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Tallinn (; ) is the most populous,
primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal constituting the Taxonomy (biology), taxonomic order (biology), order Primates (). Primates arose 85–55 million years ago first from small Terrestrial animal, ...
, and
capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of the government. A capita ...
of
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
. Situated on a
bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface ...
in north Estonia, on the shore of the
Gulf of Finland The Gulf of Finland ( fi, Suomenlahti; et, Soome laht; rus, Фи́нский зали́в, r=Finskiy zaliv, p=ˈfʲinskʲɪj zɐˈlʲif; sv, Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It extends between Finland to the north and E ...
of the
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that a ...

Baltic Sea
, Tallinn has a population of 444,532 (as of 2021) and administratively lies in the Harju '' maakond'' (
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...
). Tallinn is the main financial, industrial and cultural centre of Estonia. It is located northwest of the country's second largest city
Tartu Tartu (, South Estonian: ''Tarto'') is the second-largest city in Estonia, after the political and financial capital, Tallinn. It is southeast of Tallinn and 245 kilometres (152 miles) northeast of Riga, the capital of Latvia. Tartu lies on th ...

Tartu
, however only south of
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or ...

Helsinki
,
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
, west of
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Saint Petersburg
,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
, north of
Riga Riga (; lv, Rīga , liv, Rīgõ, ) is the capital of Latvia and is home to 614,618 inhabitants (2021), which is a third of Latvia's population. Being significantly larger than List of cities and towns in Latvia#Cities, other cities of Latvi ...

Riga
,
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ; ltg, Latveja; liv, Leţmō), officially known as the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no, ltg, Latvejas Republika, links=no, liv, Leţmō Vabāmō, links=no), is a country in the Baltic re ...

Latvia
, and east of
Stockholm Stockholm (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smalle ...

Stockholm
,
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's fo ...

Sweden
. From the 13th century until the first half of the 20th century Tallinn was known in most of the world by variants of its other historical
name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either uniquely, or within a given context. The entity identified by a name is called its referent A referent ...
Reval. Tallinn received
Lübeck Lübeck (; Low German also ; da, Lybæk ), officially the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (german: Hansestadt Lübeck), is a city in Northern Germany. With around 217,000 inhabitants, Lübeck is the second-largest city on the German Baltic Sea, Balt ...

Lübeck
city rights 250px, Medieval square in Spišská Sobota, Slovakia (Now Poprad). The former name of the town literally means "Saturday in Spiš">Poprad.html" ;"title="Slovakia (Now Poprad">Slovakia (Now Poprad). The former name of the town literally means ...
in 1248,, however the earliest evidence of human population in the area dates back nearly 5,000 years. The first recorded claim over the place was laid by
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...
after a successful raid in 1219 led by king
Valdemar II Valdemar II (9 May 117028 March 1241), called Valdemar the Victorious or Valdemar the Conqueror (''Valdemar Sejr''), was the King of Denmark The Monarchy of Denmark is a constitutional political system, institution and a historic office o ...
, followed by a period of alternating
Scandinavian A Scandinavian is a resident of Scandinavia or something associated with the region, including: Culture * Scandinavianism, political and cultural movement * Scandinavian design, a design movement of the 1950s * Scandinavian folklore * Scandinavia ...

Scandinavian
and Teutonic rulers. Due to the strategic location by the Baltic Sea, its
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
port A port is a maritime law, maritime facility comprising one or more Wharf, wharves or loading areas, where ships load and discharge Affreightment, cargo and passengers. Although usually situated on a sea coast or estuary, ports can a ...
became a significant trade hub, especially in the 14–16th centuries when Tallinn grew in importance as the northernmost member city of the
Hanseatic League The Hanseatic League (; gml, Hanse, , ; german: label=German language, Modern German, Deutsche Hanse; nl, label=Dutch language, Dutch, De Hanze; la, Hansa Teutonica) was a Middle Ages, medieval commercial and defensive confederation of merchan ...
. Tallinn's ''Vanalinn'' ("Old town") is one of the best preserved medieval cities in Europe and is listed as a
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
. Tallinn has the highest number of start-ups per person among European countries and is the birthplace of many international high technology companies, including
Skype Skype () is a Proprietary software, proprietary telecommunications application that specializes in providing VoIP-based videotelephony, videoconferencing and voice calls. It also has instant messaging, file transfer, debit and credit, debit-base ...

Skype
and
Wise Wise, as a word, refers to someone with wisdom. Wise may also refer to: People * Wise (surname) * Wise (composer), also known as Wise da' Gangsta, a reggaeton producer/songwriter * Wise (rapper) (born 1979), Japanese hip hop artist * Wise (Stet ...
. The city is home to the headquarters of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
's agency, and to the
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance A military alliance is a formal agreement betwe ...
Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. In 2007, Tallinn was listed among the top ten digital cities in the world. The city was a
European Capital of Culture A European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members ha ...

European Capital of Culture
for 2011, along with
Turku Turku ( ; ; sv, Åbo, ; la, Aboa; russian: Турку, formerly ) is a List of cities and towns in Finland, city and former Capital city, capital on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura (Archipelago Sea), Aura River, in the ...

Turku
, Finland.


Etymology

In 1154, a town called (''Qlwn'' or ''Quwri'') was put on the world map of the
Almoravid The Almoravid dynasty ( ar, المرابطون, translit=Al-Murābiṭūn, lit=those from the ribats) was an imperial Berbers, Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco. It established an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the weste ...
(''
Tabula Rogeriana The ''Nuzhat al-mushtāq fī ikhtirāq al-āfāq'' ( ar, نزهة المشتاق في اختراق الآفاق, lit. "The Excursion of One Who is Eager to Traverse the Regions of the World"), commonly known in the West as the ''Tabula Rogeriana' ...
'') by the
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
cartographer
Muhammad al-Idrisi Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi ( ar, أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي; la, Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab The Arabs (singular ...
, who described it as "a small town like a large castle" among the towns of 'Astlanda'. It has been suggested that one possible transcription, 'Qlwn', may have denoted a predecessor of the modern city and may somehow be related to another name, 'Kolyvan', which has been discovered from later
East Slavic East Slavic may refer to: * East Slavic languages, one of three branches of the Slavic languages * East Slavs, a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the East Slavic languages See also

* Old East Slavic, a language used during the 10th–15th ...
chronicles. However, a number of modern historians have considered connecting any of al-Idrisi's placenames with modern Tallinn erroneous, unfounded or speculative.
Henry of Livonia Henry of Latvia ( la, Henricus de Lettis, german: Heinrich von Lettland, lv, Latviešu Indriķis, et, Läti Henrik; before 1188, Magdeburg, Landgrave, Landgraviate of Thuringia – after 1259 in Papendorf, Livonia, currently Rubene, Kocēni pa ...
in his chronicle called the town with the name that is also known to have been used up to the 13th century by Scandinavians: ''Lindanisa'' (or ''Lyndanisse'' in
Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Danis ...
, ''Lindanäs'' in
Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland * Swedish alphabet, the official alphabet used by the Swedish langua ...
and ''Ledenets'' in
Old East Slavic Old East Slavic (traditionally also: Old Russian, be, старажытнаруская мова; russian: древнерусский язык; uk, давньоруська мова) was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East ...
). The Icelandic '' Njal's saga'' mentions an event that took place somewhere in the area of Tallinn and calls the place ''Rafala'', which was probably a derivation of '' Rävala'', ''Revala'', or some other variant of the Estonian name of the adjacent
Ancient Estonia Ancient Estonia refers to a period covering History of Estonia from the middle of the 8th millennium BC until the conquest and subjugation of the local Baltic Finns, Finnic tribes in the first quarter of the 13th century during the Teutonic Order ...
n county. After the Danish conquest in 1219, the town became known in the
Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Danis ...
,
Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland * Swedish alphabet, the official alphabet used by the Swedish langua ...
and
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
languages as Reval ( la, Revalia). ''Reval'' was in official use in Estonia until 1918. The name Tallinn(a) is
Estonian Estonian may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Estonia, a country in the Baltic region in northern Europe *Estonians, people from Estonia, or of Estonian descent *Estonian language *Estonian cuisine *Estonian culture See also

* * La ...
. It is widely considered a historical derivation of ''Taani-linn(a)'', meaning 'Danish-town' ( la,
Castrum Danorum Toompea Castle ( et, Toompea loss, la, Castrum Danorum) is a castle on Toompea hill in the central part of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The castle, an ancient stronghold site in use since at least the 9th century, today houses the Parliament ...
), after the
Danes Danes ( da, danskere, ) are a North Germanic The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a lang ...
built the castle in place of the Estonian stronghold at Lindanisse. However, according to minor theories it could also have come from ''tali-linna'' ('winter-castle or town'), or ''talu-linna'' ('house/farmstead-castle or town'). The element ''-linna'', like
Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* Proto-Germanic language, a reconstructed proto-language of ...

