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Shenyang (; ), formerly known as Fengtian () or by its
Manchu#REDIRECT Manchu people#REDIRECT Manchu people {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
name Mukden, is a major
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China * Chinese people, people of Chinese nationality, citizenship, or ethnicity **''Zhonghua minzu'', the supra-ethnic Chinese nationality ** Han Chinese, the majority ethnic group in Mainland China, ...
sub-provincial city A sub-provincial division () (or deputy-provincial divisions) in China is like a prefecture-level city that is governed by a province, but is administered independently in regard to economy and law. Sub-provincial divisions, similar to prefectural ...
and the provincial capital of
Liaoning province Liaoning (), is a coastal province in Northeast China that is the smallest, southernmost, and most populous province in the region. With its capital at Shenyang, it is located on the northern shore of the Yellow Sea, and is the northernmost c ...
. Located in central-north Liaoning, it is the province's most populous city, with a total metropolitan population up to 8.1 million. The largest city in
Northeast China Northeast China, is a geographical region of China. It usually corresponds specifically to the three provinces east of the Greater Khingan Range, namely Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang, but historically is meant to also encompass the four east ...

Northeast China
by
urban population An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns, conurbations or ...
, with 6.3 million people (2010 census), Shenyang is also the central city of one of the major
megalopolises in China In China, a City Cluster () is an officially defined type of megalopolis, whereby government policy is to knit the area together more tightly and promote development through transportation and communication links. The Economist Intelligence Unit in ...
, the Greater Shenyang Metropolitan Area, which has a total population over 23 million. The city's administrative region includes the ten metropolitan
district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several municipalities, subdivisions of ...
s of Shenyang ''proper'', the
county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city (1949–1970: ; 1970–1983: ), is a county-level administrative division of the People's Republic of China. County-level ...
of Xinmin, and two counties: Kangping and Faku. The
Manchu people#REDIRECT Manchu people#REDIRECT Manchu people {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
conquered Shenyang in the 17th century and briefly used it as the capital of Qing-dynasty China. The
Battle of Mukden The , one of the largest land battles to be fought before World War I and the last and the most decisive major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War, was fought from 20 February to 10 March 1905 between Japan and Russia near Mukden in ...
took place in 1905 during the
Russo-Japanese War The Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan fought the Russo-Japanese War (russian: Ру́сско-япóнская войнá|Rússko-yapónskaya voyná; ja|日露戦争|translit=Nichiro sensō, "Japanese-Russian War") during 1904 and 1905 ov ...
. Japan's subsequent victory allowed Tokyo to annex the region west of the old city and to increase Japanese influence on Shenyang; in September 1931 the
Mukden Incident The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a false flag event staged by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria. On 18 September 1931, Lieutenant Suemori Kawamoto of the Independent Garrison Un ...
led the Japanese to further invade and occupy the rest of Northeast China, forming the
puppet state A puppet state, puppet régime or puppet government is a state that is ''de jure'' independent but ''de facto'' completely dependent upon an outside power and subject to its orders.Compare: Puppet states have nominal sovereignty, but a foreign p ...
of
Manchukuo Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded in 1932 after the Japanese i ...
. After the
Japanese surrender upright=1.35|Representatives of the Empire of Japan stand aboard prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender. The surrender of Imperial Japan was announced by Japanese Emperor Hirohito on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, ...
in 1945, Shenyang remained a
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT) () is a major political party in Taiwan which originated as a revolutionary political party during the Republican Era on the Chinese mainland, where it is sometimes referred to as the Chinese Nationalist Party. Founded ...
stronghold, but the
Communists Communism (from Latin la|communis|lit=common, universal|label=none)Ball, Terence, and Richard Dagger. 9992019.Communism (revised ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 10 June 2020. is a philosophical, social, political, and economic ide ...
captured it in 1948 after the
Liaoshen Campaign#REDIRECT Liaoshen campaign {{R from move ...
. Along with its nearby cities, Shenyang is an important industrial center in China, and serves as the transportation and commercial hub of China's northeast—particularly involved in links with
Japan | image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg | alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle | image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg | alt_coat = Golden circle subdivided ...
,
Russia Russia (russian: link=no|Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world, covering and encompassing more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited l ...
and
Korea Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it has been divided into the two parts which soon became the two sovereign states: North Korea (officially the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea") and South Ko ...
. A center of
heavy industry Heavy industry is an industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, huge buildings and large-scale infrastructure); o ...
in China since the 1930s, and the spearhead of the Chinese central government's
Northeast Area Revitalization Plan Revitalize The Old Northeast Industrial Bases (), also Revitalize Northeast China or Northeast China Revitalization, is a policy adopted by the People's Republic of China to rejuvenate industrial bases in Northeast China. The areas targeted once fun ...
, the city has been diversifying its industry, including expanding into the
service sector The tertiary sector of the economy, generally known as the service sector, is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory. The others are the secondary sector (approximately the same as manufacturing), and the primary secto ...
. Growing industries include software, automotive and electronics. Shenyang is also a major city for scientific research, appearing among the top 200 Science Cities in the world as tracked by the
Nature IndexThe Nature Index is a database, that tracks institutions and countries and their scientific output since its introduction in 2016. Each year, Nature Index ranks the leading institutions (which can be companies, universities, government agencies, rese ...
. The city is home to several major universities, notably
Northeastern University Northeastern University (NU or NEU) is a private research university in Boston, Massachusetts. Established in 1898, the university offers undergraduate and graduate programs on its main campus in Boston as well as regional campuses in Charlotte, ...
and
Liaoning University Liaoning University () is one of the leading universities listed in the nation's "Project 211" and affirmed by the Ministry of Education. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Double First Class Discipline University, with Double First Class status ...
, members of China's prestigious universities in the
Project 211 Project 211 () was a project of National Key Universities and colleges initiated in 1995 by the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, with the intent of raising the research standards of high-level universities and cultivating ...
.


Name

''Shenyang'' literally means "the ''
yang Yang may refer to: * Yang, in yin and yang, one half of the two symbolic polarities in Chinese philosophy * Korean yang, former unit of currency of Korea from 1892 to 1902 *Yang (film), a 1984 Indonesian film nominated for Best Picture at the 15t ...

yang
'' side of the Shen River" and refers to the location of the Hun River (formerly called the Shen River, ), on the southern side of the city. According to Chinese naming tradition, a river's north bank and a mountain's south slope are angled more towards direct sunlight and thus are considered the "sunny", or "yang", side.


History


Ancient era

Archaeological findings show that humans resided in present-day Shenyang as early as 8,000 years ago. The remains of the
Xinle cultureThe Xinle culture (新樂文化) (5500–4800 BC''Archaeology of Asia'', pp.129) was a Neolithic culture in northeast China, found primarily around the lower Liao River on the Liaodong Peninsula in Liaoning. The culture showed evidence of millet cult ...
, a late
neolithic period The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is first seen about 12,000 years ago when the first developments of ...
society over 6,800–7,200 years old, are located in a museum in the north part of Huanggu District. It is complemented by a recreated village on site. A wood-sculptured bird unearthed there is the earliest cultural relic in Shenyang, as well as one of oldest wood sculptures found anywhere in the world. The city, now known as Shenyang, was first established in about 300 BCE during the
Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period and concluded with the Qin wars of conquest th ...
by Yan general Qin Kai, who conquered the
Liaodong The Liaodong Peninsula (also Liaotung Peninsula, ) is a peninsula in southern Liaoning province in Northeast China, and makes up the southwestern coastal half of the Liaodong region. It is located between the mouths of the Daliao River (the hi ...
region, and was then named Hou City (). However, around 350 years later during the reign of
Emperor Guangwu of Han Emperor Guangwu (15 January 5 BC – 29 March AD 57), born Liu Xiu (), courtesy name Wenshu, was an emperor of the Chinese Han dynasty, restorer of the dynasty in AD 25 and thus founder of the Later Han or Eastern Han (the restored Han dynasty) ...
, the city was sacked and burnt by the Donghu
nomads A nomad ( frm|nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, pastoral nomads (owning livestock), and tinkers o ...
and subsequently abandoned. The area of modern Shenyang was divided between two commanderies called
Liaodong The Liaodong Peninsula (also Liaotung Peninsula, ) is a peninsula in southern Liaoning province in Northeast China, and makes up the southwestern coastal half of the Liaodong region. It is located between the mouths of the Daliao River (the hi ...
and
Xuantu Xuantu Commandery (玄菟郡, 현도군) was a commandery of the Han dynasty. It was one of Four Commanderies of Han, established in 107 BCE in northern Korean Peninsula and part of the Liaodong Peninsula, after the Han dynasty invaded Wiman Joseo ...
around 107 CE. Liaodong was seized by a Han governor in 189. Liaodong and Xuantu were briefly united under the Wei Dynasty and
Jin Dynasty Jin is a toneless pinyin romanization of various Chinese names and words. These have also been romanized as Kin and Chin (Wade–Giles). "Jin" also occurs in Japanese and Korean. It may refer to: States Jìn 晉 * Jin (Chinese state) (晉國), m ...
. The region was in disarray during the fourth century until the
Koguryo Goguryeo (; , 37 BC–668 AD), also called Goryeo (; ), was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria. At its peak of power, Goguryeo controlled most of t ...
occupied both commanderies in 404. They established the cities of Xuantucheng and Gaimoucheng in the region.The Sui dynasty recaptured the area and established a new Liaodong Commandery in what is now modern Shenyang. In 645, the Tang sent forces to fight against Koguryo and they captured Xuantucheng and Gaimoucheng. Soon after, Liaodong was administratively reorganized and enjoyed nearly 250 years of stability and development. In 916, the Shenyang region was ruled by the
Liao dynasty The Liao dynasty (; Khitan: ''Mos Jælud''; ), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao (), the Khitan Empire or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: ''Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur''), was an empire and imperial dynasty in East A ...
and was known as the Shen Prefecture () through to the end of
Jin dynasty Jin is a toneless pinyin romanization of various Chinese names and words. These have also been romanized as Kin and Chin (Wade–Giles). "Jin" also occurs in Japanese and Korean. It may refer to: States Jìn 晉 * Jin (Chinese state) (晉國), m ...
(who conquered the region in 1116), and became the Shenyang Circuit () during the
Yuan dynasty#REDIRECT Yuan dynasty {{R from move ...
. During the
Ming dynasty#REDIRECT Ming dynasty {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...
, it was designated as a "guard town" (militarized settlements, such as walled/heavily garrisoned cities or towns) named Shenyang Central Guard () and gradually became one of the most important strongholds beyond the
Shanhai Pass Shanhai Pass or Shanhaiguan () is one of the major passes in the Great Wall of China, being the easternmost stronghold along the Ming Great Wall, and commands the narrowest choke point in the Liaoxi Corridor. It is located in Shanhaiguan Distri ...
.


