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Secondary education covers two phases on the
International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a statistical framework for organizing information on education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), v ...
scale. Level 2 or lower secondary education (less common junior secondary education) is considered the second and final phase of
basic education According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), basic education comprises the two stages primary education and secondary education, lower secondary education. Universal basic education Basic education featured heavily i ...
, and level 3 (upper) secondary education is the stage before
tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, be ...
. Every country aims to provide basic education, but the systems and terminology remain unique to them. Secondary education typically takes place after six years of
primary education Primary education is typically the first stage of formal education Formal learning is education normally delivered by trained teachers in a systematic intentional way within a school A school is an educational institution designed to p ...
and is followed by
higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education, is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion ...
,
vocational education Vocational education is education that prepares people to work as a technician or to take up employment in a skilled craft or trade as a tradesman, tradesperson or artisan. Vocational education is sometimes referred to as ''career and technica ...
or employment. In most countries secondary education is compulsory, at least until the age of 16. Children typically enter the lower secondary phase around age 11. Compulsory education sometimes extends to age 19. Since 1989, education has been seen as a basic human right for a child; Article 28, of the
Convention on the Rights of the Child The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (commonly abbreviated as the CRC or UNCRC) is an international international human rights instruments, human rights treaty which sets out the civil, political, economic, social, health an ...

Convention on the Rights of the Child
states that primary education should be free and compulsory while different forms of secondary education, including general and vocational education, should be available and accessible to every child. The terminology has proved difficult, and there was no universal definition before ISCED divided the period between primary education and university into junior secondary education and upper secondary education. In classical and medieval times, secondary education was provided by the church for the sons of nobility and to boys preparing for universities and the priesthood. As trade required navigational and scientific skills, the church reluctantly expanded the curriculum and widened the intake. With the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in ...

Reformation
the state wrestled the control of learning from the church, and with
Comenius John Amos Comenius (; cs, Jan Amos Komenský; german: link=no, Johann Amos Comenius; Latinized: ''Ioannes Amos Comenius''; 28 March 1592 – 15 November 1670) was a Czech philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The ...

Comenius
and
John Locke John Locke (; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment Enlightenment, enlighten or enlightened may refer to: Age of Enlightenment * ...

John Locke
education changed from being repetition of Latin text to building up knowledge in the child. Education was for the few. Up to the middle of the 19th century, secondary schools were organised to satisfy the needs of different social classes with the labouring classes getting 4 years, the merchant class 5 years, and the elite getting 7 years. The rights to a secondary education were codified after 1945, and some countries are moving to mandatory and free secondary education for all youth under 19.


Definition

The 1997
International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a statistical framework for organizing information on education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), v ...
(ISCED) describes seven levels that can be used to compare education internationally. Within a country these can be implemented in different ways, with different age levels and local denominations. The seven levels are: * Level 0 – Pre-primary education * Level 1 –
Primary education Primary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool/kindergarten and before secondary school. Primary education takes place in primary school, the elementary school or first and middle school depending on ...
or first stage of basic education * Level 2 – Lower secondary or second stage of basic education * Level 3 – (Upper) secondary education * Level 4 – Post-secondary non-tertiary education * Level 5 – First stage of tertiary education * Level 6 – Second stage of tertiary education Within this system, Levels 1 and 2 – that is, primary education and lower secondary – together form
basic education According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), basic education comprises the two stages primary education and secondary education, lower secondary education. Universal basic education Basic education featured heavily i ...
. Beyond that, national governments may attach the label of secondary education to Levels 2 through 4 together, Levels 2 and 3 together, or Level 2 alone. These level definitions were put together for statistical purposes, and to allow the gathering of comparative data nationally and internationally. They were approved by the
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
General Conference at its 29th session in November 1997. Though they may be dated, they do provide a universal set of definitions and remain unchanged in the 2011 update. The start of lower secondary education is characterised by the transition from the single-class-teacher, who delivers all content to a cohort of pupils, to one where content is delivered by a series of subject specialists. Its educational aim is to complete provision of basic education (thereby completing the delivery of basic skills) and to lay the foundations for lifelong learning. Lower secondary education is likely to show these criteria: *entry after some 6 years of primary education *the requirement for more highly qualified teachers teaching only within their specialism *exit to Level 3 courses, or vocational education, or employment after 9 or more total years of education. The end of lower secondary education often coincides with the end of compulsory education in countries where that exists. (Upper) secondary education starts on the completion of basic education, which also is defined as completion of lower secondary education. The educational focus is varied according to the student's interests and future direction. Education at this level is usually voluntary. (Upper) secondary education is likely to show these criteria: *entry after some 9 years of basic education *typical age at entry is between 14 and 16 years *all teachers have level 5 qualifications in the subject they are teaching *exit to Level 4 or 5 courses or to direct employment. More subjects may be dropped, and increased specialism occurs. Completion of (upper) secondary education provides the entry requirements to Level 5 tertiary education, the entry requirements to technical or vocational education (Level 4, non tertiary course), or direct entry into the workplace. In 2012 the
ISCED The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a statistical framework for organizing information on education Education is the process of facilitating , or the acquisition of , s, , morals, s, s, and personal developmen ...
published further work on education levels where it codified particular paths and redefined the tertiary levels. Lower secondary education and (upper) secondary education could last between 2 and 5 years, and the transition between two often would be when students were allowed some subject choice. Terminology for secondary schools varies by country, and the exact meaning of any of these varies. Secondary schools may also be called ''
academies An academy (Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek dialect of the regions of ancient Greece, ancient region of Attica, including the ''polis'' of classical Athens, Athens. Often called classical Greek, it was the prestige (sociolin ...