Germanic
''-
burg The German word Burg means castle. Burg or Bürg may refer to: Places Placename element * ''-burg'', a combining form in Dutch, German and English placenames * Burg, a variant of burh, the fortified towns of Saxon England Settlements * Burg, Aarg ...
'' and ''- grad'' /''-gorod'', originally meant 'fortress', but is used as a suffix in the formation of town names. The previously used official names in German and Russian ''Revel'' () were replaced after Estonia became independent in 1918. At first, both forms ''Tallinna'' and ''Tallinn'' were used. The
United States Board on Geographic Names The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) is a federal Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ''Federal state'' (federal system), a type of government cha ...
adopted the form Tallinn between June 1923 and June 1927. ''Tallinna'' in Estonian denotes the
genitive case In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
of the name, as in ''Tallinna Sadam'' ('the Port of Tallinn').


History

The first archaeological traces of a small hunter-fisherman community's presence in what is now Tallinn's city centre are about 5,000 years old. The comb ceramic pottery found on the site dates to about 3000 BCE and c. 2500 BCE. Around 1050, the first fortress was built on Tallinn
Toompea Toompea (from german: Domberg, "Cathedral Hill") is a limestone hill in the central part of the city of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The hill is an oblong tableland, which measures about 400 by 250 metres, has an area of and is about 20–30 me ...

Toompea
. As an important port for trade between Novgorod and Scandinavia, it became a target for the expansion of the
Teutonic Knights The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: la, Ordo domus Sanctae Mariae Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum; german: Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly known ...
and the Kingdom of Denmark during the period of
Northern Crusades The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were Christian colonization and Christianization Christianization ( or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once. Various strategi ...
in the beginning of the 13th century when
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
was forcibly imposed on the local population. Danish rule of Tallinn and north Estonia started in 1219. In 1285, Tallinn, then known more widely as Reval, became the northernmost member of the
Hanseatic League The Hanseatic League (; gml, Hanse, , ; german: label=German language, Modern German, Deutsche Hanse; nl, label=Dutch language, Dutch, De Hanze; la, Hansa Teutonica) was a Middle Ages, medieval commercial and defensive confederation of merchan ...
 – a mercantile and military alliance of German-dominated cities in northern Europe. The king of Denmark sold Reval along with other land possessions in northern Estonia to the Teutonic Knights in 1346. Medieval Reval enjoyed a strategic position at the crossroads of trade between the rest of western Europe, and
Novgorod Veliky Novgorod ( rus, links=yes, Великий Новгород, p=vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj ˈnovɡərət), also known as just Novgorod (russian: Новгород, lit=newtown, links=yes), is the largest city and administrative center of Novgorod O ...
and
MuscovyMuscovy is an alternative name for the Grand Duchy of Moscow The Grand Duchy of Moscow, Muscovite Russia, Muscovite Rus' or Grand Principality of Moscow (russian: Великое княжество Московское, Velikoye knyazhestvo Moskov ...
in the east. The city, with a population of about 8,000, was very well fortified with city walls and 66 defence towers. A
weather vane A weather vane, wind vane, or weathercock is an instrument Instrument may refer to: Science and technology * Flight instruments two-seat light airplane. The flight instruments are visible on the left of the instrument panel Flight instruments ...

weather vane
, the figure of an old warrior called
Old Thomas Old Thomas ( et, Vana Toomas) is one of the symbols and guardians of Tallinn Tallinn (; ) is the most populous, primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal Mammals (from Latin language, ...
, was put on top of the spire of the
Tallinn Town Hall The Tallinn Town Hall ( et, Tallinna raekoda) is a building in the Tallinn Old Town, Estonia, next to the Raekoja plats, Tallinn, Town Hall Square. It is the oldest town hall in the whole of the Baltic region and Scandinavia. The building is locat ...

Tallinn Town Hall
in 1530. Old Thomas has later become a popular symbol of the city. Already in the early years of the
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abra ...
the city converted to
Lutheranism Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an , based on the and of . It is the , with about 2.5 billion followers. Its adherents, known as , make up a major ...
. In 1561, Reval became a
dominion The term dominion was used to refer to one of several self-governing nations of the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other D ...
of Sweden. During the
Great Northern War The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern Europe, Northern, Central Europe, Central and Eastern Europe. The i ...

Great Northern War
, plague stricken Tallinn along with Swedish Estonia and Livonia capitulated to
Imperial Russia The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. T ...
in 1710, but the local self-government institutions ( Magistracy of Reval and Estonian Knighthood) retained their cultural and economical autonomy within Imperial Russia as the
Governorate of Estonia The Governorate of Estonia (also Esthonia; german: Est(h)ländisches Gouvernement; russian: Эстля́ндская губе́рния, translit=Estljandskaja gubernija; et, Eestimaa kubermang) was a guberniya, governorate of the Russian Em ...
. The Magistracy of Reval was abolished in 1889. The 19th century brought industrialisation of the city and the port kept its importance. During the last decades of the century
Russification Russification or Russianization (russian: Русификация, ''Rusifikatsiya'') is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non- Russian communities (whether involuntarily or voluntarily) give up their culture and language in fav ...
measures became stronger. Off the coast of Reval, in June 1908,
Tsar Nicholas II Nicholas II or Nikolai II Alexandrovich Romanov . ( 186817 July 1918), known in the Russian Orthodox Church as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer, . was the last Emperor of All Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until Abdication of Nicholas II ...

Tsar Nicholas II
and of Russia, along with their children, met their mutual uncle and aunt, Britain's
King Edward VII Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union A political ...

King Edward VII
and
Queen Alexandra Alexandra of Denmark (Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia; 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925) was Queen of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India from 1901 to 1910 as the wife of King-Emperor Edward ...

Queen Alexandra
, an act which was seen as a royal confirmation of the
Anglo-Russian Entente The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 (russian: Англо-Русская Конвенция 1907 г., translit=Anglo-Russkaya Konventsiya 1907 g.), or Convention between the United Kingdom and Russia relating to Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet (К ...
of the previous year. This was also the first time a reigning British monarch had visited Russia. On 24 February 1918, the
Estonian Declaration of Independence __NOTOC__ , Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Balti ...

Estonian Declaration of Independence
was proclaimed in Reval (Tallinn). It was followed by Imperial German occupation until the end of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
in November 1918, after which Tallinn became the capital of independent Estonia. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, Estonia was first occupied by the Red Army and annexed into the USSR in 1940, then occupied by
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
from 1941 to 1944. During the German occupation Tallinn suffered from many instances of
aerial bombing An airstrike, air strike or air raid is an offensive operation carried out by aircraft. Air strikes are delivered from aircraft such as blimps, balloons, Fighter aircraft, fighters, bombers, ground attack aircraft, attack helicopters and Unmanne ...
by the
Soviet air force The Soviet Air Forces ( rus, Военно-воздушные силы, r=Voyenno-Vozdushnyye Sily (VVS), literally "Military Air Forces") were one of the air forces of the Soviet Union. The other was the Soviet Air Defence Forces. The Air Forces ...
. During the most destructive Soviet bombing raid on 9–10 March 1944, over a thousand incendiary bombs were dropped on the town, causing widespread fires, killing 757 people, and leaving over 20,000 residents of Tallinn without shelter. After the German retreat in September 1944, the city was occupied again by the Soviets. During the
1980 Summer Olympics The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad ( rus, И́гры XXII Олимпиа́ды, r=Igry XXII Olimpiady) and commonly known as Moscow 1980 ( rus, Москва 1980, r=Moskva 1980), were an international m ...
, the sailing (then known as yachting) events were held at
Pirita Pirita is one of the eight administrative districts ( et, linnaosa) of Tallinn Tallinn (; ) is the most populous, primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal Mammals (from Latin languag ...
, north-east of central Tallinn. Many buildings, such as the , "Olümpia" hotel, the new Main Post Office building, and the Regatta Centre, were built for the Olympics. In 1991, an independent democratic Estonian nation was reestablished and a period of quick development as a modern European capital ensued. Tallinn became the capital of a de facto independent country once again on 20 August 1991. Tallinn has historically consisted of three parts: *
Toompea Toompea (from german: Domberg, "Cathedral Hill") is a limestone hill in the central part of the city of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The hill is an oblong tableland, which measures about 400 by 250 metres, has an area of and is about 20–30 me ...

