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Tallinn () is the most populous and
capital city A capital city or capital is the municipality holding primary status in a country, state, province, department, or other subnational entity, usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses t ...
of
Estonia Estonia, formally the Republic of Estonia, is a country by the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, an ...
. Situated on a
bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay. A large bay is usually called a gulf, sea, sound, or bight. A cove is a small, circular bay with a na ...
in north Estonia, on the shore of the
Gulf of Finland The Gulf of Finland ( fi, Suomenlahti; et, Soome laht; rus, Фи́нский зали́в, r=Finskiy zaliv, p=ˈfʲinskʲɪj zɐˈlʲif; sv, Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It extends between Finland to the north and ...
of the
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that is enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden and the North and Central European Plain. The sea stretches from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from ...
, Tallinn has a population of 437,811 (as of 2022) and administratively lies in the Harju '' maakond'' (
county A county is a geographic region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
). Tallinn is the main financial, industrial, and cultural centre of Estonia. It is located northwest of the country's second largest city Tartu, however only south of
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ) is the Capital city, capital, primate city, primate, and List of cities and towns in Finland, most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of the region of U ...
,
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east, with the Gulf of Bot ...
, also west of
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), i ...
,
Russia Russia (, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world, with its internationally recognised territory covering , and encompassing one-ei ...
, north of
Riga Riga (; lv, Rīga , liv, Rīgõ) is the capital and largest city of Latvia and is home to 605,802 inhabitants which is a third of Latvia's population. The city lies on the Gulf of Riga at the mouth of the Daugava river where it meets the ...
,
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ; ltg, Latveja; liv, Leţmō), officially the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no, ltg, Latvejas Republika, links=no, liv, Leţmō Vabāmō, links=no), is a country in the Baltic region of ...
, and east of
Stockholm Stockholm () is the capital and largest city of Sweden as well as the largest urban area in Scandinavia. Approximately 980,000 people live in the municipality, with 1.6 million in the urban area, and 2.4 million in the metropo ...
,
Sweden Sweden, formally the Kingdom of Sweden,The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's formal name is the Kingdom of SwedenUNGEGN World Geographical Names, Sweden./ref> is a Nordic countries, Nordic c ...
. From the 13th century until the first half of the 20th century, Tallinn was known in most of the world by variants of its other historical
name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either uniquely, or within a given context. The entity identified by a name is called its referent. A persona ...
Reval. Tallinn received
Lübeck city rights Lübeck (; Low German also ), officially the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (german: Hansestadt Lübeck), is a city in Northern Germany. With around 217,000 inhabitants, Lübeck is the second-largest city on the German Baltic coast and in the st ...
in 1248,, however the earliest evidence of human population in the area dates back nearly 5,000 years. The medieval indigenous population of what is now Tallinn and northern Estonia was one of the last " pagan" civilisations in Europe to adopt
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. It is the world's largest and most widespread religion with roughly 2.38 billion followers representing one-third of the global popula ...
following the Papal -sanctioned Livonian
Crusade The Crusades were a series of religious wars initiated, supported, and sometimes directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The best known of these Crusades are those to the Holy Land in the period between 1095 and 1291 that were ...
in the 13th century. The first recorded claim over the place was laid by
Denmark ) , song = ( en, "King Christian stood by the lofty mast") , song_type = National and royal anthem , image_map = EU-Denmark.svg , map_caption = , subdivision_type = Sovereign state , subdivision_name = Kingdom of Denmark , establish ...
after a successful raid in 1219 led by King
Valdemar II Valdemar (28 June 1170 – 28 March 1241), later remembered as Valdemar the Victorious (), was the King of Denmark (being Valdemar II) from 1202 until his death in 1241. Background He was the second son of King Valdemar I of Denmark and Soph ...
, followed by a period of alternating Scandinavian and Teutonic rulers. Due to the strategic location by the sea, its
medieval In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the late 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire a ...
port A port is a maritime facility comprising one or more wharves or loading areas, where ships load and discharge cargo and passengers. Although usually situated on a sea coast or estuary, ports can also be found far inland, such as H ...
became a significant trade hub, especially in the 14–16th centuries, when Tallinn grew in importance as the northernmost member city of the
Hanseatic League The Hanseatic League (; gml, Hanse, , ; german: label= Modern German, Deutsche Hanse) was a medieval commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Central and Northern Europe. Growing from a few North German to ...
. Tallinn Old Town is one of the best-preserved medieval cities in Europe and is listed as a
UNESCO World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ...
. Tallinn has the highest number of startup companies per person among all capitals and larger cities in Europe and is the birthplace of many international high-technology companies, including
Skype Skype () is a proprietary telecommunications application operated by Skype Technologies, a division of Microsoft, best known for VoIP-based videotelephony, videoconferencing and voice calls. It also has instant messaging, file transfer, debi ...
, Bolt and Wise. The city is home to the headquarters of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a supranational union, supranational political union, political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe, Europe. The union has a total area of ...
's IT agency, and to the
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 member states – 28 European and two N ...
Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. In 2007, Tallinn was listed among the top-10 digital cities in the world, and in 2022, Tallinn was listed among the top-10 "medium-sized European cities of the future".


Etymology

In 1154, a town called (''Qlwn'' or ''Quwri'') was recorded in the description of the world upon the
world map A world map is a map of most or all of the surface of Earth. World maps, because of their scale, must deal with the problem of projection. Maps rendered in two dimensions by necessity distort the display of the three-dimensional surface of ...
('' Tabula Rogeriana'') commissioned by the Norman King
Roger II of Sicily Roger II ( it, Ruggero II; 22 December 1095 – 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily and Africa, son of Roger I of Sicily and successor to his brother Simon. He began his rule as Count of Sicily in 1105, became Duke of Apulia and Calabria i ...
and compiled by
Arab The Arabs (singular: Arab; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, DIN 31635: , , plural ar, عَرَب, DIN 31635: , Arabic pronunciation: ), also known as the Arab people, are an ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world in Western Asia, ...
cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi, who described it as "a small town like a large castle" among the towns of 'Astlanda'. It has been suggested that one possible transcription, 'Qlwn', may have denoted a predecessor of the modern city and may somehow be related to a toponym ''Kolyvan'', which has been discovered from later East Slavic chronicles. However, a number of modern historians have considered connecting any of al-Idrisi's placenames with modern Tallinn erroneous, unfounded, or speculative. Henry of Livonia, in his chronicle (ca. 1229), called the town with the name that is also known to have been used up to the 13th century by Scandinavians: ''Lindanisa'' (or ''Lyndanisse'' in Danish, ''Lindanäs'' in Swedish and ''Ledenets'' in Old East Slavic). The Icelandic '' Njal's saga''—composed after 1270, but describing events between 960 and 1020—mentions an event that occurred somewhere in the area of Tallinn and calls the place ''Rafala'' (probably a derivation of ''
Rävala Revala (also ''Rävälä'', la, Revalia, by Henry of Livonia ''Revele'', by Danish Census Book ''Revælæ'') was an Ancient Estonian county. It was located in northern Estonia, by the Gulf of Finland and corresponded roughly to the present te ...
'', ''Revala'', or some other variant of the Estonian name of the adjacent medieval Estonian county). Soon after the Danish conquest in 1219, the town became known in the
Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sámi languages: /. ( ) is a subregion in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties between its constituent peoples. In English usage, ''Scandinavia'' most commonly refers to Denmark, Norway, and S ...
n and
German German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, people of German ancestry, or native speakers of the German language ** For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law **Ge ...
languages as Reval ( la, Revalia). ''Reval'' was in official use in Estonia until 1918. The name Tallinn(a) is
Estonian Estonian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Estonia, a country in the Baltic region in northern Europe * Estonians, people from Estonia, or of Estonian descent * Estonian language * Estonian cuisine * Estonian culture See also * ...
. It has been widely considered a historical derivation of ''Taani-linna'', meaning "Danish-castle" ( la, Castrum Danorum), conceivably because the Danish invaders built the castle in place of the Estonian stronghold after the 1219 battle of Lyndanisse. The Finnic element ''-linna'', like Germanic ''- burg'' and Slavic ''- grad'' /''-gorod'', originally meant "fortress", but has been used as a suffix in the formation of town names. In international use, the English and German-language as well as the Russian analog ''Revel'' () were all gradually replaced by the Estonian name after the country became independent in 1918. At first, both Estonian forms, ''Tallinna'' and ''Tallinn'', were used. ''Tallinna'' in Estonian denotes also the
genitive case In grammar, the genitive case ( abbreviated ) is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun—thus indicating an attributive relationship of one noun to the other noun. A genitive can a ...
of the name, as in ''Tallinna Sadam'' ('the Port of Tallinn').


