Maritimes, did posture off Maritime coasts at times chasing Confederate naval ships which sought repairs and reprovisioning in Maritime ports, especially Halifax. The immense size of the Union army (the largest on the planet toward the end of the Civil War), however, was viewed with increasing concern by Maritimers throughout the early 1860s. Another concern was the rising threat of
Fenian The word ''Fenian'' () served as an umbrella term for the Irish Republican Brotherhood The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB; ) was a secret oath-bound fraternal organisation dedicated to the establishment of an "independent democratic ...
raids on border communities in
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital city of the Canadian provinc ...

New Brunswick
by those seeking to end British rule of
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
. This combination of events, coupled with an ongoing decline in British military and economic support to the region as the Home Office favoured newer colonial endeavours in Africa and elsewhere, led to a call among Maritime politicians for a conference on
Maritime Union Maritime Union (french: Union des Maritimes) is a proposed political union of the three Maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Mariti ...
, to be held in early September 1864 in Charlottetown – chosen in part because of Prince Edward Island's reluctance to give up its jurisdictional sovereignty in favour of uniting with New Brunswick and Nova Scotia into a single colony. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia felt that if the union conference were held in Charlottetown, they might be able to convince Island politicians to support the proposal. The
Charlottetown Conference The Charlottetown Conference (Canada's Conference) was held in Charlottetown Charlottetown is the capital and largest city of the Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national divisions within the geographical ...
, as it came to be called, was also attended by a slew of visiting delegates from the neighbouring colony of
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...
, who had largely arrived at their own invitation with their own agenda. This agenda saw the conference dominated by discussions of creating an even larger union of the entire territory of
British North America British North America comprised the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or admini ...
into a united colony. The Charlottetown Conference ended with an agreement to meet the following month in
Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec), officially Québec (), is the capital city of the Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada () are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada under the juri ...

Quebec City
, where more formal discussions ensued, culminating with meetings in London and the signing of the ''
British North America Act The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Act of Parliament, Acts of Parliament at the core of the constitution of Canada. They were enacted by the Parliament of the United Kingdom and the Parliament of Canada. In Canada, some of ...
, 1867''. Of the Maritime provinces, only Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were initially party to the BNA Act: Prince Edward Island's reluctance, combined with a booming agricultural and fishing export economy having led to that colony opting not to sign on.


Major population centres

The major communities of the region include
Halifax Halifax commonly refers to: *Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada *Halifax, West Yorkshire, England *Halifax (bank), a British bank Halifax may also refer to: Places Australia *Halifax, Queensland *Halifax Bay, North Queensland Canada Nova Scotia *Hali ...
and
Cape Breton Cape Breton Island (french: link=no, Île du Cap-Breton, formerly '; gd, Ceap Breatainn or '; mic, Unamaꞌki) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The island accounts for 1 ...
in Nova Scotia,
Saint John Saint John or St. John sometimes refers to John the Apostle John the Apostle ( arc, ܝܘܚܢܢ ܫܠܝܚܐ, ; he, יוחנן בן זבדי, ; grc, Ἰωάννης; cop, ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ; la, Ioannes; ) was one of the Twelve Apostles ...
,
Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital city of the Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its P ...
and
Moncton Moncton (; ) is the largest urban centre in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of New Brunswick. Situated in the Petitcodiac River Valley, Moncton lies at the geographic centre of the The Maritimes, Maritime Provinces. T ...

Moncton
in New Brunswick, and
Charlottetown Charlottetown is the capital and largest city of the Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North Americ ...

Charlottetown
in Prince Edward Island.


