Founding of the movementThe word 'surrealism' was first coined in March 1917 by . He wrote in a letter to : "All things considered, I think in fact it is better to adopt surrealism than supernaturalism, which I first used" 'Tout bien examiné, je crois en effet qu'il vaut mieux adopter surréalisme que surnaturalisme que j'avais d'abord employé'' Apollinaire used the term in his program notes for 's , '' '', which premiered 18 May 1917. ''Parade'' had a one-act scenario by and was performed with music by . Cocteau described the ballet as "realistic". Apollinaire went further, describing ''Parade'' as "surrealistic":
This new alliance—I say new, because until now scenery and costumes were linked only by factitious bonds—has given rise, in ''Parade'', to a kind of surrealism, which I consider to be the point of departure for a whole series of manifestations of the New Spirit that is making itself felt today and that will certainly appeal to our best minds. We may expect it to bring about profound changes in our arts and manners through universal joyfulness, for it is only natural, after all, that they keep pace with scientific and industrial progress. (Apollinaire, 1917)The term was taken up again by Apollinaire, both as subtitle and in the preface to his play '' Les Mamelles de Tirésias: Drame surréaliste'', which was written in 1903 and first performed in 1917. scattered the writers and artists who had been based in Paris, and in the interim many became involved with Dada, believing that excessive rational thought and values had brought the conflict of the war upon the world. The Dadaists protested with gatherings, performances, writings and art works. After the war, when they returned to Paris, the Dada activities continued. During the war, , who had trained in medicine and psychiatry, served in a hospital where he used 's psychoanalytic methods with soldiers suffering from . Meeting the young writer Jacques Vaché, Breton felt that Vaché was the spiritual son of writer and founder . He admired the young writer's anti-social attitude and disdain for established artistic tradition. Later Breton wrote, "In literature, I was successively taken with , with Jarry, with Apollinaire, with , with Lautréamont, but it is Jacques Vaché to whom I owe the most." Back in Paris, Breton joined in Dada activities and started the literary journal '' Littérature'' along with and . They began experimenting with —spontaneously writing without censoring their thoughts—and published the writings, as well as accounts of dreams, in the magazine. Breton and Soupault continued writing evolving their techniques of automatism and published '' '' (1920). By October 1924 two rival Surrealist groups had formed to publish a . Each claimed to be successors of a revolution launched by Appolinaire. One group, led by consisted of , , Céline Arnauld, , , , , , , Jean Painlevé and , among others. The group led by André Breton claimed that automatism was a better tactic for societal change than those of Dada, as led by Tzara, who was now among their rivals. Breton's group grew to include writers and artists from various such as , Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, , , Max Morise, Dalí, Salvador,
Surrealist ManifestosLeading up to 1924, two rival surrealist groups had formed. Each group claimed to be successors of a revolution launched by Apollinaire. One group, led by , consisted of , , Céline Arnauld, , , , , , , Jean Painlevé and , among others. The other group, led by Breton, included Aragon, Desnos, Éluard, Baron, Crevel, Malkine, and Jean Carrive, among others. Yvan Goll published the ''Manifeste du surréalisme'', 1 October 1924, in his first and only issue of ''Surréalisme'' two weeks prior to the release of Breton's ''Manifeste du surréalisme'', published by Éditions du Sagittaire, 15 October 1924. Goll and Breton clashed openly, at one point literally fighting, at the Comédie des Champs-Élysées, over the rights to the term Surrealism. In the end, Breton won the battle through tactical and numerical superiority. Though the quarrel over the anteriority of Surrealism concluded with the victory of Breton, the history of surrealism from that moment would remain marked by fractures, resignations, and resounding excommunications, with each surrealist having their own view of the issue and goals, and accepting more or less the definitions laid out by André Breton. Breton's 1924 ''Surrealist Manifesto'' defines the purposes of Surrealism. He included citations of the influences on Surrealism, examples of Surrealist works, and discussion of Surrealist automatism. He provided the following definitions:
ExpansionThe movement in the mid-1920s was characterized by meetings in cafes where the Surrealists played collaborative drawing games, discussed the theories of Surrealism, and developed a variety of such as automatic drawing. Breton initially doubted that visual arts could even be useful in the Surrealist movement since they appeared to be less malleable and open to chance and automatism. This caution was overcome by the discovery of such techniques as frottage, grattage and . Soon more visual artists became involved, including , , , , , , , , , Méret Oppenheim, , Kansuke Yamamoto and later after the second war: Enrico Donati. Though Breton admired and and courted them to join the movement, they remained peripheral. Tomkins, Calvin, ''Duchamp: A Biography''. Henry Holt and Company, Inc, 1996. More writers also joined, including former Dadaist , René Char, and . In 1925 an autonomous Surrealist group formed in Brussels. The group included the musician, poet, and artist E. L. T. Mesens, painter and writer , Paul Nougé, Marcel