Manchu capital

In 1625, the
Manchu#REDIRECT Manchu people#REDIRECT Manchu people {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...

Manchu leader
Nurhaci Nurhaci (14 May 1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria. Nurhaci was part of the Aisin Gioro clan, and reigned as the founding Khan of Later Jin from 1616 to 1626. Nurhaci ...

Nurhaci
captured Shenyang and decided to relocate his entire administrative infrastructures to the city, or '' hoton'' () as it is called in
Manchu language Manchu (Manchu: , ) is a critically endangered East Asian Tungusic language native to the historical region of Manchuria in Northeast China. As the traditional native language of the Manchus, it was one of the official languages of the Qing dynast ...
. The official name was changed to Shengjing (), or Mukden (), in 1634. The new name derives from the
Manchu#REDIRECT Manchu people#REDIRECT Manchu people {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...

Manchu word, ' (), meaning "to rise" as reflected also by its Han Chinese name. Under
Nurhaci Nurhaci (14 May 1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria. Nurhaci was part of the Aisin Gioro clan, and reigned as the founding Khan of Later Jin from 1616 to 1626. Nurhaci ...

Nurhaci
's orders, the
Imperial PalaceImperial Palace may refer to: Palaces *Tokyo Imperial Palace (Kōkyo), Tokyo, Japan *Kyoto Imperial Palace, Kyoto, Japan *Imperial Palace of Goslar, Goslar, Germany Hotels *IP Casino Resort Spa, Biloxi, Mississippi; formerly the Imperial Palace Bil ...
was constructed in 1626, symbolizing the city's emerging status as the Jurchen political center. The palace featured more than 300 ostentatiously decorated rooms and 20 gardens as a symbol of power and grandeur. After the fall of the Ming dynasty in 1644 and the routing of the Shun army in the
Battle of Shanhai Pass The Battle of Shanhai Pass, fought on May 27, 1644 at Shanhai Pass (Shanhaiguan, 山海關) at the eastern end of the Great Wall of China, was a decisive battle leading to the beginning of the Qing dynasty rule in China proper. There, Qing Prin ...

Battle of Shanhai Pass
merely a day later, the Manchus successfully entered the
Shanhai Pass Shanhai Pass or Shanhaiguan () is one of the major passes in the Great Wall of China, being the easternmost stronghold along the Ming Great Wall, and commands the narrowest choke point in the Liaoxi Corridor. It is located in Shanhaiguan Distri ...
to establish the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The mult ...
in
China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu-led Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China. There is no fixed extent for China proper, as many a ...

China proper
, with the capital relocated to
Beijing Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's most populous national capital city, with over 21 million residents within an administrative area of 16,410.5 km2 ( ...
. However, Shenyang retained considerable importance as the secondary capital and the spiritual home of the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The mult ...
through the centuries. Treasures of the royal house were kept at its palaces, and the tombs of the early Qing rulers were once among the most famous monuments in China. In 1657, Fengtian Prefecture (; or ) was established in the Shenyang area, and Fengtian () was sometimes used synonymously with Shenyang/Mukden.


Russian and Japanese influence

After the
First Sino-Japanese War The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was a conflict between the Qing dynasty of China and the Empire of Japan primarily over influence in Joseon Korea. After more than six months of unbroken successes by Japanese land ...

First Sino-Japanese War
,
Japan | image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg | alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle | image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg | alt_coat = Golden circle subdivided ...
coerced the annexation of the
Liaodong Peninsula The Liaodong Peninsula (also Liaotung Peninsula, ) is a peninsula in southern Liaoning province in Northeast China, and makes up the southwestern coastal half of the Liaodong region. It is located between the mouths of the Daliao River (the hi ...
with the
Treaty of Shimonoseki The , also known as Treaty of Maguan () in China and in the period before and during WWII in Japan, was a treaty signed at the , Shimonoseki, Japan on 17 April 1895, between the Empire of Japan and Qing China, ending the First Sino-Japanese W ...

Treaty of Shimonoseki
in 1895, though was forced to give it up due to diplomatic pressure from the
Triple Intervention The was a diplomatic intervention by Russia, Germany, and France on 23 April 1895 over the harsh terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki imposed by Japan on Qing dynasty China that ended the First Sino-Japanese War. The goal was to stop Japanese expan ...
. In the aftermath of the Japanese threat,
Qing The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The mult ...

Qing
viceroy
Li Hongzhang Li Hongzhang, Marquess Suyi (also romanised as Li Hung-chang; 15 February 1823 – 7 November 1901) was a Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty. He quelled several major rebellions and served in important positio ...
visited Moscow in 1896 and signed a secret treaty with Russian foreign minister
Aleksey Lobanov-Rostovsky Prince Aleksey Borisovich Lobanov-Rostovsky (russian: Алексе́й Бори́сович Лоба́нов-Росто́вский) ( in Voronezh Governorate – ) was a Russian statesman, probably best remembered for having concluded the Li-Loba ...
, allowing
Imperial Russia The Russian Empire, . was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the Februar ...
to build a Russian gauge railway in Manchuria, which opened the door towards further Russian expansionism in the form of another lease convention in 1898, effectively allowing Russia to annex Port Arthur in all but name. However, after the
Boxer Rebellion The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement, was an armed and violent xenophobic, anti-Christian, and anti-imperialist insurrection in China between 1899 and 1901, towards the end of the Qing dynasty. It was initiated by the Mil ...

Boxer Rebellion
in 1900,
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
forces used the anti-foreigner insurgency as a pretext to formally invade and occupied most of Manchuria, and Mukden became a Russian stronghold in the [[Far East with the building of the [[South Manchurian Railway. During the
Russo-Japanese War The Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan fought the Russo-Japanese War (russian: Ру́сско-япóнская войнá|Rússko-yapónskaya voyná; ja|日露戦争|translit=Nichiro sensō, "Japanese-Russian War") during 1904 and 1905 ov ...
(1904—1905), Mukden was the site of the
Battle of Mukden The , one of the largest land battles to be fought before World War I and the last and the most decisive major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War, was fought from 20 February to 10 March 1905 between Japan and Russia near Mukden in ...
from February 19 to March 10, 1905. Involving more than 600,000 combat participants, it was the largest battle since the [[Battle of Leipzig in 1813, and also the largest modern-era battle ever fought in Asia before [[World War II.Menning p.187 Following the Japanese victory, Mukden became one of the chief bases of Japanese presence and economic expansion into southern [[Manchuria. It also became the government seat of Fengtian province in 1910. It was during this time that Mukden was one of the main epicenters of the [[Manchurian plague (1910—1911), which ultimately resulted in approximately 60,000 deaths.


Warlord Era and Japanese occupation

In 1914, the city changed back to its old name Shenyang, but continued to be known as Mukden (sometimes spelled Moukden) in some English sources and in Japan through much of the first half of 20th century. The postmark of the Chinese postal administration kept the spelling "MOUKDEN/" for usage on international mails until the late 1920s. After that, a Chinese–Manchurian bilingual type "SHENYANG (MUKDEN)/ ()" datestamp was used until 1933. In the early 20th century, Shenyang began expanding out of its old city walls. The [[Shenyang Railway Station on the [[South Manchurian Railway and the [[Shenyang North Railway Station on the [[Beijing–Harbin Railway|Jingfeng Railway, both west of the old city, became the new commercial centers of Shenyang. In the 1920s, Mukden was the capital of the warlord [[Zhang Zuolin, who was later assassinated when [[Huanggutun Incident|his train was blown up on 4 June 1928 at a Japanese-guarded railway bridge. At the time, several factories were built by Zhang to manufacture [[ammunition in the northern and eastern suburbs. These factories laid the foundation for Shenyang's industrial development. At around 10:20 pm on 18 September 1931, a small quantity of dynamite was detonated close to a railway line near Mukden owned by the Japanese [[South Manchuria Railway Company by [[Kwantung Army Lt. Kawamoto Suemori. The [[Imperial Japanese Army, accusing Chinese dissidents of the act, then used the [[false flag explosion as pretext to launch a full attack on Mukden, and captured the city the following morning (September 19). After the
Mukden Incident The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a false flag event staged by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria. On 18 September 1931, Lieutenant Suemori Kawamoto of the Independent Garrison Un ...
, the Japanese further invaded and occupied the rest of Northeast China, and created the
puppet state A puppet state, puppet régime or puppet government is a state that is ''de jure'' independent but ''de facto'' completely dependent upon an outside power and subject to its orders.Compare: Puppet states have nominal sovereignty, but a foreign p ...
of
Manchukuo Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded in 1932 after the Japanese i ...
with the deposed emperor [[Aisin Gioro Puyi as the [[figurehead. During the Manchukuo era (1932–1945), the city was again called Fengtian (and Mukden in English), and was developed by the Japanese into a center of heavy industry. Japan was able to exploit resources in Manchuria using the extensive network of railroads. For example, vast expanses of Manchurian forest were chopped down. The development of Shenyang was also unbalanced in this period; municipal facilities were mostly located in Japanese residential areas, while Chinese residential areas had poor living conditions.