Climate

In spite of its name, The Maritimes has a
humid continental climate A humid continental climate is a climatic Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and variability of meteorological variables over a time spanning from months t ...
of the warm-summer subtype. Especially in coastal Nova Scotia, differences between summers and winters are narrow compared to the rest of Canada. The inland climate of New Brunswick is in stark contrast during winter, resembling more continental areas. Summers are somewhat tempered by the marine influence throughout the provinces, but due to the southerly parallels still remain similar to more continental areas further west. Yarmouth in Nova Scotia has significant marine influence to have a borderline
oceanic Oceanic may refer to: *Of or relating to the ocean *Of or relating to Oceania **Oceanic climate **Oceanic languages **Oceanic person or people, also called "Pacific Islander(s)" Places *Oceanic, British Columbia, a settlement on Smith Island, Br ...
microclimate A microclimate (or micro-climate) is a local set of atmosphere of Earth, atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one. The term may refer to areas as s ...
, but winter nights are still cold even in all coastal areas. The northernmost areas of New Brunswick are only just above
subarctic The subarctic zone is a region in the Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's sur ...
with very cold continental winters.


Demographics

The Maritimes were predominantly rural until recent decades, having resource-based economies of
fishing Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. Around 99% of living fish species are ...

fishing
,
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

agriculture
,
forestry Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, planting, using, conserving and repairing forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, ste ...
, and
coal mining Coal mining is the process of extracting coal Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as stratum, rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other Chemical element, ele ...

coal mining
. Maritimers are predominantly of west European origin:
Scottish Canadians Scottish Canadians are people of Scottish descent or heritage Heritage may refer to: History and society * In history History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Event ...
,
Irish Canadians Irish Canadians ( ga, Gaedheal-Cheanadaigh) are Canadians, Canadian citizens who have full or partial Irish people, Irish heritage including descendants who trace their ancestry to immigrants who originated in Ireland. 1.2 million Irish immigrants ...
,
English Canadians English Canadians (french: Canadiens anglais or ), or Anglo-Canadians (french: Anglo-Canadiens), refers to either Canadians Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residentia ...
, and
Acadians The Acadians (french: Acadiens, ''Acadiennes'' ) are the descendants of the French who settled in Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France in northeastern North America North America is a continent ...
. New Brunswick, in general, differs from the other two Maritime Provinces in that it has a much higher francophone population. There was once a significant
Canadian Gaelic Canadian Gaelic or Cape Breton Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig Chanada, A' Ghàidhlig Chanadach or Gàidhlig Cheap Bhreatainn), known in Canadian English as often simply Gaelic, is a collective term for the dialects of Scottish Gaelic spoken in Atlantic ...
speaking population.
Helen Creighton Mary Helen Creighton, CM (September 5, 1899 - December 12, 1989) was a prominent Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For m ...
recorded Celtic traditions of rural Nova Scotia in the mid-1900s. There are
Black Canadians Black Canadians is a designation used for people of full or partial sub-Saharan African African(s) may refer to: * Anything from or pertaining to the continent of Africa: ** People who are native to Africa, descendants of natives of Africa, o ...
who are mostly descendants of
Black Loyalists Black Loyalists were people of African descent who sided with the Loyalists during the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was ...
or black refugees from the War of 1812. This Maritime population is mainly among
Black Nova Scotians Black Nova Scotians or African Nova Scotians are Black Canadians whose ancestors primarily date back to the Colonial history of the United States, Colonial United States as Slavery in the United States, enslaved people or Freeman (Colonial), free ...
. There are Mi'kmaq reserves in all three provinces, and a smaller population of the
Maliseet The Wəlastəkwewiyik, or Maliseet (, also spelled Malecite), are an Algonquian-speaking First Nation The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are the largest group of indigenous peoples in Canada, Canadian indigenous peoples, disti ...
in western New Brunswick.