Lecomte, and André Souris. In 1927 they were joined by the writer Louis Scutenaire. They corresponded regularly with the Paris group, and in 1927 both Goemans and Magritte moved to Paris and frequented Breton's circle. The artists, with their roots in and Cubism, the abstraction of Wassily Kandinsky, Expressionism, and Post-Impressionism, also reached to older "bloodlines" or Proto-Surrealism, proto-surrealists such as Hieronymus Bosch, and the so-called primitive and naive arts. André Masson's automatic drawings of 1923 are often used as the point of the acceptance of visual arts and the break from Dada, since they reflect the influence of the idea of the . Another example is Giacometti's 1925 ''Torso'', which marked his movement to simplified forms and inspiration from preclassical sculpture. In the second the influence of Joan Miró, Miró and the drawing style of Pablo Picasso, Picasso is visible with the use of fluid curving and intersecting lines and colour, whereas the first takes a directness that would later be influential in movements such as Pop art. Giorgio de Chirico, and his previous development of metaphysical art, was one of the important joining figures between the philosophical and visual aspects of Surrealism. Between 1911 and 1917, he adopted an unornamented depictional style whose surface would be adopted by others later. ''The Red Tower (La tour rouge)'' from 1913 shows the stark colour contrasts and illustrative style later adopted by Surrealist painters. His 1914 ''The Nostalgia of the Poet (La Nostalgie du poète)'' has the figure turned away from the viewer, and the juxtaposition of a bust with glasses and a fish as a relief defies conventional explanation. He was also a writer whose novel ''Hebdomeros'' presents a series of dreamscapes with an unusual use of punctuation, syntax, and grammar designed to create an atmosphere and frame its images. His images, including set designs for the , would create a decorative form of Surrealism, and he would be an influence on the two artists who would be even more closely associated with Surrealism in the public mind: Dalí and Magritte. He would, however, leave the Surrealist group in 1928. In 1924, Miró and Masson applied Surrealism to painting. The first Surrealist exhibition, ''La Peinture Surrealiste'', was held at Galerie Pierre in Paris in 1925. It displayed works by Masson, , Paul Klee, Miró, and others. The show confirmed that Surrealism had a component in the visual arts (though it had been initially debated whether this was possible), and techniques from Dada, such as photomontage, were used. The following year, on March 26, 1926 Galerie Surréaliste opened with an exhibition by Man Ray. Breton published ''Surrealism and Painting'' in 1928 which summarized the movement to that point, though he continued to update the work until the 1960s.
Surrealist literatureThe first Surrealist work, according to leader Brêton, was Les Chants de Maldoror; and the first work written and published by his group of ''Surréalistes'' was ''Les Champs Magnétiques'' (May–June 1919). ''Littérature'' contained automatist works and accounts of dreams. The magazine and the portfolio both showed their disdain for literal meanings given to objects and focused rather on the undertones, the poetic undercurrents present. Not only did they give emphasis to the poetic undercurrents, but also to the connotations and the overtones which "exist in ambiguous relationships to the visual images" Because Surrealist writers seldom, if ever, appear to organize their thoughts and the images they present, some people find much of their work difficult to parse. This notion however is a superficial comprehension, prompted no doubt by Breton's initial emphasis on automatic writing as the main route toward a higher reality. But—as in Breton's case—much of what is presented as purely automatic is actually edited and very "thought out". Breton himself later admitted that automatic writing's centrality had been overstated, and other elements were introduced, especially as the growing involvement of visual artists in the movement forced the issue, since automatic painting required a rather more strenuous set of approaches. Thus such elements as collage were introduced, arising partly from an ideal of startling juxtapositions as revealed in 's poetry. And—as in Magritte's case (where there is no obvious recourse to either automatic techniques or collage)—the very notion of convulsive joining became a tool for revelation in and of itself. Surrealism was meant to be always in flux—to be more modern than modern—and so it was natural there should be a rapid shuffling of the philosophy as new challenges arose. Artists such as Max Ernst and his surrealist collages demonstrate this shift to a more modern art form that also comments on society. Surrealists revived interest in Isidore Ducasse, known by his pseudonym Comte de Lautréamont, and for the line "beautiful as the chance meeting on a dissecting table of a sewing machine and an umbrella", and Arthur Rimbaud, two late 19th-century writers believed to be the precursors of Surrealism. Examples of Surrealist literature are Artaud's ''Le Pèse-Nerfs'' (1926), Aragon's ''Irene's Cunt'' (1927), Péret's ''Death to the Pigs'' (1929), Crevel's ''Mr. Knife Miss Fork'' (1931), Sadegh Hedayat's ''the Blind Owl'' (1937), and Breton's ''Sur la route de San Romano'' (1948). '' '' continued publication into 1929 with most pages densely packed with columns of text, but which also included reproductions of art, among them works by de Chirico, Ernst, Masson, and Man Ray. Other works included books, poems, pamphlets, automatic texts and theoretical tracts.
