''Terminologia Anatomica'' is the international standard for human anatomical
terminology. It is developed by the
Federative International Programme on Anatomical Terminology
The Federative International Programme for Anatomical Terminology (FIPAT) is a group of experts who review, analyze, and discuss the terms of the morphological structures of the human body. It was created by the International Federation of Associ ...
, a program of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists
(IFAA). The second edition was released in 2019 and approved and adopted by the IFAA General Assembly in 2020.
''Terminologia Anatomica'' supersedes the previous standard, '' Nomina Anatomica
''. It contains terminology for about 7500 human anatomical structures.
Categories of anatomical structures
''Terminologia Anatomica'' is divided into 16 chapters grouped into five parts. The official terms are in Latin. Although equivalent English-language terms are provided, as shown below, only the official Latin terms are used as the basis for creating lists of equivalent terms in other languages.
Chapter 1: General anatomy
# General terms
# Reference planes
# Reference lines
# Human body positions
# Parts of human body
# Regions of human body
Part II: Musculoskeletal systems
Chapter 2: Bones
The axial skeleton is the part of the skeleton that consists of the bones of the head and trunk of a vertebrate. In the human skeleton, it consists of 80 bones and is composed of six parts; the skull (22 bones), also the ossicles of the midd ...
# Appendicular skeleton
The skull is a bone protective cavity for the brain. The skull is composed of four types of bone i.e., cranial bones, facial bones, ear ossicles and hyoid bone. However two parts are more prominent: the cranium and the mandible. In humans, ...
# Extracranial bones of head
# Auditory ossicles
A tooth ( : teeth) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food. Some animals, particularly carnivores and omnivores, also use teeth to help with capturing or wounding prey, te ...
# Nasal cartilages
# Cartilages of ear
# Laryngeal cartilages
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton. The vertebral column is the defining characteristic of a vertebrate in which the notochord (a flexible rod of uniform composition) found in all chordat ...
# Thoracic skeleton
# Bones of upper limb
# Bony pelvis
# Bones of lower limb
Chapter 3: Joints
# Joints of skull
# Joints of auditory ossicles
# Laryngeal joints
# Joints of vertebral column
# Thoracic joints
# Joints of upper limb
# Joints of lower limb
Chapter 4: Muscular system
# Cranial part of muscular system
# Cervical part of muscular system
# Dorsal part of muscular system
# Thoracic part of muscular system
# Abdominal part of muscular system
# Pelvic part of muscular system
# Muscular system of upper limb
# Muscular system of lower limb
Part III: Visceral systems
Chapter 5: Digestive system
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds. It is also the cavity lying at the upper end of the alimentary canal, bounded on t ...
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat behind the mouth and nasal cavity, and above the oesophagus and trachea (the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs). It is found in vertebrates and invertebrates, though its str ...
# Digestive canal
The liver is a major organ only found in vertebrates which performs many essential biological functions such as detoxification of the organism, and the synthesis of proteins and biochemicals necessary for digestion and growth. In humans, it ...
In vertebrates, the gallbladder, also known as the cholecyst, is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine. In humans, the pear-shaped gallbladder lies beneath the liver, alth ...
# Extrahepatic bile ducts
The pancreas is an organ of the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates. In humans, it is located in the abdomen behind the stomach and functions as a gland. The pancreas is a mixed or heterocrine gland, i.e. it has both an end ...
Chapter 6: Respiratory system
Paranasal sinuses are a group of four paired air-filled spaces that surround the nasal cavity. The maxillary sinuses are located under the eyes; the frontal sinuses are above the eyes; the ethmoidal sinuses are between the eyes and the sphenoi ...
The larynx (), commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck involved in breathing, producing sound and protecting the trachea against food aspiration. The opening of larynx into pharynx known as the laryngeal inlet is abo ...
# Tracheobronchial tree
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and most other animals, including some snails and a small number of fish. In mammals and most other vertebrates, two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of ...