academies
'', ''
college A college (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in rel ...

college
s'', ''
gymnasiums A gymnasium, also known as a gym, is a covered location for Athletics (physical culture), athletics. The word is derived from the ancient Greek Gymnasium (ancient Greece), ''gymnasium''. They are commonly found in athletic and Physical fitness, ...
'', ''
high school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a ...
s'', ''
lyceum The lyceum is a category of educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and universities. ...

lyceum
s'', ''
middle schools A middle school (also known as intermediate school, junior high school, or lower secondary school) is an educational stage Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning Formal learning is education normally delivered by trained teac ...
'', '' preparatory schools'', ''
sixth-form college Shrewsbury Sixth Form College in Shropshire A sixth form college is an educational institution, where students aged 16 to 19 typically study for advanced school-level qualifications, such as A Levels The A Level (Advanced Level) is a subject-ba ...
s'', ''
upper school Upper schools in the UK are usually schools within secondary education. Outside England, the term normally refers to a section of a larger school. England The three-tier model Upper schools are a type of secondary school A secondary school de ...
s'', or ''
vocational school A vocational school is a type of educational institution, which, depending on the country, may refer to either secondary education, secondary or post-secondary education designed to provide vocational education or technical skills required t ...
s'', among other names. For further information about nomenclature, see the section below by country.


History

A form of education for adolescents became necessary in all societies that had an alphabet and engaged in commerce. In Western Europe, formal secondary education can be traced back to the Athenian educational reforms of 320BC. Though their civilisation was eclipsed and they were enslaved, Hellenistic Athenian teachers were valued in the Roman system. The Roman and Hellenistic schools of rhetoric taught the seven liberal arts and sciences – ''grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music'' and ''astronomy'' – which were regarded as a preparation for the study at a tertiary level of theology, law and medicine. Boys would have been prepared to enter these schools by private tutors at home. Girls would have only received tuition at home. England provides a good case study. When Augustine of Canterbury brought
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
there in 597, no schools existed. He needed trained priests to conduct church services and boys to sing in the choir. He had to create both the grammar schools that taught Latin, to enable the English to study for the priesthood, and song schools (choir schools) that trained the 'sons of gentlefolk' to sing in cathedral choirs. In the case of
Canterbury Canterbury (, ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, situated in the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England. It lies on the River Stour, Kent, River Stour ...
(597) and Rochester (604), both still exist. Bede in his
Ecclesiastical history __NOTOC__ Church history or ecclesiastical history as an academic discipline studies the history of Christianity The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christian countries, and the Church with its various denominati ...
(732) tells that the Canterbury school taught more than the 'intended reading and understanding of Latin', but 'the rules of metric, astronomy and the
computus As a moveable feast, the date of Easter is determined in each year through a calculation known as ''computus'' (Latin for 'computation'). Easter is celebrated on the first Sunday after the Paschal full moon, which is the first full moon on or af ...
as well as the works of the saints' Even at this stage, there was tension, as the church was worried that knowledge of Latin would give the student access to non-Christian texts that it would not wish them to read. Over the centuries leading to the
renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

renaissance
and
reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Cit ...

reformation
the church was the main provider of secondary education. Various invasions and schisms within the controlling church challenged the focus of the schools, and the curriculum and language of instruction waxed and waned. From 1100, With the growth of the towns, grammar schools 'free' of the church were founded, and some church grammar schools were handed over to the laïty. Universities were founded that didn't just train students for the priesthood.