Surrealist filmsEarly films by Surrealists include: * ''Entr'acte (film), Entr'acte'' by René Clair (1924) * ''The Seashell and the Clergyman, La Coquille et le clergyman'' by Germaine Dulac, scenario by Antonin Artaud (1928) * ''L'Étoile de mer'' by Man Ray (1928) * ''Un Chien Andalou'' by Luis Buñuel and Salvador Dalí (1929) * ''L'Âge d'Or'' by Buñuel and Dalí (1930) * ''The Blood of a Poet, Le sang d'un poète'' by Jean Cocteau (1930)
Surrealist photographyFamous Surrealist photographers are the American , the French/Hungarian Brassaï, French Claude Cahun and the Dutch w:nl:Emiel van Moerkerken, Emiel van Moerkerken.
Surrealist theatreThe word ''surrealist'' was first used by Apollinaire to describe his 1917 play ''The Breasts of Tiresias, Les Mamelles de Tirésias'' ("The Breasts of Tiresias"), which was later Les mamelles de Tirésias, adapted into an opera by Francis Poulenc. 's ''The Mysteries of Love'' (1927) and ''Victor, or The Children Take Over'' (1928) are often considered the best examples of Surrealist theatre, despite his expulsion from the movement in 1926. The plays were staged at the Theatre Alfred Jarry, the theatre Vitrac co-founded with Antonin Artaud, another early Surrealist who was expelled from the movement. Following his collaboration with Vitrac, Artaud would extend Surrealist thought through his theory of the Theatre of Cruelty. Artaud rejected the majority of Western theatre as a perversion of its original intent, which he felt should be a mystical, metaphysical experience. Instead, he envisioned a theatre that would be immediate and direct, linking the unconscious minds of performers and spectators in a sort of ritual event, Artaud created in which emotions, feelings, and the metaphysical were expressed not through language but physically, creating a mythological, archetypal, allegorical vision, closely related to the world of dreams. The Spanish playwright and director Federico García Lorca, also experimented with surrealism, particularly in his plays ''The Public (play), The Public'' (1930), ''When Five Years Pass'' (1931), and ''Play Without a Title'' (1935). Other surrealist plays include Aragon's ''Backs to the Wall'' (1925). Gertrude Stein's opera ''Doctor Faustus Lights the Lights'' (1938) has also been described as "American Surrealism", though it is also related to a theatrical form of cubism.
Surrealist musicIn the 1920s several composers were influenced by Surrealism, or by individuals in the Surrealist movement. Among them were Bohuslav Martinů, André Souris, , Francis Poulenc, and Edgard Varèse, who stated that his work ''Arcana'' was drawn from a dream sequence. Souris in particular was associated with the movement: he had a long relationship with Magritte, and worked on Paul Nougé's publication ''Adieu Marie''. Music by composers from across the twentieth century have been associated with surrealist principles, including Thomas Adès, Pierre Boulez, György Ligeti, Mauricio Kagel, and Olivier Messiaen. Germaine Tailleferre of the French group Les Six wrote several works which could be considered to be inspired by Surrealism, including the 1948 ballet ''Paris-Magie'' (scenario by Lise Deharme), the operas ''La Petite Sirène'' (book by Philippe Soupault) and ''Le Maître'' (book by Eugène Ionesco). Tailleferre also wrote popular songs to texts by Claude Marci, the wife of Henri Jeanson, whose portrait had been painted by Magritte in the 1930s. Even though Breton by 1946 responded rather negatively to the subject of music with his essay ''Silence is Golden'', later Surrealists, such as Paul Garon, have been interested in—and found parallels to—Surrealism in the improvisation of jazz and the blues. Jazz and blues musicians have occasionally reciprocated this interest. For example, the 1976 World Surrealist Exhibition included performances by David "Honeyboy" Edwards.
Surrealism and international politicsSurrealism as a political force developed unevenly around the world: in some places more emphasis was on artistic practices, in other places on political practices, and in other places still, Surrealist praxis looked to supersede both the arts and politics. During the 1930s, the Surrealist idea spread from Europe to North America, South America (founding of the ''Mandrágora'' group in Chile in 1938), Central America, the Caribbean, and throughout Asia, as both an artistic idea and as an ideology of political change.Tessel M. Bauduin, Victoria Ferentinou, Daniel Zamani, ''Surrealism, Occultism and Politics: In Search of the Marvellous''
