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Taranto (, also ; ; nap, label=
Tarantino Quentin Jerome Tarantino (; born March 27, 1963) is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, and actor. His films are characterized by nonlinear narrative, nonlinear storylines, dark humor, violence in art, aestheticization of violenc ...
, Tarde;
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
: Tarentum; early it, Tarento;
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
: Τάρᾱς) is a coastal city in
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_titl ...

Apulia
,
Southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), also known as ''Meridione'' or ''Mezzogiorno'' (, literally "Midday"; in nap, 'o Miezojuorno; in scn, Mezzujornu), is a macroregionA macroregion is a geopolitical subdivis ...
. It is the capital of the
Province of Taranto The province of Taranto ( it, provincia di Taranto; Tarantino Quentin Jerome Tarantino (; born March 27, 1963) is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, and actor. His films are characterized by nonlinear narrative, nonlinear sto ...
, serving as an important commercial port as well as the main Italian naval base. Founded by Spartans in the 8th century BC during the period of
Greek colonisation Greek colonization was an organised by the into the and in the period of the 8th–6th centuries BC (750 and 550 BC). This colonization differed from the of the in that it consisted of organised direction (see ) by the originating instead ...
, Taranto was among the most important in
Magna Graecia Magna Graecia (, ; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic ...

Magna Graecia
, becoming a cultural, economic and military power that gave birth to philosophers, strategists, writers and athletes such as
Archytas Archytas (; el, Ἀρχύτας; 435/410–360/350 BC) was an Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generall ...

Archytas
,
Aristoxenus Aristoxenus of Tarentum ( el, Ἀριστόξενος ὁ Ταραντῖνος; born c. 375, fl. ''Floruit'' (), abbreviated fl. (or occasionally flor.), Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a langu ...
,
Livius Andronicus Lucius Livius Andronicus (; el, Λούκιος Λίβιος Ανδρόνικος; c. 284 – c. 205 BC) was a Greco-Roman The term "Greco-Roman world" (also "Greco-Roman culture" or ; spelled Graeco-Roman in the ), as understood by mod ...
, Heracleides, Iccus, Cleinias,
Leonidas Leonidas I (; Doric , '; Ionic and Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek dialect of the regions of ancient Greece, ancient region of Attica, including the ''polis'' of classical Athens, Athens. Often called classical Greek, it ...
,
Lysis Lysis ( ; Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 1 ...
and
Sosibius Sosibius ( el, Σωσίβιoς; lived 3rd century BC) was the chief minister of Ptolemy IV of Egypt, Ptolemy Philopator (221–203 BC), king of Ptolemaic Egypt, Egypt. Nothing is known of his origin or parentage, though he may have been a son of So ...
. By 500 BC, the city was among the largest in the world, with a population estimated up to 300,000 people. The seven-year rule of
Archytas Archytas (; el, Ἀρχύτας; 435/410–360/350 BC) was an Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generall ...

Archytas
marked the apex of its development and recognition of its
hegemony Hegemony (, , ) is the political, economic, and military predominance of one state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (ne ...
over other
Greek colonies Greek colonization was an organised colonial expansion by the Archaic Greeks into the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , o ...
of southern Italy. During the
Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans, a people partly descended from Norse Vikings who settled in the territory of Normandy in France in the 10th and 11th centuries ** People or things connected with the Norm ...

Norman
period, it became the capital of the
Principality of Taranto The Principality of Taranto was a state in southern Italy created in 1088 for Bohemond I, eldest son of Robert Guiscard Robert Guiscard (; Modern ; – 17 July 1085) was a Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity ...
, which covered almost all of the heel of Apulia. Taranto is now the third-largest continental city in southern Italy (south of Rome, roughly the southern half of the Italian peninsula), with well-developed steel and iron foundries, oil refineries, chemical works, naval shipyards and food-processing factories.


Overview

Taranto's pre-history dates back to 706 BC when it was founded as a
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
colony, established by the
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
ns. The ancient city was situated on a
peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el ...

peninsula
; the modern city has been built over the ancient Greek city of which only a few ruins remain, including part of the city wall, two temple columns dating to the 6th century BC, and tombs. The
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...

Greek
colonists from
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
called the city Taras (;
GEN Gen may refer to: * ''Gen'' (film), 2006 Turkish horror film directed by Togan Gökbakar * Gen (Street Fighter) The main titles of the ''Street Fighter'' fighting game series have introduced a varied cast of 79 ''World Warriors'' from the main ...
''Tarantos'') after the mythical hero Taras, while the
Romans Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Romans
, who connected the city to Rome with an extension of the
Appian way The Appian Way (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...