Renaissance and Reformation

Whereas in mainland Europe the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
preceded the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in ...

Reformation
, local conditions in England caused the Reformation to come first. The Reformation was about, among other things, allowing the laïty to interpret the Bible in their own way without the intervention of priests, and preferably in the vernacular. This stimulated the foundation of free Grammar schools- who searched for a less constrained curriculum.
Colonialisation Colonization, or colonisation refers to large-scale population movements where the migrants maintain strong links with their—or their ancestors'—former country, gaining significant privileges over other inhabitants of the territory by such ...
required navigation, mensuration, languages and administrative skills. The laïty wanted these taught to their sons. After
Gutenberg Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (; – February 3, 1468) was a German goldsmith A goldsmith is a Metalworking, metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals. Nowadays they mainly specialize in jewe ...

Gutenberg
1455 had mastered moveable metal type printing and Tyndale had translated the Bible into English (1525), Latin became a skill reserved for the catholic church and sons of conservative nobility. Schools started to be set up for the sons of merchants in Europe and the colonies too- for example
Boston Latin Grammar School The Boston Latin School is a public Magnet school, exam school in Boston, Massachusetts. It was established on April 23, 1635, making it both the oldest public school in America and the oldest existing school in the United States. Its curriculum ...

Boston Latin Grammar School
(1635).
Comenius John Amos Comenius (; cs, Jan Amos Komenský; german: link=no, Johann Amos Comenius; Latinized: ''Ioannes Amos Comenius''; 28 March 1592 – 15 November 1670) was a Czech philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The ...

Comenius
(1592–1670), a
Moravian Moravian is the adjective form of the Czech Republic region of Moravia, and refers to people of ancestry from Moravia. Moravian may also refer to: * Moravia, the region * Moravians, people from Moravia * Moravian dialects, dialects of Czech spoken ...
protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
proposed a new model of education- where ideas were developed from the familiar to the theoretical rather than through repetition, where languages were taught in the vernacular and supported universal education. In his ''Didactica Magna'' (Great Didactic), he outlined a system of schools that is the exact counterpart of many western school systems: kindergarten, elementary school, secondary school, six-form college, university.
Locke
Locke
's ''
Some Thoughts Concerning Education ''Some Thoughts Concerning Education'' is a 1693 treatise on the education of gentlemen written by the English philosopher John Locke. For over a century, it was the most important philosophical work on education in England Education ...
'' (1693) stressed the importance of a broader intellectual training, moral development and physical hardening. The grammar schools of the period can be categorised in three groups: the nine leading schools, seven of them boarding institutions which maintained the traditional curriculum of the classics, and mostly served 'the aristocracy and the squirearchy' ; most of the old endowed grammar schools serving a broad social base in their immediate localities which also stuck to the old curriculum; the grammar schools situated in the larger cities, serving the families of merchants and tradesmen who embraced change.


Industrialisation

During the 18th century their social base widened and their curriculum developed, particularly in mathematics and the natural sciences. But this was not universal education and was self-selecting by wealth The industrial revolution changed that. Industry required an educated workforce where all workers needed to have completed a basic education. In France,
Louis XIV , house = House of Bourbon, Bourbon , father = Louis XIII, Louis XIII of France , mother = Anne of Austria , birth_date = , birth_place = Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Kingdom of France, F ...

Louis XIV
, wrestled the control of education from the Jesuits,
Condorcet Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis of Condorcet (; 17 September 1743 – 29 March 1794), known as Nicolas de Condorcet, was a French philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from ...

Condorcet
set up
Collège
Collège
s for universal lower secondary education throughout the country, then Napoleon set up a regulated system of
Lycee In France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territori ...
. In England,
Robert Peel Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was a British Conservative Party (UK), Conservative statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–1835 and 1841–1846) simultaneously serving as Cha ...

Robert Peel
's Factory Act of 1802 required an employer to provide instruction in reading, writing and arithmetic during at least the first four years of the seven years of apprenticeship. The state had accepted responsibility for the
basic education According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), basic education comprises the two stages primary education and secondary education, lower secondary education. Universal basic education Basic education featured heavily i ...
of the poor. The provision of school places remained inadequate, so an Order in Council dated 10 April 1839 created the Committee of the Privy Council on Education.