Economy


Present status

Given the small population of the region (compared with the Central Canadian provinces or the New England states), the regional economy is a net exporter of natural resources, manufactured goods, and services. The regional economy has long been tied to natural resources such as fishing, logging, farming, and mining activities. Significant industrialization in the second half of the 19th century brought steel to
Trenton, Nova Scotia Trenton is a town located in Pictou County, Nova Scotia, Pictou County, Nova Scotia, Canada. Founded in 1786, it is situated on the east bank of the East River of Pictou. The community gained its name in 1882 at the suggestion of a prominent citiz ...
, and subsequent creation of a widespread industrial base to take advantage of the region's large underground coal deposits. After Confederation, however, this industrial base withered with technological change, and trading links to Europe and the U.S. were reduced in favour of those with Ontario and Quebec. In recent years, however, the Maritime regional economy has begun increased contributions from manufacturing again and the steady transition to a service economy. Important manufacturing centres in the region include
Pictou County Pictou County is a county in the Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Nova Scotia, Canada. It was established in 1835, and was formerly a part of Halifax County, Nova Scotia, Halifax County from 1759 to 1835. It had a population of 43,7 ...
,
Truro Truro (; kw, Truru) is a City status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city and civil parishes in England, civil parish in Cornwall, England. It is Cornwall's county town, sole city and centre for administration, leisure and retail trading. Its ...
, the
Annapolis Valley The Annapolis Valley is a valley and region in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English ...
and the South Shore, and the
Strait of Canso The Strait of CansoGeographical Names Board of Canada - Strait ...
area in Nova Scotia, as well as Summerside in Prince Edward Island, and the
Miramichi The name "Miramichi" was first applied to a region in the northeast of New Brunswick, Canada, and has since been applied to other places in Canada and the United States. Although other interpretations have been suggested, it is believed that "Mirami ...
area, the
North ShoreNorth Shore may refer to: Geographic features Australia *North Shore (Sydney), suburban region of Sydney **Electoral district of North Shore **North Shore railway line, Sydney *Noosa North Shore, Queensland *North Shore, a suburb of Port Macquar ...
and the upper Saint John River valley of New Brunswick. Some predominantly coastal areas have become major tourist centres, such as parts of Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island, the South Shore of Nova Scotia and the Gulf of St. Lawrence and
Bay of Fundy The Bay of Fundy (french: Baie de Fundy) is a bay between the Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada () are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada under the jurisdiction of the Constitution of Cana ...

Bay of Fundy
coasts of New Brunswick. Additional service-related industries in information technology,
pharmaceuticals A medication (also called medicament, medicine, pharmaceutical drug, medicinal drug or simply drug) is a drug used to medical diagnosis, diagnose, cure, therapy, treat, or preventive medicine, prevent disease. Drug therapy (pharmacotherapy) ...
,
insurance Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss. It is a form of risk management Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risk In simple terms, risk is the possibility of something bad happening. ...

insurance
and
financial Finance is a term for the management, creation, and study of money and investments. Pamela Drake and Frank Fabozzi (2009)What Is Finance?/ref> Specifically, it deals with the questions of how an individual, company or government acquires money ...

financial
sectors—as well as
research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ...

research
-related spin-offs from the region's numerous universities and colleges—are significant economic contributors. Another important contribution to Nova Scotia's provincial economy is through spin-offs and royalties relating to off-shore
petroleum Petroleum, also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isoc ...

petroleum
exploration and development. Mostly concentrated on the continental shelf of the province's Atlantic coast in the vicinity of
Sable Island Sable Island (french: île de Sable, literally "island of sand") is a small Canadian island situated southeast of Halifax, Nova Scotia, and about southeast of the closest point of mainland Nova Scotia in the North Atlantic Ocean. The island is ...
, exploration activities began in the 1960s and resulted in the first commercial production field for oil beginning in the 1980s.
Natural gas Natural gas (also called fossil gas; sometimes just gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting of methane and commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxid ...