Internal politicsIn 1929 the satellite group associated with the journal ''Le Grand Jeu'', including Roger Gilbert-Lecomte, Maurice Henry and the Czech painter Josef Sima, was ostracized. Also in February, Breton asked Surrealists to assess their "degree of moral competence", and theoretical refinements included in the second ''Surrealist Manifesto, manifeste du surréalisme'' excluded anyone reluctant to commit to collective action, a list which included Leiris, Limbour, Morise, Baron, Queneau, Prévert, Desnos, Masson and Boiffard. Excluded members launched a counterattack, sharply criticizing Breton in the pamphlet ''Un Cadavre'', which featured a picture of Breton wearing a crown of thorns. The pamphlet drew upon an earlier act of subversion by likening Breton to Anatole France, whose unquestioned value Breton had challenged in 1924. The disunion of 1929–30 and the effects of ''Un Cadavre'' had very little negative impact upon Surrealism as Breton saw it, since core figures such as Aragon, Crevel, Dalí and Buñuel remained true to the idea of group action, at least for the time being. The success (or the controversy) of Dalí and Buñuel's film L'Age d'Or in December 1930 had a regenerative effect, drawing a number of new recruits, and encouraging countless new artistic works the following year and throughout the 1930s. Disgruntled surrealists moved to the periodical ''Documents (magazine), Documents'', edited by Georges Bataille, whose anti-idealist materialism formed a hybrid Surrealism intending to expose the base instincts of humans.Surrealist Art
Golden ageThroughout the 1930s, Surrealism continued to become more visible to the public at large. A British Surrealist Group, Surrealist group developed in London and, according to Breton, their 1936 London International Surrealist Exhibition was a high-water mark of the period and became the model for international exhibitions. Another English Surrealist group developed Birmingham Surrealists, in Birmingham, meanwhile, and was distinguished by its opposition to the London surrealists and preferences for surrealism's French heartland. The two groups would reconcile later in the decade. Dalí and Magritte created the most widely recognized images of the movement. Dalí joined the group in 1929, and participated in the rapid establishment of the visual style between 1930 and 1935. Surrealism as a visual movement had found a method: to expose psychological truth; stripping ordinary objects of their normal significance, to create a compelling image that was beyond ordinary formal organization, in order to evoke empathy from the viewer. 1931 was a year when several Surrealist painters produced works which marked turning points in their stylistic evolution: Magritte's ''Voice of Space (La Voix des airs)'' is an example of this process, where three large spheres representing bells hang above a landscape. Another Surrealist landscape from this same year is Yves Tanguy's '':File:Premontory Palace.jpg, Promontory Palace (Palais promontoire)'', with its molten forms and liquid shapes. Liquid shapes became the trademark of Dalí, particularly in his ''The Persistence of Memory'', which features the image of watches that sag as if they were melting. The characteristics of this style—a combination of the depictive, the abstract, and the psychological—came to stand for the alienation which many people felt in the modernism, modern period, combined with the sense of reaching more deeply into the psyche, to be "made whole with one's individuality". Between 1930 and 1933, the Surrealist Group in Paris issued the periodical ''Le Surréalisme au service de la révolution'' as the successor of ''La Révolution surréaliste''. From 1936 through 1938 Wolfgang Paalen, Gordon Onslow Ford, and Roberto Matta joined the group. Paalen contributed Fumage and Onslow Ford Coulage as new pictorial automatic techniques. Long after personal, political and professional tensions fragmented the Surrealist group, Magritte and Dalí continued to define a visual program in the arts. This program reached beyond painting, to encompass photography as well, as can be seen from a Man Ray self-portrait, whose use of assemblage influenced Robert Rauschenberg's collage boxes. During the 1930s Peggy Guggenheim, an important American art collector, married Max Ernst and began promoting work by other Surrealists such as Yves Tanguy and the British artist John Tunnard. Major exhibitions in the 1930s * 1936 – ''London International Surrealist Exhibition'' is organised in London by the art historian Herbert Read, with an introduction by André Breton. * 1936 – Museum of Modern Art in New York shows the exhibition ''Fantastic Art, Dada and Surrealism''. * 1938 – A new ''Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme'' was held at the Beaux-arts Gallery, Paris, with more than 60 artists from different countries, and showed around 300 paintings, objects, collages, photographs and installations. The Surrealists wanted to create an exhibition which in itself would be a creative act and called on Marcel Duchamp, Wolfgang Paalen, Man Ray and others to do so. At the exhibition's entrance Salvador Dalí placed his Rainy Taxi (an old taxi rigged to produce a steady drizzle of water down the inside of the windows, and a shark-headed creature in the driver's seat and a blond mannequin crawling with live snails in the back) greeted the patrons who were in full evening dress. ''Surrealist Street'' filled one side of the lobby with mannequins dressed by various Surrealists. Paalen and Duchamp designed the main hall to seem like cave with 1,200 coal bags suspended from the ceiling over a coal brazier with a single light bulb which provided the only lighting, as well as the floor covered with humid leaves and mud. The patrons were given flashlights with which to view the art. On the floor Wolfgang Paalen created a small lake with grasses and the aroma of roasting coffee filled the air. Much to the Surrealists' satisfaction the exhibition scandalized the viewers.