Universal Education

There was considerable opposition to the idea that children of all classes should receive basic education, all the initiatives such as
industrial school The Industrial Schools Act was intended in 1857 to solve problems of juvenile vagrancy (people), vagrancy in England by removing poor and neglected children from their home environment to a boarding school. The Act allowed magistrates to send di ...
s and
Sunday school #REDIRECT Sunday school#REDIRECT Sunday school A Sunday school is an educational institution, usually (but not always) Christianity, Christian in character. Sunday school classes usually precede a Sunday church service and are used to provide cat ...

Sunday school
s were initially a private or church initiative. With the
Great Exhibition of 1851 opens the Great Exhibition in The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London, in 1851 File:Crystal Palace - interior.jpg, The enormous The Crystal Palace, Crystal Palace went from plans to grand opening in just nine months The Great Exhibition of t ...
, it became clear just how far behind the English education system had fallen. Three reports were commissioned to examine the education of upper, middle and labouring class children. The
Clarendon Commission The Clarendon Commission was a royal commission A royal commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry A tribunal of inquiry is an official review of events or actions ordered by a government body. In many common law countries, such as t ...
sought to improve the nine Great Public Schools. The Taunton Commission looked at the 782 endowed grammar schools (private and public). They found varying quality and a patchy geographical coverage, with two thirds of all towns not having any secondary school. There was no clear conception of the purpose of secondary education. There were only thirteen girls' schools and their tuition was superficial, unorganised and unscientific. They recommended a system of first-grade schools targeted at a leaving age of 18 as preparation for upper and upper-middle class boys entering university, second-grade targeted at a leaving age of 16 for boys preparing for the army or the newer professions, and third-grade targeted at a leaving age of 14 for boys of small tenant farmers, small tradesmen, and superior artisans. This resulted in the 1869 Endowed Schools Act which advocated that girls should enjoy the same education as boys. The Newcastle Commission inquired "into the state of public education in England and to consider and report what measures, if any, are required for the extension of sound and cheap elementary instruction to all classes of the people". It produced 1861 Newcastle Report and this led to the 1870 Elementary Education Act (Forster Act). The school boards set up by the 1870 Elementary Education Act (Forster Act) and were stopped from providing secondary education by the Cockerton Judgement of 1899. The school leaving age at this time was 10. The Judgement prompted the 1902 Education Act (Balfour Act). Compulsory education was extended to 12. The new Local Education Authorities (LEA)s that were formed from the school boards; started to open Higher Grade Elementary Schools (ISCED Level2) or county schools to supplement the endowed grammar schools. These LEAs were allowed to build second-grade secondary schools that in the main became the future
secondary modern school A secondary modern school is a type of secondary school A secondary school describes an institution that provides and also usually includes the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary education ...
s. In the "''1904 Regulations for Secondary Schools''", the
Board of Education A board of education, school committee or school board is the board of directors or board of trustees of a school, local school district or equivalent. The elected council determines the educational policy in a small regional area, such as a c ...
determined that secondary schools should offer a:
a four year subject-based course leading to a certificate in English language and literature, geography, history, a foreign language, mathematics, science, drawing, manual work, physical training, and, for girls, housewifery.
The
Education Act 1918 The Education Act 1918 (8 & 9 Geo. V c. 39), often known as the Fisher Act, is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly ...
(Fisher Act) extended compulsory full-time education to 14, and recommended compulsory part-time education from 14 to 18. The Hadlow report, "Education the Adolescent" (1926) proposed that there should be a break point at eleven, establishing primary schools and secondary schools. The
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
, founded in 1947, was committed to education for all but the definition was difficult to formulate.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly that enshrines the Human rights, rights and freedoms of all human beings. It was accepted by the General Assembly as Un ...
(1948) declared that elementary and fundamental education, which it didn't define, was a right to be enjoyed by all. The
Education Act 1944 The Education Act 1944 (7 and 8 Geo 6 c. 31) made major changes in the provision and governance of secondary schools in England and Wales. It is also known as the "Butler Act" after the President of the Board of Education, R. A. Butler. Historians ...
(Butler Act) made sweeping changes to the funding of state education using the tripartite system, but wasn't allowed to tackle private schools. It introduced the GCE 'O'level at 16, and the 'A' at 18, but only raised the school leaving age until 15, making the exam inaccessible to the majority. But one year of ISCED Level 3 (Upper) secondary education was mandatory and free. In 1972 the school leaving was raised to 16. The
Education and Skills Act 2008 The Education and Skills Act 2008 (c 25) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, legislative body of the United Kingd ...
, when it came into force in the 2013 academic year, initially required participation in some form of education or training until the school year in which the child turned 17, followed by the age being raised to the young person's 18th birthday in 2015.Raising the Participation Age – Timeline
HMSO, 24 August 2012
This was referred to as raising the "participation age"Raising the Participation Age (RPA) – Myth Buster for Young People
HMSO, 29 July 2013
to distinguish it from the school leaving age which remains at 16.School leaving age
HMSO, 19 November 2014
Thus the UK is following the ISCED Level 3 (Upper) secondary education guideline.