Natural gas
was also discovered in the 1980s during exploration work, and this is being commercially recovered, beginning in the late 1990s. Initial optimism in Nova Scotia about the potential of off-shore resources appears to have diminished with the lack of new discoveries, although exploration work continues and is moving farther off-shore into waters on the
continental margin The continental margin is one of the three major zones of the ocean floor, the other two being deep-ocean basins and mid-ocean ridge A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is a seafloor mountain system formed by plate tectonics File:Earth cutaway schemat ...
. Regional transportation networks have also changed significantly in recent decades with port modernizations, with new
freeway A controlled-access highway is a type of highway A highway is any public or private road A road is a wide way leading from one place to another, typically one with a specially prepared surface which vehicles and bikes can use. ...

freeway
and ongoing arterial highway construction, the abandonment of various low-capacity
railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles include wagons, bicycles, motor veh ...

railway
branchline Image:Railway kilometre peg.jpg, The "0-kilometre peg" marks the start of a branch line in Western Australia. A branch line is a secondary Rail transport, railway line which branches off a more important through route, usually a Main line (railway ...
s (including the entire railway system of Prince Edward Island and southwestern Nova Scotia), and the construction of the
Canso Causeway Image:CapeBretonEntrance.jpg, 200px, The Canso Canal Bridge crosses the Canso Canal at the eastern end of the causeway. The navigable canal is considered the official dividing line between Cape Breton Island and Nova Scotia peninsula">mainland N ...
and the
Confederation Bridge The Confederation Bridge (french: Pont de la Confédération) is a box girder bridge carrying the Trans-Canada Highway across the Abegweit Passage of the Northumberland Strait, linking the province of Prince Edward Island with the province of New ...

Confederation Bridge
. There have been airport improvements at various centres providing improved connections to markets and destinations in the rest of North America and overseas. Improvements in infrastructure and the regional economy notwithstanding, the three provinces remain one of the poorer regions of Canada. While urban areas are growing and thriving, economic adjustments have been harsh in rural and resource-dependent communities, and emigration has been an ongoing phenomenon for some parts of the region. Another problem is seen in the lower average wages and family incomes within the region. Property values are depressed, resulting in a smaller tax base for these three provinces, particularly when compared with the national average which benefits from central and western Canadian economic growth. This has been particularly problematic with the growth of the
welfare state The welfare state is a form of government in which the state (or a well-established network of social institutions) protects and promotes the economic and social well-being of its citizens, based upon the principles of equal opportunity Equal o ...
in Canada since the 1950s, resulting in the need to draw upon
equalization paymentsEqualization payments are cash payments made in some federal systems of government from the federal government to subnational governments with the objective of offsetting differences in available revenue or in the cost of providing services. Many fed ...
to provide nationally mandated social services. Since the 1990s the region has experienced an exceptionally tumultuous period in its regional economy with the collapse of large portions of the ground fishery throughout Atlantic Canada, the closing of coal mines and a steel mill on
Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (french: link=no, Île du Cap-Breton, formerly '; gd, Ceap Breatainn or '; mic, Unamaꞌki) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia ) , image_map = No ...

Cape Breton Island
, and the closure of military bases in all three provinces. That being said, New Brunswick has one of the largest military bases in the British Commonwealth (CFB Gagetown), which plays a significant role in the cultural and economic spheres of Fredericton, the province's capital city.


Historical


Growth

While the economic underperformance of the Maritime economy has been long lasting, it has not always been present. The mid-19th century, especially the 1850s and 1860s, has long been seen as a "Golden Age" in the Maritimes. Growth was strong, and the region had one of
British North America British North America comprised the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or admini ...
's most extensive manufacturing sectors as well as a large international shipping industry. The question of why the Maritimes fell from being a centre of Canadian manufacturing to being an economic hinterland is thus a central one to the study of the region's pecuniary difficulties. The period in which the decline occurred had a great many potential culprits. In 1867 Nova Scotia and New Brunswick merged with the Canadas in
Confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty, confederations of states tend to be established for dealing with critical issu ...
, with Prince Edward Island joining them six years later in 1873. Canada was formed only a year after
free trade Free trade is a trade policy A commercial policy (also referred to as a trade policy or international trade policy) is a government's policy governing international trade International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and servic ...
with the United States (in the form of the Reciprocity Agreement) had ended. In the 1870s John A. Macdonald's National Policy was implemented, creating a system of protective tariffs around the new nation. Throughout the period there was also significant technological change both in the production and transportation of goods.