World War II and the Post War periodWorld War II created havoc not only for the general population of Europe but especially for the European artists and writers that opposed Fascism and Nazism. Many important artists fled to North America and relative safety in the United States. The art community in Culture of New York City, New York City in particular was already grappling with Surrealist ideas and several artists like Arshile Gorky, Jackson Pollock, and Robert Motherwell converged closely with the surrealist artists themselves, albeit with some suspicion and reservations. Ideas concerning the unconscious and dream imagery were quickly embraced. By the Second World War, the taste of the American avant-garde in New York swung decisively towards Abstract Expressionism with the support of key taste makers, including Peggy Guggenheim, Leo Steinberg and Clement Greenberg. However, it should not be easily forgotten that Abstract Expressionism itself grew directly out of the meeting of American (particularly New York) artists with European Surrealists self-exiled during World War II. In particular, Gorky and Paalen influenced the development of this American art form, which, as Surrealism did, celebrated the instantaneous human act as the well-spring of creativity. The early work of many Abstract Expressionists reveals a tight bond between the more superficial aspects of both movements, and the emergence (at a later date) of aspects of Dadaistic humor in such artists as Rauschenberg sheds an even starker light upon the connection. Up until the emergence of Pop Art, Surrealism can be seen to have been the single most important influence on the sudden growth in American arts, and even in Pop, some of the humor manifested in Surrealism can be found, often turned to a cultural criticism. The Second World War overshadowed, for a time, almost all intellectual and artistic production. In 1939 Wolfgang Paalen was the first to leave Paris for the New World as exile. After a long trip through the forests of British Columbia, he settled in Mexico and founded his influential art-magazine DYN (journal), Dyn. In 1940 Yves Tanguy married American Surrealist painter Kay Sage. In 1941, Breton went to the United States, where he co-founded the short-lived magazine ''VVV (magazine), VVV'' with Max Ernst, Marcel Duchamp, and the American artist David Hare (artist), David Hare. However, it was the American poet, Charles Henri Ford, and his magazine ''View (magazine), View'' which offered Breton a channel for promoting Surrealism in the United States. The ''View'' special issue on Duchamp was crucial for the public understanding of Surrealism in America. It stressed his connections to Surrealist methods, offered interpretations of his work by Breton, as well as Breton's view that Duchamp represented the bridge between early modern movements, such as Futurism (art), Futurism and Cubism, to Surrealism. Wolfgang Paalen left the group in 1942 due to political/philosophical differences with Breton. Though the war proved disruptive for Surrealism, the works continued. Many Surrealist artists continued to explore their vocabularies, including Magritte. Many members of the Surrealist movement continued to correspond and meet. While Dalí may have been excommunicated by Breton, he neither abandoned his themes from the 1930s, including references to the "persistence of time" in a later painting, nor did he become a depictive pompier. His classic period did not represent so sharp a break with the past as some descriptions of his work might portray, and some, such as André Thirion, argued that there were works of his after this period that continued to have some relevance for the movement. During the 1940s Surrealism's influence was also felt in England, America and the Netherlands where Gertrude Pape and her husband Theo van Baaren helped to popularize it in their publication The Clean Handkerchief. Mark Rothko took an interest in biomorphism, biomorphic figures, and in England Henry Moore, Lucian Freud, Francis Bacon (artist), Francis Bacon and Paul Nash (artist), Paul Nash used or experimented with Surrealist techniques. However, Conroy Maddox, one of the first British Surrealists whose work in this genre dated from 1935, remained within the movement, and organized an exhibition of current Surrealist work in 1978 in response to an earlier show which infuriated him because it did not properly represent Surrealism. Maddox's exhibition, titled ''Surrealism Unlimited'', was held in Paris and attracted international attention. He held his last one-man show in 2002, and died three years later. Magritte's work became more realistic in its depiction of actual objects, while maintaining the element of juxtaposition, such as in 1951's ''Personal Values (Les Valeurs Personnelles)'' and 1954's ''Empire of Light (L’Empire des lumières)''. Magritte continued to produce works which have entered artistic vocabulary, such as ''Castle in the Pyrenees (Le Château des Pyrénées)'', which refers back to ''Voix'' from 1931, in its suspension over a landscape. Other figures from the Surrealist movement were expelled. Several of these artists, like Roberto Matta (by his own description) "remained close to Surrealism". After the crushing of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Endre Rozsda returned to Paris to continue creating his own word that had been transcended the surrealism. The preface to his first exhibition in the Furstenberg Gallery (1957) was written by Breton yet.Breton, André. ''Surrealism and Painting'', Icon, 1973 Many new artists explicitly took up the Surrealist banner. Dorothea Tanning and Louise Bourgeois continued to work, for example, with Tanning's ''Rainy Day Canape'' from 1970. Duchamp continued to produce sculpture in secret including an installation with the realistic depiction of a woman viewable only through