Post-World War II

Under [[Marshal of the Soviet Union [[Aleksandr Vasilevsky, the Far East Command"Battlefield – Manchuria – The Forgotten Victory"
[[Battlefield (documentary series), 2001, 98 minutes.
of [[Red Army|Soviet forces entered Manchuria in early August 1945 following the surrender of Japan.LTC David M. Glantz
"August Storm: The Soviet 1945 Strategic Offensive in Manchuria"
. Leavenworth Papers No. 7, Combat Studies Institute, February 1983, [[Fort Leavenworth [[Kansas.
On 16 August 1945, Manchurian Emperor [[Puyi was captured in Shenyang Airport by the Soviet [[Red Army while he was in an airplane fleeing to Japan. On 20 August, Soviet troops captured Shenyang. British and US reports indicate that the Soviet troops that occupied [[Northeast China and Eastern Inner Mongolia region looted and terrorized the people of Shenyang, and were not discouraged by Soviet authorities from "three days of rape and pillage".Christian Science Monitor, 12 October 1945.
''Japanese armies were guilty of appalling excesses, both in China and elsewhere, and had the Russians dealt harshly with only Japanese nationals in Manchuria this would have appeared as just retribution. But the indiscriminate looting and raping inflicted upon the unoffending Chinese by the Russians naturally aroused the keenest indignation.''
''(The relevant sections also appear at [[Talk:Soviet invasion of Manchuria/Events in Manchuria, 1945-47)'' The Soviets were replaced by the [[Nationalist Chinese, who were flown in on U.S. transport planes. During the [[Chinese Civil War, Shenyang remained a
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT) () is a major political party in Taiwan which originated as a revolutionary political party during the Republican Era on the Chinese mainland, where it is sometimes referred to as the Chinese Nationalist Party. Founded ...
stronghold from 1946 to 1948, although the Chinese [[Communist Party of China|communists controlled the surrounding countryside. It was captured by the communists on October 30, 1948, following a series of offensives known as the
Liaoshen Campaign#REDIRECT Liaoshen campaign {{R from move ...
. Over the past 200 years or so, Shenyang managed to grow and increase its industrial might during consecutive wars with [[Russo-Japanese War|Russia and [[First Sino-Japanese War|Japan in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the [[Second Sino-Japanese War|Second World War, and [[Chinese Communist Revolution|China's Civil War (Shenyang became the main battleground between the [[Communist Party of China|Communists and [[Kuomintang|Nationalists).


Old City

The old city of Shenyang resided almost entirely within the modern day [[Shenhe District, and used to have two [[Chinese city wall|city walls. Situated roughly within the area bounded by the four "Shuncheng" () roads/streets in Shenhe District, the (now-demolished) square-shaped inner city wall marked the bounds of ancient Shenyang. The earliest wall was built in 926 during early
Liao dynasty The Liao dynasty (; Khitan: ''Mos Jælud''; ), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao (), the Khitan Empire or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: ''Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur''), was an empire and imperial dynasty in East A ...
to settle [[Northern Song civilians the [[Khitan people|Khitans abducted from raids to use as [[unfree labour|slave labourers, and was then made of [[rammed earth because the city was merely a small settlement at the time (historically the administrative center of the
Liaodong The Liaodong Peninsula (also Liaotung Peninsula, ) is a peninsula in southern Liaoning province in Northeast China, and makes up the southwestern coastal half of the Liaodong region. It is located between the mouths of the Daliao River (the hi ...
region was at [[Liaoyang). However, in 1368, [[Hongwu Emperor of the newly founded
Ming dynasty#REDIRECT Ming dynasty {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...
ordered a new regional military command—the Liaodong Regional Military Commission ()—to be established, and Shenyang was made a prominent regional "guard town" (). In 1388, Min Zhong (), the newly appointed city commissioner of the Shenyang Central Guard, wrote to Hongwu Emperor immediately upon his tenure requesting permission to upgrade the city wall, and the old wall was made taller and thoroughly reinforced with overlaid bricks. According to ''[[History of Ming'', the reconstructed Ming-era wall was 2.5 ''[[zhàng'' () tall, more than 1 ''zhàng'' () wide at the top, and 9 ''[[li (unit)|li'' and 30 ''bu'' (about ) long. It has two layers of [[moats dug outside, each being 3 ''zhàng'' () wide and 8 ''[[chi (unit)|chi'' () deep, fed with water from the Little Shen River (the present day South Canal). There were four [[city gates, each at the center of one side, connected by two main roads that intersected at Central Temple of the city's center in a "+" fashion. This Ming wall was heavily damaged in 1625 when the Manchus laid siege and captured the city, with only the north wall and [[gate tower (which had undergone reinforcing reconstructions in 1545 under the orders of [[Jiajing Emperor) remained intact. The Manchu leader [[Nurhachi however saw the city's strategic value and decided to formally relocate his [[Qing dynasty|Later Jin capital from Liaoyang to Shenyang, and ordered the wall to be rebuilt. According to ''Annals of Mukden'' (), the new city wall was a standard [[brick#Fired brick|black brick [[defensive wall|wall standing at a height of 3.5 ''zhàng'' (about ), a width of 1.8 ''zhàng'' (about ) and a total length of 9 ''li'' and 332 ''bu'' (about ), complete with 12 [[fortified tower|towers (8 gates and 4 corners) and a widened 14.5-''zhàng'' (about ) moat. The city gates were increased from four to eight, though the old Ming-era north gate tower was preserved but sealed shut, later known as the "Ninth Gate" (). The outer city wall, called the "peripheral wall" () or "[[fortification|pass wall" (), was actually a [[rammed earth [[rampart (fortification)|rampart built in 1680 to expand the urban area outside the inner city. It was almost round in shape, standing at a height of 7.5 ''chi'' (around ) and an overall length of 32 ''li'' and 24 ''bu'' (about ), and also had eight towerless gates known as the "peripheral gates" (). The corresponding inner and outer gates were linked by roads that intersected within the inner city in a "#" pattern around the [[Mukden Palace. Nearly all of these city walls and gates were demolished after 1949. Two gates and one corner tower of the inner wall were rebuilt during the 1990s. There had, however, been proposals to rebuild the other gates and towers in preparation to the [[2013 National Games of China|12th National Games in 2013. Around outside Shenyang's former outer wall, there were four [[pagodas each located within an associated [[Tibetan buddhism|Tibetan buddhist temple, namely the East Pagoda in Yongguang Temple (), the South Pagoda in Guangci Temple (), the West Pagoda in Yanshou Temple () and the North Pagoda in Falun Temple (). They were built in 1643 and completed in 1645. The four pagodas are identical white Buddha-[[stupas as tall as . Nowadays only the temple for the North Pagoda is well preserved, the East and South has only the pagodas left, and the temple for the West Pagoda was rebuilt in 1998. Both the [[Temple of Heaven and Temple of Earth were also to be found in the old city during the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The mult ...
. They were smaller replicas of Beijing's counterparts. Neither exists today.


Geography

Shenyang ranges in latitude from 41° 11' to 43° 02' N and in longitude from 122° 25' to 123° 48' E, and is located in the central part of Liaoning province. The western parts of the city's administrative area are located on the [[alluvial plain of the [[Liao River system, while the eastern part consists of the hinterlands of the [[Changbai Mountains, and is covered with forests. The highest point in Shenyang is [[metres above sea level|above sea level and the lowest point only . The average elevation of the urban area is . The city's main urban area is located to the north of Hun River, formerly the largest tributary of the Liao River ''proper'' and often locally referred as the city's "mother river". The central urban area is surrounded by three [[canal|artificial rivers—respectively the South Canal () from the south and southeast, the Xinkai River (, formerly the North Canal) from the north and northeast, and the Weigong River (, formerly the Weigong [[Nullah) from the west, all interconnected by channels as a continuous [[waterway. The South Canal in particular, famous for the series of [[linear parks and gardens along it, was constructed upon the old course of the Wanquan River (), historically also called the Little Shen River () or Wuli River (), which was a principal water source for the old city. These are reinforced on the peripheries by smaller rivers such as Xi River (), Puhe River () and Mantang River (), and drains into the Hun River at three different locations on the southeast, due south and southwest side of the city. There was also previously another canal on the east side called Huishan Nullah () that drains into Xinkai River's lower section, but is now no longer existent due to [[land reclamation from urban constructions.


Environment

Shenyang has many [[parks, among the most famous are the South Canal Linear Parks () situated along the homonymous river traversing the southern parts of Dadong, Shenhe and Heping District, covering an area of approximately . It comprises 6 large [[parks and 18 [[linear park|riverside gardens, with exotic variety of vegetations such as [[Chinese rose|rose, [[Siberian apricot|apricot, [[bladder cherry, [[Chinese honeylocust|honeylocust, [[natal lily, [[scarlet sage, [[ivy morning glory|morning glory and [[Rudbeckia hirta|black-eyed-Susan, and extensive [[greenway (landscape)|greenspaces of [[peach, [[Chinese pear|pear, [[Asiatic apple|crabapples, [[ginkgos, [[weeping willow (tree)|weeping willows, [[pines and [[black locusts. It is the largest stretch of vegetated [[urban open space in Shenyang, contributing significantly to the city's current 40 percent "[[greening ratio", and was instrumental in the city being awarded the "national forest city" title in 2005. According to the Shenyang Environmental Protection Bureau, winter usage of coal by [[heat-only boiler station|boiler stations for [[hydronic [[district heating is the source of 30 percent of the air pollution in Shenyang. Half of the 16 million metric tons of coal consumed by the city during the winter of 2013–2014 were used for heating. Other major factors include dust from construction sites (20 percent), vehicle exhaust (20 percent), industrial emissions (10 percent) and extraterritorial dust (20 percent, mostly [[yellow dust from [[Gobi Desert). However, air quality was described by the Bureau as "slowly improving".