Appian way
, called it Tarentum. The islets of '' S. Pietro'' and '' S. Paolo'' (St. Peter and St. Paul), collectively known as
Cheradi Islands The Cheradi Islands (Italian language, Italian: ''Isole Cheradi'') in the Gulf of Taranto are a small archipelago of the harbor basin of the Mar Grande of Taranto. The island group consists of the two islands of San Pietro Island (Apulia), San Pie ...
, protect the bay, called ''Mar Grande'' (''Big Sea''), where the commercial port is located. Taranto is known for the large population of
dolphin Dolphin is the common name of aquatic mammal Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals are a diverse group of mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mam ...

dolphin
s and other
cetacea Cetaceans (from la, cetus Cetus () is a constellation, sometimes called 'the whale' in English. The Cetus (mythology), Cetus was a sea monster in Greek mythology which both Perseus and Heracles needed to slay. Cetus is in the region of the ...

cetacea
ns living near these islands. Another bay, called ''Mar Piccolo'' (''Little Sea''), is formed by the peninsula of the old city and has flourishing
fishing Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. Around 99% of living fish species are ...

fishing
. At the end of the 19th century, a channel was excavated to allow naval ships to enter the ''Mar Piccolo'' harbour, and the ancient Greek city become an island connected to the mainland by bridges. The islets and the coast are strongly fortified and ''Mar Piccolo'' is a naval port with strategic importance. Because of the presence of these two bays, Taranto is also called "the city of the two seas". The natural harbor at Taranto made it a logical home port for the Italian naval fleet before and during the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
. During World War II, Taranto became famous for a November 1940 British air attack on the
Regia Marina The ''Regia Marina'' (; ) was the navy of the Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Kingdom of Sardinia, Sardinia was proclamation of the Kingdom of ...
naval base stationed here, which today is called the
Battle of Taranto The Battle of Taranto took place on the night of 11–12 November 1940 during the Second World War between British naval forces, under Admiral Andrew Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, Andrew Cunningham, and Italian naval forces, ...
. The city's name is the origin of the common name "
tarantula Tarantulas comprise a group of large and often hairy spider Spiders (order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract stat ...

tarantula
", originating from the terms
tarantella () is a group of various folk dances characterized by a fast upbeat tempo, usually in time Time is the indefinite continued sequence, progress of existence and event (philosophy), events that occur in an apparently irreversible process ...

tarantella
,
tarantism Tarantism is a form of hysteria, hysteric behaviour, popularly believed to result from the bite of the wolf spider ''Lycosa tarantula'' (distinct from the broad class of spiders also called tarantulas). A better candidate cause is ''Latrodectus t ...
and
tarantula Tarantulas comprise a group of large and often hairy spider Spiders (order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract stat ...

tarantula
— although no spider species of the family
Theraphosidae Tarantulas comprise a group of large and often hairy spiders of the family Theraphosidae. Currently, 1,010 species have been identified. The term "tarantula" is usually used to describe members of the family Theraphosidae, although many oth ...

Theraphosidae
inhabit the area. In ancient times, residents of Taranto bitten by the large local
Wolf Spider
Wolf Spider
, ''
Lycosa tarentula
Lycosa tarentula
'', would promptly do a long vigorous dance like a
jig The jig ( ga, port, gd, port-cruinn) is a form of lively folk dance in Metre (music)#Compound metre, compound metre, as well as the accompanying dance tune (folk music), tune. It is most associated with Irish music and dance. It first gained ...
, in order to sweat the venom out of their pores — even though the wolf spider's venom is not fatal to humans. The frenetic dance became known as the
Tarantella () is a group of various folk dances characterized by a fast upbeat tempo, usually in time Time is the indefinite continued sequence, progress of existence and event (philosophy), events that occur in an apparently irreversible process ...

Tarantella
. In
geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek ...

geology
, Taranto gives its name to the Tarantian Age of the
Pleistocene The Pleistocene ( , often referred to as the ''Ice Age'') is the geological Epoch (geology), epoch that lasted from about 2,580,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the earth’s most recent period of repeated glaciations. Before a change finally ...
Epoch.


Physical geography

Taranto faces the
Ionian Sea The Ionian Sea ( el, Ιόνιο Πέλαγος, ''Iónio Pélagos'' ; it, Mar Ionio ; al, Deti Jon ("our sea")) is an elongated bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, suc ...