a peephole. Breton continued to write and espouse the importance of liberating the human mind, as with the publication ''The Tower of Light'' in 1952. Breton's return to France after the War, began a new phase of Surrealist activity in Paris, and his critiques of rationalism and dualism found a new audience. Breton insisted that Surrealism was an ongoing revolt against the reduction of humanity to market relationships, religious gestures and misery and to espouse the importance of liberating the human mind. Major exhibitions of the 1940s, '50s and '60s * 1942 – ''First Papers of Surrealism'' – New York – The Surrealists again called on Duchamp to design an exhibition. This time he wove a 3-dimensional web of string throughout the rooms of the space, in some cases making it almost impossible to see the works. He made a secret arrangement with an associate's son to bring his friends to the opening of the show, so that when the finely dressed patrons arrived they found a dozen children in athletic clothes kicking and passing balls, and skipping rope. His design for the show's catalog included "found", rather than posed, photographs of the artists. * 1947 – International Surrealist Exhibition – Galerie Maeght, Paris * 1959 – International Surrealist Exhibition – Paris * 1960 – ''Surrealist Intrusion in the Enchanters' Domain'' – New York
Post-Breton SurrealismIn the 1960s, the artists and writers associated with the Situationist International were closely associated with Surrealism. While Guy Debord was critical of and distanced himself from Surrealism, others, such as Asger Jorn, were explicitly using Surrealist techniques and methods. May 1968 events in France, The events of May 1968 in France included a number of Surrealist ideas, and among the slogans the students spray-painted on the walls of the Sorbonne were familiar Surrealist ones. would commemorate this in a painting titled ''May 1968.'' There were also groups who associated with both currents and were more attached to Surrealism, such as the Revolutionary Surrealist Group. During the 1980s, behind the Iron Curtain, Surrealism again entered into politics with an underground artistic opposition movement known as the Orange Alternative. The Orange Alternative was created in 1981 by Waldemar Fydrych (alias 'Major'), a graduate of history and art history at the University of Wrocław. They used Surrealist symbolism and terminology in their large scale happenings organized in the major Polish cities during the Jaruzelski regime, and painted Surrealist graffiti on spots covering up anti-regime slogans. Major himself was the author of a "Manifesto of Socialist Surrealism". In this manifesto, he stated that the socialist (communist) system had become so Surrealistic that it could be seen as an expression of art itself. Surrealistic art also remains popular with museum patrons. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Guggenheim Museum in New York City held an exhibit, ''Two Private Eyes'', in 1999, and in 2001 Tate Modern held an exhibition of Surrealist art that attracted over 170,000 visitors. In 2002 the Metropolitan Museum, Met in New York City held a show, ''Desire Unbound'', and the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris a show called ''La Révolution surréaliste''. Surrealists groups and literary publications have continued to be active up to the present day, with groups such as the Chicago Surrealist Group, the Leeds Surrealist Group, and the Surrealist Group of Stockholm. Jan Švankmajer of the Czech-Slovak Surrealists continues to make films and experiment with objects.
Impact of SurrealismWhile Surrealism is typically associated with the arts, it has impacted many other fields. In this sense, Surrealism does not specifically refer only to self-identified "Surrealists", or those sanctioned by Breton, rather, it refers to a range of creative acts of revolt and efforts to liberate imagination. In addition to Surrealist theory being grounded in the ideas of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Hegel, Karl Marx, Marx and Sigmund Freud, Freud, to its advocates its inherent dynamic is dialectical thought.
Other sources used by Surrealism epigonesSurrealists have also drawn on sources as seemingly diverse as Clark Ashton Smith, Montague Summers, Horace Walpole, Fantômas, The Residents, Bugs Bunny, comic strips, the obscure poet Samuel Greenberg and the hobo writer and humourist T-Bone Slim. One might say that Surrealist strands may be found in movements such as Free Jazz (Don Cherry (jazz), Don Cherry, Sun Ra, Cecil Taylor etc.) and even in the daily lives of people in confrontation with limiting social conditions. Thought of as the effort of humanity to liberate imagination as an act of insurrection against society, Surrealism finds precedents in the alchemy, alchemists, possibly Dante Alighieri, Dante, Hieronymus Bosch,''Surrealism:Two Private Eyes''
1960s riotsSurrealists believe that non-Western cultures also provide a continued source of inspiration for Surrealist activity because some may induce a better balance between instrumental reason and imagination in flight than Western culture. Surrealism has had an identifiable impact on radical and revolutionary politics, both directly — as in some Surrealists joining or allying themselves with radical political groups, movements and parties — and indirectly — through the way in which Surrealists emphasize the intimate link between freeing imagination and the mind, and liberation from repressive and archaic social structures. This was especially visible in the New Left of the 1960s and 1970s and the May 1968 in France, French revolt of May 1968, whose slogan "All power to the imagination" quoted by The Situationists and Enragés#Other groups, Enragés from the originally Marxist “''Rêvé''-lutionary“ theory and praxis of Breton's French Surrealist group.