History

The first archaeological traces of a small hunter-fisherman community's presence in what is now Tallinn's city centre are about 5,000 years old. The comb ceramic pottery found on the site dates to about 3000 BCE and corded ware pottery around 2500 BCE. Around 1050 AD, a fortress was built in what is now central Tallinn, on the hill of Toompea. As an important port on a major trade route between Novgorod and western Europe, it became a target for the expansion of the
Teutonic Knights The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem, commonly known as the Teutonic Order, is a Catholic religious institution founded as a military society in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem. It was formed to aid Christians o ...
and the Kingdom of Denmark during the period of
Northern Crusades The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were Christian colonization and Christianization campaigns undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around th ...
in the beginning of the 13th century when
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. It is the world's largest and most widespread religion with roughly 2.38 billion followers representing one-third of the global popula ...
was forcibly imposed on the local population. Danish rule of Tallinn and northern Estonia started in 1219. In 1285, Tallinn, then known more widely as Reval, became the northernmost member of the
Hanseatic League The Hanseatic League (; gml, Hanse, , ; german: label= Modern German, Deutsche Hanse) was a medieval commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Central and Northern Europe. Growing from a few North German to ...
 – a mercantile and military alliance of German-dominated cities in Northern Europe. The king of Denmark sold Reval along with other land possessions in northern Estonia to the Teutonic Knights in 1346. Reval was arguably the most significant
medieval In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the late 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire a ...
port in the Gulf of Finland, the second-most important port being
Turku Turku ( ; ; sv, Åbo, ) is a city and former capital on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Finland Proper (''Varsinais-Suomi'') and the former Turku and Pori Province (''Turun ja Porin lääni''; ...
Reval enjoyed a strategic position at the crossroads of trade between the rest of western Europe and Novgorod and Muscovy in the east. The city, with a population of about 8,000, was very well fortified with city walls and 66 defence towers. A
weather vane A wind vane, weather vane, or weathercock is an instrument used for showing the direction of the wind. It is typically used as an architectural ornament to the highest point of a building. The word ''vane'' comes from the Old English word , m ...
, the figure of an old warrior called Old Thomas, was put on top of the spire of the
Tallinn Town Hall The Tallinn Town Hall ( et, Tallinna raekoda) is a building in the ''Vanalinn'' ("Old town") of Tallinn (Reval), Estonia, next to the Town Hall Square. The building is located in the south side of the medieval market square and is long. The we ...
in 1530. Old Thomas later became a popular symbol of the city. In the early years of the
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and i ...
, the city converted to
Lutheranism Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism, identifying primarily with the theology of Martin Luther, the 16th-century German monk and Protestant Reformers, reformer whose efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Cathol ...
. In 1561, Reval (Tallinn) became a
dominion The term ''Dominion'' is used to refer to one of several self-governing nations of the British Empire. "Dominion status" was first accorded to Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland, South Africa, and the Irish Free State at the 1926 ...
of Sweden. During the 1700–1721
Great Northern War The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. The initial leaders of the anti-Swe ...
,
plague Plague or The Plague may refer to: Agriculture, fauna, and medicine *Plague (disease), a disease caused by ''Yersinia pestis'' * An epidemic of infectious disease (medical or agricultural) * A pandemic caused by such a disease * A swarm of pes ...
-
stricken Stricken may refer to: * "Stricken" (song), a 2005 song by Disturbed * ''Stricken'' (2010 film), a 2010 American film directed by Matthew Sconce * ''Stricken'' (2009 film), a 2009 Dutch drama film * "Stricken", when a warship's name is removed ...
Tallinn along with Swedish Estonia and Livonia capitulated to
Tsardom of Russia The Tsardom of Russia or Tsardom of Rus' also externally referenced as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the centralized Russian state from the assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter I ...
(Muscovy) in 1710, but the local self-government institutions (
Magistracy A magistrates' court is a lower court where, in several jurisdictions, all criminal proceedings start. Also some civil matters may be dealt with here, such as family proceedings. Courts * Magistrates' court (England and Wales) * Magistrate's Cou ...
of Reval and Estonian Knighthood) retained their cultural and economical autonomy within Imperial Russia as the Governorate of Estonia. The Magistracy of Reval was abolished in 1889. The 19th century brought industrialisation of the city and the port kept its importance. On 24 February 1918, the Estonian Declaration of Independence was proclaimed in Tallinn. It was followed by Imperial German occupation until the end of
World War I World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, ...
in November 1918, after which Tallinn became the capital of independent Estonia. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the World War II by country, vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great power ...
, Estonia was first
occupied ' ( Norwegian: ') is a Norwegian political thriller TV series that premiered on TV2 on 5 October 2015. Based on an original idea by Jo Nesbø, the series is co-created with Karianne Lund and Erik Skjoldbjærg. Season 2 premiered on 10 Octobe ...
by the Soviet army and annexed into the USSR in the summer of 1940, then
occupied ' ( Norwegian: ') is a Norwegian political thriller TV series that premiered on TV2 on 5 October 2015. Based on an original idea by Jo Nesbø, the series is co-created with Karianne Lund and Erik Skjoldbjærg. Season 2 premiered on 10 Octobe ...
by
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") (officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945) was ...
from 1941 to 1944. During the German occupation Tallinn suffered from many instances of
aerial bombing An airstrike, air strike or air raid is an offensive operation carried out by aircraft. Air strikes are delivered from aircraft such as blimps, balloons, fighters, heavy bombers, ground attack aircraft, attack helicopters and drones. The offici ...
by the
Soviet air force The Soviet Air Forces ( rus, Военно-воздушные силы, r=Voyenno-vozdushnyye sily, VVS; literally "Military Air Forces") were one of the air forces of the Soviet Union. The other was the Soviet Air Defence Forces. The Air Forces ...
. During the most destructive Soviet bombing raid on 9–10 March 1944, over a thousand incendiary bombs were dropped on the town, causing widespread fires, killing 757 people, and leaving over 20,000 residents of Tallinn without shelter. After the German retreat in September 1944, the city was occupied again by the Soviet Union. During the 1980 Summer Olympics, the sailing (then known as yachting) events were held at Pirita, north-east of central Tallinn. Many buildings, such as the Tallinn TV Tower, "Olümpia" hotel, the new Main Post Office building, and the Regatta Centre, were built for the Olympics. In 1991, the independent democratic Estonian nation was re-established and a period of quick development as a modern European capital ensued. Tallinn became the capital of a ''de facto'' independent country once again on 20 August 1991. The Old Town became a
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ...
in 1997, and the city hosted the 2002 Eurovision Song Contest. Tallinn was the 2011 European Capital of Culture, and will be the 2023 European Green Capital Award. The city has pledged to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 40% by 2030 and takes pride in its biodiversity and high air quality.


Geography

Tallinn is situated on the southern coast of the
Gulf of Finland The Gulf of Finland ( fi, Suomenlahti; et, Soome laht; rus, Фи́нский зали́в, r=Finskiy zaliv, p=ˈfʲinskʲɪj zɐˈlʲif; sv, Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It extends between Finland to the north and ...
, in north-western Estonia. The largest lake in Tallinn is
Lake Ülemiste Lake Ülemiste ( et, Ülemiste järv) is the largest of the lakes surrounding Tallinn, Estonia. Ülemiste is the main part of the Tallinn water supply system, which supplies the city with most of its drinking water. The lake is fed mostly by Kur ...
(), which serves as the main source of the city's drinking water. Lake Harku is the second-largest lake within the borders of Tallinn and its area is . The only significant river in Tallinn nowadays is the
Pirita River The Pirita ( et, Pirita jõgi) is a long river in northern Estonia that drains into Tallinn Bay (part of the Gulf of Finland) in Pirita, Tallinn. The basin area of the Pirita is 799 km2. For the 1980 Summer Olympics held in Moscow, the est ...
, in the eponymous Pirita city district. Historically, a smaller river, called Härjapea, flowed from Lake Ülemiste through the town into the sea, but the river was diverted into underground sewerage system in the 1930s and has since completely disappeared from the cityscape. References to it still remain in the street names Jõe (from ''jõgi'', river) and Kivisilla (from ''kivi sild'', stone bridge). A
limestone Limestone ( calcium carbonate ) is a type of carbonate sedimentary rock which is the main source of the material lime. It is composed mostly of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of . Limestone forms w ...
cliff runs through the city. It can be seen at Toompea, Lasnamäe, and Astangu. However, Toompea is not a part of the cliff, but a separate hill. The highest point in Tallinn, at 64 m (about 200 ft) above sea level, is situated in
Hiiu Hiiu is a subdistrict ( et, asum) in the district of Nõmme, Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. It covers an area of and has a population of 3,986 (), population density is . Hiiu has a station on the Elron western route. The first narrow gauge ...
, Nõmme District, in the south-west of the city. The length of the
coast The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the ocean, or as a line that forms the boundary between the land and the coastline. The Earth has around of coastline. Coasts are important zones in n ...
is . It comprises three bigger peninsulas:
Kopli Kopli ( Estonian for ''"Paddock"'') is a subdistrict of the district of Põhja-Tallinn (Northern Tallinn) in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. It is located on the Kopli Peninsula and is bordered by parts of the Tallinn Bay, the Kopli Bay to the ...
, Paljassaare, and Kakumäe Peninsulas. The city has a number of public beaches, including those at Pirita, Stroomi, Kakumäe, Harku, and Pikakari. The geology under the city of Tallinn is made up of rocks and sediments of different composition and age. Youngest are the Quaternary deposits. The materials of these deposits are till, varved
clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil material containing clay minerals (hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, e.g. kaolin, Al2 Si2 O5( OH)4). Clays develop plasticity when wet, due to a molecular film of water surrounding the clay pa ...
,
sand Sand is a granular material composed of finely divided mineral particles. Sand has various compositions but is defined by its grain size. Sand grains are smaller than gravel and coarser than silt. Sand can also refer to a textural class ...
,
gravel Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments. Gravel occurs naturally throughout the world as a result of sedimentary and erosive geologic processes; it is also produced in large quantities commercially as crushed stone. Gravel is classifi ...
, and pebbles that are of glacial, marine and lacustrine origin. Some of the Quaternary deposits are valuable as they constitute
aquifer An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing, permeable rock, rock fractures, or unconsolidated materials ( gravel, sand, or silt). Groundwater from aquifers can be extracted using a water well. Aquifers vary greatly in their characte ...
s, or as in the case of gravels and sands, are used as construction materials. The Quaternary deposits are the fill of valleys that are now buried. The buried valleys of Tallinn are carved into older rock likely by ancient rivers to be later modified by glaciers. While the valley fill is made up of Quaternary sediments the valleys themselves originated from erosion that took place before the Quaternary. The substrate into which the buried valleys were carved is made up of hard
sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic particles at Earth's surface, followed by cementation. Sedimentation is the collective name for processes that cause these particles ...
of Ediacaran,
Cambrian The Cambrian Period ( ; sometimes symbolized Ꞓ) was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon. The Cambrian lasted 53.4 million years from the end of the preceding Ediacaran Period 538.8 million years ago ...
and Ordovician age. Only the upper layer of Ordovician rocks protrudes from the cover of younger deposits, cropping out in the Baltic Klint at the coast and at a few places inland. The Ordovician rocks are made up from top to bottom of a thick layer of limestone and
marlstone Marl is an earthy material rich in carbonate minerals, clays, and silt. When hardened into rock, this becomes marlstone. It is formed in marine or freshwater environments, often through the activities of algae. Marl makes up the lower part ...
, then a first layer of argillite followed by first layer of sandstone and siltstone and then another layer of argillite also followed by sandstone and siltstone. In other places of the city, hard sedimentary rock is only to be found beneath Quaternary sediments at depths reaching as much as 120 m below sea level. Underlying the sedimentary rock are the rocks of the
Fennoscandia __NOTOC__ Fennoscandia ( Finnish, Swedish and no, Fennoskandia, nocat=1; russian: Фенноскандия, Fennoskandiya) or the Fennoscandian Peninsula is the geographical peninsula in Europe, which includes the Scandinavian and Kola penin ...
n Craton including
gneiss Gneiss ( ) is a common and widely distributed type of metamorphic rock. It is formed by high-temperature and high-pressure metamorphic processes acting on formations composed of igneous or sedimentary rocks. Gneiss forms at higher temperatures a ...
es and other
metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock to new types of rock in a process called metamorphism. The original rock (protolith) is subjected to temperatures greater than and, often, elevated pressure of or more, caus ...
s with volcanic rock
protolith A protolith () is the original, unmetamorphosed rock from which a given metamorphic rock is formed. For example, the protolith of a slate is a shale or mudstone. Metamorphic rocks can be derived from any other kind of non-metamorphic rock an ...
s and rapakivi granites. These rocks are much older than the rest ( Paleoproterozoic age) and do not crop out anywhere in Estonia.