Ionian Sea
. It is above
sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloquial, ordinary language, an average is a single number taken as representative of a list of numbers, usually the sum of the numbers divided by how many numbers are in th ...

sea level
. It was built on a plain running north/north-west–southeast, and surrounded by the Murgia plateau from the north-west to the east. Its territory extends for and is mostly underwater. It is characterised by three natural
peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el ...

peninsula
s and a man-made island, formed by digging a ditch during the construction of
Aragon Castle
Aragon Castle
. The city is known as the "city of two seas" because it is washed by the Big Sea in the bay between Punta Rondinella to the northwest and Capo San Dante to the south, and by the vast reservoir of the Little Sea.


Big Sea and Little Sea

The Big Sea is frequently known as the ''Big Sea bay'' as that is where ships harbour. It is separated from the Little Sea by a cape which closes the gulf, leading to the artificial island. This island formed the heart of the original city and it is connected to the mainland by the Ponte di Porta Napoli and the Ponte Girevole. The Big Sea is separated from the Ionian Sea by the Capo San Vito, the Isole Cheradi of St Peter and St Paul, and the three islands of San Nicolicchio, which are completely incorporated by the Ilva (company), ILVA steelworks. The latter form a little archipelago which closes off the arc creating the natural Big Sea bay. The Little Sea is considered to be a lagoon so it presents problems of water exchange. It is virtually divided into two by the Ponte Punta Penna Pizzone, which joins the Punta Penna to the Punta Pizzone. The first of these forms a rough triangle, whose corners are the opening to the east and the Porta Napoli Channel (geography), channel linking it to the Big Sea in the west. The second half forms an ellipse whose major axis measures almost from the south-west to the north-east. The Galeso river flows into the first half. The two water bodies have slightly different winds and tides and their underwater springs have different salinities. These affect the currents on the surface and in the depths of the Big Sea and the two halves of the Little Sea. In the Big Sea and in the northern part of the Little Sea, there are some underwater springs called citro, citri, which carry undrinkable freshwater together with salt water. This creates the ideal biological conditions for cultivating Mediterranean mussels, known locally as ''cozze''.


Climate

The climate of the city, recorded by the weather station situated near the Taranto-Grottaglie Airport, Grottaglie Military Airport, is a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, typical of the Mediterranean with frequent continental features. The spring is usually mild and rainy, but it is not uncommon to have sudden cold spells from the north and east, which often cause snowfall. Average annual precipitation is fairly low (even for southern Italy), measuring just per year. The summer is hot and humid, with temperatures averaging . On 28 November 2012 a large F3 tornado hit the port of Taranto and damaged the Ilva (company), Taranto Steel Mill where workers were protesting against the plant's pollution emissions; about 20 people were injured, and another man was reported missing. It is classified as Geographical zone C and having a degree-day of 30.


History

Taranto was founded in 706 BC by Dorians, Dorian Greek immigrants hailing from
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
, its origin are peculiar: the founders were Partheniae ("sons of virgins"), sons of unmarried Spartan women and ''Perioeci'' (free men, but not citizens of Sparta); these out-of-wedlock unions were permitted extraordinarily by the Spartans to increase the prospective number of soldiers (only the citizens of Sparta could become soldiers) during the bloody Messenian Wars, but later they were retroactively nullified, and the sons were then obliged to leave Greece forever. Phalanthus, the Parthenian leader, went to Delphi to consult the Sibyl, oracle: the puzzling answer designated the harbour of Taranto as the new home of the exiles. The Partheniae arrived in Apulia, and founded the city, naming it ''Taras'' after the son of the Greek sea god, Poseidon, and of a local nymph, According to other sources, Heracles founded the city. Another tradition indicates Taras as the founder of the city; the symbol of the Greek city (as well as of the modern city) depicts the legend of Taras being saved from a shipwreck by riding a dolphin that was sent to him by Poseidon. Taranto increased its power, becoming a commercial power and a sovereign city of
Magna Graecia Magna Graecia (, ; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic ...

Magna Graecia
, ruling over the Greek colonies in southern Italy. Its independence and power came to an end as the Romans expanded throughout Italy. Taranto won the first of two wars against Rome for the control of Southern Italy: it was helped by Pyrrhus of Epirus, Pyrrhus, king of Greek Epirus (ancient state), Epirus, who surprised Rome with the use of war elephants in battle, a thing never seen before by the Romans. Rome won the second war in 272 BC. This subsequently cut off Taranto from the centre of Mediterranean trade, by connecting the Via Appia directly to the port of Brundisium (Brindisi).