Postmodernism and popular cultureMany significant literary movements in the later half of the 20th century were directly or indirectly influenced by Surrealism. This period is known as the Postmodern era; though there is no widely agreed upon central definition of Postmodernism, many themes and techniques commonly identified as Postmodern are nearly identical to Surrealism. First Papers of Surrealism presented the fathers of surrealism in an exhibition that represented the leading monumental step of the avant-gardes towards installation art. Many writers from and associated with the Beat Generation were influenced greatly by Surrealists. Philip Lamantia and Ted Joans are often categorized as both Beat and Surrealist writers. Many other Beat writers show significant evidence of Surrealist influence. A few examples include Bob Kaufman, Gregory Corso, Allen Ginsberg, and Lawrence Ferlinghetti. Artaud in particular was very influential to many of the Beats, but especially Ginsberg and Carl Solomon. Ginsberg cites Artaud's "Van Gogh – The Man Suicided by Society" as a direct influence on "Howl", along with Apollinaire's "Zone", García Lorca's "Ode to Walt Whitman", and Schwitters' "Priimiititiii". The structure of Breton's "Free Union" had a significant influence on Ginsberg's "Kaddish". In Paris, Ginsberg and Corso met their heroes Tristan Tzara, Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray, and Benjamin Péret, and to show their admiration Ginsberg kissed Duchamp's feet and Corso cut off Duchamp's tie. William S. Burroughs, a core member of the Beat Generation and a postmodern novelist, developed the cut-up technique with former surrealist Brion Gysin—in which chance is used to dictate the composition of a text from words cut out of other sources—referring to it as the "Surrealist Lark" and recognizing its debt to the techniques of Tristan Tzara. Postmodern novelist Thomas Pynchon, who was also influenced by Beat fiction, experimented since the 1960s with the surrealist idea of startling juxtapositions; commenting on the "necessity of managing this procedure with some degree of care and skill", he added that "any old combination of details will not do. Spike Jones Jr., whose father's orchestral recordings had a deep and indelible effect on me as a child, said once in an interview, 'One of the things that people don't realize about Dad's kind of music is, when you replace a C-sharp with a gunshot, it has to be a C-sharp gunshot or it sounds awful.'"Thomas Pynchon (1984) ''Slow Learner'', p.20 Many other postmodern fiction writers have been directly influenced by Surrealism. Paul Auster, for example, has translated Surrealist poetry and said the Surrealists were "a real discovery" for him. Salman Rushdie, when called a Magical Realist, said he saw his work instead "allied to surrealism". David Lynch regarded as a surrealist filmmaker being quoted, "David Lynch has once again risen to the spotlight as a champion of surrealism," in regard to his show ''Twin Peaks''. For the work of other postmodernists, such as Donald Barthelme and Robert Coover, a broad comparison to Surrealism is common. Magic realism, a popular technique among novelists of the latter half of the 20th century especially among Latin American writers, has some obvious similarities to Surrealism with its juxtaposition of the normal and the dream-like, as in the work of Gabriel García Márquez. Carlos Fuentes was inspired by the revolutionary voice in Surrealist poetry and points to inspiration Breton and Artaud found in Fuentes' homeland, Mexico. Though Surrealism was a direct influence on Magic Realism in its early stages, many Magic Realist writers and critics, such as Amaryll Chanady and S. P. Ganguly, while acknowledging the similarities, cite the many differences obscured by the direct comparison of Magic Realism and Surrealism such as an interest in psychology and the artefacts of European culture they claim is not present in Magic Realism. A prominent example of a Magic Realist writer who points to Surrealism as an early influence is Alejo Carpentier who also later criticized Surrealism's delineation between real and unreal as not representing the true South American experience.
Surrealist groupsSurrealist individuals and groups have carried on with Surrealism after the death of André Breton in 1966. The original Paris Surrealist Group was disbanded by member Jean Schuster in 1969, but another Parisian surrealist group was later formed. The current Surrealist Group of Paris has recently published the first issue of their new journal, ''Alcheringa''. The Group of Czech-Slovak Surrealists never disbanded, and continue to publish their journal ''Analogon'', which now spans 80 volumes.
Surrealism and the theatreSurrealist theatre and Artaud's "Theatre of Cruelty" were inspirational to many within the group of playwrights that the critic Martin Esslin called the "Theatre of the Absurd" (in his 1963 book of the same name). Though not an organized movement, Esslin grouped these playwrights together based on some similarities of theme and technique; Esslin argues that these similarities may be traced to an influence from the Surrealists. Eugène Ionesco in particular was fond of Surrealism, claiming at one point that Breton was one of the most important thinkers in history. Samuel Beckett was also fond of Surrealists, even translating much of the poetry into English. Other notable playwrights whom Esslin groups under the term, for example Arthur Adamov and Fernando Arrabal, were at some point members of the Surrealist group. Alice Farley is an American-born artist who became active during the 1970s in San Francisco after training in dance at the California Institute of the Arts. Farley uses vivid and elaborate costuming that she describes as "the vehicles of transformation capable of making a character's thoughts visible". Often collaborating with musicians such as Henry Threadgill, Farley explores the role of improvisation in dance, bringing in an automatic aspect to the productions. Farley has performed in a number of surrealist collaborations including the World Surrealist Exhibition in Chicago in 1976.
Surrealism and comedy
Alleged precursors in older artVarious much older artists are sometimes claimed as precursors of Surrealism. Foremost among these are Hieronymus Bosch, and Giuseppe Arcimboldo, who Dalí called the "father of Surrealism." Apart from their followers, other artists who may be mentioned in this context include Joos de Momper, for some anthropomorphic landscapes. Many critics feel these works belong to fantastic art rather than having a significant connection with Surrealism."...the tendency to interpret Bosch's imagery in terms of modern Surrealism or Freudian psychology is anachronistic. We forget too often that Bosch never read Freud and that modern psychoanalysis would have been incomprehensible to the medieval mind... Modern psychology may explain the appeal Bosch's pictures have for us, but it cannot explain the meaning they had for Bosch and his contemporaries. Bosch did not intend to evoke the subconscious of the viewer, but to teach him certain moral and spiritual truths, and thus his images generally had a precise and premeditated significance."