Toompea
(''Domberg'') or the "Cathedral hill", which has been the seat of central authority: the
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...
s, Danish
viceroys A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of institutionalized social relations, and have a capacity to mo ...
, then the
komtur Commander ( it, Commendatore; french: Commandeur; german: Komtur; es, Comendador; pt, Comendador), or Knight Commander, is a title of honor A title of honor or honorary title is a title bestowed upon individuals or organizations as an award i ...
s of the Teutonic Order, and Swedish and Russian governors. It was until 1877 a separate town (''Dom zu Reval'') with mostly aristocratic residents; today it accommodates the seat of the
Estonian parliament The Riigikogu (; from ''riigi-'', of the state, and ''kogu'', assembly) is the unicameral parliament of Estonia. All important state-related questions pass through the Riigikogu. In addition to approving legislation, the Riigikogu appoints high ...

Estonian parliament
,
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...
as well as some embassies and residencies. * ''All-linn'' or "old downtown", the old
Hanseatic The Hanseatic League (; gml, Hanse, , ; german: label=German language, Modern German, Deutsche Hanse; nl, label=Dutch language, Dutch, De Hanze; la, Hansa Teutonica) was a Middle Ages, medieval commercial and defensive confederation of mercha ...
merchant town, which was not administratively united with Toompea until the late 19th century. It was the centre of the medieval trade on which it grew prosperous. * The "new Estonian town", a crescent to the south of the medieval city wall which grew over time as more commoners settled in the area. It was not until mid-19th century censuses that ethnic Estonians replaced ethnic
Germans Germans (, ) are the natives or inhabitants of Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It is the in Europe after , and the most populous . Germany is situated between the and seas ...
as the majority among the residents within Tallinn's enlarged city boundaries. The city of Tallinn has never been razed, however around 1524
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
churches in many towns of Estonia, including Tallinn, were pillaged as part of the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Cit ...

Reformation
al fervor: this occurred throughout Europe. Although extensively bombed by Soviet air forces during the later stages of World War II, much of the medieval Old Town still retains its charm. The Tallinn Old Town (including ''Toompea'') became a
UNESCO World Cultural Heritage A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESC ...
site in 1997. At the end of the 15th century a new high
Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes **Gothic language, an extinct East Germanic language spoken by the Goths **Crimean Gothic, the Gothic language spoken by ...
spire was built for St. Olaf's Church. Between 1549 and 1625 it may have been the
tallest building in the world This list of tallest buildings includes skyscraper A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres or 150 metres in height, though th ...
. After several fires and subsequent periods of rebuilding, its overall height is now .


Geography

Tallinn is situated on the southern coast of the
Gulf of Finland The Gulf of Finland ( fi, Suomenlahti; et, Soome laht; rus, Фи́нский зали́в, r=Finskiy zaliv, p=ˈfʲinskʲɪj zɐˈlʲif; sv, Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It extends between Finland to the north and E ...
, in north-western Estonia. The largest lake in Tallinn is
Lake Ülemiste Lake Ülemiste ( et, Ülemiste järv) is the largest of the lakes surrounding Tallinn, Estonia. Ülemiste is the main part of the Tallinn water supply system, which supplies the city with most of its drinking water. The lake is fed mostly by Kurna ...
(), which serves as the main source of the city's drinking water.
Lake Harku Harku Lake ( et, Harku järv; also known as ''Haabersti Lake'', ''Loodjärv'' and ''Argo Lake'') is a lake on the western border of Tallinn, Estonia. It has an average depth of and a maximum depth of . Lake's beach is the only lakeside beach in ...

Lake Harku
is the second largest lake within the borders of Tallinn and its area is . The only significant river in Tallinn nowadays is
Pirita Pirita is one of the eight administrative districts ( et, linnaosa) of Tallinn Tallinn (; ) is the most populous, primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal Mammals (from Latin languag ...

Pirita
, in the eponymous
Pirita Pirita is one of the eight administrative districts ( et, linnaosa) of Tallinn Tallinn (; ) is the most populous, primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal Mammals (from Latin languag ...
city district. Historically, a smaller river, called Härjapea, flowed from Lake Ülemiste through the town into the sea; however the river was diverted into underground sewerage system in the 1930s and has since completely disappeared from the cityscape. References to it still remain in the street names Jõe (from ''jõgi'', river) and Kivisilla (from ''kivi sild'', stone bridge). A
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
cliff runs through the city. It can be seen at
Toompea Toompea (from german: Domberg, "Cathedral Hill") is a limestone hill in the central part of the city of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The hill is an oblong tableland, which measures about 400 by 250 metres, has an area of and is about 20–30 me ...

Toompea
,
Lasnamäe Lasnamäe is the most populous administrative district of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The district's population is about 119,000, the majority of which is Russian language, Russian-speaking. Local housing is mostly represented by 5–16 storie ...
and Astangu. However, Toompea is not a part of the cliff, but a separate hill. The highest point in Tallinn, at 64 meters above sea level, is situated in Hiiu, Nõmme District, in the south-west of the city. The length of the coast is . It comprises three bigger peninsulas: Kopli peninsula, Paljassaare peninsula and Kakumäe peninsula. The city has a number of public beaches, including those at Pirita, Stroomi, Kakumäe, Harku and Pikakari. The geology under the city of Tallinn is made up of rocks and sediments of different composition and age. Youngest are the Quaternary deposits. The material of these deposits are till, varved clay, sand, gravel and pebbles that are of Quaternary glaciation, glacial, marine and lacustrine origin. Some of the Quaternary deposits are valuable as they constitute aquifers or, as in the case of gravels and sands, are used as construction materials. The Quaternary deposits are the fill of valleys that are now buried. The buried valleys of Tallinn are carved into older rock likely by ancient rivers to be later modified by glaciers. While the valley fill is made up of Quaternary sediments the valleys themselves originated from erosion that took place before the Quaternary. The substrate into which the buried valleys were carved is made up of hard sedimentary rock of Ediacaran, Cambrian and Ordovician age. Only the upper layer of Ordovician rocks protrudes from the cover of younger deposits outcrop, cropping out in the Baltic Klint at the coast and at a few places inland. The Ordovician rocks are made up from top to bottom of a thick layer of
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
and marlstone, then a first layer of argillite followed by first layer of sandstone and siltstone and then another layer of argillite also followed by sandstone and siltstone. In other places of the city hard sedimentary rock is only to be found beneath Quaternary sediments at depths reaching as much as 120 meters below sea level. Underlying the sedimentary rock are the rocks of the Fennoscandian Craton including gneisses and other metamorphic rocks with volcanic rock protoliths and rapakivi granites. The mentioned rocks are much older than the rest (Paleoproterozoic age) and do not crop out anywhere in Estonia.