Climate

Tallinn has a
humid continental climate A humid continental climate is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by four distinct seasons and large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and freez ...
(
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, nota ...
''Dfb'') with mild, rainy summers and cold, snowy winters. Winters are cold, but mild for its latitude, owing to its coastal location. The average temperature in February, the coldest month, is . During the winters, temperatures tend to hover close to freezing, but mild spells of weather can push temperatures above , occasionally reaching above while cold air masses can push temperatures below an average of 6 days a year. Snowfall is common during the winters, which are cloudy and characterised by low amounts of sunshine, ranging from only 20.7 hours of sunshine per month in December to 58.8 hours in February. Spring starts out cool, with freezing temperatures common in March and April, but gradually becomes warmer in May, when daytime temperatures average , although nighttime temperatures still remain cool, averaging from March to May. Snowfall is common in March and can occur in April. Summers are mild with daytime temperatures hovering around and nighttime temperatures averaging between from June to August. The warmest month is usually July, with an average of . During summer, partly cloudy or clear days are common and it is the sunniest season, ranging from 255.6 hours of sunshine in August to 312.1 hours in July although precipitation is higher during these months. As a consequence of its high latitude, at the
summer solstice The summer solstice, also called the estival solstice or midsummer, occurs when one of Earth's poles has its maximum tilt toward the Sun. It happens twice yearly, once in each hemisphere (Northern and Southern). For that hemisphere, the summer ...
, daylight lasts for more than 18 hours and 30 minutes. Fall starts out mild, with a September average daily mean of and increasingly becomes cooler and cloudier towards the end of November. In the early parts of fall, temperatures commonly reach and at least one day above in September. In late fall, freezing temperatures become more common and snowfall can occur. Tallinn receives of precipitation annually, which is evenly distributed throughout the year although March, April and May are the driest months, averaging about , while July and August are the wettest months with of precipitation. The average humidity is 81%, ranging from a high of 89% to a low of 69% in May. Tallinn has an average windspeed of with winters being the windiest (around in January) and summers being the least windy at around in August. Extremes range from on 10 January 1987 to on 30 July 1994. According to a 2021 study commissioned by the British price comparison site Uswitch.com, Tallinn is the most unpredictable of European capitals in terms of weather conditions, with a total score of 69/100; the high score is mainly due to the high number of rainy days in the city and the variation in the duration of sunshine.
Riga Riga (; lv, Rīga , liv, Rīgõ) is the capital and largest city of Latvia and is home to 605,802 inhabitants which is a third of Latvia's population. The city lies on the Gulf of Riga at the mouth of the Daugava river where it meets the ...
and
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ) is the Capital city, capital, primate city, primate, and List of cities and towns in Finland, most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of the region of U ...
took second and third places.


Administrative districts

Tallinn is subdivided into eight administrative districts ( et, linnaosad, singular ''linnaosa''). The district governments are city institutions that fulfill, in the territory of their district, the functions assigned to them by Tallinn legislation and
statute A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs the legal entities of a city, state, or country by way of consent. Typically, statutes command or prohibit something, or declare policy. Statutes are rules made by ...
s. Each district government is managed by an elder ( et, linnaosavanem). They are appointed by the city government on the nomination of the mayor and after having heard the opinion of the administrative councils. The function of the administrative councils is to recommend to the city government and commissions of the city council how the districts should be administered. The administrative districts are further divided into subdistricts or neighbourhoods ( et, asum). Their names and borders are officially defined. There are 84 subdistricts in Tallinn.


Demographics

Tallinn is the most populous,
primate Primates are a diverse order of mammals. They are divided into the strepsirrhines, which include the lemurs, galagos, and lorisids, and the haplorhines, which include the tarsiers and the simians ( monkeys and apes, the latter includin ...
, and
capital city A capital city or capital is the municipality holding primary status in a country, state, province, department, or other subnational entity, usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses t ...
of
Estonia Estonia, formally the Republic of Estonia, is a country by the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, an ...
. The population of Tallinn on 1 January 2021 was 438,341. It is the most populous and primate city of
Estonia Estonia, formally the Republic of Estonia, is a country by the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, an ...
, and the 59th most populated city in the EU. According to
Eurostat Eurostat ('European Statistical Office'; DG ESTAT) is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in the Kirchberg, Luxembourg, Kirchberg quarter of Luxembourg City, Luxembourg. Eurostat's main responsibilities are to provide stati ...
, in 2004, Tallinn had one of the largest number of non-EU nationals of all EU member states' capital cities. Ethnic Russians are a significant minority in Tallinn, as around a third of the city's residents are first and second generation immigrants from Russia and other parts of the former Soviet Union; a majority of the Soviet-era immigrants now hold Estonian citizenship. Ethnic Estonians made up over 80% of Tallinn's population before World War II. As of 2020, ethnic Estonians made up over 52% of the population. Tallinn was one of the urban areas with industrial and military significance in northern Estonia that during the period of Soviet occupation underwent extensive russification of its ethnic composition due to large influx of immigrants from Russia and other parts of the former USSR. Whole new city districts were built where the main intent of the then Soviet authorities was to accommodate Russian-speaking immigrants: Mustamäe, Väike-Õismäe, Pelguranna, and most notably, Lasnamäe, which in 1980s became, and is to this day, the most populous district of Tallinn. The official language of Tallinn is Estonian. As of 2011, 50.1% of the city's residents were native speakers of Estonian, whereas 46.7% had Russian as their
first language A first language, native tongue, native language, mother tongue or L1 is the first language or dialect that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period. In some countries, the term ''native language'' or ''mother to ...
. While English is the most frequently used foreign language by the residents Tallinn, there are also a significant number of native speakers of
Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians, an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to demographics of Ukraine in terms of demography and population of Ukraine * So ...
and Finnish.


Economy

Tallinn has a highly diversified economy with particular strengths in information technology, tourism and logistics. Over half of the Estonian GDP is created in Tallinn. In 2008, the GDP per capita of Tallinn stood at 172% of the Estonian average. In addition to longtime functions as seaport and capital city, Tallinn has seen development of an information technology sector; in its 13 December 2005, edition, ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''the Times'', ''NYT'', or the Gray Lady) is a daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership reported in 2020 to comprise a declining 840,000 paid print subscribers, and a growing 6 million paid ...
'' characterised Estonia as "a sort of
Silicon Valley Silicon Valley is a region in Northern California that serves as a global center for high technology and innovation. Located in the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area, it corresponds roughly to the geographical areas San Mateo Cou ...
on the Baltic Sea". One of Tallinn's sister cities is the Silicon Valley town of
Los Gatos, California Los Gatos (, ; ) is an incorporated town in Santa Clara County, California, United States. The population is 33,529 according to the 2020 census. It is located in the San Francisco Bay Area just southwest of San Jose in the foothills of th ...
. Skype is one of the best-known of several Estonian start-ups originating from Tallinn. Many start-ups have originated from the Institute of Cybernetics. In recent years, Tallinn has gradually been becoming one of the main IT centres of Europe, with the
Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence NATO CCD COE, officially the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence ( et, italic=yes, K5 or ''NATO küberkaitsekoostöö keskus''), is one of NATO Centres of Excellence, located in Tallinn, Estonia. The centre was established on 14 ...
(CCD COE) of
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 member states – 28 European and two N ...
, eu-LISA, the EU Digital Agency and the IT development centres of large corporations, such as TeliaSonera and
Kuehne + Nagel Kuehne + Nagel International AG (or Kühne + Nagel) is a global transport and logistics company based in Schindellegi, Switzerland. It was founded in 1890, in Bremen, Germany, by August Kühne and Friedrich Nagel. It provides sea freight and ai ...
being based in the city. Smaller start-up incubators like Garage48 and Game Founders have helped to provide support to teams from Estonia and around the world looking for support, development and networking opportunities. Tallinn receives 4.3 million visitors annually, a figure that has grown steadily over the past decade. The
Finns Finns or Finnish people ( fi, suomalaiset, ) are a Baltic Finnic ethnic group native to Finland. Finns are traditionally divided into smaller regional groups that span several countries adjacent to Finland, both those who are native to these ...
are especially a common sight in Tallinn; on average, about 20,000–40,000 Finnish tourists visit the city between June and October.ERR: Finnish tourist numbers on the rise – new generations traveling to Estonia
/ref> Most of the visitors come from Europe, though Tallinn has also become increasingly visited by tourists from the Asia-Pacific region. Tallinn Passenger Port is one of the busiest cruise destinations on the Baltic Sea, serving more than 520,000 cruise passengers in 2013. From year 2011 regular cruise turnarounds in cooperation with Tallinn Airport are organised. Eesti Energia, a large oil shale to energy company, has its headquarters in Tallinn. The city also hosts the headquarters of Elering, a national electric power transmission system operator and member of ENTSO-E, the Estonian natural gas company Eesti Gaas and energy holding company Alexela Energia, part of Alexela Group. Nord Pool Spot, the largest market for electrical energy in the world, established its local office in Tallinn. Tallinn is the financial centre of Estonia and also a strong economic centre in the Scandinavian-Baltic region. Many major banks, such as SEB,
Swedbank Swedbank AB () is a Nordic- Baltic banking group based in Stockholm, Sweden, offering retail banking, asset management, financial, and other services. In 2019 Swedbank had 900,000 private and 130,000 corporate clients and a 60% market share o ...
, and Nordea, have their local offices in Tallinn. LHV Pank, an Estonian investment bank, has its corporate headquarters in Tallinn. Two crypto-currencies exchanges officially recognized by the Estonian government, CoinMetro and DX.Exchange have their headquarters in Tallinn. Tallinn Stock Exchange, part of
NASDAQ OMX Group Nasdaq, Inc. is an American multinational financial services corporation that owns and operates three stock exchanges in the United States: the namesake Nasdaq stock exchange, the Philadelphia Stock Exchange, and the Boston Stock Exchange, a ...
, is the only regulated exchange in Estonia. Port of Tallinn is one of the biggest ports in the Baltic sea region, and the largest cargo port of Estonia, the Port of Muuga, which belongs to the same entity, is located in the neighboring town of Maardu. Old City Harbour has been known as a convenient harbour since the medieval times, but nowadays the cargo operations are shifted to Muuga Cargo Port and Paldiski Southern Port. There is a small fleet of oceangoing trawlers that operate out of Tallinn. Tallinn's industries include shipbuilding, machine building, metal processing, electronics, textile manufacturing.
BLRT Grupp BLRT Grupp (Balti Laevaremonditehas) is a shipbuilding company headquartered in Tallinn, Estonia. In addition to Estonia, the company owns shipyards in Lithuania, Finland and Norway. Its shipbuilding and ship repair subsidiaries are Tallinn Shi ...
has its headquarters and some subsidiaries in Tallinn. Air Maintenance Estonia and AS Panaviatic Maintenance, both based in Tallinn Airport, provide MRO services for aircraft, largely expanding their operations in recent years. Liviko, the maker of
Vana Tallinn Vana Tallinn (Literal translation: "Old Tallinn") is an Estonian brand of liqueur manufactured continuously by Liviko since 1960. The recipe contains Jamaican rum and a variety of herbs and spices. Vana Tallinn is typically served on the rock ...
liqueur, strongly associated with the city, is based in Tallinn. The headquarters of Kalev, a confectionery company and part of the industrial conglomerate
Orkla Group Orkla ASA is a Norwegian conglomerate operating in the Nordic region, Eastern Europe, Asia and the US. At present, Orkla operates in the branded consumer goods, aluminium solutions and financial investment sectors. Orkla ASA is listed on the Osl ...
, is located in Lehmja, southeast of Tallinn. Estonia is ranked third in Europe in terms of shopping centre space per inhabitant, ahead of Sweden and being surpassed only by
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe, the mainland territory of which comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The remote Arctic island of ...
and
Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=no, Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ; german: link=no, Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a small lan ...
.