Ancient art

Like many Greek city states, Taras issued its own coins in the 5th and 4th centuries BC. The denomination was a Nomos, a die-cast silver coin whose weight, size and purity were controlled by the state. The highly artistic coins presented the symbol of the city, Taras being saved by a dolphin, with the reverse side showing the likeness of a hippocamp, a horse-fish amalgam which is depicted in mythology as the beast that drew Poseidon's chariot. Taras was also the centre of a thriving decorated Greek pottery industry during the 4th century BC. Most of the South Italian Greek vessels known as Basilican ware were made in different workshops in the city. Unfortunately, none of the names of the artists have survived, so modern scholars have been obliged to give the recognizable artistic hands and workshops nicknames based on the subject matter of their works, museums which possess the works, or individuals who have distinguished the works from others. Some of the most famous of the Apulian vase painters at Taras are now called: the Iliupersis Painter, the Lycurgus Painter, the Gioia del Colle Painter, the Darius Painter, the Underworld Painter, and the White Sakkos Painter, among others. The wares produced by these workshops were usually large elaborate vessels intended for mortuary use. The forms produced included volute kraters, loutrophoros, loutrophoroi, paterai, oinochoe, oinochoai, lekythos, lekythoi, fish plates, etc. The decoration of these vessels was red figure (with figures reserved in red clay fabric, while the background was covered in a black gloss), with overpainting (sovradipinto) in white, pink, yellow, and maroon slips. Often the style of the drawings is florid and frilly, as was already the fashion in 4th-century Athens. Distinctive South Italian features also begin to appear. Many figures are shown seated on rocks. Floral motifs become very ornate, including spiraling vines and leaves, roses, lily, lilies, poppy, poppies, sprays of Lauraceae, laurel, Acanthus (plant), acanthus leaves. Often the subject matter consists of naiskos scenes (scenes showing the statue of a deceased person in a naos, a miniature temple or shrine). Most often the naiskos scene occupies one side of the vase, while a mythological scene occupies the other. Images depicting many of the Greek myths are only known from South Italian vases, since Athenian ones seem to have had more limited repertoires of depiction.


World War II

The
Battle of Taranto The Battle of Taranto took place on the night of 11–12 November 1940 during the Second World War between British naval forces, under Admiral Andrew Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, Andrew Cunningham, and Italian naval forces, ...
took place on the night of 11–12 November 1940 during the World War II, Second World War between British naval forces, under Admiral Andrew Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, Andrew Cunningham, and Italian naval forces, under Admiral Inigo Campioni. The Royal Navy launched the first all-aircraft ship-to-ship naval attack in history, employing 21 obsolete Fairey Swordfish biplane torpedo bombers from the aircraft carrier in the Mediterranean Sea. The attack struck the battle fleet of the ''
Regia Marina The ''Regia Marina'' (; ) was the navy of the Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Kingdom of Sardinia, Sardinia was proclamation of the Kingdom of ...
'' at anchor in the harbour of Taranto, using aerial torpedoes despite the shallowness of the water.


2006 municipal bankruptcy

The Municipality of Taranto was declared bankrupt effective 31 December 2005, having accrued liabilities of €637 million. This was one of the biggest financial crises which has ever hit a municipality. The bankruptcy declaration was made on 18 October 2006 by the receiver Tommaso Blonda. He was appointed following the resignation of the mayor, Rossana Di Bello, on account of her sixteen-month prison sentence for abuse of office and forgery of documents relating to investigations into the contract for the management of the city incinerator, awarded to Termomeccanica.


Transport


Rail

Taranto railway station connects the city with Rome, Naples, Milan, Bologna, Bari, Reggio di Calabria and Brindisi.


Air

Taranto-Grottaglie Airport is located 16 km away from Taranto, but does not offer any regularly scheduled commercial services. The two closest airports that do offer regularly scheduled commercial services are in Brindisi Airport, Brindisi and Bari Karol Wojtyła Airport, Bari, approximately 70 km and 90 km away, respectively.


Other

The Ponte Girevole (swing bridge), built in 1887, runs across the navigable ship canal that joins ''Mar Piccolo'' (''Little Sea'') with ''Mar Grande'' (''Big Sea'') and stretches along . When the bridge is open, the two ends of the city are disconnected.