Climate

Shenyang has a [[monsoon-influenced [[humid continental climate ([[Köppen climate classification|Köppen ''Dwa'') characterised by hot, humid summers due to the monsoon, and dry, cold winters due to the [[Siberian anticyclone. The four seasons here are distinctive. Nearly half of the annual rainfall occurs in July and August. Monthly mean temperatures range from in January to in July, for an annual average of . The frost-free period is 183 days, which is long considering the severity of the winters. The city receives 2,468 hours of bright sunshine annually; monthly percent of possible ranges from 45 percent in July to 62 percent in October. Extreme temperatures range from to .Extreme Temperatures around the World
. Accessed 2010-10-27


Administrative divisions

Shenyang's metropolitan area traditionally consisted of the 5 small inner urban districts, surrounded by 4 larger outer suburban districts, and accompanied by 4 rural counties on the north and west sides. In general, [[agriculture, [[animal husbandry and agricultural product processing dominate northeastern Shenyang; eastern Shenyang is an [[automotive parts hub; southern Shenyang is a high-tech industrial base; and western Shenyang is home to [[heavy machinery manufacturing. The city center specialises in retail and financial services. Out of the rural counties, the Xinmin County was upgraded to a [[county-level city in 1993, and the Liaozhong County was incorporated into a new suburban district in 2016 as part of the [[Northeast Area Revitalization Plan|provincial/national development plan. As a result, Shenyang now officially has direct jurisdiction over 10 [[District of China|city districts, 1 [[satellite city and 2 [[County (People's Republic of China)|rural counties:


Districts


Shenhe District

The Shenhe District () is a part of the downtown and was also the most developed district in Shenyang. Until 2015, it held the [[seat of government|seat of the City Government. The old city wall is entirely located in Shenhe District. It has an area of and a [[Hukou system|registered population of 716,417 (as per 2014). There is the Central Temple (), built during the
Ming dynasty#REDIRECT Ming dynasty {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...
, showing the center of ancient Shenyang. This temple is located just south of the Middle Street (), one of the most famous shopping streets and the first commercial [[pedestrian zone in China. Shenhe District is also home to the famous Wu'ai Market (), the largest [[light industry wholesale trading center in the entire [[Bohai Economic Rim. Shenhe District is the site of the [[Mukden Palace, just south of the Central Temple. It is also the site of [[Zhang Zuolin's former home and headquarters, Shengjing Ancient Cultural Street. In the western Shenhe District there is a [[Muslim town, and the South Pagoda () is located in southern Shenhe District. There are a lot of high-end hotels located in Shenhe District, such as [[Sheraton Hotels and Resorts|Sheraton, [[Kempinski, Lexington, [[Marriott Hotels & Resorts|Marriott (which is the first Marriott Hotel directly named "Marriott" in [[mainland China, but due to finance conflicts is not administrated by [[Marriott International). The major thoroughfare of Youths Avenue (), the city's primary north–south [[arterial road that traverses past the City Government Square () at the modern center of the city linking [[Beiling Park to the [[Taoxian Airport, separates the southern portion of Shenhe District from the neighbouring southern Heping District. The iconic [[Liaoning Broadcast and TV Tower is situated alongside this avenue. Shenhe District is also home to Northeast China's main [[railway hub, the [[Shenyang North Railway Station (locally known as the "North Station"). The railways leading to the station forms the border between Shenhe District and the neighbouring eastern portion of Huanggu District. The station building has recently undergone a major overhaul and extension.


Heping District

The Heping District () is located in the [[downtown of Shenyang, bordered Shenhe District. It is currently the most developed district in Shenyang. It has an area of and a population of 645,399 (2014). Heping District has all manner of commercial businesses that are brightly [[neon light|neon-lit at night, centered around Taiyuan Street (), one of the most famous shopping district in the Northeast. The [[Project 985 university, [[Northeastern University (China)|Northestern University, is also located in Heping District. The district, better known as the downtown, sprung up around [[Shenyang Railway Station (known locally as the "South Station" in contrast to the "North Station" in Shenhe District), the former hub of the [[South Manchurian Railway. At the center of the district is Zhongshan Square (), which features [[Long Live the Victory of Mao Tse-Tung Thought (Shenyang)|one of China's largest statues of Chairman Mao—a record of the era of the [[Cultural Revolution. Northwest of Zhongshan Square lies the [[Xita (Shenyang)|West Pagoda Korean Neighborhood or [[Koreatown. Many of the boulevards in this area are lined of very large [[ginkgo trees, which become golden in color and produce their distinctive fruits in autumn. Heping District is also the core area for many political institutions in the Northeast, including [[Communist Party of China|CPC Liaoning Provincial Committee, headquarters of the [[Northern Theater Command (previously the [[Shenyang Military Region), [[General Logistics Department and the [[consulate|consulates-general of the United States, Japan. South Korea, [North Korea and other countries. Northeast Electricity, [[China Post, railways, other such industrial hubs and many media outlets such as [[Liaoning Television|Liaoning Radio and Television, Shenyang Radio and Television and ''Shenyang Daily'' newspaper are also located in this district.


Dadong District

The Dadong District () is an industrial zone and used to be the largest of the inner city districts. Its name derives from the fact that the district started off as the residential area immediately outside the old inner city wall's Fujin Gate (), which is also called Great East Gate (). It has an area of and a population of 689,576 (2014). The district contains popular tourist landmarks such as the [[Mukden Incident|9.18 Historical Museum, the North and East Pagodas, Bawang Temple and the Wanquan Park. The oldest airfield in Shenyang, the now-defunct East Pagoda Airport, is also located in Dadong District.


Huanggu District

The Huanggu District () is named after [[Huanggutun Railway Station|Huanggutun ("tun" means village), where the [[Huanggutun Incident took place. The name is actually a mis-tranliteration of the pronunciation for ''Fiyanggū'' (, , 1605–1643), the Manchu [[Prince Zheng|Prince Jian of the First Rank whose tomb was in the area. It has an area of and a population of 817,288 (2014). The district is the site of [[Beiling park, the large historical mausoleum of
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The mult ...
emperor [[Huang Taiji, as well as the Liaoning Mansion Hotel. It also hosts the seat of the Provincial Government of Liaoning.


Tiexi District

The Tiexi District () is the most populous district and makes up the western part of the inner city, west of the [[South Manchurian Railway (hence the district's name) and south of the [[Beijing–Harbin Railway|Jingshen Railway, and is famous for its
heavy industry Heavy industry is an industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, huge buildings and large-scale infrastructure); o ...
. This mixed-use district also contains large blocks of residential complexes, so as well as strips of small to medium-sized shopping districts. It previously had only an area of and a population of 764,419. In May 2002, the Shenyang city government annexed a large area of suburban land from the neighbouring Yuhong District to establish a new state-level development zone—the Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone (), and transferred its administration to Tiexi District to form the Tiexi New District (), thus giving Tiexi District the current "necked" shape on the map. The new Tiexi District now has a population of 907,091 (2014), a total area of , and enjoys the same administrative rank as a municipality (Administrative Committee of Shenyang). The district is featured in a 9-hour epic documentary film ''[[Tie Xi Qu: West of the Tracks|West of the Tracks'' by a young filmmaker Wang Bing. It shows the transition in this [[rust belt district—a [[palimpsest of not only Chinese but also world history. The first factories of this place were built in 1934 by the Japanese to produce war goods for the Imperial Army and nationalized after World War II. As late as the early 1980s, the factories here employed about one million workers, but all of them went jobless in the 1990s.


Hunnan District

The Hunnan District (), was formerly called the Dongling District () before June 17, 2014, referring to the [[UNESCO [[World Heritage Site-listed tombs dedicated to [[Nurhachi, the founder of [[Qing dynasty|Later Jin, and his empress [[Empress Xiaocigao (Qing dynasty)|Monggo-Jerjer. The large suburban district is located on the east and southeast side of urban Shenyang, with most of its territory south of the Hun River, hence its current name. It has an area of and a population of 324,074 (2014). The Shenyang municipal government moved to Hunnan District on 13 October 2015. The Shenyang Botanical Garden and the Shenyang International Expo Garden (which hosted the [[Shenyang China International Horticultural Exposition 2006|2006 International Horticultural Exposition) are also located in this district. Hunnan District hosts the city's only operational commercial airport, the [[Taoxian International Airport, and is rapidly becoming high-end residential areas with luxury apartments, fine neighbourhoods and commercial developments, as suburbs of Shenyang are growing steadily. The district is traversed by two corridors along two major highways, one leading to the Eastern Mausoleum and the neighbouring city of [[Fushun, and the other leading to the airport. Launched in 1988 as the Shenyang National New and High-Tech Industrial Development Zone and elevated to a national-level zone in 1991, the Hunnan New Area () focuses on electronic and information technology products such as software, computers, network systems, communication equipment and audio/visual equipment; advanced manufacturing technologies, especially for automobiles, medical equipment; advanced materials and biological and pharmaceutical products. The zone has hosted more than 5,700 enterprises, including 700 foreign-invested enterprises. Foreign companies such as the [[General Electric Co., [[Tyco International, and [[Mitsubishi Group operate in the zone.


Sujiatun District

The Sujiatun District () forms the southernmost part of the suburbs, located away from central Shenyang. The 2014 registered population of Sujiatun is 428,859. and it has an area of . Sujiatun is known mostly for its agricultural and industrial activity. It borders the districts of Yuhong and Heping to the north, Dongling to the northeast, Tiexi to the northwest; it also borders the [[prefecture-level cities of [[Fushun to the east, [[Benxi to the southeast, and [[Liaoyang to the southwest.