Notable headquarters

Among others: *
NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence NATO CCD COE, officially the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence ( et, italic=yes, K5 or ''NATO küberkaitsekoostöö keskus''), is one of NATO Allied Command Transformation#NATO Centres of Excellence, Centres of Excellence, loca ...
(CCDCOE) * eu-LISA, the European Agency for the operational management of large-scale IT systems in the area of freedom, security and justice is based in Tallinn. *
Skype Skype () is a proprietary telecommunications application operated by Skype Technologies, a division of Microsoft, best known for VoIP-based videotelephony, videoconferencing and voice calls. It also has instant messaging, file transfer, debi ...
has its software development centre located in Tallinn. * Telia Company has its IT development centre located in Tallinn. *
Kuehne + Nagel Kuehne + Nagel International AG (or Kühne + Nagel) is a global transport and logistics company based in Schindellegi, Switzerland. It was founded in 1890, in Bremen, Germany, by August Kühne and Friedrich Nagel. It provides sea freight and ai ...
has its IT centre located in Tallinn. * Arvato Financial Solutions has its global IT development and innovation centre located in Tallinn. *
Ericsson (lit. "Telephone Stock Company of LM Ericsson"), commonly known as Ericsson, is a Swedish multinational networking and telecommunications company headquartered in Stockholm. The company sells infrastructure, software, and services in inform ...
has one of its biggest production facilities in Europe located in Tallinn, focusing on the production of 4G communication devices. * Equinor has announced moving the group's financial centre to Tallinn. * Bolt * Alexela * LHV


Education

Institutions of higher education and science include: * Baltic Film and Media School * Estonian Academy of Arts *
Estonian Academy of Security Sciences Estonian Academy of Security Sciences ( et, Eesti Sisekaitseakadeemia) is a public vocational university in Estonia. It provides professional education for Estonian civil servants under the Estonian Ministry of the Interior. Its objective is to e ...
*
Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre The Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre (''Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia'') began as a mixed choir of the Estonia Society Musical Department (EMD) on the eve of World War I. The assembly of the Estonia Society created the Tallinn Higher Musi ...
* Estonian Business School * Estonian Maritime Academy * Institute of Theology of the Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church * National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics * Tallinn University *
Tallinn University of Technology Established in 1918, Tallinn University of Technology (TalTech; et, Tallinna Tehnikaülikool) is the only technical university in Estonia. TalTech, in the capital city of Tallinn, is a university for engineering, business, public administrati ...
* Tallinn University of Applied Sciences


Culture

Tallinn was a European Capital of Culture for 2011, along with
Turku Turku ( ; ; sv, Åbo, ) is a city and former capital on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Finland Proper (''Varsinais-Suomi'') and the former Turku and Pori Province (''Turun ja Porin lääni''; ...
, Finland.


Museums

Tallinn is home to more than 60 museums and galleries. Most of them are located in Kesklinn, the central district of the city, and cover Tallinn's rich history. One of the most visited historical museums in Tallinn is the
Estonian History Museum Estonian History Museum ( et, Eesti Ajaloomuuseum) is a museum about the history of Estonia in Tallinn. It was initially established by pharmacist Dr. Johann Burchart who ran the town hall pharmacy known as the Raeapteek. Inaugurated in 1987 ...
, located in Great Guild Hall at
Vanalinn Vanalinn ( Estonian for ''"Old Town"'') is a subdistrict ( et, asum) in the district of Kesklinn (Midtown), Tallinn, the capital of Estonia Estonia, formally the Republic of Estonia, is a country by the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe, No ...
, the old part of the city. It covers Estonia's history from prehistoric times up until the end of the 20th century. It features film and hands-on displays that show how Estonian dwellers lived and survived. The Estonian Maritime Museum provides a detailed overview of nation's seafaring past. This museum in also located in city's Old Town, where it occupies one of Tallinn's former defensive structures – Fat Margaret's Tower. Another historical museum that can be found at city's Old Town, just behind the Town Hall, is Tallinn City Museum. It covers Tallinn's history from pre-history until 1991, when Estonia regained its independence. Tallinn City Museum owns nine more departments and museums around the city, one of which is Tallinn's Museum of Photography, also located just behind the Town Hall. It features permanent exhibition that covers 100 years of photography in Estonia. Estonia's Vabamu Museum of Occupations and Freedom is yet another historical museum located in Tallinn's central district. It covers the 52 years when Estonia was occupied by the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. Not far away is another museum related to the Soviet occupation of Estonia, the KGB Museum, which occupies the 23rd floor of
Sokos Hotel Viru Sokos Hotel Viru is a hotel in Tallinn, Estonia. Originally owned by Intourist and called Viru Hotel, it was first opened on 5 May 1972. The hotel building was the first high-rise building in Estonia. Today, the hotel is connected to the shopp ...
. It features equipment, uniforms, and documents of Russian Secret Service agents. Tallinn is also home to two major natural science museums – Estonian Museum of Natural History and Estonian Health Care Museum, both located in Old Town. The Estonian Museum of Natural Science features several seasonal and temporary themed exhibitions that provide an overview of wildlife in Estonia and around the world. The Estonian Health Care Museum features permanent exhibitions on anatomy and health care; its collections and displays cover the history of medicine in
Estonia Estonia, formally the Republic of Estonia, is a country by the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, an ...
. Tallinn is home to several art and design museums. The
Estonian Art Museum The Art Museum of Estonia ( et, Eesti Kunstimuuseum) was established in 1919. Originally based in Kadriorg Palace, the museum has expanded across several sites and today exhibits both international and local art works. At the end of the 1970s, in t ...
, the largest art museum in Estonia, consists of four branches – Kumu Art Museum, Kadriorg Art Museum, Mikkel Museum, and Niguliste Museum. Kumu Art Museum features the country's largest collection of contemporary and modern art. It also displays Estonian art starting from the early 18th century. Those who are interested in Western European and Russian art may enjoy Kadriorg Art Museum collections, located in Kadriorg Palace, a beautiful
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a style of architecture, music, dance, painting, sculpture, poetry, and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th century until the 1750s. In the territories of the Spanish and Portuguese empires including ...
building erected by
Peter the Great Peter I ( – ), most commonly known as Peter the Great,) or Pyotr Alekséyevich ( rus, Пётр Алексе́евич, p=ˈpʲɵtr ɐlʲɪˈksʲejɪvʲɪtɕ, , group=pron was a Russian monarch who ruled the Tsardom of Russia from t ...
. It stores and displays about 9,000 works of art from the 16th to 20th centuries. The Mikkel Museum, in Kadriorg Park, displays a collection of mainly Western art – ceramics and Chinese porcelain donated by Johannes Mikkel in 1994. The Niguliste Museum occupies former St. Nicholas' Church; it displays collections of historical ecclesiastical art spanning nearly seven centuries from the Middle Ages to post-Reformation art. Those that are interested in design and applied art may enjoy the Estonian Museum of Applied Art and Design collection of Estonian contemporary designs. It displays up to 15.000 pieces of work made of textile art, ceramics, porcelain, leather, glass, jewellery, metalwork, furniture, and product design. To experience more relaxed, culture-oriented exhibits, one may turn to Museum of Estonian Drinking Culture. This museum showcases the historic Luscher & Matiesen Distillery as well as the history of Estonian alcohol production.


Lauluväljak

The Estonian Song Festival (in Estonian: ''Laulupidu'') is one of the largest
choral A choir ( ; also known as a chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble of singers. Choral music, in turn, is the music written specifically for such an ensemble to perform. Choirs may perform music from the classical music repertoire, which s ...
events in the world, listed by the
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) aimed at promoting world peace and security through international coope ...
as a
Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity The Proclamation of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity was made by the Director-General of UNESCO starting in 2001 to raise awareness of intangible cultural heritage and encourage local communities to protect them and th ...
. It is held every five years in July on the Tallinn Song Festival Grounds (''Lauluväljak'') simultaneously with the Estonian Dance Festival.Estonian Song and Dance Celebrations
Estonian Song and Dance Celebration Foundation
The joint choir has comprised more than 30,000 singers performing to an audience of 80,000. Estonians have one of the biggest collections of folk songs in the world, with written records of about 133,000 folk songs. From 1987, a cycle of mass
demonstrations Demonstration may refer to: * Demonstration (acting), part of the Brechtian approach to acting * Demonstration (military), an attack or show of force on a front where a decision is not sought * Demonstration (political), a political rally or prote ...
featuring spontaneous singing of national songs and
hymn A hymn is a type of song, and partially synonymous with devotional song, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification. The word ''hymn ...
s that were strictly forbidden during the years of the Soviet occupation to peacefully resist the oppression. In September 1988, a record 300,000 people, more than a quarter of all
Estonians Estonians or Estonian people ( et, eestlased) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Estonia who speak the Estonian language. The Estonian language is spoken as the first language by the vast majority of Estonians; it is closely related to othe ...
, gathered in Tallinn for a song festival.


Tallinn Black Nights Film Festival

Tallinn Black Nights Film Festival (Estonian: Pimedate Ööde Filmifestival, or PÖFF), is an annual film festival held since 1997 in Tallinn, the capital city of Estonia. PÖFF is the only festival in the Nordic and Baltic region with a FIAPF (International Federation of Film Producers Association) accreditation for holding an international competition programme in the Nordic and Baltic region with 14 other non-specialised festivals, such as
Cannes Cannes ( , , ; oc, Canas) is a city located on the French Riviera. It is a commune located in the Alpes-Maritimes department, and host city of the annual Cannes Film Festival, Midem, and Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity. The ...
,
Berlin Berlin ( , ) is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3.7 million inhabitants make it the European Union's most populous city, according to population within city limits. One of Germany's sixteen constitu ...
,
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto Regions of Italy, region. It is built on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400  ...
. With over 250 feature films screened each year and over 77500 attendances (2014), PÖFF is one of the largest film events of Northern Europe and cultural events in Estonia in the winter season. During its 19th edition in 2015 the festival screened more than 600 films (including 250+ feature-length films from 80 countries), bringing over 900 screenings to an audience of over 80, 000 people as well as over 700 accredited guests and journalists from 50 countries. In 2010 the festival held the European Film Awards ceremony in Tallinn.


Cuisine

The traditional cuisine of Tallinn reflects culinary traditions of north Estonia, the role of the city as a fishing port, and historical German influences. Numerous cafés have played a major role in a social life of the city since the 19th century, as have bars, especially in the Kesklinn district. The '' martsipan'' industry in Tallinn has a very long history. The production of ''martsipan'' started in the Middle Ages, almost simultaneously in Tallinn (Reval) and Lübeck, both member cities of the Hanseatic League. In 1695, ''marzipan'' was mentioned as a medicine, under the designation of ''Panis Martius,'' in the price lists of the Tallinn Town Hall Pharmacy. The modern era of ''martsipan'' in Tallinn began in 1806, when the Swiss confectioner Lorenz Caviezel set up his confectionery on Pikk Street. In 1864, it was bought and expanded by Georg Stude and now is known as the Maiasmokk café. In the late 19th century ''martsipan'' figurines made by Tallinn's confectioners were supplied to the Russian imperial family. Arguably, the most symbolic seafood dish of Tallinn is ''vürtsikilu'' ("spicy sprat") – salted sprats pickled with a distinctive set of spices including
black pepper Black pepper (''Piper nigrum'') is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, known as a peppercorn, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. The fruit is a drupe (stonefruit) which is about in dia ...
, allspice and
cloves Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, ''Syzygium aromaticum'' (). They are native to the Maluku Islands (or Moluccas) in Indonesia, and are commonly used as a spice, flavoring or Aroma compound, fragrance in fi ...
. The making of traditional ''vürtsikilu'' is thought to have originated from the city's outskirts. In 1826, the merchants of Tallinn exported 40,000 cans of ''vürtsikilu'' to Saint Petersburg. A closely associated dish is ''kiluvõileib'' ("sprat-butter-bread") – a traditional
rye bread Rye bread is a type of bread made with various proportions of flour from rye grain. It can be light or dark in color, depending on the type of flour used and the addition of coloring agents, and is typically denser than bread made from wheat ...
open sandwich covered with a layer of butter and ''vürtsikilu'' as the topping. Boiled egg slices and culinary herbs are optional extra toppings. Alcoholic beverages produced in the city include beer, vodka, and liqueurs (such as the eponymous
Vana Tallinn Vana Tallinn (Literal translation: "Old Tallinn") is an Estonian brand of liqueur manufactured continuously by Liviko since 1960. The recipe contains Jamaican rum and a variety of herbs and spices. Vana Tallinn is typically served on the rock ...
). The number of craft beer breweries has expanded sharply in Tallinn over the last decade, entering local and regional markets.