Environment

In 1991 Taranto was declared a high environmental risk area by the Ministry of the Environment (Italy), Ministry of Environment. As a consequence of the pollutants discharged into the air by the factories in the area, most notably the ILVA steel plant, part of Gruppo Riva. 7% of Taranto's pollution is produced by the public; 93% is produced by factories. In 2005, the European Pollutant Emission Register estimated dioxin emissions from the Taranto ILVA plant were responsible for 83% of Italy's total reported emissions. Every year the city is exposed to of carbon monoxide and of carbon dioxide. In 2014, the Italian National Institute of Emissions and their Sources, stated that Taranto stands third in the world behind China's Linfen, and Copşa Mică in Romania, the most polluted cities in the world due to factories' emissions. In particular, the city produces ninety-two percent of Italy's Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dioxin. This is 8.8 percent of the dioxin in Europe. Between 1995 and 2004, leukaemias, myelomas and lymphomas increased by 30 to 40 percent. Dioxin accumulates over the years. Over 9 kilos of dioxin have been discharged into the city's air by its factories. Grazing is banned within of the ILVA plant. In 2013, the ILVA plant was placed under special administration when its owner, the Riva family, was accused of failing to prevent toxic emissions, which caused at least 400 premature deaths. Emissions of both carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and dioxin have decreased. Animal species have returned that had left, including swallows, crane (bird), cranes, dolphins, seahorses and the coral reef.


Main sites

Taranto has a number of sites of historic value. Situated at the angle of the canal, Big Sea ''and Piazza Castello,'' the Aragon Castle was built between 1486 and 1492 by orders of King Ferdinand II of Aragon to protect the city from the Turks' frequent raids.http://www.viaggareinpuglia.it/at/1/castellotorre/96/en/Taranto-Aragon--Castle The castle, which was designed by Italian painter and architect Francesco di Giorgio Martini, replaced a pre-existing 9th-century Byzantine fortress, which was deemed unfit for 15th-century warfare. In 1707 it ceased to be used as a military fortress and was converted to a prison until under Napoleon Bonaparte it reverted to its original military function. To date it is the property of the Italian Navy and is open to the public. Twenty-first-century excavations revealed the castle's earlier Byzantine foundations which can be viewed. There are several Greek temple ruins - some from the 6th century BC - such as the remains of a Temple of Poseidon (Taranto), temple dedicated to Poseidon, with its two surviving Doric columns still visible on Piazza Castello in the ''Citta Vecchia''. The Promenade (''lungomare''), named after former Italian king Victor Emmanuel III, overlooks the ''Mar Grande'', the natural harbour and commercial port. The Concattedrale Gran Madre di Dio, designed by Gio Ponti, was built in 1967–1971 in reinforced concrete and is one of the most significant late works by the architect. In 2018 it is in poor condition and defaced by graffiti. In the modern districts, but above all in the central ''Borgo Umbertino'', there are also the Fountain of the Rosa dei Venti, Fountain of the ''Rosa dei Venti'', Monumento al Marinaio, the War Memorial of Taranto, War Memorial and the Navy Yard of Taranto, Navy Yard, another symbol of the city, some archeological sites such as the Cripta del Redentore, churches like ''Maria Santissima del Monte Carmelo'', San Pasquale, Taranto, ''San Pasquale'' and San Francesco di Paola, Taranto, ''San Francesco di Paola'' and 18th- and 19th-century palaces such as Palazzo Magnini, Palazzo delle Poste, Palazzo del Governo, Palazzo degli Uffici and Palazzo Savino D'Amelio. On the outskirts and in the countryside there are several traditional ancient country houses called ''masseria'', like Masseria Capitignano.