Reputed Golden Age

Several scholars have explored the so-called "golden age" of the Maritimes in the years just before Confederation. In History of Nova Scotia, Nova Scotia, the population grew steadily from 277,000 in 1851 to 388,000 in 1871, mostly from natural increase since immigration was slight. The era has been called a golden age, but that was a myth created in the 1930s to lure tourists to a romantic era of tall ships and antiques. Recent historians using census data have shown that is a fallacy. In 1851–1871 there was an overall increase in per capita wealth holding. However most of the gains went to the urban elite class, especially businessmen and financiers living in Halifax. The wealth held by the top 10% rose considerably over the two decades, but there was little improvement in the wealth levels in rural areas, which comprised the great majority of the population. Likewise Gwyn reports that gentlemen, merchants, bankers, colliery owners, shipowners, shipbuilders, and master mariners flourished. However the great majority of families were headed by farmers, fishermen, craftsmen and laborers. Most of them—and many widows as well—lived in poverty. Out migration became an increasingly necessary option.Rural poverty is the theme of Rusty Bittermann, Robert A. Mackinnon, and Graeme Wynn, "Of inequality and interdependence in the Nova Scotian countryside, 1850–70," ''Canadian Historical Review,'' March 1993, Vol. 74 Issue 1, pp 1–43 Thus the era was indeed a golden age but only for a small but powerful and highly visible elite.