Tourism

What can arguably be considered to be Tallinn's main attractions are located in the Tallinn Old Town (divided into a "lower town" and Toompea hill) which is easily explored on foot. The eastern parts of the city, notably Pirita (with Pirita Convent) and Kadriorg (with Kadriorg Palace) districts, are also popular destinations, and the
Estonian Open Air Museum The Estonian Open Air Museum (Estonian: ''Eesti Vabaõhumuuseum'') is a life-sized reconstruction of an 18th-19th century rural/fishing village, which includes church, tavern, schoolhouse, several mills, a fire station, twelve farmyards and net s ...
in Rocca al Mare, west of the city, preserves aspects of Estonian rural culture and architecture. The historical wooden suburbs like Kalamaja, Pelgulinn, Kassisaba and Kelmiküla and revitalized industrial areas like
Rotermanni Quarter Rotermanni Quarter is an area in the downtown of Tallinn, Estonia. It is located between Tallinn Old Town, the Port of Tallinn and Viru Square. This area has played an important role in Tallinn's history; in the 19th century it was the cr ...
,
Noblessner Noblessner (also known as Peetri sadam) is a harbour and former industrial area in the northern district of Tallinn, Estonia. Since 2013 it has been redeveloped into a cultural and residential area with a museum, art centre, craft brewery, marina ...
and Dvigatel are also unique places to visit.


Toompea – Upper Town

This area was once an almost separate town, heavily fortified, and has always been the seat of whatever power that has ruled Estonia. The hill occupies an easily defensible site overlooking the surrounding districts. The major attractions are the medieval Toompea Castle (today housing the Estonian Parliament, the '' Riigikogu''), the Lutheran St Mary's Cathedral, also known as the Dome Church ( et, Toomkirik), and the Russian Orthodox Alexander Nevsky Cathedral.


All-linn – Lower Town

This area is one of the best preserved medieval towns in Europe and the authorities are continuing its rehabilitation. Major sights include the Town Hall square ( et, Raekoja plats ), the city wall and towers (notably " Fat Margaret" and " Kiek in de Kök") as well as a number of medieval churches, including St Olaf's, St. Nicholas' and the Church of the Holy Ghost. The Catholic Cathedral of St Peter and St Paul is also in the Lower Town.


Kadriorg

Kadriorg is east of the city centre and is served by buses and trams. Kadriorg Palace, the former palace of
Peter the Great Peter I ( – ), most commonly known as Peter the Great,) or Pyotr Alekséyevich ( rus, Пётр Алексе́евич, p=ˈpʲɵtr ɐlʲɪˈksʲejɪvʲɪtɕ, , group=pron was a Russian monarch who ruled the Tsardom of Russia from t ...
, built just after the
Great Northern War The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. The initial leaders of the anti-Swe ...
, now houses the foreign art department of the
Art Museum of Estonia The Art Museum of Estonia ( et, Eesti Kunstimuuseum) was established in 1919. Originally based in Kadriorg Palace, the museum has expanded across several sites and today exhibits both international and local art works. At the end of the 1970s, in t ...
, the presidential residence and the surrounding grounds include formal gardens and woodland. The main building of the Art Museum of Estonia, Kumu ( et, Kunstimuuseum, Art Museum), was built in 2006 and lies in Kadriorg park. It houses an encyclopaedic collection of Estonian art, including paintings by
Carl Timoleon von Neff Carl Timoleon von Neff, also Timofey Andreyevich Neff (russian: Тимофей Андреевич Нефф, – ) was a Russian Imperial artist of Baltic German descent. Biography Carl Timoleon von Neff was born at a manor house in Neu-Isenho ...
,
Johann Köler Johann Köler (8 March 1826 – 22 April 1899) was a leader of the Estonian national awakening and a painter. He is considered as the first professional painter of the emerging nation. He distinguished himself primarily by his portraiture and to ...
, Eduard Ole,
Jaan Koort Jaan Koort (6 November 1883, Sootaga Parish ( Äksi), Tartu – 14 October 1935 in Moscow) was an Estonian sculptor, painter and ceramicist. Born on 6 November in Tartu, he was the thirteenth child of village farmers Susanna-Marie and Jaan Ko ...
,
Konrad Mägi Konrad Vilhelm Mägi (1 November 1878 – 15 August 1925) was an Estonian painter, primarily known for his landscape work. He was one of the most colour-sensitive Estonian painters of the first decades of the 20th century, and Mägi's works on m ...
,
Eduard Wiiralt Eduard Wiiralt (20 March 1898 – 8 January 1954) was a well-known Estonian graphic artist. In art history, Wiiralt is considered as the most remarkable master of Estonian graphic art in the first half of his century; the most well-known of his ...
, Henn Roode and
Adamson-Eric Erich Carl Hugo Adamson (more commonly known as Adamson-Eric; 18 August 1902 – 2 December 1968) was an Estonian artist who worked mainly within the medium of painting in applied art. Life Erich Carl Hugo Adamson was born 18 August 1902 in Tart ...
, among others.


Pirita

This coastal district is a further 2 kilometres north-east of Kadriorg. The marina was built for the Moscow Olympics of 1980, and boats can be hired on the
Pirita River The Pirita ( et, Pirita jõgi) is a long river in northern Estonia that drains into Tallinn Bay (part of the Gulf of Finland) in Pirita, Tallinn. The basin area of the Pirita is 799 km2. For the 1980 Summer Olympics held in Moscow, the est ...
. Two kilometres inland are the Botanic Gardens and the Tallinn TV Tower.


Transport


City transport

The city operates a system of bus (73 lines),
tram A tram (called a streetcar or trolley in North America) is a rail vehicle that travels on tramway tracks on public urban streets; some include segments on segregated right-of-way. The tramlines or networks operated as public transport ...
(4 lines) and trolley-bus (4 lines) routes to all districts; the long tram system is the only tram network in Estonia. A flat-fare system is used. The ticket-system is based on prepaid RFID cards available in kiosks and post offices. In January 2013, Tallinn became the first European capital to offer a fare-free service on buses, trams and trolleybuses within the city limits. This service is available to residents who register with the municipality.


Air

The
Lennart Meri Tallinn Airport Tallinn Airport ( et, Tallinna lennujaam, ) or Lennart Meri Tallinn Airport ( et, Lennart Meri Tallinna lennujaam) is the largest airport in Estonia, which serves as a hub for the national airline Nordica, as well as the secondary hub for Air ...
is about from Town Hall square (). There is a tram (Line Number: 4) and local bus connection between the airport and the edge of the city centre (bus no. 2). The nearest railway station
Ülemiste Ülemiste is a subdistrict ( et, asum) in the district of Lasnamäe, Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. It has a population of 1,444 (). Estonian largest airport Lennart Meri Tallinn Airport is located in Ülemiste. Ülemiste is the location of ...
is only from the airport. The construction of the new section of the airport began in 2007 and was finished in summer 2008.


Ferry

Several ferry operators, Viking Line,
Tallink Tallink () is an Estonian shipping company operating Baltic Sea cruiseferries and ropax ships from Estonia to Finland, Estonia to Sweden to Sweden and Finland to Sweden. It is the largest passenger and cargo shipping company in the Baltic Se ...
and
Eckerö Line Eckerö Line is a Finnish shipping company owned by the Åland-based Rederiaktiebolaget Eckerö. Eckerö Line operates one ferry between Helsinki (Finland) and Tallinn (Estonia). Eckerö Line should not be confused with the similarly named ...
, connect Tallinn to
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ) is the Capital city, capital, primate city, primate, and List of cities and towns in Finland, most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of the region of U ...
,
Mariehamn Mariehamn ( , ; fi, Maarianhamina ; la, Portus Mariae) is the capital of Åland, an autonomous territory under Finnish sovereignty. Mariehamn is the seat of the Government and Parliament of Åland, and 40% of the population of Åland live in ...
, Stockholm, and St. Petersburg. Passenger lines connect Tallinn to
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ) is the Capital city, capital, primate city, primate, and List of cities and towns in Finland, most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of the region of U ...
( north of Tallinn) in approximately 2–3.5 hours by
cruiseferries A cruiseferry is a ship that combines the features of a cruise ship and a Ro-Pax ferry. Many passengers travel with the ships for the cruise experience, staying only a few hours at the destination port or not leaving the ship at all, while o ...
.


Railroad

The Elron railway company operates train services from Tallinn to Tartu, Valga,
Türi Türi is a town in Järva County, Estonia. It is the administrative centre of Türi Parish. Since 2000, Türi is known as the "spring capital" of Estonia. It has a railway station on the Tallinn - Viljandi railway line operated by Elron (rail tra ...
,
Viljandi Viljandi (, german: Fellin, sv, Fellin) is a town and municipality in southern Estonia with a population of 17,407 in 2019. It is the capital of Viljandi County and is geographically located between two major Estonian cities, Pärnu and Tartu ...
,
Tapa Tapa, TAPA, Tapas or Tapasya may refer to: Media *Tapas (website), a webtoon site, formerly known as Tapastic * ''Tapas'' (film), a 2005 Spanish film * ''Tapasya'' (1976 film), an Indian Hindi-language film * ''Tapasya'' (1992 film), a Nepalese f ...
,
Narva Narva, russian: Нарва is a municipality and city in Estonia. It is located in Ida-Viru county, at the eastern extreme point of Estonia, on the west bank of the Narva river which forms the Estonia–Russia international border. With 5 ...
, Koidula. Buses are also available to all these and various other destinations in Estonia, as well as to
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), i ...
in Russia and
Riga Riga (; lv, Rīga , liv, Rīgõ) is the capital and largest city of Latvia and is home to 605,802 inhabitants which is a third of Latvia's population. The city lies on the Gulf of Riga at the mouth of the Daugava river where it meets the ...
, Latvia. The Russian railways company operates a daily international sleeper train service between Tallinn – Moscow. Tallinn also has a commuter rail service running from Tallinn's main rail station in two main directions: east (
Aegviidu Aegviidu is a borough ( et, alev) in Anija Parish, Harju County. The borough has a population of 706 (as of 1 January 2017) and covers an area of . The population density is . Aegviidu is located in the crossing of the Tallinn–Saint Peters ...
) and to several western destinations ( Pääsküla, Keila,
Riisipere Riisipere (german: Riesenberg) is a small borough (') in the Saue Parish, Harju County, Estonia. Prior to the administrative reform of Estonian local governments in March 2017, Riisipere was the administrative center of Nissi Parish. Located on ...
, Turba, Paldiski, and
Kloogaranna Kloogaranna is a village in Lääne-Harju Parish, Harju County, Estonia Estonia, formally the Republic of Estonia, is a country by the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finla ...
). These are electrified lines and are used by the Elron railroad company. Stadler FLIRT EMU and DMU units are in service since July 2013. The first electrified train service in Tallinn was opened in 1924 from Tallinn to Pääsküla, a distance of . The
Rail Baltica Rail Baltica (also known as Rail Baltic in Estonia) is a high-speed railway under construction between Warsaw, Poland and Tallinn, Estonia, with further connections to Finland via Baltic Sea cruiseferries or the proposed Helsinki–Tallinn Tunn ...
project, which will link Tallinn with Warsaw via Latvia and Lithuania, will connect Tallinn with the rest of the European rail network. A undersea tunnel has been proposed between Tallinn and
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ) is the Capital city, capital, primate city, primate, and List of cities and towns in Finland, most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of the region of U ...
, though it remains at a planning phase.