Old City

The Old City or ''Città Vecchia'' is where the Greeks built their acropolis. Today it retains the same street layout of 967, when the Byzantines under Nicephorus Phocas rebuilt what the Saracen troops led by the Slavic Sabir had razed to the ground in 927 AD. There are four main arteries (Corso Vittorio II, Via Duomo, Via di Mezzo and Via Garibaldi) which run in a straight direction however the side streets were purposely built narrow and winding to impede the passage of an invading army.Taranto - 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica Incorporating the , Temple of Poseidon (Taranto), Doric Columns, City Hall, Clock Tower and Piazza Fontana, it is situated and entirely enclosed on the artificial island between the Big and Little Seas and is reached from the New City by crossing the Ponte Girevole (swing bridge) from the south and the Ponte di Porta Napoli from the north. Almost rectangular in shape, it is divided into four (quarters) that are delineated by the cross formed between Via di Mezzo and Via Nuova. These are "Baglio" and "San Pietro" in the upper section which face the Big Sea; and "Turipenne" and "Ponte" in the lower part fronting the Little Sea. The nobility, clergy and military personnel made their homes in Baglio and San Pietro, whilst the artisans and fishermen dwelled in Ponte and Turipenne. An Armenian community was present in the 10th and 11th centuries having arrived in Taranto as troops in the Byzantine Army. The ''San't Andrea degli Armeni'' church in Piazza Monteoliveto, located in the Baglio quarter, stands as testimony to the neighbourhood where the Armenians made their homes. In 1746 the entire population of Taranto resided in Old City. This resulted in the necessity of building additional stories on the narrow houses. It is still inhabited with a number of people living in juxtaposition to the old palazzi. By 2013 the population of the Old City was just 1000"The Old Town of Taranto: Architectural Reading of the History Urban Form for the Correct Methodology for Restoration Project the Built Heritage in the Island". Ubaldo Occhinegro. Polytecnic School of Bari. Paper Number 362-8. Proceedings of the 2nd ICAUD International Conference on Architecture and Urban Design. Epoka University, Tirana, Albania 8–10 May 2014. Paper No. 362 at a time when the wider city had more than 200,000 inhabitants. There are a number of 17th and 18th-century ''palazzi'' in Old City. For years, they served as the main residence of local aristocratic families and the clergy. These include Palazzo Calò, Palazzo Carducci-Artenisio (1650), Palazzo Galeota (1728), Palazzo Gallo (17th century), P PMalazzo Latagliata, Palazzo Lo Jucco (1793), Palazzo D'Aquino, Palazzo Delli Ponti, Palazzo Gennarini, Palazzo d'Ayala, Palazzo Visconti, Palazzo Galizia, Palazzo Ciura and Palazzo Pantaleo. The 17th century de Beaumont-Bonelli-Bellacicco palace houses the Spartan Museum of Taranto - Hypogeum Bellacicco which extends below street and sea level to the hypogeum that is a crossroads with other hypogeum of Old City which together form the system of subterranean Taranto. Churches include the ''Taranto Cathedral, San Cataldo Cathedral'' (10th century) in Piazza Duomo, ''San Domenico Maggiore, Taranto, San Domenico Maggiore'' (1302), Sant'Andrea degli Armeni (16th century), ''Sant'Agostino, Taranto, Sant'Agostino'' (1402), ''San Michele, Taranto, San Michele'' (1763), ''Sant'Anna Church, Taranto, Sant'Anna'', the ''Madonna della Salute Sanctuary, Madonna della Salute'' sanctuary (1752), and ''San Giuseppe, Taranto, San Giuseppe'' (16th century). Close to the San Agostino church, located near Pendio La Riccia, the buried remains of an ancient Greek temple were discovered. Beginning in 1934 Benito Mussolini embarked on a project of rejuvenation that involved the demolition of the working class Turipenne along the Via Garibaldi and ''Discesa Vasto'' which contained the homes of local fishermen as well as the old Jewish quarter. The demolitions, which also razed the old medieval wall and three churches out of the four within the area, continued until the outbreak of World War II. Modern edifices and apartment blocks were erected to replace the demolished structures. In addition to the many ''palazzi'', Old City has myriad arched alleyways, ''saliti'', vicoli and small streets, some of which are closed to traffic. Between 2013 and 2014 two Neapolitan urban artists Cyop and Kaf embarked on a project to decorate derelict buildings, walls and doors in the ''piazzi'' and vicoli with 120 representations of street art. It has since become a striking feature of Old City which is described as the abandoned district of Taranto.


Education

Among the various school are: Liceo Scientifico Battaglini, Liceo Archita (the most ancient), Liceo Quinto Ennio (in Literature), Liceo Aristosseno (Languages, Science, Humanistic), Galileo Ferraris, ITCS Pitagora da Taranto, Vittorino da Feltre, Cabrini, ITIS Righi and ITIS Pacinotti (in IT) and ITC V. Bachelet (in Commercial and Accounting – famous for the activities at BIT MILANO).