Chapter 7: Thoracic cavity
# Pleural cavity
The mediastinum (from ) is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity. Surrounded by loose connective tissue, it is an undelineated region that contains a group of structures within the thorax, namely the heart and its vessels, the esopha ...
Chapter 8: Urinary system
The kidneys are two reddish-brown bean-shaped organs found in vertebrates. They are located on the left and right in the retroperitoneal space, and in adult humans are about in length. They receive blood from the paired renal arteries; blo ...
The ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. In a human adult, the ureters are usually long and around in diameter. The ureter is lined by urothelial cells, a type of transitional ep ...
The urinary bladder, or simply bladder, is a hollow organ in humans and other vertebrates that stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination. In humans the bladder is a distensible organ that sits on the pelvic floor. Urine ent ...
The urethra (from Greek οὐρήθρα – ''ourḗthrā'') is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body of both females and males. In human females and other primates, the urethra ...
Chapter 9: Genital systems
# Female genital system
Male genital system
The male reproductive system consists of a number of sex organs that play a role in the process of human reproduction. These organs are located on the outside of the body and within the pelvis.
The main male sex organs are the penis and the ...
Chapter 10: Abdominopelvic cavity
Part IV: Integrating systems I
Chapter 11: Endocrine glands
The pineal gland, conarium, or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the brain of most vertebrates. The pineal gland produces melatonin, a serotonin-derived hormone which modulates sleep patterns in both circadian and seasonal ...
# Thyroid gland
# Parathyroid glands
# Suprarenal gland
Chapter 12: Cardiovascular system
Blood is a body fluid in the circulatory system of humans and other vertebrates that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells, and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. Blood in th ...
# Vascular plexuses
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals. This organ pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. The pumped blood carries oxygen and nutrients to the body, while carrying metabolic waste such as carbon dioxid ...
# Pulmonary vessels
# Cardiac vessels
# Systemic arteries
# Systemic veins
# Great lymphatic vessels
Chapter 13: Lymphoid organs
# Primary lymphoid organs
# Secondary lymphoid organs
Part V: Integrating systems II
Chapter 14: Nervous system
Central nervous system
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting primarily of the brain and spinal cord. The CNS is so named because the brain integrates the received information and coordinates and influences the activity of all pa ...
Peripheral nervous system
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of two components that make up the nervous system of bilateral animals, with the other part being the central nervous system (CNS). The PNS consists of nerves and ganglia, which lie outside the brai ...
# Autonomic division of peripheral nervous system
Chapter 15: Sense organs
# Olfactory organ
Eyes are organs of the visual system. They provide living organisms with vision, the ability to receive and process visual detail, as well as enabling several photo response functions that are independent of vision. Eyes detect light and con ...
An ear is the organ that enables hearing and, in mammals, body balance using the vestibular system. In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts—the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear. The outer ear consists ...
# Gustatory organ
Chapter 16: The integument
Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal, with three main functions: protection, regulation, and sensation.
Other animal coverings, such as the arthropod exoskeleton, have different d ...
# Skin appendages
The subcutaneous tissue (), also called the hypodermis, hypoderm (), subcutis, superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates. The types of cells found in the layer are fibroblasts, adipose cells, and m ...
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of a primate's torso. Both females and males develop breasts from the same embryological tissues.
In females, it serves as the mammary gland, which produces and sec ...
The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the human face at the front, and by the neck at the sides and back.
The scalp is usually described as having five layers, which can conveniently be remembered as a mnemonic:
* S: The s ...
* Terminologia Embryologica
* Terminologia Histologica
* Terminologia Neuroanatomica
* Foundational Model of Anatomy
Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomy, anatomists, zoology, zoologists, and health professionals such as doctors.
Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms, suffixes, and prefixes deriving from Ancient Gr ...
Terminologia AnatomicaTerminologia Anatomica, Second Edition, International Anatomical TerminologyTA2Viewer, a searchable, dynamic web application of TA2 (2019)