Roads

The
Via Baltica European route E 67 is an E-road running from Prague in the Czech Republic to Estonia and by ferry to Finland. It goes via Prague, Wrocław, Warsaw, Kaunas, Panevėžys, Riga, Tallinn, Helsinki. The route is known as the Via Baltica ...
motorway (part of
European route E67 European route E 67 is an E-road running from Prague in the Czech Republic to Estonia and by ferry to Finland. It goes via Prague, Wrocław, Warsaw, Kaunas, Panevėžys, Riga, Tallinn, Helsinki. The route is known as the Via Baltica ...
from
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ) is the Capital city, capital, primate city, primate, and List of cities and towns in Finland, most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of the region of U ...
to
Prague Prague ( ; cs, Praha ; german: Prag, ; la, Praga) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, and the historical capital of Bohemia. On the Vltava river, Prague is home to about 1.3 million people. The city has a temperate ...
) connects Tallinn to the Lithuanian-Polish border through
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ; ltg, Latveja; liv, Leţmō), officially the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no, ltg, Latvejas Republika, links=no, liv, Leţmō Vabāmō, links=no), is a country in the Baltic region of ...
. Frequent and affordable long-distance bus routes connect Tallinn with other parts of Estonia.


Notable people


Pre-1900

*
Michael Sittow Michael Sittow ( 1469 – 1525), also known as Master Michiel, Michel Sittow, Michiel, Miguel, and several other variants, was a painter from Reval (Tallinn), Estonia who was trained in the tradition of Early Netherlandish painting. For most of ...
(ca. 1469–1525), Estonian-born painter, trained in the tradition of Early Netherlandish painting, significant Flemish painter of the era * Count Jacob De la Gardie (1583–1652), statesman and a field marshal of Sweden * Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (1622–1686), a Swedish statesman and military man. *
Jacob Johan Hastfer Jacob Johan Hastfer (11 December 1647 Tallinn – 24 December 1695 Riga) was a Swedish officer and governor of the Livonia province between 1687 and 1695. References * 1647 births 1695 deaths Politicians from Tallinn Baltic-German peo ...
(1647–1695), officer and governor of the Livonia province between 1687 and 1695 * Otto von Kotzebue (1787–1846) a Russian officer and navigator in the Imperial Russian Navy; explored Oceania. * Alexander Friedrich von Hueck (1802–1842), professor of
anatomy Anatomy () is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science that deals with the structural organization of living things. It is an old science, having i ...
at University of Tartu, a notable estophile *
Franz Anton Schiefner Franz Anton Schiefner (June 18, 1817 – November 16, 1879) was a Baltic German linguist and tibetologist. Schiefner was born to a German-speaking family in Reval (Tallinn), Estonia, then part of Russian Empire. His father was a merchant who ha ...
(1817–1879) a Baltic German linguist and tibetologist. * Julius Gottlieb Iversen (1823–1900), phalerist & professor of Greek and Latin. * Carl Wilhelm Hiekisch (1840–1901), geographer * Edmund August Friedrich Russow (1841–1897), biologist, researcher of
plant anatomy Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure of plants. Originally it included plant morphology, the description of the physical form and external structure of plants, but since the mid-20th century plan ...
and
histology Histology, also known as microscopic anatomy or microanatomy, is the branch of biology which studies the microscopic anatomy of biological tissues. Histology is the microscopic counterpart to gross anatomy, which looks at larger structures v ...
* Anton Hansen (pseudonym A. H. Tammsaare) (1878–1940), writer, his pentalogy ''Truth and Justice'' (''Tõde ja õigus'') is considered "The Estonian Novel" * Marie Under (1883–1980), poet, nominated for the
Nobel prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel's will of 1895, are awarded to "those who, during the preceding year, have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind." Alfr ...
in literature multiple times * Alfred Rosenberg (1893–1946), leading Nazi German ideologue, head of Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories, executed for war crimes


1900 to 1930

* Ants Oras (1900–1982), translator and writer, studied pause patterns in English Renaissance dramatic blank verse * Vidrik "Frits" Rootare (1906–1981), chess player * Andrus Johani (1906–1941), painter * Miliza Korjus (1909-1980), Polish-Estonian-American opera singer, Hollywood film actress, nominee for Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress in 1938 * Edmund S. Valtman (1914–2005), Estonian-American cartoonist, won the 1962 Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning *
Evald Okas Evald Okas (28 November 1915 – 30 April 2011) was an Estonian painter, probably best known for his portraits of nudes. Biography Okas was born in Tallinn, where he began his artistic career while studying at the State Art School. With the a ...
(1915–2011), painter, probably best known for his portraits of nudes *
Evi Rauer Evi Rauer (29 October 1915 – 17 September 2004) was an Estonian stage, film and television actress and television director whose career spanned more than sixty years. Early life Evi Rauer was born in Tallinn to Kustav Rauer, who was an Estonia ...
(1915–2004), stage, film and television actress and television director *
Paul Kuusberg Paul Kuusberg (30 April 1916 – 21 January 2003) was an Estonian writer. Novellas by him include “''Roostetanud kastekann''” (1971) and “''Võõras või õige mees''” (1978), which won an award in Estonia. Biography Kuusberg was born in ...
(1916–2003), writer, particularly of novellas * Ellen Liiger (1918–1987), stage, TV, radio and film actress and theatre teacher * Udo Kasemets (1919–2014), Estonian-born Canadian composer of orchestral, vocal, piano and electroacoustic works * Jaan Kross (1920–2007), novelist, nominated for the Nobel prize in literature multiple times * Vincent Zigas (1920–1983), medical officer in
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (abbreviated PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; ho, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a country i ...
during the 1950s * Harry Männil (1920–2010), Estonian-
Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and many islands and islets in th ...
n businessman, art collector *
Kaljo Raid Kaljo Raid (4 March 1921 – 21 January 2005) was an Estonian composer, cellist and pastor. He was born in Tallinn. One of three children, he had an older brother and a twin sister. He studied composition at Tallinn Conservatory under Heino Elle ...
(1921–2005), composer, cellist and pastor *
Vello Viisimaa Vello Viisimaa (1 January 1928 – 14 February 1991) was an Estonian opera singer and stage actor who appeared mostly in operettas. Biography Career Vello Viisimaa was born in Tallinn, Estonia, the son of opera singer Aarne Viisimaa and Hilda M ...
(1928–1991), opera singer and stage actor, appeared mostly in operettas * Olaf von Wrangel (1928-2009), German journalist (NDR) and politician, member of German Bundestag * Lennart Georg Meri (1929–2006), politician, writer, film director, statesman, second President of Estonia, 1992 to 2001 *
Eino Tamberg Eino Tamberg (27 May 1930 – 24 December 2010) was an Estonian composer whose works are performed internationally. He composed operas such as ''Cyrano de Bergerac'', four symphonies, and several concertos. He taught composition for decades at th ...
(1930–2010), composer, promoter of
neoclassicism Neoclassicism (also spelled Neo-classicism) was a Western cultural movement in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that drew inspiration from the art and culture of classical antiquity. Neoclassicism ...
in Estonian music


1930 to 1950

*
Uno Loop Uno Loop (31 May 1930 – 8 September 2021) was an Estonian singer, musician, athlete, actor, and educator. Loop's career as a musician and singer began in the early 1950s. He performed with various ensembles and as a popular soloist beginning i ...
(1930–2021), singer, musician, athlete, actor, and educator * Vladimir-Georg Karassev-Orgusaar (1931–2015), film director and member of the
Congress of Estonia The Congress of Estonia ( Estonian: ''Eesti Kongress'') was an innovative grassroots parliament established in Estonia in 1990–1992 as a part of the process of regaining of independence from the Soviet Union. It also challenged the power and au ...
* Martin Puhvel (1933–2016), literature researcher, professor emeritus at McGill University for old and medieval English literature * Ingrid Rüütel (born 1935) folklorist and
philologist Philology () is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the intersection of textual criticism, literary criticism, history, and linguistics (with especially strong ties to etymology). Philology is also defined ...
, wife of former president Arnold Rüütel * Peter Peet Silvester (1935–1996), electrical engineer, particularly numerical analysis of electromagnetic fields * Jüri Arrak (born 1936), artist and painter * Enn Vetemaa (1936–2017), writer, master of the Estonian Modernist short novel * Arvo Antonovich Mets, (1937–1997) Russian poet, master of Russian free verse * Mikk Mikiver (1937–2006), stage and film actor and theater director * Linnart Mäll (1938–2010), historian, orientalist, translator and politician. * Ene Riisna (born 1938), Estonian-born American television producer, known for her work on the American news show
20/20 Visual acuity (VA) commonly refers to the clarity of vision, but technically rates an examinee's ability to recognize small details with precision. Visual acuity is dependent on optical and neural factors, i.e. (1) the sharpness of the retinal ...
. *
Andres Tarand Andres Tarand (born 11 January 1940) is an Estonian geographer, climatologist and politician who served as the Prime Minister of Estonia from 1994 to 1995. He was also a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) for the Social Democratic Party, pa ...
(born 1940), politician, former Prime Minister of Estonia and
Member of the European Parliament A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament. When the European Parliament (then known as the Common Assembly of the ECSC) first met in 1952, its ...
*
Leila Säälik Leila Säälik (born 4 December 1941) is an Estonian stage, film and radio actress. Early life and education Leila Säälik was born in Tallinn. Her father was a machinist and her mother was a seamstress. She attended primary and secondary schoo ...
(born 1941), stage, film and radio actress *
Paul-Eerik Rummo Paul-Eerik Rummo (born January 19, 1942) is an Estonian poet, playwright, translator and politician who was the former Estonian Minister of Culture and Education, as well as the former Estonian Minister of Population Affairs. Rummo was born in T ...
(born 1942), poet and politician * Eili Sild (born 1942), stage, film, television and radio actress * Kalle Lasn (born 1942), Estonian-Canadian film maker, author, magazine editor and activist *
Urjo Kareda Urjo Kareda (February 9, 1944 – December 26, 2001) was an Estonian-born Canadian theatre and music critic, dramaturge and stage director. Kareda was born in Tallinn, Estonia. His parents fled the Soviet occupation of Estonia in the autumn of ...
(1944–2001), Canadian theatre and music critic,
dramaturge A dramaturge or dramaturg is a literary adviser or editor in a theatre, opera, or film company who researches, selects, adapts, edits, and interprets scripts, libretti, texts, and printed programmes (or helps others with these tasks), consults au ...
and stage director *
Mari Lill Mari Lill (born 21 December 1945) is an Estonian stage, film and television actress whose career began onstage in the late 1960s. Early life and education Mari Lill was born in Tallinn to Felix Lill and Asta Lill (''née'' Multer) just after th ...
(born 1945), stage, film and TV actress * Sulev Mäeltsemees (born 1947), public administration and local government scholar * Siiri Oviir (born 1947), politician and former
Member of the European Parliament A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament. When the European Parliament (then known as the Common Assembly of the ECSC) first met in 1952, its ...
*
Lepo Sumera Lepo Sumera (8 May 1950 – 2 June 2000) was an Estonian composer and teacher. Life and career He was born in Tallinn and studied with Veljo Tormis in his teens, and from 1968, with Heino Eller at the Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre ( ...
(1950–2000), composer, teacher and politician