Demographics

''Census populations'' Colors= id:lightgrey value:gray(0.9) id:darkgrey value:gray(0.7) id:sfondo value:rgb(1,1,1) id:barra value:rgb(0.6,0.7,0.8) ImageSize = width:555 height:373 PlotArea = left:50 bottom:50 top:30 right:30 DateFormat = x.y Period = from:0 till:250000 TimeAxis = orientation:vertical AlignBars = justify ScaleMajor = gridcolor:darkgrey increment:50000 start:0 ScaleMinor = gridcolor:lightgrey increment:10000 start:0 BackgroundColors = canvas:sfondo BarData= bar:1861 text:1861 bar:1871 text:1871 bar:1881 text:1881 bar:1901 text:1901 bar:1911 text:1911 bar:1921 text:1921 bar:1931 text:1931 bar:1936 text:1936 bar:1951 text:1951 bar:1961 text:1961 bar:1971 text:1971 bar:1981 text:1981 bar:1991 text:1991 bar:2001 text:2001 bar:2011 text:2011 PlotData= color:barra width:20 align:left bar:1861 from:0 till: 26163 bar:1871 from:0 till: 25012 bar:1881 from:0 till: 31630 bar:1901 from:0 till: 56190 bar:1911 from:0 till: 65238 bar:1921 from:0 till: 104379 bar:1931 from:0 till: 111616 bar:1936 from:0 till: 117722 bar:1951 from:0 till: 168941 bar:1961 from:0 till: 194609 bar:1971 from:0 till: 227342 bar:1981 from:0 till: 244101 bar:1991 from:0 till: 232334 bar:2001 from:0 till: 202033 bar:2011 from:0 till: 200154 PlotData= bar:1861 at: 26163 fontsize:S text: 26.163 shift:(-8,5) bar:1871 at: 25012 fontsize:S text: 25.012 shift:(-10,5) bar:1881 at: 31630 fontsize:S text: 31.630 shift:(-10,5) bar:1901 at: 56190 fontsize:S text: 56.190 shift:(-10,5) bar:1911 at: 65238 fontsize:S text: 65.238 shift:(-10,5) bar:1921 at: 104379 fontsize:S text: 104.379 shift:(-10,5) bar:1931 at: 111616 fontsize:S text: 111.616 shift:(-10,5) bar:1936 at: 117722 fontsize:S text: 117.722 shift:(-10,5) bar:1951 at: 168941 fontsize:S text: 168.941 shift:(-10,5) bar:1961 at: 194609 fontsize:S text: 194.609 shift:(-10,5) bar:1971 at: 227342 fontsize:S text: 227.342 shift:(-10,5) bar:1981 at: 244101 fontsize:S text: 244.101 shift:(-10,5) bar:1991 at: 232334 fontsize:S text: 232.334 shift:(-10,5) bar:2001 at: 202033 fontsize:S text: 202.033 shift:(-10,5) bar:2011 at: 191810 fontsize:S text: 200.154 shift:(-10,5) TextData= fontsize:S pos:(20,20) text:fonte ISTAT - elaborazione grafica a cura di Wikipedia


Dialect

The city is the centre of the Tarantino dialect (''dialètte tarandíne'') of the Neapolitan language. As a result of the city's history, it is influenced by Greek, Vulgar Latin, French and many others.


Sports

* Taranto F.C. 1927 (Football)


Cuisine

Taranto's cuisine is characterised by local products, especially vegetables and fish like artichokes, eggplants, tomatoes, olives, onions, shrimps, octopus, sardines as food, sardines, squid and, above all, #Mussels of Taranto, mussels. A very important role is also played by the olive oil and bread produced in the city and in all the villages of its province. Some Protected designation of origin, PDO, Protected Geographical Indication, PGI and Prodotto agroalimentare tradizionale, PAT are made in the countryside of Taranto and in the villages around the city: among them we can find some extra-virgin olive oil like Terre Tarentine, Terre Tarentine PDO and Terra d'Otranto (extra-virgin olive oil), Terra d'Otranto PDO, fruits like Uva di Puglia PGI and Clementine#Varieties, Clementine del Golfo di Taranto PGI, vegetables like the Carosello (melon), Barattiere PAT, Pomodorino di Manduria PAT, types of cheese like Burrata, Burrata di Andria PGI and Ricotta forte, Ricotta Forte PAT, a type of bread called Pane di Laterza, Pane di Laterza PAT and the Capocollo di Martina Franca PAT, a type of ''capocollo''.


Mussels of Taranto

A very important ingredient of the cuisine of Taranto is mussels. They are grown in the Big Sea and, above all, in the Little Sea (see #Big Sea and Little Sea, above). They have been inserted in the list of Traditional Food Products by the Italian Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies (Italy), Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies. The peculiar flavour of Tarantine mussels is given by the special conditions of salinity of the Little Sea which is crossed by the ''citri'', submarine freshwater springs which manage to oxygenate the water, helping the development of the plankton and by the freshwater come from the Galeso river. The piles for the mussels were anciently made with wood from La Sila, Sila Mountains in Calabria. During the Ancient Greek and Roman times, several authors described the richness and the goodness of the mussels of Taranto. After the tests about the pollution that is present in the first side of the Little Sea, the legal production of mussels has been moved to the second side. The tests and the classifications of the water are made by producers giving the possibility to certify the safety of the product. Some of the most traditional dishes of Taranto are mussels ''alla puppitegna'' (with garlic, extra-virgin olive oil and parsley) or the ''impepata'' ("full of pepper" in Italian) or spaghetti with mussels.