Shenbei New District

The Shenbei New District (), formerly Xinchengzi District (), is a new development zone and forms the majority of the northern suburbs. It has an area of and a population of 320,370 (2014). It borders Hunnan District to the southeast, Dadong and Huanggu Districts to the south, Yuhong District to the southwest, [[Xinmin City and [[Faku County to the northwest; it also borders the prefecture-level cities of [[Tieling to the northeast and [[Fushun to the southeast.


Yuhong District

The Yuhong District () forms part of the northwestern and western suburbs. It has an area of and a population of 435,333 (2014). It borders Shenbei New District to the northeast, Huanggu District to the east, Tiexi District to the south, and [[Xinmin City to the west. [[China Resources Beverage, the distributor of C'estbon Water, has its Northeast regional office in the district. The large southwestern part of the neighbouring Tiexi District also used to belong to Yuhong District, but in May 2002, the southwestern part of Yuhong District was ceded on order of the city government to establish the Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone, and the administration of the region was later transferred to Tiexi District instead. This annexation of land left an [[exclave territory lying between Tiexi District, Heping District and Sujiatun District, separated from the main body of Yuhong District, hence making the Tiexi District flanked at the "neck" by the two parts of Yuhong.


Liaozhong District

The Liaozhong District (, referring to its central location within the province) is the newest and largest suburban district. Formerly the Liaozhong County (), its rural county status was made defunct in January 2016, and formally instated as a suburban city district on April 11, 2016. It lies southwest of downtown Shenyang, near the intersection of G1 Beijing–Harbin Expressway and G91 Liaozhong Ring Expressway. , it had a population of 532,900 residing in an area of . It is the most southwestern part of Shenyang City, bordering Xinmin City to the north, and Tiexi District to the northeast, as well as the prefecture-level cities of [[Liaoyang to the southeast, [[Anshan to the south and southwest, and [[Jinzhou to the west.


Satellite city


Xinmin City

The Xinmin City (), formerly Xinmin County () before 1993, is a [[county-level city and contains the westernmost part of the Greater Shenyang area, and by far the most spacious of any county-level divisions of Shenyang with an area of , with a registered population of 690,703 (2014). It borders [[Faku County to the northeast, [[Shenbei New District|Shenbei and [[Yuhong Districts to the east, [[Tiexi District, Shenyang|Tiexi District to the southeast, [[Liaozhong District to the south, the prefecture-level cities of [[Jinzhou to the west and [[Fuxin to the northwest. Xinmin has one of the leading [[horticulture industries in China, especially in [[apples, [[watermelon and [[napa cabbage|white cabbages, as well as [[animal husbandry such as chicken and pigs. [[Light manufacturing is also an important part of Xinmin's economy, with 57% of its GDP derived from food processing, pharmaceuticals and packaging products in 2012. The city also has access to the [[Liaohe oil field. There are also proposals to relocated the defunct East Pagoda Airport to Xinmin for reopening.


Rural counties


Faku County

The Faku County () lies north of urban Shenyang, and has an area of with a population of 447,952 (2014). The county's name is reportedly a phonetic transliteration of the Manchu word for [[fishing weir, due to the county's [[fishing resources from its extensive network of rivers, lakes and reservoirs. The county borders the [[Kangping County to the north, [[Shenbei New District to the southeast, [[Xinmin City to the southwest, and the [[prefecture-level cities of [[Tieling to the east, and [[Fuxin to the west. Other than agriculture, Faku County has the richest source of minerals in the Shenyang area, including the largest reserve of [[kaolinite and [[wollastonite in China. As a result, in recent years the county has attracted a lot of foreign investment from the [[ceramic industry.


Kangping County

The Kangping County () is the northernmost and most remote part of the Greater Shenyang area, and has an area of with a population of 352,434 (2014). It was historically first established in 1880 under the blessing of the [[Guangxu Emperor, hence the name. The county borders the [[Faku County to the south, the [[prefecture-level cities of [[Tieling to the east, [[Fuxin to the southwest and [[Inner Mongolia's [[Tongliao to the north. The county is mostly agricultural, with majority of its GDP coming from crop and fruit planting. However, in recent years the [[synthetic fabric, [[carbon fiber and [[alternative energy industries begin to take hold in Kangping. The county currently has the third largest [[wind farm in the whole province.


Demographics

Shenyang has a population of 8.1 million and its urban population is 5.74 million. Ethnically and culturally diverse, Shenyang has 38 of China's 56 recognized [[ethnic groups, including the [[Han Chinese majority that make up 91.26 percent of Shenyang's population. The 37 minority groups are
Manchu#REDIRECT Manchu people#REDIRECT Manchu people {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...

Manchu, [[Ethnic Koreans in China|Korean, [[Hui people|Hui, [[Xibe people|Xibo, [[Ethnic Mongols in China|Mongolian, [[Zhuang people|Zhuang, [[Miao people|Miao, [[Tujia people|Tujia, [[Dong people|Dong, [[Daur people|Daur, [[Bai people|Bai, [[Uyghur people|Uyghur, [[Tibetan people|Tibetan, [[Yi people|Yi, [[Taiwanese aborigines|Taiwanese Aboriginal People, [[She people|She, [[Bouyei people|Bouyei, [[Yao people|Yao, [[Akha people|Akha, [[Kazakhs|Kazakh, [[Dai people|Dai, [[Li people|Li, [[Shui people|Shui, [[Nakhi, [[Jingpo people|Jingpo, [[Kyrgyz people|Kyrgyz, [[Tu people|Tu, [[Mulao people|Mulao, [[Qiang people|Qiang, [[Maonan people|Maonan, [[Gelao people|Gelao, [[Ethnic Russians in China|Russian, [[Evenks, [[Tatars, [[Oroqen people|Oroqen, [[Nani people|Nanai and [[Lhoba. Most of these groups are not native to the Shenyang area; a few, such as the Manchus and the Xibe, are. Shenyang has numerous [[temples, [[mosques, [[Church (building)|churches and other religious [[places of worship.


Economy

Shenyang is an important industrial center in China and is the core city of Shenyang Economic Zone, a New Special Reform Zone. It has been focused on heavy industry, particularly aerospace, machine tools, heavy equipment and defence, and recently on software, automotive and electronics. The heavy industry started in the 1920s and was well developed before the second world war. During the first five-year plan (1951–1956) many factories were built in Tiexi district. At its peak in the 1970s, Shenyang was one of the top three industrial centers in China alongside [[Shanghai and [[Tianjin, and was at one time being considered for upgrading to a [[direct-controlled municipalities of China|direct-controlled municipality. However, as the [[planned economy fell out of favor after the 1980s, the heavy industry had declined gradually and the city became a [[rust belt city, with hundreds of thousands of people [[laid off from bankrupted state-owned factories. Nonetheless, the economy of the city has revived significantly in recent years, thanks to the [[Central People's Government|central government's "[[Revitalize Northeast China" campaign and the rapid development of software and auto manufacture industries. Investment subsidies are granted to [[multinational corporations (MNCs) that set up offices or headquarters in Shenyang. The services sector—especially banking—has been developing in Shenyang. Shenyang has several foreign banks, such as South Korea's [[Hana Financial Group|Hana Bank, Japan's [[Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Hong Kong's [[Bank of East Asia, Singapore's [[United Overseas Bank and the Britain-based [[HSBC. In 2006, the city hosted a total of 1,063 banks and bank branches and 144 insurance-related companies. By 2010, it aims to attract 30 foreign banks and 60 [[non-bank financial institutions. The city has been identified by the [[Economist Intelligence Unit in the November 2010 Access China White Paper as a member of the [[CHAMPS (China)|CHAMPS ([[Chongqing|Chongqing, [[Hefei|Hefei, [[Anshan, Liaoning|Anshan, [[Maanshan|Maanshan, [[Pingdingshan|Pingdingshan and Shenyang), an economic profile of the top 20 emerging cities in China. Shenyang has three development zones: *Shenyang Finance and Trade Development Zone *Shenyang High-Tech Industrial Development Zone *Shenyang Economic & Technological Development Zone Numerous major industrial companies have their headquarters in Shenyang. [[Brilliance Auto is a major Chinese automobile manufacturer, and most of its production plants are also located in Shenyang. [[Shenyang Aircraft Corporation produces airplanes for civilian use as well as for the [[PLAAF. [[Neusoft Group is the biggest software company in China. Shenyang Machine Tool Group is the largest [[machine tool manufacturer in China. [[Tyco International, [[General Motors and [[Michelin Shenyang Tyre Corporation are expanding their operations in Shenyang. The [[Gross domestic product|GDP per capita of the city of Shenyang is 78490 yuan in 2009 (ranked 3rd out of all 58 cities and counties in Liaoning province).


Transportation

As the [[transport hub of Northeast China, Shenyang is served by air, rail, a currently two-line subway system and an extensive network of streets and expressways, with bus service throughout the city. Terminal 3 at [[Shenyang Taoxian International Airport is the largest terminal in the northeast China. A new tram network system was built in the city's south in 2013.