1950 to 1970

*
Urmas Alender Urmas Alender (22 November 1953 – 28 September 1994) was an Estonian singer and musician, the vocalist of popular Estonian bands Ruja and Propeller. Born in Tallinn, Estonia, Alender began his musical career in the rock band Shades in 196 ...
(1953–1994), singer and musician, the vocalist of
Ruja Ruja was one of the foremost Estonian rock bands of the 1970s and 1980s. The name of the band comes from a neologism "ruja", for science fiction, though there are people who believe that "ruja" is actually made up of the first letters of the b ...
and Propeller *
Ivo Lill Ivo Lill (24 June 1953 – 4 August 2019) was an Estonian glass artist. Early life and education Ivo Lill was born in Tallinn to Felix Lill and Asta Lill (''née'' Multer). His father was arrested by Soviet authorities and spent several years se ...
(1953–2019),
glass artist Studio glass is the modern use of glass as an artistic medium to produce sculptures or three-dimensional artworks. The glass objects created are intended to make a sculptural or decorative statement. Though usage varies, the term is properly res ...
*
Ain Lutsepp Ain Lutsepp (born 6 May 1954) is an Estonian actor and politician. Early life and education Born in Tallinn, Ain Lutsepp began his career as a child actor at age thirteen as the character Tõnisson in the 1969 Arvo Kruusement directed Estonian ...
(born 1954), actor and politician. *
Kalle Randalu Kalle Randalu (born 25 November 1956) is an Estonian pianist. Randalu was born in Tallinn, and trained at the Moscow Conservatory under Lev Vlassenko. In 1981-82 Randalu was awarded two competition prizes: he shared the VII Tchaikovsky Compe ...
(born 1956), pianist * Alexander Leonidovich Goldstein, (1957–2006), Russian writer and essayist, resident of Tel-Aviv from 1991 *
Peeter Järvelaid Peeter Järvelaid (born 28 November 1957) is an Estonian legal scholar and historian. Järvelaid is a professor in the University of Tallinn. He has developed semiotic and personality-centered research direction, writing hundreds of articles most ...
(born 1957), legal scholar, historian and
university A university () is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several academic disciplines. Universities typically offer both undergraduate and postgraduate programs. In the United Stat ...
professor *
Doris Kareva Doris Kareva (28 November 1958) is an Estonian poet and translator. She serves as the head of the Estonian National Commission in UNESCO. Biography Kareva was born in Tallinn. Her father, Hillar Kareva, was a notable composer. She studied Engli ...
(born 1958), poet and head of Estonian National Commission in
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) aimed at promoting world peace and security through international coope ...
*
Anu Lamp Anu Lamp (born 29 March 1958)poff.ee
''International Competition Programme EurAsia Jury''. Retrieved 7 ...
(born 1958), stage, film, TV and voice actress and stage director * Tõnu Õnnepalu (born 1962), pen names ''Emil Tode'' and ''Anton Nigov'', poet and author * Tõnis Lukas (born 1962), politician, Vice-chairman of the Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica * Marina Kaljurand (born 1962), politician, former
Minister of Foreign Affairs A foreign affairs minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly minister for foreign affairs) is generally a cabinet minister in charge of a state's foreign policy and relations. The formal title of the top official varies between co ...
* Kiiri Tamm (born 1962), stage, television and film actress and stage manager * Tõnu Trubetsky (born 1963), punk rock/ glam punk musician, film and music video director and individualist anarchist * Ivo Uukkivi (born 1965), stage, film, radio, TV actor and producer, founder and singer with the punk band Velikije Luki *
Liina Tennosaar Liina Tennosaar (born 23 May 1965) is an Estonian stage, film and television actress. Early life and education Liina Tennosaar was born in Tallinn to Kalmer Tennosaar and Sirje Tennosaar (''née'' Arbi). She has one full sibling and one half-sib ...
(born 1965), stage, film and television actress * Juhan Parts (born 1966), politician, Prime Minister of Estonia from 2003 to 2005 * Mart Sander (born 1967), singer, actor, director, author, artist, and television host * Indrek Sirel (born 1970), general of the Estonian Defence Forces


1970 to date

* Jaan Tallinn (born 1972), programmer, investor, and entrepreneur known for involvement in Skype and other projects. *
Jan Uuspõld Jan Uuspõld (born 14 December 1973) is an Estonian stage, television, radio and film actor and musician. Early life and music career Jan Uuspõld was born in Tallinn, the eldest of three sons of Ingar and Heidi Uuspõld. His mother is an accoun ...
(born 1973), stage, television, radio and film actor and musician. *
Urmas Paet Urmas Paet (born 20 April 1974) is an Estonian politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Estonia. He is a member of the Reform Party, part of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe. He has served as Minister of Forei ...
(born 1974), politician and
Member of the European Parliament A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament. When the European Parliament (then known as the Common Assembly of the ECSC) first met in 1952, its ...
*
Ken-Marti Vaher Ken-Marti Vaher (born 5 September 1974) is a leading member of the Estonian Pro Patria and Res Publica Union party. He has served twice as a Minister: as Minister of Justice (2003–2005) and as Minister of the Interior (2011–2014). Career Va ...
(born 1974), politician, Minister of Justice 2003–2005 and
Minister of the Interior An interior minister (sometimes called a minister of internal affairs or minister of home affairs) is a cabinet official position that is responsible for internal affairs, such as public security, civil registration and identification, emergency ...
2011–2014 * Urmas Reinsalu (born 1975), politician, Minister of Defence from 2012 to 2014, Minister of Justice since 2015 * Kristen Michal (born 1975), politician, Minister of economic affairs 2015 to 2016 and Minister of Justice from 2011 to 2012 * Mailis Reps (born 1975), politician, Minister of Education and Research 2002/03 and 2005/07 * Harriet Toompere (born 1975), stage, television, film actress and writer of children's books * Tanel Ingi (born 1976), stage and film actor, performs primarily at the
Ugala Ugala is a theatre in Viljandi, Estonia. The theatre was founded in 1920 opening on January 10 of that year. The first production was Oscar Wilde's "Salome Salome (; he, שְלוֹמִית, Shlomit, related to , "peace"; el, Σαλώμ� ...
theatre *
Katrin Pärn Katrin Pärn (born 20 May 1977) is an Estonian stage, film and television actress and singer. Early life and education Katrin Pärn was born in Tallinn to actor, theatre founder, and director Eino Baskin (1929–2015) and actress and politician ...
(born 1977), stage, film and television actress and singer * Johann Urb (born 1977), Estonian-born American actor, producer and model * Carmen Kass (born 1978), supermodel, ran for
European Parliament The European Parliament (EP) is one of the Legislature, legislative bodies of the European Union and one of its seven Institutions of the European Union, institutions. Together with the Council of the European Union (known as the Council and in ...
in 2004, president of the Estonian Chess Federation from 2004 to 2011 *
Lauri Lagle Lauri Lagle (born 12 February 1981) is an Estonian stage and film actor, screenwriter, stage producer, director and playwright. Early life Lauri Lagle was born in Tallinn, where he attended school. He graduated from the Estonian Academy of Mus ...
(born 1981), stage and film actor, screenwriter, director and playwright * Ursula Ratasepp (born 1982), stage, film and television actress *
Ott Sepp Ott Sepp (born 29 June 1982) is an Estonian actor, comedian, singer, writer and television presenter. Career Born in Tallinn, Sepp graduated from the Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre in 2004 and began performing at the Estonian Drama Thea ...
(born 1982), actor, singer, writer and television presenter *
Katrin Siska Katrin Siska (born December 10, 1983) is an Estonian celebrity, vlogger, and musician, where she is a former member of the Estonian girl group, Vanilla Ninja. Siska was born in Tallinn, Estonia. Alongside her musical commitments, she has also b ...
(born 1983), musician, member of pop-rock band Vanilla Ninja * Priit Loog (born 1984), stage, television and film actor *
Tiiu Kuik Tiiu Kuik () (born 16 March 1987) is an Estonian fashion model. Early life Born in Tallinn, Estonia, Kuik was discovered at age 13 in an Estonian supermarket by model scout Paolo Moglia. She was then sent to Japan for modeling work, and after ...
(born 1987), supermodel * Pääru Oja (born 1989), stage, film, voice, and television actor * Klaudia Tiitsmaa (born 1990), stage, television and film actress