Economic decline

The cause of economic malaise in the Maritimes is an issue of great debate and controversy among historians, economists, and geographers. The differing opinions can approximately be divided into the "structuralists," who argue that poor policy decisions are to blame, and the others, who argue that unavoidable technological and geographical factors caused the decline. The exact date that the Maritimes began to fall behind the rest of Canada is difficult to determine. Historian Kris Inwood places the date very early, at least in Nova Scotia, finding clear signs that the Maritimes "Golden Age" of the mid-19th century was over by 1870, before Confederation or the National Policy could have had any significant impact. Richard Caves places the date closer to 1885. T.W. Acheson takes a similar view and provides considerable evidence that the early 1880s were in fact a booming period in Nova Scotia and this growth was only undermined towards the end of that decade. David Alexander argues that any earlier declines were simply part of the global Long Depression, and that the Maritimes first fell behind the rest of Canada when the great boom period of the early 20th century had little effect on the region. E.R. Forbes, however, emphasizes that the precipitous decline did not occur until after the World War I, First World War during the 1920s when new railway policies were implemented. Forbes also contends that significant Canadian defence spending during the World War II, Second World War favoured powerful political interests in Central Canada such as C.D. Howe, when major Maritime shipyards and factories, as well as Canada's largest steel mill, located in Cape Breton Island, fared poorly. One of the most important changes, and one that almost certainly had an effect, was the revolution in transportation that occurred at this time. The Maritimes were connected to central Canada by the Intercolonial Railway in the 1870s, removing a longstanding barrier to trade. For the first time this placed the Maritime manufacturers in direct competition with those of Central Canada. Maritime trading patterns shifted considerably from mainly trading with
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
,
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
, and the Caribbean, to being focused on commerce with the Canadian interior, enforced by the federal government's tariff policies. Coincident with the construction of railways in the region, the age of the wooden sailing ship began to come to an end, being replaced by larger and faster steel steam ships. The Maritimes had long been a centre for shipbuilding, and this industry was hurt by the change. The larger ships were also less likely to call on the smaller population centres such as Saint John and Halifax, preferring to travel to cities like New York City, New York and Montreal. Even the Cunard Line, founded by Maritime-born Samuel Cunard, stopped making more than a single ceremonial voyage to Halifax each year. More controversial than the role of technology is the argument over the role of politics in the origins of the region's decline. Confederation and the tariff and railway freight policies that followed have often been blamed for having a deleterious effect on the Maritime economies. Arguments have been made that the Maritimes' poverty was caused by control over policy by Central Canada which used the national structures for its own enrichment. This was the central view of the Maritime Rights Movement of the 1920s, which advocated greater local control over the region's finances. T.W. Acheson is one of the main proponents of this theory. He notes the growth that was occurring during the early years of the National Policy in Nova Scotia demonstrates how the effects of railway fares and the tariff structure helped undermine this growth. Capitalists from Central Canada purchased the factories and industries of the Maritimes from their bankrupt local owners and proceeded to close down many of them, consolidating the industry in Central Canada. The policies in the early years of Confederation were designed by Central Canadian interests, and they reflected the needs of that region. The unified Canadian market and the introduction of railroads created a relative weakness in the Maritime economies. Central to this concept, according to Acheson, was the lack of metropolises in the Maritimes. Montreal and Toronto were well-suited to benefit from the development of large-scale manufacturing and extensive railway systems in
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
and
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
, these being the goals of the Macdonald and Laurier governments. In the Maritimes the situation was very different. Today New Brunswick has several mid-sized centres in Saint John, Moncton, and Fredericton but no significant population centre. Nova Scotia has a growing metropolitan area surrounding