Rail

Shenyang is the [[railway hub of [[Northeast China. Eight railways connect Shenyang with
Beijing Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's most populous national capital city, with over 21 million residents within an administrative area of 16,410.5 km2 ( ...
, [[Dalian, [[Changchun, [[Harbin and [[Fushun. The city is also served by the [[Qinhuangdao–Shenyang high-speed railway, the main passenger transport corridor in and out across the
Shanhai Pass Shanhai Pass or Shanhaiguan () is one of the major passes in the Great Wall of China, being the easternmost stronghold along the Ming Great Wall, and commands the narrowest choke point in the Liaoxi Corridor. It is located in Shanhaiguan Distri ...
, and the first passenger-specific railway line in China. In early 2007, a high-speed train decreased travel time between
Beijing Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's most populous national capital city, with over 21 million residents within an administrative area of 16,410.5 km2 ( ...
and Shenyang by almost three-fold to around 4 hours. The [[Harbin–Dalian high-speed railway opened in late 2012 and connects Shenyang with other major cities in Northeast China such as [[Harbin, [[Changchun and [[Dalian at speeds of up to . Shenyang has two major railway stations: the [[Shenyang North railway station in [[Shenhe District, and the [[Shenyang railway station in [[Heping District, Shenyang|Heping District. [[File:Liaoning Station before 1949.jpeg|The old Liaoning General Station The Shenyang North Railway Station () was formerly the Liaoning General Station () before 1946, and colloquially known as the "Old North Station". The original station building (now an [[Major Historical and Cultural Site Protected at the National Level|MHCSPNL-listed heritage building), initially named the Fengtian City Station () at the time of completion, was built in 1927 at the terminal point of [[Beijing–Harbin Railway|Jingfeng Railway, about southwest of the current station site, on the orders of warlord [[Zhang Zuolin to compete with the then Japanese-administered Shenyang Railway Station. The Main Station Building () of the current "New North Station" began construction in 1986 and was commissioned for operation in December 1990, and became one of the five most important railway hubs in China, earning itself the nickname "Northeast's No. 1 Station" (). In 2011, a huge expansion project known as the "North Station Transport Hub Reconstruction Project" () was initiated in response to the growing demand of floor area posed by the increasing passenger traffic after introduction of the [[High-speed rail in China|high-speed rail service. The station now has an additional 3-storey "Sub-Station Building" () and a "North Square" () on the northern (Huanggu District) side of the railways, while the old waiting lounge in the original 16-storey Main Station Building is now relocated to a large elevated concourse that bridges over the rail tracks, with a pillar-less roof (the largest in mainland China) doming the platforms. The original South Square () outside the Main Station Building was rebuilt into a multi-levelled complex, with two above ground forming an elevated airport-style drop-off zone and a large ground-level area for bus stops, as well as a three-level underground city providing shopping malls, parking lots, taxi pick-up and interchange with [[Line 2, Shenyang Metro|Subway Line 2, while also capable of rapid conversion into an [[air raid shelter if needed. The Shenyang Railway Station () has a history of more than 100 years. It was built by the Russians in 1899 on the eastern side of the [[South Manchurian Railway and was named the Fengtian Station () at the time. It was later expanded by the Japanese after the
Russo-Japanese War The Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan fought the Russo-Japanese War (russian: Ру́сско-япóнская войнá|Rússko-yapónskaya voyná; ja|日露戦争|translit=Nichiro sensō, "Japanese-Russian War") during 1904 and 1905 ov ...
and renamed to Fengtian [[Yam (route)|Yam () until the end of the [[World War II. Before adopting its current name, the station was known as the Shenyang South Railway Station () or simply the "South Station" (in contrast to the forementioned "North Station") between 1945 and 1950, a name the locals still use colloquially to present days (though the current [[Shenyang South railway station is actually at the suburban junction between [[Hunnan and [[Sujiatun). Today, the station focuses on regular-speed passenger service and is being refurbished with a large archway and new terminal, reducing access to the boarding platforms by rerouting customers under and over ground while construction is completed. The station was expanded in 2010 with the addition of a new West Station Building () and a West Square () on the western side of the railways. The old East Station Building () is currently on the provincial protected heritage list. Since 2011, a daily direct [[rail freight transport|container rail service has carried automotive parts from [[Leipzig, Germany to Shenyang through [[Siberia with a 23-day transit time.DB Schenker to launch daily freight train to China
''[[Railway Gazette International'', 30 September 2011. Accessed: 4 October 2011.


Road

In the
Manchukuo Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded in 1932 after the Japanese i ...
era, the initial road transportation network was laid out, as is now in the central districts of Shenyang. The city follows a largely [[grid plan|grid-style urban layout, with the roads follow a slightly tilted northwest-to-southeast orientation due to the [[South Manchurian Railway, which runs perpendicular to that direction. The streets in Shenyang are almost always named according to a routine convention — one that runs more in the north–south direction is called a "street" () or "avenue" (), and one that runs more east–west are call a "road" () or "boulevard" (). The only exceptions to this rule are the east-west Middle Street in [[Shenhe District, which takes its historical name from ancient times (though its modern official name is actually the "[[Zhongjie|Middle Street Road"); and the north-south Minzhu Road () in [[Heping District, Shenyang|Heping District that traverses diagonally across the [[City block#Superblock|superblock between the [[Shenyang Railway Station and the Zhongshan Park, but as one of the only three diagonal streets in the entire city it is accommodated as a "road" instead of "street" in keeping with the other two diagonal counterparts that run east–west. In addition to the grid streets, Shenyang also was developing several [[ring road systems, going back as early as the "Fengtian City Plan" () proposed by the Japanese-controlled [[puppet state|puppet
Manchukuo Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded in 1932 after the Japanese i ...
government in 1932. Outside of the (now demolished) city walls, the city initially planned three [[beltways, namely the "inner ring", "middle ring" and "outer ring" roads. Gradually with urban development, the inner ring idea faded away into the inner city grids, but the middle ring concept was retained and later transformed into the nowadays 1st Ring Road (, officially called the "Middle Ring Road" until 1995), and the outer ring morphed roughly into parts of the present day 2nd Ring Road (). The 3rd Ring Road () was completed in 1995, and in 2013 was upgraded into an 8-lane, freeway—the G1501 (). The 10-lane, 4th Ring Road () is a [[limited-access highway about out from the 3rd Ring, completed in 2013. The planned 6-lane, 5th Ring Road () and the proposed 6th Ring Road (), also known as the [[G91 Liaozhong Ring Expressway (), are both currently under construction. Shenyang is connected to the other regions by several major expressways in radial pattern. The [[Shenyang–Dalian Expressway|G15 Shenda Expressway () to the southwest is the first expressway built in China and is an 8-lane, [[controlled-access highway with a maximum speed limit of , connecting Shenyang to [[Dalian, one of the largest port city in China. The [[Shendan Expressway () to the southeast, part of the [[G1113 Dandong–Fuxin Expressway|G1113 Dandong–Fuxin Expressway that traverses Shenyang from the northwest, is a 4-lane expressway leading to [[Benxi and [[Dandong, and also serves [[Shenyang Taoxian International Airport. The 4-lane [[G1212 Shenyang–Jilin Expressway|G1212 Shenji Expressway () to the east was completed in 2011, linking Shenyang to [[Jilin City|Jilin via [[Fushun. The 8-lane [[Beijing–Shenyang Expressway|Jingshen Expressway () to the west is an integral part of the extended [[G1 Jingha Expressway () beyond the northeast, and is a major interprovincial "trunk road" across the
Shanhai Pass Shanhai Pass or Shanhaiguan () is one of the major passes in the Great Wall of China, being the easternmost stronghold along the Ming Great Wall, and commands the narrowest choke point in the Liaoxi Corridor. It is located in Shanhaiguan Distri ...
linking to the national capital
Beijing Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's most populous national capital city, with over 21 million residents within an administrative area of 16,410.5 km2 ( ...
some away. There are other smaller provincial-level expressways ("S routes") to other cities like [[Fushun, [[Liaoyang and [[Panjin, as well as many long-distance and express bus routes to Beijing and other large Northeastern regional centers via major national roads such as the [[China National Highways [[China National Highway 101|101, [[China National Highway 102|102, [[China National Highway 203|203 and [[China National Highway 304|304.


Airport

The city is served by the [[Shenyang Taoxian International Airport, located in [[Hunnan District. It is one of the eight major [[airline hubs and [[List of the busiest airports in China|the 20th busiest airport in China. There are three other airports in Shenyang, none of them open to public. The East Pagoda Airport () in Dadong District is the oldest airport in Shenyang, opened in 1920s and retired in the 1980s, though there has been proposals in 2013 to relocate and reopen it in [[Xinmin, Liaoning|Xinmin. The Beiling Airport () in Huanggu District is used by [[Shenyang Aircraft Corporation for [[test flights. The Yuhong Airport () in Yuhong District is commissioned for military use only by the local [[Northern Theater Command garrisons.


Public transport

In Shenyang, there are more than 160 bus routes. Shenyang used to have about 20 [[trolley bus routes, one of the biggest trolley bus networks in China. The entire network was demolished in 1999 after a serious electrocution accident that killed 5 passengers on August 12, 1998, and was replaced by diesel-powered buses. [[Trams in Shenyang was introduced in Shenyang from 1924, and had 6 lines in operation up until 1945. It suffered major disruptions during the [[Chinese Civil War from [[power outage and
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT) () is a major political party in Taiwan which originated as a revolutionary political party during the Republican Era on the Chinese mainland, where it is sometimes referred to as the Chinese Nationalist Party. Founded ...
bombings, but quickly resumed operation after the conclusion of the
Liaoshen Campaign#REDIRECT Liaoshen campaign {{R from move ...
. After the establishment of the [[People's Republic of China, the tram network was gradually replaced by the buses and trolley buses, and eventually closed in 1974. In December 2011, the Shenyang city government announced plan to rebuild [[light rail transit network in 2012, comprising 4 lines with distance in the [[Hunnan New District. The [[Shenyang Modern Tram network started operation on August 15, 2013. Shenyang has been planning an underground [[rapid transit system since 1940, but was unable to materialize the idea due to the city's [[geology and engineering limitations. On November 18, 2005, the construction of the first [[Shenyang Metro line finally started and the construction of the second line started on November 18, 2006. The first (east-west) line was opened September 27, 2010 and the second (north–south) was opened on January 9, 2012. Construction is difficult due to the [[granite-rich [[bedrock on which the city is built.