See also*Avant-garde *Wilfred Bion#Bizarre object, Bizarre Object * *Women surrealists *Exquisite Corpse * * * * * (Cuba)
Bibliography* ''Manifestoes of Surrealism'' containing the first, second and introduction to a possible third manifesto, the novel ''The Soluble Fish'', and political aspects of the Surrealist movement. . * ''What is Surrealism?: Selected Writings of André Breton''. . * ''Conversations: The Autobiography of Surrealism'' (Gallimard 1952) (Paragon House English rev. ed. 1993). . * ''The Abridged Dictionary of Surrealism'', reprinted in: ** Bonnet, Marguerite, ed. (1988). ''Oeuvres complètes'', 1:328. Paris: Éditions Gallimard. Other sources * Ades, Dawn. ''Surrealism in Latin America: Vivisimo Muerto'', Los Angeles: Getty Publications, 2012. * Alexandrian, Sarane. ''Surrealist Art'' London: Thames & Hudson, 1970. * Guillaume Apollinaire, Apollinaire, Guillaume 1917, 1991. Program note for ''Parade'', printed in ''Oeuvres en prose complètes'', 2:865–866, Pierre Caizergues and Michel Décaudin, eds. Paris: Éditions Gallimard. * Allmer, Patricia (ed.) ''Intersections – Women Artists/Surrealism/Modernism'', Rethinking Art's Histories series, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2016. * Allmer, Patricia and Donna Roberts (eds) ‘“Wonderful Things” – Surrealism and Egypt’, ''Dada/Surrealism'', University of Iowa, 20:1, 2013. * Allmer, Patricia (ed.) ''Angels of Anarchy: Women Artists and Surrealism'', London and Manchester: Prestel and Manchester Art Gallery, 2009. * Allmer, Patricia and Hilde van Gelder (eds.) ''Collective Inventions: Surrealism in Belgium'', Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2007. * Allmer, Patricia and Hilde Van Gelder (eds.) ‘The Forgotten Surrealists: Belgian Surrealism Since 1924’, ''Image [&] Narrative'', no. 13, 2005. * Brotchie, Alastair and Gooding, Mel, eds. ''A Book of Surrealist Games'' Berkeley, California: Shambhala, 1995. . * Mary Ann Caws, Caws, Mary Ann ''Surrealist Painters and Poets: An Anthology'' 2001, MIT Press. * Chadwick, Whitney. ''Mirror Images: Women, Surrealism, and Self-Representation''. The MIT Press, 1998. * Chadwick, Whitney. ''Women Artists and the Surrealist Movement''. 1985, Bulfinch Press. * Durozoi, Gerard, ''History of the Surrealist Movement'' Translated by Alison Anderson University of Chicago Press. 2004. . * Flahutez, Fabrice, ''Nouveau Monde et Nouveau Mythe. Mutations du surréalisme de l'exil américain à l'écart absolu (1941–1965)'', Les presses du réel, Dijon, 2007. * Flahutez, Fabrice(ed.), Julia Drost (ed.), Anne Helmreich (ed.), Martin Schieder (ed.), ''Networking Surrealism in the United States. Artists, Agents and the Market'', T.1., Paris, DFK, 2019, 400p. () (PDF) https://doi.org/10.11588/arthistoricum.485 * Fort, Ilene Susan and Tere Arcq, editors. ''In Wonderland: The Surrealist Adventures of Women Artists in Mexico and the United States'', Munich: Prestel Verlag, 2012. * Galtsova, Elena. ''Surrealism and Theatre. On the Theatrical Aesthetics of the French Surrealism'', Moscow, Russian State University for the Humanities, 2012, * * Leddy, Annette and Conwell, Donna. ''Farewell to Surrealism: The Dyn Circle in Mexico'', Los Angeles: Getty Publications. 2012. * Lewis, Helena. ''Dada Turns Red.'' Edinburgh, Scotland: University of Ednburgh Press, 1990. * Low Mary, Breá Juan, ''Red Spanish Notebook'', City Light Books, Sans Francisco, 1979, * Melly, George ''Paris and the Surrealists'' Thames & Hudson. 1991. * Moebius, Stephan. ''Die Zauberlehrlinge. Soziologiegeschichte des Collège de Sociologie. Konstanz: UVK 2006. About the College of Sociology, its members and sociological impacts. * Nadeau, Maurice. ''History of Surrealism''. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press, 1989. . * Richard Jean-Tristan. ''Les structures inconscientes du signe pictural/Psychanalyse et surréalisme'' (''Unconscious structures of pictural sign''), L'Harmattan ed., Paris (France), 1999 * Review "Mélusine" in French by Center of surrealism studies directed by Henri Behar since 1979, edited by Editions l'Age d'Homme, Lausanne, Suisse. Download platform www.artelittera.com 14.00 *
André Breton writings
Surrealism and politics* * *