Climate

Tallinn has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification ''Dfb'') with mild, rainy summers and cold, snowy winters. Winters are cold but mild for its latitude, owing to its coastal location. The average temperature in February, the coldest month, is . During the winter months, temperatures tend to hover close to the freezing mark but mild spells of weather can push temperatures above , occasionally reaching above while cold air masses can push temperatures below an average of 6 days a year. Snowfall is common during the winter months. Winters are cloudy and are characterised by low amounts of sunshine, ranging from only 20.7 hours of sunshine per month in December to 58.8 hours in February. Spring starts out cool, with freezing temperatures common in March and April but gradually becomes warmer in May when daytime temperatures average although nighttime temperatures still remain cool, averaging from March to May. Snowfall is common in March and can occur in April. Summers are mild with daytime temperatures hovering around and nighttime temperatures averaging between from June to August. The warmest month is usually July, with an average of . During summer, partly cloudy or clear days are common and it is the sunniest season, ranging from 255.6 hours of sunshine in August to 312.1 hours in July although precipitation is higher during these months. As a consequence of its high latitude, at the summer solstice, daylight lasts for more than 18 hours and 30 minutes. Fall starts out mild, with a September average of and increasingly becomes cooler and cloudier towards the end of November. In the early parts of fall, temperatures commonly reach and at least one day above in September. In the latter months of fall, freezing temperatures become more common and snowfall can occur. Tallinn receives of precipitation annually which is evenly distributed throughout the year although March, April and May are the driest months, averaging about while July and August are the wettest months with of precipitation. The average humidity is 81%, ranging from a high of 89% to a low of 69% in May. Tallinn has an average windspeed of with winters being the windiest (around in January) and summers being the least windy at around in August. Extremes range from in January 1987 to in July 1994. According to a 2021 study commissioned by the British price comparison site Uswitch.com, Tallinn is the most unpredictable of European capitals in terms of weather conditions, with a total score of 69/100; the high score is mainly due to the high number of rainy days in the city and the variation in the duration of sunshine.
Riga Riga (; lv, Rīga , liv, Rīgõ, ) is the capital of Latvia and is home to 614,618 inhabitants (2021), which is a third of Latvia's population. Being significantly larger than List of cities and towns in Latvia#Cities, other cities of Latvi ...

Riga
and
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or ...

Helsinki
took 2nd and 3rd places.


Administrative districts

For local government purposes, Tallinn is subdivided into 8 administrative districts ( et, linnaosad, singular ''linnaosa''). The district governments are city institutions that fulfill, in the territory of their district, the functions assigned to them by Tallinn legislation and statutes. Each district government is managed by an elder ( et, linnaosavanem). They are appointed by the city government on the nomination of the mayor and after having heard the opinion of the administrative councils. The function of the administrative councils is to recommend to the city government and commissions of the city council how the districts should be administered. The administrative districts are further divided into subdistricts or neighbourhoods ( et, asum). Their names and borders are officially defined. There are 84 subdistricts in Tallinn.


Demographics

The population of Tallinn on 1 January 2021 was 438,841. According to Eurostat, in 2004 Tallinn had one of the largest number of non-EU nationals of all EU member states' capital cities with Russians forming a significant minority (~34% belong to the Russian ethnic group, but a majority now hold Estonian citizenship). Ethnic Estonians made up over 52% of the population (). Tallinn was one of the urban areas with industrial and military significance in north Estonia that during the period of Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1944), Soviet occupation Baltic states under Soviet rule (1944–1991), (1944–1991) underwent extensive
Russification Russification or Russianization (russian: Русификация, ''Rusifikatsiya'') is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non- Russian communities (whether involuntarily or voluntarily) give up their culture and language in fav ...
of its ethnic composition due to large influx of immigrants from Russia and other parts of the former USSR. Whole new city districts were built where the main intent of the then Soviet authorities was to accommodate Russian-speaking immigrants: Mustamäe, Väike-Õismäe, Pelguranna, and, most notably, Lasnamäe, which in 1980s became, and is to this day, the most populous district of Tallinn. Indigenous ethnic Estonians made up over 80% of Tallinn's population before World War II, but make up only 52% in 2020. Tallinners made up about 29,7% of Estonia's population in 2009. The official language of Tallinn is
Estonian Estonian may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Estonia, a country in the Baltic region in northern Europe *Estonians, people from Estonia, or of Estonian descent *Estonian language *Estonian cuisine *Estonian culture See also

* * La ...
. In 2011, 206,490 (50,1%) spoke Estonian as their native language and 192,199 (46,7%) spoke Russian as their native language. Other spoken languages include Ukrainian language, Ukrainian, Belarusian language, Belarusian and Finnish language, Finnish.


Economy

Tallinn is the financial and business capital of Estonia. The city has a highly diversified economy with particular strengths in information technology, tourism and logistics. Over half of the Estonian GDP is created in Tallinn. In 2008, the GDP per capita of Tallinn stood at 172% of the Estonian average. In addition to longtime functions as seaport and capital city, Tallinn has seen development of an information technology sector; in its 13 December 2005, edition, ''The New York Times'' characterised Estonia as "a sort of Silicon Valley on the Baltic Sea". One of Tallinn's sister cities is the Silicon Valley town of Los Gatos, California.
Skype Skype () is a Proprietary software, proprietary telecommunications application that specializes in providing VoIP-based videotelephony, videoconferencing and voice calls. It also has instant messaging, file transfer, debit and credit, debit-base ...

Skype
is one of the best-known of several Estonian start-ups originating from Tallinn. Many start-ups originated from the Soviet-era Institute of Cybernetics. In recent years, Tallinn has gradually been becoming one of the main IT centres of Europe, with the Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCD COE) of
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance A military alliance is a formal agreement betwe ...
, the EU Agency for large-scale IT systems and the IT development centres of large corporations, such as TeliaSonera and Kuehne + Nagel being based in the city. Smaller start-up incubators like Garage48 and Game Founders have helped to provide support to teams from Estonia and around the world looking for support, development and networking opportunities. Tallinn receives 4.3 million visitors annually, a figure that has grown steadily over the past decade. The Finns are especially a common sight in Tallinn; on average, about 20,000–40,000 Finnish tourists visit the city between June and October.ERR: Finnish tourist numbers on the rise – new generations traveling to Estonia The cheaper price of Alcohol drink, alcohol products
in particular is one of the main reasons for Finns to visit Tallinn. Tallinn's Old Town, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is a major tourist attraction; others include the Seaplane Harbour of Estonian Maritime Museum, the Tallinn Zoo, Kadriorg Park, and the Estonian Open Air Museum. Most of the visitors come from Europe, though Tallinn has also become increasingly visited by tourists from Russia and the Asia-Pacific region. Tallinn Passenger Port is one of the busiest cruise destinations on the Baltic Sea, serving more than 520,000 cruise passengers in 2013. From year 2011 regular cruise turnarounds in cooperation with Tallinn Airport are organised. Eesti Energia, a large oil shale to energy company, has its headquarters in Tallinn. The city also hosts the headquarters of Elering, a national electric power transmission system operator and member of ENTSO-E, the Estonian natural gas company Eesti Gaas and energy holding company Alexela Energia, part of Alexela Group. Nord Pool Spot, the largest market for electrical energy in the world, established its local office in Tallinn. Tallinn is the financial centre of Estonia and also a strong economic centre in the Scandinavian-Baltic region. Many major banks, such as Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken, SEB, Swedbank, Nordea, DNB ASA, DNB, have their local offices in Tallinn. LHV Pank, an Estonian investment bank, has its corporate headquarters in Tallinn. Two crypto-currencies exchanges officially recognized by the Estonian government, CoinMetro and DX.Exchange have their headquarters in Tallinn. Tallinn Stock Exchange, part of NASDAQ OMX Group, is the only regulated exchange in Estonia. Port of Tallinn is one of the biggest ports in the Baltic sea region. Old City Harbour has been known as a convenient harbour since the 10th century, but nowadays the cargo operations are shifted to Muuga Harbour, Muuga Cargo Port and Paldiski Southern Port. There is a small fleet of Fish processing vessel, oceangoing trawlers that operate out of Tallinn. Tallinn's industries include shipbuilding, machine building, metal processing, electronics, textile manufacturing. BLRT Grupp has its headquarters and some subsidiaries in Tallinn. Air Maintenance Estonia and Panaviatic, AS Panaviatic Maintenance, both based in Tallinn Airport, provide Maintenance, repair, and operations, MRO services for aircraft, largely expanding their operations in recent years. Liviko, the maker of Vana Tallinn liqueur, strongly associated with the city, is based in Tallinn. The headquarters of Kalev (confectioner), Kalev, a confectionery company and part of the industrial conglomerate Orkla Group, is located in Lehmja, southeast of Tallinn. Estonia is ranked third in Europe in terms of shopping centre space per inhabitant, ahead of Sweden and being surpassed only by Norway and Luxembourg.