Halifax Halifax commonly refers to: *Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada *Halifax, West Yorkshire, England *Halifax (bank), a British bank Halifax may also refer to: Places Australia *Halifax, Queensland *Halifax Bay, North Queensland Canada Nova Scotia *Hali ...
, but a contracting population in industrial Cape Breton County, Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, and several smaller centres in Bridgewater, Nova Scotia, Bridgewater, Kentville, Nova Scotia, Kentville, Yarmouth, and
Pictou County Pictou County is a county in the Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Nova Scotia, Canada. It was established in 1835, and was formerly a part of Halifax County, Nova Scotia, Halifax County from 1759 to 1835. It had a population of 43,7 ...
. Prince Edward Island's only significant population centres are in Charlottetown and Summerside. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, just the opposite was the case with little to no population concentration in major industrial centres as the predominantly rural resource-dependent Maritime economy continued on the same path as it had since European settlement on the region's shores. Despite the region's absence of economic growth on the same scale as other parts of the nation, the Maritimes has changed markedly throughout the 20th century, partly as a result of global and national economic trends, and partly as a result of government intervention. Each sub-region within the Maritimes has developed over time to exploit different resources and expertise. Saint John became a centre of the timber trade and shipbuilding and is currently a centre for oil refining and some manufacturing. The northern New Brunswick communities of Edmundston, Campbellton, New Brunswick, Campbellton, Dalhousie, New Brunswick, Dalhousie, Bathurst, New Brunswick, Bathurst, and
Miramichi The name "Miramichi" was first applied to a region in the northeast of New Brunswick, Canada, and has since been applied to other places in Canada and the United States. Although other interpretations have been suggested, it is believed that "Mirami ...
are focused on the pulp and paper industry and some mining activity. Moncton was a centre for railways and has changed its focus to becoming a multi-modal transportation centre with associated manufacturing and retail interests. The Halifax metropolitan area has come to dominate peninsular Nova Scotia as a retail and service centre, but that province's industries were spread out from the coal and steel industries of industrial Cape Breton County, Nova Scotia, Cape Breton and Pictou County, Nova Scotia, Pictou counties, the mixed farming of the North Shore and Annapolis Valley, and the fishing industry was primarily focused on the South Shore and Eastern Shore (Nova Scotia), Eastern Shore. Prince Edward Island is largely dominated by farming, fishing, and tourism. Given the geographic diversity of the various sub-regions within the Maritimes, policies to centralize the population and economy were not initially successful, thus Maritime factories closed while those in Ontario and Quebec prospered. The traditional staples thesis, advocated by scholars such as S.A. Saunders, looks at the resource endowments of the Maritimes and argues that it was the decline of the traditional industries of shipbuilding and fishing that led to Maritime poverty, since these processes were rooted in geography, and thus all but inevitable. Kris Inwood has revived the staples approach and looks at a number of geographic weaknesses relative to Central Canada. He repeats Acheson's argument that the region lacks major urban centres, but adds that the Maritimes were also lacking the great rivers that led to the cheap and abundant hydro-electric power, key to Quebec and Ontario's urban and manufacturing development, that the extraction costs of Maritime resources were higher (particularly in the case of Cape Breton coal), and that the soils of the region were poorer and thus the agricultural sector weaker. The Maritimes are the only provinces in Canada which entered Confederation in the 19th century and have kept their original colonial boundaries. All three provinces have the smallest land base in the country and have been forced to make do with resources within. By comparison, the former colony of the United Province of Canada (divided into the District of Canada East, and the District of Canada West) and the western provinces were dozens of times larger and in some cases were expanded to take in territory formerly held in British Crown grants to companies such as the Hudson's Bay Company; in particular the November 19, 1869 sale of Rupert's Land to the Government of Canada under the ''Rupert's Land Act 1868'' was facilitated in part by Maritime taxpayers. The economic riches of energy and natural resources held within this larger land base were only realized by other provinces during the 20th century.