Healthcare

Shenyang has 731 medical and healthcare centers, 63,000 healthcare staff and 3.02 healthcare worker per 1,000 people. There are 34,033 hospital beds and 45,680 various kinds of medical and technical personnel, among whom there are 17,346 licensed doctors, 1,909 assistant licensed doctors, and 16887 certified nurses. The average expected life-span of the people in Shenyang is 73.8 years. The [[China Medical University (PRC)|China Medical University () in Huanggu District is one of the top 10 [[medical schools in China and is [[International Medical Education Directory|IMED-listed. Its diplomas are accredited worldwide. Shenyang is home to China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University 1st, 2nd (renamed Shengjing Hospital in 2003) and 4th Affiliated Hospital, 202 Hospital, Liaoning Tumor Hospital, Shenyang No.7 People's Hospital, Shenyang Orthopaedics Hospital, Shenyang Army General Hospital, North Hospital, and various other hospitals and clinics.


Military

Shenyang hosts the headquarters of the [[People's Liberation Army's [[Northern Theater Command (formerly the [[Shenyang Military Region) and garrisons its [[People's Liberation Army Air Force|air force divisions. Shenyang is also famous for its defense industries, with the [[Shenyang Aircraft Corporation (SAC), nicknamed "the cradle of Chinese jetfighters" ()", being the People's Republic's oldest and largest aircraft manufacturer, responsible for the design and manufacturing of the currently operational [[Shenyang J-8|J-8, [[Shenyang J-11|J-11, [[Shenyang J-15|J-15, [[Shenyang J-16|J-16 [[fighter aircraft and the in-development [[Shenyang J-31|J-31 [[stealth aircraft. The [[Shenyang Aeroengine Research Institute, a subdivision of SAC, is also responsible for designing the indigenous [[Shenyang WS-10|WS-10, [[Xian WS-15|WS-15 and [[Shenyang WS-20|WS-20 [[turbofan engines. In 2014, South Korea and China agreed to repatriate the remains of 400 [[People's Volunteer Army soldiers killed during the [[Korean War, which had been buried in [[Paju, and scheduled to be reburied in a state military cemetery in Shenyang.


Culture


Shenyang dialect

People native to Shenyang speak the [[Shenyang dialect, a variant of [[Northeastern Mandarin. Shenyang Dialect was formed in early period of Qing Dynasty. Shenyang dialect is similar to the other Northeastern dialects and also to the national standard of Mandarin, ''[[Putonghua'', but is known as a form of ''[[Dongbeihua'' and has a wide range of vocabulary that is not part of the country's official language. As Shenyang dialect is mutually intelligible with most forms of Mandarin, some people prefer to characterize it as an "accent" rather than a different "dialect."


Art

Two northeast [[folk dances, ''[[Errenzhuan'' and ''[[Yangge'', are very popular in Shenyang. The Big Stage Theatre () near Middle Street is famous for its ''Errenzhuan'' and Chinese comedy skit performances by [[Zhao Benshan and his disciples. Due to the popularity enjoyed by many Shenyang-based comedians, the city is nationally recognized as a stronghold of [[Chinese comedy. Shenyang is home of many [[performance art organizations, such as Shenyang Acrobatic Troupe of China, Liaoning Song and Dance Ensemble, and Liaoning Ballet. Many artists are from Shenyang, such as [[Zimei, [[Na Ying and the pianist [[Lang Lang.


Museums

* [[Liaoning Provincial Museum (), the largest museum in Northeast China. The museum hold many ancient relics and artefacts, including a selection of inscriptions in [[Written Chinese|Chinese and [[Khitan scripts (disambiguation)|Khitan that are some of the earliest known forms of writing. * Shenyang Steam Locomotive Museum (), with 16 steam engines from America, Japan, Russia, Belgium, Poland, Germany, Czechoslovakia and China. * 9.18 Historical Museum (), a museum in memory of
Mukden Incident The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a false flag event staged by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria. On 18 September 1931, Lieutenant Suemori Kawamoto of the Independent Garrison Un ...
on September 18, 1931. The museum has a shape of an opened calendar, and is located on the site where the Japanese troops destroyed the [[South Manchuria Railway, the prelude to the invasion of Manchuria. * Xinle Relic (), located on the location where the [[Xinle culture|Xinle civilisation was first discovered, containing a reconstructed Xinle settlement and housing artefacts discovered there.


Sports

Shenyang is famous for its [[association football|football tradition. The local football club is the [[Liaoning F.C., in the [[China League One|Chinese League One. Liaoning F.C. was once the consecutive national champion for 10 years from 1984 to 1993, and the first Chinese team to win the [[AFC Champions League in 1990. Another [[Chinese Super League team, [[Shenyang Jinde moved to [[Changsha in 2007. [[Shenyang Olympic Sports Center Stadium, a 60,000-seated soccer stadium, was a venue for the football preliminary of [[2008 Summer Olympics. Shenyang also has one of the five full-length (400 m) [[speed skating rink in China, the Bayi Speed Skating Arena (). Shenyang Sport University is a professional sports university, and acts as .


Religion

The Shenyang city government legally recognizes five religious beliefs—[[Buddhism, [[Taoism, [[Islam, [[Catholicism and [[Protestantism. During the period between 1949 and 1976, religious practices were significantly repressed, but have recovered since the end of the [[Cultural Revolution. , Shenyang has seven city-level religious organizations, with 289 legally registered places of worship, 483 [[clergy|clerics and about 400,000 followers. Famous religious sites include: Buddhism * Chang'an Temple (), a [[Zen Buddhism temple, first built during the [[Tang dynasty * Banruo Temple (), built during the [[Qin dynasty * Ci'en Temple (), a [[Pure Land Buddhism temple, * Wugoujingguang Śarīra Pagoda (), a 33-m-high Buddhist pagoda erected in 1044 during the
Liao dynasty The Liao dynasty (; Khitan: ''Mos Jælud''; ), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao (), the Khitan Empire or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: ''Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur''), was an empire and imperial dynasty in East A ...
* Shisheng Temple (), once known as Royal Temple (), a [[Tibetan Buddhist temple built in 1636 for the [[Qing royal family * The East Pagoda (), North Pagoda (), [[Xita (Shenyang)|West Pagoda () and South Pagoda (), collectively known as the "Four Pagodas of Early Qing" () are four white Tibetan Buddhist pagodas built by [[Hong Taiji in 1639. Taoism * Taiqing Palace (), built in 1663 * Pengying Palace (), the only female Taoist temple in Northeast China, built in 1994 * Doumu Palace (), formerly the second largest Taoist temple in Shenyang Christianity * [[Sacred Heart Cathedral of Shenyang (), a [[Roman Catholic cathedral * [[Dongguan Church (), one of the largest and oldest Protestant churches in Northeast China, also known as the cradle of Christianity of the Koreans in China and in the Korean Peninsula * [[Xita Church (), a Protestant church for the Korean Chinese Islam * South Mosque (), the largest mosque in Northeast China, built in Qing dynasty


Cuisine

Shenyang has classic [[northeastern Chinese cuisine. Traditional meals in the region are ''[[suan cai'' (also called Chinese sauerkraut), stewed chicken and mushroom, and [[bing (bread)|meat pie. [[Korean food, such as [[Rice cake#In Korean cuisine|rice cake () and [[Naengmyeon|cold noodle (; ), is a part of Shenyangers' diet as there is a sizeable ethnic Korean population in the city. Also, as the area was traditionally occupied by Manchus, the cuisine in Shenyang was fundamentally influenced by Manchu food, as well as the famous [[Manchu Han Imperial Feast. Due to the sizeable [[Hui people|Hui population in Shenyang, [[halal foods are a common and also enjoyed by non-Muslim people.


Notable people

* Dr. [[Min Chiu Li, therapeutic scientist, Albert Lasker Medical Research Award winner, Alfred Sloan Award in Cancer Research winner * [[Zhang Zuolin, Chinese/Manchurian politician * [[Guo Songling, Chinese/Manchurian general working with [[Zhang Xueliang * [[Tetsuzo Fuyushiba, Japanese/Manchurian politician * [[Fan Wei (actor)|Fan Wei, sketch comedian and film actor * [[Gong Li, Singaporean/Chinese actress * [[Silence Wang, Chinese singer and songwriter * [[Wu Xin, Chinese actress and host * [[Na Ying, Chinese singer * [[Lang Lang, Chinese pianist * [[Ai Jing, Chinese singer and painter * [[Jing Boran, Chinese actor and singer * [[Zheng Shuang (actress, born 1991)|Zheng Shuang, Chinese actress (known for her role in ''[[Meteor Shower (TV series)|Meteor Shower'' and ''[[Love O2O (TV series)|Love O2O'') * [[Zhang Xiyuan Chinese actress (known for her role in ''Love Just Come'') * [[Wang Qianyuan, Chinese actor * [[Qin Hao, Chinese actor * [[Chen Xingxu, Chinese actor * [[Yu Bo, Chinese actor * [[Zhao Jinmai, Chinese actress * [[Jian Renzi, Chinese actress * [[Yan Zidong, Chinese actor * [[Mao Ning, Chinese actor and singer * [[Wang Bowen, Chinese actor and singer * [[Jin Qiaoqiao, Chinese actress and producer * [[Zimei, Chinese artist and Guzheng player * [[Kōbō Abe, Japanese novelist, brought up in Shenyang (Mukden) * [[Seiji Ozawa, Japanese conductor, born in Shenyang (Mukden) * [[Ma Lin (table tennis)|Ma Lin, [[table-tennis player * [[Wang Yongzhi, aerospace engineer and academic * [[Jin Xing, dancer and actor * [[Liu Dongsheng, geological and environmental engineer * [[Chang Hsin-kang, professor, the former President of City University of Hong Kong * [[Lin Gengxin, actor known for his role in ''[[Scarlet Heart'' * [[Yoshiko Yamaguchi, [[stage name [[Li Xianglan, actress, peace-activist * [[Xu Geyang, singer * [[Du Haitao, Comedian and actor * [[Qin Lan, Chinese actress and singer


Tourism


Attractions

* [[Mukden Palace (): the former imperial palace of the early
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The mult ...
. It is a [[UNESCO World Heritage Site. * [[Fuling Tomb|East Mausoleum (): the tomb of the first Qing emperor,
Nurhaci Nurhaci (14 May 1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria. Nurhaci was part of the Aisin Gioro clan, and reigned as the founding Khan of Later Jin from 1616 to 1626. Nurhaci ...