Architects and conductors

*
Valve Pormeister Valve Pormeister ''née'' Ulm (13 April 1922 – 27 October 2002) was an Estonian landscape architect who became an architect. She was one of the first women to influence the development of Estonian architecture, becoming one of the country's most ...
(1922–2002), architect, the first women to influence the development of Estonian architecture * Allan Murdmaa (1934–2009), architect, designed Tehumardi war memorial * Neeme Järvi (born 1937), Estonian-American conductor * Eri Klas (1939–2016), conductor, leader of the
Netherlands Radio Symphony Orchestra The Netherlands Radio Symphony Orchestra (NRSO) was a Dutch radio orchestra. It was founded in 1985 after a merger of the Promenade Orchestra and the Radio Orchestra (Omroep Orkest). The orchestra participated in various operatic productions and ...
*
Tõnu Kaljuste Tõnu Kaljuste (born August 28, 1953) is an Estonian conductor. Born in Tallinn, Kaljuste is the son of Heino Kaljuste (1925–1989), an Estonian choral conductor, and Lia Kaljuste, a radio journalist. Tõnu sang in his father's choirs as a chil ...
(born 1953), conductor, conducted with the
Estonian National Opera Estonian National Opera (''Rahvusooper Estonia'') is the national opera company of Estonia. The company is based at the Estonia Theatre in Tallinn. The theatre has had several names throughout its existence. The latest one being "The Estonian Nat ...
between 1978 and 1995 * Andres Mustonen (born 1953), conductor and violinist, artistic director of ''Mustonenfest Tallinn Tel Aviv Festival'' *
Andres Siim Andres Siim (born 25 February 1962) is an Estonian architect. dead in 2020 Andres Siim was born in Tallinn and studied in the National Art Institute of the Estonian SSR (today's Estonian Academy of Arts) in the department of architecture. He g ...
(born 1962), architect, designer of the Nissan Center building in Tallinn * Paavo Järvi (born 1962), conductor, son of Neeme Järvi *
Margit Mutso Margit Mutso (born 11 February 1966) is an Estonian architect. Margit Mutso was born in Tallinn. She studied in the State Art Institute of the Estonian SSR (today's Estonian Academy of Arts) in the department of architecture. She graduated fr ...
(born 1966), architect, designer of the bus station of Rakvere * Elmo Tiisvald (born 1967), conductor, conductor of Opera Studio at
Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre The Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre (''Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia'') began as a mixed choir of the Estonia Society Musical Department (EMD) on the eve of World War I. The assembly of the Estonia Society created the Tallinn Higher Musi ...
*
Kaisa Roose Kaisa Roose ( Music Conductor) was born in Tallinn, Estonia on 15 April 1969. At the age of six she began studying piano at the Tallinn School of Music. In 1987 she was admitted to the Tallinn Conservatoire, where she studied choir conducting, t ...
(born 1969), music conductor with
Malmö Opera and Music Theatre Malmö (, ; da, Malmø ) is the largest city in the Swedish county (län) of Scania (Skåne). It is the third-largest city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Gothenburg, and the sixth-largest city in the Nordic region, with a municipal pop ...
* Siiri Vallner (born 1972), architect, designer of the
Museum of Occupations The Vabamu or Vabamu Museum of Occupations and Freedom ( et, Okupatsioonide ja vabaduse muuseum Vabamu) in Tallinn, Estonia, is located at the corner of Toompea St. and Kaarli Blvd. It was opened on July 1, 2003, and is dedicated to the 1940-199 ...
in Tallinn * Anu Tali (born 1972), conductor, music director of the Sarasota Orchestra * Eero Endjärv (born 1973), architect, designed the villa in Otepää in Southern Estonia * Katrin Koov (born 1973), architect, designer of the Concert Hall of Pärnu * Mikk Murdvee (born 1980), Estonian-Finnish conductor and violinist, lives in Helsinki


Sport

*
Albert Kusnets Albert Eduard Kusnets (25 August 1902 – 1942) was a middleweight Greco-Roman wrestler from Estonia. He competed in the 1924 and 1928 Summer Olympics and placed fourth and third, respectively. He won his 1928 bronze medal despite breaking a leg ...
(1902–1942), middleweight Greco-Roman wrestler, competed in the
1924 Events January * January 12 – Gopinath Saha shoots Ernest Day, whom he has mistaken for Sir Charles Tegart, the police commissioner of Calcutta, and is arrested soon after. * January 20– 30 – Kuomintang in China hold ...
and
1928 Summer Olympics The 1928 Summer Olympics ( nl, Olympische Zomerspelen 1928), officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad ( nl, Spelen van de IXe Olympiade) and commonly known as Amsterdam 1928, was an international multi-sport event that was celebrated fro ...
*
Valter Palm Valter Palm (alias Walter Palm) (23 December 1905 – 3 November 1994) was an Estonian welterweight professional boxer, born in Tallinn, who competed in the 1930s. In the 1920s he took part 1924 Summer Olympics and 1928 Summer Olympics. ...
(1905–1994), welterweight professional boxer, competed in
1924 Events January * January 12 – Gopinath Saha shoots Ernest Day, whom he has mistaken for Sir Charles Tegart, the police commissioner of Calcutta, and is arrested soon after. * January 20– 30 – Kuomintang in China hold ...
and
1928 Summer Olympics The 1928 Summer Olympics ( nl, Olympische Zomerspelen 1928), officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad ( nl, Spelen van de IXe Olympiade) and commonly known as Amsterdam 1928, was an international multi-sport event that was celebrated fro ...
* Toomas Krõm (born 1971), footballer, 11 caps for
Estonia Estonia, formally the Republic of Estonia, is a country by the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, an ...
* Gert Kullamäe (born 1971), professional basketball player * Toomas Kallaste (born 1971), footballer, 42 international caps for
Estonia Estonia, formally the Republic of Estonia, is a country by the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, an ...
*
Indrek Pertelson Indrek Pertelson (born 21 April 1971) is an Estonian judoka. At the 2000 Summer Olympics, 2000 and 2004 Summer Olympics he won bronze medals in the men's Heavyweight (+100 kg) category. He was born in Tallinn. References External links

(born 1971)
judo is an unarmed modern Japanese martial art, Olympic sport (since 1964), and the most prominent form of jacket wrestling competed internationally.『日本大百科全書』電子版【柔道】(CD-ROM version of Encyclopedia Nipponica, "Judo") ...
ka, won bronze at the 2000 and 2004 Summer Olympics *
Mart Poom Mart Poom (born 3 February 1972) is an Estonian football coach and former professional player regarded as one of the greatest Estonian footballers of all time. He is currently the goalkeeping coach of the Estonia national team. Poom played as ...
(born 1972), footballer and coach, goalkeeping coach of the national team *
Martin Müürsepp Martin Müürsepp (; born 26 September 1974) is an Estonian professional basketball coach and former player, who is the head coach of BC Rakvere Tarvas of the Estonian-Latvian Basketball League. Widely regarded as one of Estonia's greatest bask ...
(born 1974), basketball player and coach * Sergei Pareiko (born 1977), goalkeeper, 65 appearances for
Estonia Estonia, formally the Republic of Estonia, is a country by the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, an ...
* Andres Oper (born 1977), footballer and coach, assistant manager of the national team * Kristen Viikmäe (born 1979), footballer, played for JK Nõmme Kalju * Irina Embrich (born 1980), épée fencer * Joel Lindpere (born 1981), footballer, made 107 appearances for
Estonia Estonia, formally the Republic of Estonia, is a country by the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, an ...
* Anett Kontaveit (born 1995), tennis player, highest-ranked Estonian singles player * Ralf Aron (born 1998), race car driver * Jüri Vips (born 2000), race car driver, competitor in the FIA Formula 2 Championship * Paul Aron (born 2004), race car driver


Twin towns – sister cities

Tallinn is Sister city, twinned with: * Annapolis, Maryland, Annapolis, United States * Dartford, United Kingdom * Ghent, Belgium * Groningen, Netherlands * Kiel, Germany * Kyiv, Ukraine * Kotka, Finland * Malmö Municipality, Malmö, Sweden *
Riga Riga (; lv, Rīga , liv, Rīgõ) is the capital and largest city of Latvia and is home to 605,802 inhabitants which is a third of Latvia's population. The city lies on the Gulf of Riga at the mouth of the Daugava river where it meets the ...
, Latvia * Schwerin, Germany * Venice, Italy * Vilnius, Lithuania


Gallery

File:Revals segl.svg, Seal of Reval, 1340 File:Tallinn Vana Toomas 1530 (2009).JPG, Old Thomas
weather vane A wind vane, weather vane, or weathercock is an instrument used for showing the direction of the wind. It is typically used as an architectural ornament to the highest point of a building. The word ''vane'' comes from the Old English word , m ...
on top of
Tallinn Town Hall The Tallinn Town Hall ( et, Tallinna raekoda) is a building in the ''Vanalinn'' ("Old town") of Tallinn (Reval), Estonia, next to the Town Hall Square. The building is located in the south side of the medieval market square and is long. The we ...
since 1530 is the city's symbolic guardian File:Ayuntamiento, vistas panorámicas desde Toompea, Tallin, Estonia, 2012-08-05, DD 21.JPG, Night view of Tallinn's city center in August 2012 File:Iglesia de San Nicolás, Tallinn, Estonia, 2012-08-05, DD 06.JPG, St. Nicholas' Church, built 1230–1275 File:Estonia 1479 - Alexander Nevsky Cathedral.jpg, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, built in 1894–1900 File:MustpeadeVennaskonnaHooned.Tallinn.jpg, House of the Blackheads (Tallinn), House of the Brotherhood of Blackheads File:Viru väravad 1.jpg, Viru Gate, entrance to the Old Town. Two remaining towers that were part of a larger 14th-century gate system File:Farmacia del Ayuntamiento, Tallin, Estonia, 2012-08-05, DD 02.JPG, The Raeapteek, built in 1422, is one of the oldest continuously running pharmacies in Europe File:07-06-21-tallinn-by-RalfR-144.jpg, Kiek in de Kök defence tower File:Plaza de la Torre, Tallinn, Estonia, 2012-08-05, DD 02.JPG, Walls of Tallinn, City wall with temporary garden exhibition File:Pikk Hermann, Tallin, Estonia, 2012-08-11, DD 13.JPG, Pikk Hermann (Toompea) File:Kadrioru loss a*.jpg, Kadriorg Palace File:Pirita kloostri varemed kalmistuga.jpg, The ruins of Pirita Convent File:Nordica_Canadair_CRJ-900ER.jpg, A Nordica (airline), Nordica aircraft landing at Tallinn Airport File:Tallinn-Tornimae.jpg, Tornimäe business area File:Musée de plein air (Tallinn) (7644656256).jpg,
Estonian Open Air Museum The Estonian Open Air Museum (Estonian: ''Eesti Vabaõhumuuseum'') is a life-sized reconstruction of an 18th-19th century rural/fishing village, which includes church, tavern, schoolhouse, several mills, a fire station, twelve farmyards and net s ...
File:Tallinn Glehn Castle.jpg, Glehn Castle


See also

* Legends of Tallinn * Revaltoppe * Tallinn Marathon * Walls of Tallinn


Notes


References


Bibliography


Books and articles

* Burch, Stuart. "An unfolding signifier: London's Baltic exchange in Tallinn." ''Journal of Baltic Studies'' 39.4 (2008): 451–473. * Hallas, Karin, ed.''20th Century Architecture in Tallinn'' (Tallinn, The Museum of Estonian Architecture, 2000) * * Kattago, Siobhan. "War memorials and the politics of memory: The Soviet war memorial in Tallinn." ''Constellations '' 16.1 (2009): 150–166
online
* Naum, Magdalena. "Multi-ethnicity and material exchanges in Late Medieval Tallinn." ''European Journal of Archaeology'' 17.4 (2014): 656–677
online
* Õunapuu, Piret. "The Tallinn department of the Estonian National museum: History and developments." ''Folklore: Electronic Journal of Folklore'' 48 (2011): 163–196. * Pullat, Raimo. ''Brief history of Tallinn'' (Estopol, 1999). *


Travel guides

* * * *


External links

*
The Website of the City of Tallinn
(official)
Visit Tallinn official city guide

Panoramas of Tallinn Old Town

3D model of Tallinn Old Town

Historical footage of Tallinn, 1920archive
, filmportal.de * {{Authority control Tallinn, Capitals in Europe Cities and towns in Estonia Populated coastal places in Estonia Municipalities of Estonia Populated places in Harju County Port cities and towns in Estonia Port cities and towns of the Baltic Sea Viking Age populated places Members of the Hanseatic League World Heritage Sites in Estonia