Notable headquarters

Among others: *NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE) *European Agency for the operational management of large-scale IT systems in the area of freedom, security and justice is based in Tallinn. *
Skype Skype () is a Proprietary software, proprietary telecommunications application that specializes in providing VoIP-based videotelephony, videoconferencing and voice calls. It also has instant messaging, file transfer, debit and credit, debit-base ...

Skype
has its software development centre located in Tallinn. *Telia Company has its IT development centre located in Tallinn. *Kuehne + Nagel has its IT centre located in Tallinn. *Arvato Financial Solutions has its global IT development and innovation centre located in Tallinn. *Ericsson has one of its biggest production facilities in Europe located in Tallinn, focusing on the production of 4G communication devices. *Equinor has announced moving the group's financial centre to Tallinn.


Education

Institutions of higher education and science include: * Baltic Film and Media School * Estonian Academy of Arts * Estonian Academy of Security Sciences * Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre * Estonian Business School * Estonian Maritime Academy * Institute of Theology of the Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church * National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics * Tallinn University * Tallinn University of Technology * Tallinn University of Applied Sciences


Culture


Museums

Tallinn is home to more than 60 museums and galleries. Most of them are located in Kesklinn, Tallinn, Kesklinn, the central district of the city, and cover Tallinn's rich history. One of the most visited historical museums in Tallinn is the Estonian History Museum, located in Great Guild Hall at Vanalinn, the old part of the city. It covers Estonia's history from prehistoric times up until the end of the 20th century. It features film and hands-on displays that show how Estonian dwellers lived and survived. The Estonian Maritime Museum provides a detailed overview of nation's seafaring past. This museum in also located in city's Old Town, where it occupies one of Tallinn's former defensive structures – Fat Margaret's Tower. Another historical museum that can be found at city's Old Town, just behind the Town Hall Square, Tallinn, Town Hall, is Tallinn City Museum. It covers Tallinn's history from pre-history until 1991, when Estonia regained its independence. Tallinn City Museum owns nine more departments and museums around the city, one of which is Tallinn's Museum of Photography, also located just behind the Town Hall Square, Tallinn, Town Hall. It features permanent exhibition that covers 100 years of photography in Estonia. Estonia's Vabamu Museum of Occupations and Freedom is yet another historical museum located in Tallinn's Kesklinn, Tallinn, central district. It covers the 52 years when Estonia was occupied by the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. Not far away is another museum related to the Soviet occupation of Estonia, the KGB Museum, which occupies the 23rd floor of Sokos Hotel Viru. It features equipment, uniforms, and documents of Russian Secret Service agents. Tallinn is also home to two major natural science museums – Estonian Museum of Natural History and Estonian Health Care Museum, both located in Old Town. The Estonian Museum of Natural Science features several seasonal and temporary themed exhibitions that provide an overview of wildlife in Estonia and around the world. The Estonian Health Care Museum features permanent exhibitions on anatomy and health care; its collections and displays cover the history of medicine in
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
. Estonia's capital is also home to many art and design museums. The Art Museum of Estonia, Estonian Art Museum, the country's biggest art museum, now consists of four branches – Kumu Art Museum, Kadriorg Palace, Kadriorg Art Museum, Mikkel Museum, and St. Nicholas' Church, Tallinn, Niguliste Museum. Kumu Art Museum features the country's largest collection of contemporary and modern art. It also displays Estonian art starting from the early 18th century. Those who are interested in Western European and Russian art may enjoy Kadriorg Art Museum collections, located in Kadriorg Palace, a beautiful Baroque building erected by Peter the Great. It stores and displays about 9,000 works of art from the 16th to 20th centuries. The Mikkel Museum, in Kadriorg Park, displays a collection of mainly Western art – ceramics and Chinese porcelain donated by Johannes Mikkel in 1994. The Niguliste Museum occupies former St. Nicholas' Church, Tallinn, St. Nicholas' Church; it displays collections of historical ecclesiastical art spanning nearly seven centuries from the Middle Ages to post-Reformation art. Those that are interested in design and applied art may enjoy the Estonian Museum of Applied Art and Design collection of Estonian contemporary designs. It displays up to 15.000 pieces of work made of textile art, ceramics, porcelain, leather, glass, jewellery, metalwork, furniture, and product design. To experience more relaxed, culture-oriented exhibits, one may turn to Museum of Estonian Drinking Culture. This museum showcases the historic Luscher & Matiesen Distillery as well as the history of Estonian alcohol production.


Lauluväljak

The Estonian Song Festival (in Estonian: ''Laulupidu'') is one of the largest choral events in the world, listed by the
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
as a Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. It is held every five years in July on the Tallinn Song Festival Grounds (''Lauluväljak'') simultaneously with the Estonian Dance Festival.Estonian Song and Dance Celebrations
Estonian Song and Dance Celebration Foundation
The joint choir has comprised more than 30,000 singers performing to an audience of 80,000. Often referred to as The Singing Nation, the Estonians have one of the biggest collections of folk songs in the world, with written records of about 133,000 folk songs. From 1987, a cycle of mass Demonstration (people), demonstrations featuring spontaneous singing of national songs and hymns that were strictly forbidden during the years of the Soviet occupation to peacefully resist the illegal oppression. In September 1988, a record 300,000 people, more than a quarter of all Estonians, gathered in Tallinn for a song festival.


Tallinn Black Nights Film Festival

Tallinn Black Nights Film Festival (Estonian: Pimedate Ööde Filmifestival, or PÖFF), is an annual film festival held since 1997 in Tallinn, the capital city of Estonia. PÖFF is the only festival in the Nordic and Baltic region with a FIAPF (International Federation of Film Producers Association) accreditation for holding an international competition programme in the Nordic and Baltic region with 14 other non-specialised festivals, such as Cannes Film Festival, Cannes, Berlin International Film Festival, Berlin, Venice Film Festival, Venice. With over 250 feature films screened each year and over 77500 attendances (2014), PÖFF is one of the largest film events of Northern Europe and cultural events in Estonia in the winter season. During its 19th edition in 2015 the festival screened more than 600 films (including 250+ feature-length films from 80 different countries), bringing over 900 screenings to an audience of over 80, 000 people as well as over 700 accredited guests and journalists from 50 different countries. In 2010 the festival held the European Film Awards ceremony in Tallinn.


Cuisine

The traditional cuisine of Tallinn reflects culinary traditions of north Estonia, the role of the city as a fishing port, and historical German influences. Numerous cafés ( et, Kohvik) have played a major role in a social life of the city since the 19th century, as have bars, especially in the Kesklinn district. The marzipan industry in Tallinn has a very long history. The production of marzipan started in the Middle Ages, almost simultaneously in Tallinn and
Lübeck Lübeck (; Low German also ; da, Lybæk ), officially the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (german: Hansestadt Lübeck), is a city in Northern Germany. With around 217,000 inhabitants, Lübeck is the second-largest city on the German Baltic Sea, Balt ...