Industries

The maritime provinces' main industry is fishing. Fishing can be found in any maritime province. This includes fishing for lobster, mackerel, tuna, salmon and many more kinds of fish. Oysters and salmonid aquiculture is also increasingly important economically.


Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia is very strong in agriculture, forestry and fishing.


Prince Edward Island

Tourism is important to the economy of PEI. ''Anne of Green Gables'' was written in PEI, and this attracts tourists to PEI. PEI is also known for its agriculture, mainly the potato, and fishing industries.


New Brunswick

Agriculture and forestry are two prominent industries found in New Brunswick. Despite having an extensive coastline, New Brunswick's industrial sector has never been entirely reliant on the success of the fisheries. Likewise, the strong shipbuilding heritage of the province directly relates to its forest resources. Because of this, New Brunswickers tend to attribute their cultural heritage less with the sea and more with their forests and rivers.


Politics

Maritime conservatism since the Second World War has been very much part of the Red Tory tradition, key influences being former Premier of Nova Scotia and federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada, Progressive Conservative Party leader Robert Stanfield and New Brunswick Tory strategist Dalton Camp. In recent years, the social democracy, social democratic New Democratic Party (Canada), New Democratic Party (NDP) has made significant inroads both federally and provincially in the region. The NDP has elected Member of Parliament, Members of Parliament (MPs) from New Brunswick, but most of the focus of the party at the federal and provincial levels is currently in the Halifax area of Nova Scotia. Industrial Cape Breton has historically been a region of labour activism, electing Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (and later NDP) MPs, and even produced many early members of the Communist Party of Canada in the pre-World War II era. In the 2004 Canadian federal election, 2004 federal election, the NDP captured 28.45% of the vote in Nova Scotia, more than any other province. In the 2009 Nova Scotia general election, 2009 provincial election the NDP formed a majority government, the first in the region. The Maritimes are generally social conservatism, socially conservative but unlike Alberta, they also have fiscally socialism, socialist tendencies. It is because of the lack of support for fiscal conservatism that federal parties such as the Canadian Alliance never had much success in the region, In the 2004 federal election, the Conservatives had one of the worst showings in the region for a right-wing party, going back to Confederation, with the exception of the 1993 Canadian federal election, 1993 election. The Conservative party improved its seat count in the 2008 and elected 13 MPs in the 2011 Canadian federal election, 2011 election. However, in the 2015 Canadian federal election, 2015 election the Liberal Party won every seat in the region, defeating all of the Conservative (and NDP) challengers. The Liberal Party of Canada has done well in the Maritimes in the past because of its Keynesian economics, interventionist policies. The Acadian Peninsula region of New Brunswick tends to vote for the Liberals or NDP for social political reasons, as well as treatment of the French by various parties. In the 1997 Canadian federal election, 1997 federal election, Prime Minister Jean Chrétien's Liberals endured a bitter defeat to the PCs and NDP in many ridings as a result of unpopular cuts to unemployment benefits for seasonal workers, as well as closures of several Canadian Forces Bases, the refusal to honour a promise to rescind the Goods and Services Tax (Canada), Goods and Services Tax, cutbacks to provincial
equalization paymentsEqualization payments are cash payments made in some federal systems of government from the federal government to subnational governments with the objective of offsetting differences in available revenue or in the cost of providing services. Many fed ...
, health care, post-secondary education and regional transportation infrastructure such as airports, fishing harbours, seaports, and rail transport, railways . The Liberals held onto seats in Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick, while being shut out of Nova Scotia entirely, the second time in history (the only other time being the 1958 Canadian federal election, Diefenbaker sweep). In 2015 the Liberals won every seat in The Maritimes, defeating Conservative and NDP incumbents. The Maritimes is currently represented in the Canadian Parliament by 25 Members of the House of Commons (Nova Scotia – 11, New Brunswick – 10, Prince Edward Island – 4) and 24 Senators (Nova Scotia and New Brunswick – 10 each, Prince Edward Island – 4). This level of representation was established at the time of Confederation when the Maritimes had a much larger proportion of the national population. The comparatively large population growth of western and central Canada during the immigration boom of the 20th century has reduced the Maritimes' proportion of the national population to less than 10%, resulting in an over-representation in Parliament, with some federal ridings having fewer than 35,000 people, compared to central and western Canada where ridings typically contain 100,000–120,000 people. The Senate of Canada is structured along regional lines, giving an equal number of seats (24) to the Maritimes, Ontario, Quebec, and western Canada, in addition to the later entry of Newfoundland and Labrador, as well as the three territories. Enshrined in the Canadian Constitution, Constitution, this model was developed to ensure that no area of the country is able to exert undue influence in the Senate. The Maritimes, with its much smaller proportion of the national population (compared to the time of Confederation) also have an over-representation in the Senate, particularly compared to the population growth of Ontario and the western provinces. This has led to Triple-E Senate, calls to reform the Senate; however, such a move would entail constitutional changes. Another factor related to the number of Senate seats is that a constitutional amendment in the early 20th century mandated that no province can have fewer Members of Parliament than it has senators. This court decision resulted from a complaint by the Government of Prince Edward Island after that province's number of MPs was proposed to change from 4 to 3, accounting for its declining proportion of the national population at that time. When PEI entered Confederation in 1873, it was accorded 6 MPs and 4 Senators; however this was reduced to 4 MPs by the early 20th century. Senators being appointed for life at this time, these coveted seats rarely went unfilled for a long period of time anywhere in Canada. As a result, PEI's challenge was accepted by the federal government, and its level of federal representation was secured. In the aftermath of the 1989 budget, which saw a filibuster by Liberal Senators in attempt to kill legislation creating the Goods and Services Tax (Canada), Goods and Services Tax, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney "stacked" the Senate by creating additional seats in several provinces across Canada, including New Brunswick; however, there was no attempt by these provinces to increase the number of MPs to reflect this change in Senate representation.


See also

*
Atlantic Canada Atlantic Canada, also called the Atlantic provinces, a term developed for the convenience of the federal government after Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, ...

Atlantic Canada
* ''Acadiensis'', scholarly history journal covering Atlantic Canada *Central Canada *List of regions of Canada *Maritime Film Classification Board *
Maritime Union Maritime Union (french: Union des Maritimes) is a proposed political union of the three Maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Mariti ...
*
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England


References


External links


Atlantic Provinces Economic CouncilAtlantic Institute of Market StudiesGenuine Progress Indicator AtlanticAtlantic Canada Portal/Portail du Canada Atlantique
{{DEFAULTSORT:Maritimes The Maritimes, Eastern Canada Regions of Canada Atlantic Canada