Twin towns - sister cities

Taranto is twin towns and sister cities, twinned with: * Sparta (modern), Sparta, Greece (since 2015) * Brest, France, Brest, France (since 1964) * Donetsk, Ukraine (since 1985) * Alicante, Spain (since 2010) * Islamabad, Pakistan (since 2010) * Pittsburgh, United States


Notable people

These historical figures have had a relationship with the city. Not all of them were actually born in Taranto. *
Archytas Archytas (; el, Ἀρχύτας; 435/410–360/350 BC) was an Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generall ...

Archytas
(428-347 BC) of Tarentum, philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, statesman, strategist and commander-in-chief of the army of Taranto * Philolaus (c. 470 - c. 385 BCE), mathematician and philosopher *
Aristoxenus Aristoxenus of Tarentum ( el, Ἀριστόξενος ὁ Ταραντῖνος; born c. 375, fl. ''Floruit'' (), abbreviated fl. (or occasionally flor.), Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a langu ...
(c. 375 - after 335 BCE), peripatetic philosopher, and writer on music and rhythm * Leonidas of Tarentum (3rd century BCE), poet * Lysis of Tarentum (c. 5th century BCE), philosopher * Cleinias of Tarentum (4th century BCE), Pythagorean philosopher * Rhinthon (c. 323–285 BC), dramatist * Zeuxis of Tarentum, Zeuxis (3rd century BCE), physician *
Livius Andronicus Lucius Livius Andronicus (; el, Λούκιος Λίβιος Ανδρόνικος; c. 284 – c. 205 BC) was a Greco-Roman The term "Greco-Roman world" (also "Greco-Roman culture" or ; spelled Graeco-Roman in the ), as understood by mod ...
(с. 284- с. 205 BCE), poet * Titus Quinctius Flamininus (c. 229 - c. 174 BCE), propraetor of Tarentum * Pacuvius (220 - c. 130), tragic poet, died in Tarentum in 130 BC * Saint Cataldus, Cataldus (с 7th century), archbishop and patron saint of Taranto * Bohemond of Taranto (c. 1054 -1111), (born in Calabria) key military leader on the First Crusade * Philip I, Prince of Taranto, Latin Emperor in exile 1313–1332 (as Philip II), king of Kingdom of Albania (medieval), Albania * Gil Albornoz, archbishop of Taranto in 1644 * Nicola Fago (1677-1745), composer, teacher, and church musician (maestro di cappella) in Naples * Giovanni Paisiello (1740-1816), composer associated with Naples * Pierre Choderlos de Laclos, Napoleonic army general and novelist, died in Taranto * Etienne-Jacques-Joseph-Alexandre MacDonald (1765–1840), ''duke of Taranto'' and ''marshal of France'' * Marcus Fulvius Nobilior, rumoured to have been born here and not Rome as was first assumed * Riccardo Tisci, fashion designer, creative director of Givenchy * Roberta Vinci, professional tennis player * Cosimo Damiano Lanza, pianist, harpsichordist and composer * Pino De Vittorio, singer, actor * Filippo Di Stani, Italian footballer * Quentin Tarantino, whose family derives its surname from its origins in the city * Michele Riondino, actor, director, singer * Laura Albanese, Italian-Canadian newscaster and politician * Nicola Martinucci, opera singer * Alessandro Leogrande, journalist * Anna Fougez, actress and singer


See also

*
Tarantella () is a group of various folk dances characterized by a fast upbeat tempo, usually in time Time is the indefinite continued sequence, progress of existence and event (philosophy), events that occur in an apparently irreversible process ...

Tarantella
*
Battle of Taranto The Battle of Taranto took place on the night of 11–12 November 1940 during the Second World War between British naval forces, under Admiral Andrew Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, Andrew Cunningham, and Italian naval forces, ...


Notes


References


External links

*
Tourism in Taranto

MARTA: Museo nazionale ARcheologico TAranto (Taranto Archaeological National Museum)
{{Authority control Taranto, Coastal towns in Apulia Cities and towns in Apulia Localities of Salento Mediterranean port cities and towns in Italy Italian Navy submarine bases Ancient cities in Sicily Archaeological sites in Italy Dorian colonies in Magna Graecia Iron Age Greek colonies Spartan colonies 700s BC 8th-century BC establishments in Italy Magna Graecia Steel industry of Italy