Lübeck
, both members of the
Hanseatic League The Hanseatic League (; gml, Hanse, , ; german: label=German language, Modern German, Deutsche Hanse; nl, label=Dutch language, Dutch, De Hanze; la, Hansa Teutonica) was a Middle Ages, medieval commercial and defensive confederation of merchan ...
. In 1695, marzipan was mentioned as a medicine, under the designation of ''Panis Martius,'' in the price lists of the Raeapteek, Tallinn Town Hall Pharmacy. The modern era of marzipan in Tallinn began in 1806, when the Swiss people, Swiss confectioner Lorenz Caviezel set up his confectionery on Pikk Street. In 1864 it was bought and expanded by Georg Stude and now is known as the Maiasmokk café. In the late 19th century marzipan figurines made by Reval confectioners were supplied to the Russian Imperial Family. Today, along with mass production, unique projects are made, such as a 12 kg scale model of the Estonia Theatre. The most symbolic seafood dish of Tallinn is "''Vürtsikilu''" – spicy sprats, pickled with a distinctive set of spices including black pepper, allspice and cloves. Making vürtsikilu presumably originated from the city outskirts, beginning in the late 18th or the early 19th century. In 1826 Tallinn merchants exported nearly 40,000 cans of vürtsikilu to Saint Petersburg, then the capital of the Russian Empire. A closely associated dish is a "''Kiluvõileib''" – a traditional rye bread open sandwich with a thin layer of butter and a layer of vürtsikilu as a topping. Boiled egg slices, mayonnaise and culinary herbs are optional extra toppings. Alcoholic beverages produced in the city include beers, vodkas, and liqueurs, the latter (such as Vana Tallinn) being the most characteristic. Also, the number of Microbrewery#Craft brewery, craft beer breweries has expanded sharply in Tallinn over the last decade, entering local and regional markets.


Tourism

What can arguably be considered to be Tallinn's main attractions are located in the Vanalinn, old town of Tallinn (divided into a "lower town" and
Toompea Toompea (from german: Domberg, "Cathedral Hill") is a limestone hill in the central part of the city of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The hill is an oblong tableland, which measures about 400 by 250 metres, has an area of and is about 20–30 me ...

Toompea
hill) which is easily explored on foot. The eastern parts of the city, notably
Pirita Pirita is one of the eight administrative districts ( et, linnaosa) of Tallinn Tallinn (; ) is the most populous, primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal Mammals (from Latin languag ...
(with Pirita Convent) and Kadriorg (with Kadriorg Palace) districts, are also popular destinations, and the Estonian Open Air Museum in Rocca al Mare, west of the city, preserves aspects of Estonian rural culture and architecture.


Toompea – Upper Town

This area was once an almost separate town, heavily fortified, and has always been the seat of whatever power that has ruled Estonia. The hill occupies an easily defensible site overlooking the surrounding districts. The major attractions are the medieval Toompea Castle (today housing the Estonian Parliament, the ''Riigikogu''), the Lutheran St Mary's Cathedral, Tallinn, St Mary's Cathedral, also known as the Dome Church ( et, Toomkirik), and the Russian Orthodox Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Tallinn, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral.


All-linn – Lower Town

This area is one of the best preserved medieval towns in Europe and the authorities are continuing its rehabilitation. Major sights include the Town Hall Square, Tallinn, Town Hall square ( et, Raekoja plats ), the Walls of Tallinn, city wall and towers (notably "Estonian Maritime Museum#Fat Margaret, Fat Margaret" and "Kiek in de Kök, Tallinn, Kiek in de Kök") as well as a number of medieval churches, including St. Olaf's Church, Tallinn, St Olaf's, St. Nicholas' Church, Tallinn, St. Nicholas' and the Church of the Holy Ghost, Tallinn, Church of the Holy Ghost. The Catholic St. Peter and St. Paul's Cathedral, Tallinn, Cathedral of St Peter and St Paul is also in the Lower Town.


Kadriorg

Kadriorg is east of the city centre and is served by buses and trams. Kadriorg Palace, the former palace of Peter the Great, built just after the
Great Northern War The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern Europe, Northern, Central Europe, Central and Eastern Europe. The i ...

Great Northern War
, now houses the foreign art department of the Art Museum of Estonia, the presidential residence and the surrounding grounds include formal gardens and woodland. The main building of the Art Museum of Estonia, KUMU (museum), Kumu ( et, Kunstimuuseum, Art Museum), was built in 2006 and lies in Kadriorg park. It houses an encyclopaedic collection of Estonian art, including paintings by Carl Timoleon von Neff, Johann Köler, Eduard Ole, Jaan Koort, Konrad Mägi, Eduard Wiiralt, Henn Roode and Adamson-Eric, among others.


Pirita

This coastal district is a further 2 kilometres north-east of Kadriorg. The marina was built for the 1980 Summer Olympics, Moscow Olympics of 1980, and boats can be hired on the Pirita River. Two kilometres inland are the Tallinn Botanic Garden, Botanic Gardens and the .


Music culture

Tallinn has a few music venues for live music such as Kultuurikatel, Tapper, EKKM – Museum and nightlife, DM Baar. Yearly festivals like Tallinn Music Week and Stalker Festival take place.


Transport


City transport

The city operates a system of bus (73 lines), tram (4 lines) and trolley-bus (4 lines) routes to all districts; the long Trams in Tallinn, tram system is the only tram network in Estonia. A flat-fare system is used. The ticket-system is based on prepaid RFID cards available in kiosks and post offices. In January 2013, Tallinn became the first European capital to offer a Free public transport, fare-free service on buses, trams and trolleybuses within the city limits. This service is available to residents who register with the municipality.


Air

The Lennart Meri Tallinn Airport is about from Town Hall Square, Tallinn, Town Hall square (). There is a tram (Line Number: 4 and local bus connection between the airport and the edge of the city centre (bus no. 2). The nearest railway station Ülemiste is only from the airport. The construction of the new section of the airport began in 2007 and was finished in summer 2008. There has been a helicopter service to and from Helsinki operated by Copterline and taking 18 minutes to cross the Gulf of Finland. The Tallinn Linnahall Heliport, Copterline Tallinn terminal is located adjacent to Linnahall, five minutes from the city centre. After a 10 August 2005 helicopter crash near Tallinn, crash near Tallinn in August 2005, service was suspended but restarted in 2008 with a new fleet. The operator cancelled it again in December 2008, on grounds of unprofitability. On 15 February 2010, Copterline filed for bankruptcy, citing inability to keep the company profitable. In 2011 Copterline started again operating the Tallinn – Helsinki flights. In 2016, Copterline OÜ filed for bankruptcy and there are no scheduled helicopter flights from Tallinn.


Ferry

Several ferry operators, Viking Line, Tallink and Eckerö Line, connect Tallinn to
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or ...

Helsinki
, Mariehamn, Stockholm, and St. Petersburg. Passenger lines connect Tallinn to
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or ...

Helsinki
( north of Tallinn) in approximately 2–3.5 hours by Baltic Sea cruiseferries, cruiseferries.


Railroad

The Elron (rail transit), Elron railway company operates train services from Tallinn to
Tartu Tartu (, South Estonian: ''Tarto'') is the second-largest city in Estonia, after the political and financial capital, Tallinn. It is southeast of Tallinn and 245 kilometres (152 miles) northeast of Riga, the capital of Latvia. Tartu lies on th ...

Tartu
, Valga, Estonia, Valga, Türi, Viljandi, Tapa, Estonia, Tapa, Narva, Koidula, Võru County, Koidula. Buses are also available to all these and various other destinations in Estonia, as well as to
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Saint Petersburg
in Russia and
Riga Riga (; lv, Rīga , liv, Rīgõ, ) is the capital of Latvia and is home to 614,618 inhabitants (2021), which is a third of Latvia's population. Being significantly larger than List of cities and towns in Latvia#Cities, other cities of Latvi ...

Riga
, Latvia. The Russian railways company operates a daily international sleeper train service between Tallinn – Moscow. Tallinn also has a commuter rail service running from Tallinn's Balti jaam, main rail station in two main directions: east (Aegviidu) and to several western destinations (Pääsküla, Keila, Riisipere, Turba, Paldiski, and Kloogaranna). These are electrified lines and are used by the Elron (rail transit), Elron railroad company. Stadler FLIRT EMU and DMU units are in service since July 2013. The first electrified train service in Tallinn was opened in 1924 from Tallinn to Pääsküla, a distance of . The Rail Baltica project, which will link Tallinn with Warsaw via Latvia and Lithuania, will connect Tallinn with the rest of the European rail network. A Helsinki to Tallinn Tunnel, undersea tunnel has been proposed between Tallinn and
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or ...

Helsinki
, though it remains at a planning phase.


Roads

The Via Baltica motorway (part of European route E67 from
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or ...