Nurhaci
. It is a [[UNESCO World Heritage Site. * [[Beiling Park and [[Zhao Mausoleum (Qing dynasty)|North Mausoleum (): the tomb of the second Qing emperor, [[Huang Taiji. The park covers an area of , and is serviced by trams for visitors who do not wish to (or cannot) traverse the length of the park. It is a [[UNESCO World Heritage Site. * Qipan Mountain (): a recreation resort in [[Shenbei New District, northeast of Shenyang. * Strange Slope (): an -long, -wide slope on the western side of Mao Mountain in Shenbei District, famous for the unexplained phenomenon of vehicles seemingly able to move uphill unpowered. * Shenyang Botanical Garden () is located within the Qipanshan Tourism District. With a total area of , the garden hosted the [[Shenyang China International Horticultural Exposition 2006|International Horticultural Exposition in 2006. Since then it has also been known as the Shenyang International Expo Garden (). A variety of botanical exhibitions are held throughout the year. * Meteorite Mountain Forest Park (), located in the southeast of Shenyang in [[Hunnan District. The biggest meteorite lies on the Huashitai Mountain of Lixiang County, and is long, wide, tall and about in weight. It is the oldest meteorite in the world which was formed 4.5 billion years ago and fallen into the Earth 1.9 billion years ago. * Xiaonan Cathedral of Shenyang (), the construction of the cathedral started in 1875 and finished in 1878. * [[Qipanshan International Scenery and Tourism Development Zone|Qipanshan Tourism Development Zone


Shopping areas

Shenyang has many shopping areas that provide necessities, luxuries and entertainments. One of the shopping districts is [[Middle Street (Shenyang)|Middle Street (). Middle Street has a history of more than 100 years. In 2005, Middle Street gained the title of China top 10 famous commercial shopping streets and in 2008; it won the International Golden Street title. Middle Street is also the first commercial pedestrian street in China. Middle Street features many western-style stores and restaurants, including [[Wal-Mart, [[Pizza Hut, Louis Vuitton flagship store, Häagen-Dazs retail store, etc. The largest shopping mall in Shenyang is also located on Middle Street, selling products from all around the world. Taiyuan Street () is another shopping area which is similar to Middle Street. Taiyuan Street also features many restaurants and theaters for people to enjoy. Many spend their holidays shopping on these two streets. There is also a very large underground shopping center, offering many items, especially fashion jewelries, accessories and clothing. Another area, Wu'ai Market (), features a large multi-story shopping center with a size comparable to that of many city blocks. It is famous for wholesaling cheap clothes and household items. The [[information technology center is in Sanhao street () in the southern part of the city. There are large superstores located throughout the city that sell everything from meat and dairy to clothes and electronics.


Research and education

Shenyang has one of the highest concentrations of educational institutes in China. Roughly 30 colleges and universities and numerous research and training institutions are located in Shenyang, including core institutes of the [[Chinese Academy of Sciences.


Research institutes

* Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences () * Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences () * Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (), formerly the Institute of Forestry and Pedology () * Shenyang Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences () * [[Shenyang Aircraft Design Institute (), also known as the "601 Institute" * [[Shenyang Aeroengine Research Institute (), also known as the "606 Institute"


High schools

* [[Liaoning Province Shiyan High School () * Shenyang No. 2 High School () * Shenyang No. 4 High School () * Shenyang No. 20 High School () * Shenyang No. 31 High School () * Shenyang No.120 High School () * [[Northeast Yucai School ()


International schools

* [[Shenyang Transformation International School (), founded in 1998 by the International Schools of China (ISC), a United States [[non-profit organization committed to educational work in China. * Shenyang Pacific International Academy (), located in Shenbei District. The school offers an American-style high school education. * Canadian International School Shenyang (), located in Shenbei District, founded in 2017 with joint co-operation of AKD International Education and the Canadian government. The school offers a Canadian-style education ranging from kindergarten to middle school.
QSI International School of Shenyang (QSI)
(), founded in 2012 and located at Sekisui House, Hunnan New District


Universities

* [[China Medical University (PRC)|China Medical University () *
Liaoning University Liaoning University () is one of the leading universities listed in the nation's "Project 211" and affirmed by the Ministry of Education. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Double First Class Discipline University, with Double First Class status ...
() * Liaoning Communication University () * [[Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine () * [[Lu Xun Academy of Fine Arts () * [[Northeastern University (Liaoning, China)|Northeastern University () * [[Shenyang Jianzhu University () * [[Shenyang University () * Shenyang City University () * [[Shenyang Aerospace University () * [[Shenyang Agricultural University () * [[Shenyang Conservatory of Music () * [[Shenyang Institute of Engineering () * [[Shenyang Jianzhu University|Shenyang Architectural University () * [[Shenyang Ligong University () * [[Shenyang Medical College () * [[Shenyang Normal University () * [[Shenyang Pharmaceutical University () * Shenyang Sport University () * [[Shenyang University of Chemical Technology () * [[Shenyang University of Technology ()


Defunct universities

* [[Fengyong University () was the first [[private university in China to follow western teaching methods. It was established on August 8, 1927 with private funding by retired [[Fengtian clique [[major general Feng Yong (, 1901–1981, later re-enlisted as a [[Republic of China Air Force|ROCAF [[lieutenant general). It contained the departments of Engineering, Law and Education. After the
Mukden Incident The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a false flag event staged by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria. On 18 September 1931, Lieutenant Suemori Kawamoto of the Independent Garrison Un ...
, the campus was looted by Japanese troops and converted into an aircraft repair camp. The staffs and students were later forced to evacuate to [[Beiping, where the university continued teaching for two more years before merging with the [[Northeastern University (Liaoning, China)|National Northeastern University in September, 1933. Many of the university's [[alumni were active members of [[anti-Japanese volunteer armies.


International relations


Foreign consulates

Japan, Russia, South Korea, France, Germany, North Korea, Australia and the United States all have [[consulates in Shenyang, located in [[Heping District, Shenyang|Heping District.


Twin towns – Sister cities

Shenyang has established [[twin towns and sister cities|sister/friendship city [[paradiplomacy|relationships with many other cities around the world. These relationships have sought to promote economic, cultural, educational and other ties. Sister cities * [[Sapporo, [[Hokkaido, Japan ''1980'' * [[Kawasaki, Kanagawa|Kawasaki, [[Kanagawa Prefecture|Kanagawa, Japan ''1981'' * [[Turin, Italy ''1985'' * [[Chicago, United States ''1985'' * [[Irkutsk, Russia ''1992'' * [[Quezon City, Philippines ''1993'' * [[Ramat Gan, Israel ''1993'' * [[Gongju, [[South Chungcheong, South Korea ''1996'' * [[Chuncheon, [[Gangwon Province, South Korea|Gangwon Province, South Korea ''1998'' * [[Seongnam, [[Gyeonggi, South Korea ''1998'' * [[Yaoundé, Cameroon ''1998'' * [[Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam ''1999'' * [[Gumi, North Gyeongsang|Gumi, [[North Gyeongsang, South Korea ''1999'' * [[Thessaloniki, Greece ''2000'' * [[Ostrava, Czech Republic ''2006'' * [[Katowice, Poland ''2007'' * [[Hamamatsu, [[Shizuoka Prefecture|Shizuoka, Japan ''2010'' * [[Ufa, [[Bashkortostan, Russia ''2011'' * [[Novosibirsk, Russia ''2013'' * [[Incheon, South Korea ''2014'' * [[La Plata, Argentina ''2014'' * [[Belfast, Northern Ireland ''2016'' Friendship cities * [[Pittsburg, California, United States * [[Düsseldorf, Germany * [[Marabá, Pará, Brazil


In media

The decline of Shenyang's [[Tiexi District, Shenyang|Tiexi district in the 1990s was recorded by directyor [[Wang Bing (director)|Wang Bing in the film ''[[Tie Xi Qu: West of the Tracks''.


See also

* [[List of cities in the People's Republic of China by population * [[Unit 100 * [[List of twin towns and sister cities in China * [[SYTV


Notes

* *


References

* * Avila Tàpies, Rosalia (2012) Territorialidad y etnicidad en Manchuria: el ejemplo de la ciudad de Mukden (Shenyang) bajo la ocupación japones

''Biblio 3W. Revista Bibliográfica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales''. [En línea]. Barcelona: [[Universidad de Barcelona, 25 de enero de 2012, Vol. XVII, nº 959. . . * Hata, Ikuhiro. "Continental Expansion: 1905–1941". In ''The Cambridge History of Japan''. Vol. 6. Cambridge University Press. 1988. * Menning, Bruce W. ''Bayonets before Battle: The Imperial Russian Army, 1861–1914''. Indiana University * * Shubert, John. ''A Biography of Yoshiko Yamaguchi''. see www.yoshikoyamaguchi.blogspot.com


External links


Shenyang Government website
{{Authority control [[Category:Shenyang| [[Category:Provincial capitals in China [[Category:Capitals of former nations [[Category:Cities in Liaoning [[Category:Prefecture-level divisions of Liaoning [[Category:National Forest Cities in China