Helsinki
to Prague) connects Tallinn to the Lithuanian/Polish border through
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ; ltg, Latveja; liv, Leţmō), officially known as the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no, ltg, Latvejas Republika, links=no, liv, Leţmō Vabāmō, links=no), is a country in the Baltic re ...

Latvia
. Frequent and affordable long-distance bus routes connect Tallinn with other parts of Estonia. In 2013, the 320-meter-long Ülemiste tunnel was first opened.


Notable people


Pre 1900

* Michael Sittow (ca. 1469–1525), Estonian-born painter, trained in the tradition of Early Netherlandish painting, significant Flemish painter of the era * Count Jacob De la Gardie (1583–1652), statesman and a field marshal of Sweden * Jacob Johan Hastfer (1647–1695), officer and governor of the Swedish Livonia, Livonia province between 1687 and 1695 * Alexander Friedrich von Hueck (1802–1842), professor of anatomy at University of Tartu, a notable estophile * Julius Iversen, Julius Gottlieb Iversen (1823–1900), Phaleristics, phalerist (scholar of medals), professor of Greek and Latin. * Carl Hiekisch, Carl Wilhelm Hiekisch (1840–1901), geographer * Edmund Russow, Edmund August Friedrich Russow (1841–1897), biologist, researcher of plant anatomy and histology * A. H. Tammsaare, Anton Hansen (pseudonym A. H. Tammsaare) (1878–1940), writer, his pentalogy ''Truth and Justice'' (''Tõde ja õigus'') is considered "The Estonian Novel" * Marie Under (1883–1980), poet, nominated for the Nobel prize in literature multiple times * Alfred Rosenberg (1893–1946), leading Nazi Germany, Nazi German ideologue, head of Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories, executed for war crimes


1900 to 1930

* Ants Oras (1900–1982), translator and writer, studied pause patterns in English Renaissance dramatic blank verse * Vidrik Rootare, Vidrik "Frits" Rootare (1906–1981), chess player * Andrus Johani (1906–1941), painter * Miliza Korjus (1909-1980), Polish-Estonian-American opera singer, Hollywood film actress, nominee for Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress in 1938 * Edmund S. Valtman (1914–2005), Estonian-American cartoonist, won the 1962 Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning * Evald Okas (1915–2011), painter, probably best known for his portraits of nudes * Evi Rauer (1915–2004), stage, film and television actress and television director * Paul Kuusberg (1916–2003), writer, particularly of novellas * Ellen Liiger (1918–1987), stage, TV, radio and film actress and theatre teacher * Udo Kasemets (1919–2014), Estonian-born Canadian composer of orchestral, vocal, piano and electroacoustic works * Jaan Kross (1920–2007), novelist, nominated for the Nobel prize in literature multiple times * Vincent Zigas (1920–1983), medical officer in Papua New Guinea during the 1950s * Harry Männil (1920–2010), Estonian-Venezuela, Venezuelan businessman, art collector * Kaljo Raid (1921–2005), composer, cellist and pastor * Vello Viisimaa (1928–1991), opera singer and stage actor, appeared mostly in operettas * Lennart Georg Meri (1929–2006), Estonian politician, writer, film director, statesman, President of Estonia#Presidents of Estonia, second President of Estonia from 1992 to 2001 * Eino Tamberg (1930–2010), composer, promoter of neoclassicism in Estonian music


1930 to 1950

* Uno Loop (1930–2021), singer, musician, athlete, actor, and educator * Vladimir-Georg Karassev-Orgusaar (1931–2015), film director and member of the Congress of Estonia * Martin Puhvel (1933–2016), literature researcher, professor emeritus at McGill University for old and medieval English literature * Ingrid Rüütel (born 1935) folklorist and philologist, wife of former president Arnold Rüütel * Peter P. Silvester, Peter Peet Silvester (1935–1996), electrical engineer, particularly numerical analysis of electromagnetic fields * Jüri Arrak (born 1936), artist and painter * Enn Vetemaa (1936–2017), writer, master of the Estonian Modernist short novel * Arvo Mets, Arvo Antonovich Mets, (1937–1997) Estonian-born Russian poet, master of Russian free verse * Mikk Mikiver (1937–2006), stage and film actor and theater director * Linnart Mäll (1938–2010), historian, orientalist, translator and politician. * Ene Riisna (born 1938), Estonian-born American television producer, known for her work on the American news show 20/20 (U.S. TV series), 20/20. * Andres Tarand (born 1940), politician, former Prime Minister of Estonia and Member of the European Parliament * Leila Säälik (born 1941), stage, film and radio actress * Paul-Eerik Rummo (born 1942), poet and politician * Eili Sild (born 1942), stage, film, television and radio actress * Kalle Lasn (born 1942), Estonian-Canadian film maker, author, magazine editor and activist * Urjo Kareda (1944–2001), Estonian-born Canadian theatre and music critic, dramaturge and stage director * Mari Lill (born 1945), stage, film and TV actress * Sulev Mäeltsemees (born 1947), public administration and local government scholar * Siiri Oviir (born 1947), politician and former Member of the European Parliament * Lepo Sumera (1950–2000), composer, teacher and politician


1950 to 1970

* Urmas Alender (1953–1994), singer and musician, the vocalist of popular Estonian bands Ruja and Propeller (band), Propeller * Ivo Lill (1953–2019), Studio glass, glass artist * Ain Lutsepp (born 1954), actor and politician. * Kalle Randalu (born 1956), pianist * Alexander Goldstein (writer), Alexander Leonidovich Goldstein, (1957–2006), Russian writer and essayist, resident of Tel-Aviv from 1991 * Peeter Järvelaid (born 1957), legal scholar, historian and professor in the University of Tallinn * Doris Kareva (born 1958), poet and translator, head of the Estonian National Commission in
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
* Anu Lamp (born 1958), stage, film, TV and voice actress, stage director, translator and instructor * Tõnu Õnnepalu (born 1962), also known by the pen names ''Emil Tode'' and ''Anton Nigov'', poet and author * Tõnis Lukas (born 1962), politician, Vice-Chairman of the Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica * Marina Kaljurand (born 1962), politician, former Minister of Foreign Affairs (Estonia), Minister of Foreign Affairs * Kiiri Tamm (born 1962), stage, television and film actress and stage manager * Tõnu Trubetsky (born 1963), punk rock/glam punk musician, film and music video director and individualist anarchist * Ivo Uukkivi (born 1965), stage, film, radio, TV actor and producer, founder and singer with the punk band Velikije Luki * Liina Tennosaar (born 1965), stage, film and television actress * Juhan Parts (born 1966), politician, Prime Minister of Estonia from 2003 to 2005 * Mart Sander (born 1967), singer, actor, director, author, artist, and television host * Indrek Sirel (born 1970), general of the Estonian Defence Forces


1970 to date

* Jaan Tallinn (born 1972), programmer, investor, and entrepreneur known for involvement in
Skype Skype () is a Proprietary software, proprietary telecommunications application that specializes in providing VoIP-based videotelephony, videoconferencing and voice calls. It also has instant messaging, file transfer, debit and credit, debit-base ...

Skype
and other projects. * Jan Uuspõld (born 1973), stage, television, radio and film actor and musician. * Urmas Paet (born 1974), politician and Member of the European Parliament * Ken-Marti Vaher (born 1974), politician, Ministry of Justice (Estonia), Minister of Justice 2003–2005 and Ministry of the Interior (Estonia), Minister of the Interior 2011–2014 * Urmas Reinsalu (born 1975), politician, Minister of Defence (Estonia), Minister of Defence from 2012 to 2014, Ministry of Justice (Estonia), Minister of Justice since 2015 * Kristen Michal (born 1975), politician, Minister of Economic Affairs and Infrastructure (Estonia), Minister of economic affairs 2015 to 2016 and Ministry of Justice (Estonia), Minister of Justice from 2011 to 2012 * Mailis Reps (born 1975), politician, Minister of Education and Research (Estonia), Minister of Education and Research 2002/03 and 2005/07 * Harriet Toompere (born 1975), stage, television, film actress and writer of children's books * Tanel Ingi (born 1976), stage and film actor, performs primarily at the Ugala theatre * Katrin Pärn (born 1977), stage, film and television actress and singer * Johann Urb (born 1977), Estonian-born American actor, producer and model * Carmen Kass (born 1978), supermodel, ran for European Parliament in 2004, president of the Estonian Chess Federation from 2004 to 2011 * Lauri Lagle (born 1981), stage and film actor, screenwriter and stage producer, director and playwright * Ursula Ratasepp (born 1982), stage, film and television actress * Ott Sepp (born 1982), actor, singer, writer and television presenter * Katrin Siska (born 1983), musician, member of pop-rock band Vanilla Ninja * Priit Loog (born 1984), stage, television and film actor * Tiiu Kuik (born 1987), supermodel * Pääru Oja (born 1989), stage, film, voice, and television actor * Klaudia Tiitsmaa (born 1990), stage, television and film actress


Architects and Conductors

* Valve Pormeister (1922–2002), architect, the first women to influence the development of Estonian architecture * Allan Murdmaa (1934–2009), architect, designed Tehumardi war memorial * Neeme Järvi (born 1937), Estonian-American conductor * Eri Klas (1939–2016), conductor, leader of the Netherlands Radio Symphony Orchestra * Tõnu Kaljuste (born 1953), conductor, conducted with the Estonian National Opera between 1978 and 1995 * Andres Mustonen (born 1953), conductor and violinist, artistic director of ''Mustonenfest Tallinn Tel Aviv Festival'' * Andres Siim (born 1962), architect, designer of the Nissan Center building in Tallinn * Paavo Järvi (born 1962), conductor, son of Neeme Järvi * Margit Mutso (born 1966), architect, designer of the bus station of Rakvere * Elmo Tiisvald (born 1967), conductor, conductor of Opera Studio at Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre * Kaisa Roose (born 1969), music conductor, from 2000 with Malmö Opera and Music Theatre in Sweden * Siiri Vallner (born 1972), architect, designer of the Museum of Occupations in Tallinn * Anu Tali (born 1972), conductor, music director of the Sarasota Orchestra * Eero Endjärv (born 1973), architect, designed the villa in Otepää in Southern Estonia * Katrin Koov (born 1973), architect, designer of the Concert Hall of Pärnu * Mikk Murdvee (born 1980), Estonian-Finnish conductor and violinist, lives in Helsinki


Sport

* Albert Kusnets (1902–1942), middleweight Greco-Roman wrestler, competed in the 1924 Summer Olympics, 1924 and 1928 Summer Olympics * Valter Palm (1905–1994), welterweight professional boxer, competed in 1924 Summer Olympics, 1924 and 1928 Summer Olympics * Toomas Krõm (born 1971), footballer, 11 caps for the Estonia national football team * Gert Kullamäe (born 1971), professional basketball player * Toomas Kallaste (born 1971), footballer, 42 international caps for the Estonia national football team * Indrek Pertelson (born 1971) judoka, won bronze at the 2000 Summer Olympics, 2000 and 2004 Summer Olympics * Mart Poom (born 1972), footballer and coach coach, now goalkeeping coach of the Estonia national football team * Martin Müürsepp (born 1974), basketball player and coach * Sergei Pareiko (born 1977), goalkeeper, 65 appearances for the Estonia national football team * Andres Oper (born 1977), footballer and coach coach, assistant manager of the Estonia national football team * Kristen Viikmäe (born 1979), footballer, played in the Estonian Meistriliiga for JK Nõmme Kalju * Joel Lindpere (born 1981), footballer, made 107 appearances for the Estonia national football team * Anett Kontaveit (born 1995), professional tennis player, highest-ranked Estonian singles player of all time * Jüri Vips (born 2000), race car driver, competitor in the FIA Formula 2 Championship


Twin towns – sister cities

Tallinn is Sister city, twinned with: * Annapolis, Maryland, Annapolis, United States * Carcassonne, France * Dartford, England, United Kingdom * Ghent, Belgium * Groningen, Netherlands * Kiel, Germany * Kyiv, Ukraine * Kotka, Finland * Malmö Municipality, Malmö, Sweden * Moscow, Russia *
Riga Riga (; lv, Rīga , liv, Rīgõ, ) is the capital of Latvia and is home to 614,618 inhabitants (2021), which is a third of Latvia's population. Being significantly larger than List of cities and towns in Latvia#Cities, other cities of Latvi ...

Riga
, Latvia *
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Saint Petersburg
, Russia * Schwerin, Germany * Venice, Italy * Vilnius, Lithuania


Image gallery

File:Revals segl.svg, Seal of Reval, 1340 File:Tallinn Vana Toomas 1530 (2009).JPG,
Old Thomas Old Thomas ( et, Vana Toomas) is one of the symbols and guardians of Tallinn Tallinn (; ) is the most populous, primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal Mammals (from Latin language, ...
is one of the symbols and guardians of Tallinn File:Ayuntamiento, vistas panorámicas desde Toompea, Tallin, Estonia, 2012-08-05, DD 21.JPG, Night view of Tallinn's city center in August 2012 File:Iglesia de San Nicolás, Tallinn, Estonia, 2012-08-05, DD 06.JPG, St. Nicholas' Church, Tallinn, St. Nicholas' Church File:Estonia 1479 - Alexander Nevsky Cathedral.jpg, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Tallinn, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral built in 1894–1900 File:MustpeadeVennaskonnaHooned.Tallinn.jpg, House of the Blackheads (Tallinn), House of the Brotherhood of Blackheads File:Viru väravad 1.jpg, Viru Gate, entrance to the Old Town. Two remaining towers that were once part of a larger fourteenth-century gate system File:Farmacia del Ayuntamiento, Tallin, Estonia, 2012-08-05, DD 02.JPG, The Raeapteek, built in 1422, is one of the oldest continuously running pharmacies in Europe File:07-06-21-tallinn-by-RalfR-144.jpg, Kiek in de Kök, Tallinn, Kiek in de Kök defence tower File:Plaza de la Torre, Tallinn, Estonia, 2012-08-05, DD 02.JPG, Walls of Tallinn, City wall with temporary garden exhibition File:Pikk Hermann, Tallin, Estonia, 2012-08-11, DD 13.JPG, Pikk Hermann (Toompea) File:Kadrioru loss a*.jpg, Kadriorg Palace File:Pirita kloostri varemed kalmistuga.jpg, The ruins of Pirita Convent File:Nordica_Canadair_CRJ-900ER.jpg, A Nordica (airline), Nordica aircraft landing at Tallinn Airport File:Tallinn-Tornimae.jpg, Tornimäe business area


See also

* Legends of Tallinn * Revaltoppe * Tallinn Marathon * Walls of Tallinn


Notes


References


Bibliography


Books and articles

* Burch, Stuart. "An unfolding signifier: London's Baltic exchange in Tallinn." ''Journal of Baltic Studies'' 39.4 (2008): 451–473. * Hallas, Karin, ed.''20th Century Architecture in Tallinn'' (Tallinn, The Museum of Estonian Architecture, 2000) * * Kattago, Siobhan. "War memorials and the politics of memory: The Soviet war memorial in Tallinn." ''Constellations '' 16.1 (2009): 150–166
online
* Naum, Magdalena. "Multi-ethnicity and material exchanges in Late Medieval Tallinn." ''European Journal of Archaeology'' 17.4 (2014): 656–677
online
* Õunapuu, Piret. "The Tallinn department of the Estonian National museum: History and developments." ''Folklore: Electronic Journal of Folklore'' 48 (2011): 163–196. * Pullat, Raimo. ''Brief history of Tallinn'' (Estopol, 1999). *


Travel guides

* * * *


External links


The Website of the City of Tallinn
(official)
Panoramas of Tallinn Old Town

3D model of Tallinn Old Town

Historical footage of Tallinn, 1920archive
, filmportal.de * {{Authority control Tallinn, Capitals in Europe Cities and towns in Estonia Kreis Harrien Members of the Hanseatic League Municipalities of Estonia Populated coastal places in Estonia Populated places in Harju County Port cities and towns in Estonia Port cities and towns of the Baltic Sea World Heritage Sites in Estonia