Right to a secondary education

The
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
was strong in its commitment to education for all but fell into linguistic difficulty defining that right.
“Article I: Purposes and functions 1. The purpose of the Organization is to contribute to peace and security by promoting collaboration among the nations through education, science and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, for the rule of law and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms which are affirmed for the peoples of the world, without distinction of race, sex, language or religion, by the
Charter of the United Nations The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) is the foundational treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public internation ...
.”
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly that enshrines the Human rights, rights and freedoms of all human beings. It was accepted by the General Assembly as Un ...
(1948) declared that elementary and fundamental education was a right to be enjoyed by all, but again could not define either elementary and fundamental education.
Article 26 :(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
It was assumed that elementary education was
basic education According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), basic education comprises the two stages primary education and secondary education, lower secondary education. Universal basic education Basic education featured heavily i ...
, the entitlement for children- and fundamental education was a right for the working man, but for a lawyer the definition is neither qualitative (stating what education means) or quantitative saying when it starts and when it is completed. The term secondary is not defined or mentioned. Together this has enabled countries to terminate free, compulsory, basic education at 11 or only continue education past eleven to boys. Article 28, of the
Convention on the Rights of the Child The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (commonly abbreviated as the CRC or UNCRC) is an international international human rights instruments, human rights treaty which sets out the civil, political, economic, social, health an ...

Convention on the Rights of the Child
(1989) stated that primary education should be free and compulsory while different forms of secondary education, including general and vocational education, should be available and accessible to every child. Free education should be provided and financial assistance offered in case of need. In 1990, at Jomtien again tried to define the content basic education and how it should be delivered. ‘Basic education’ is defined as ‘action designed to meet ‘basic learning needs’. ‘primary schooling’ is considered as ‘the main delivery system of basic education’. Which is explained in Principals for Action that:
addressing the basic learning needs of all means: early childhood care and development opportunities; relevant, quality primary schooling or equivalent out-of-school education for children; and literacy, basic knowledge and life skills training for youth and adults.’
The assumption being made that basic knowledge and life skills training for youth was the function of secondary education. This was codified by the
ISCED The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a statistical framework for organizing information on education Education is the process of facilitating , or the acquisition of , s, , morals, s, s, and personal developmen ...
documents. The Dakar Framework for Action 2010 goal 2 states: Ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete free and compulsory (primary in the sense basic) education of good quality. The Dakar Framework for Action 2010 goal 5 states: Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality.
Malala Yousafzai Malala Yousafzai (Pashto pronunciation: , ur, ; born 12 July 1997), often referred to mononymously as Malala, is a Pakistani activist Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, direct, or intervene in Social change, social, Pol ...

Malala Yousafzai
,
Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 Decemb ...
winner in a said in a 2017 interview that:
“My goal is to make sure every child, girl and boy, they get the opportunity to go to school." “It is their basic human right, so I will be working on that and I will never stop until I see the last child going to school.”


Future directions for secondary education

UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
believes that in order to prepare young people for life and work in a rapidly changing world, secondary-level education systems need to be re-oriented to impart a broad repertoire of life-skills. These skills should include the key generic competencies, non occupation-specific practical capabilities, ICT, the ability to learn independently, to work in teams, entrepreneurship and civic responsibility. They may be best instilled through a shared foundational learning period and by deferring the directing of students into academic and vocational streams for as long as possible, and then there should be flexibility to ensure the free movement of students between the streams depending on their aptitudes and inclinations. Accreditation in one stream should have equal recognition in the other as well as for access to higher education. This will equip young people with multiple skills so that they are prepared to enter and re-enter the workforce several times in their working lives, as wage employees or self-employed entrepreneurs, and to re-train themselves when their skills become obsolete. It recognizes that there is no single model that will suit all countries, or even all communities in a given country. Secondary-level education policy should be under continuous review to keep in step with scientific and technological, economic and societal change.


Promoting the Rule of Law

Adolescence Adolescence ()''Macmillan Dictionary for Students'' Macmillan, Pan Ltd. (1981), page 14, 456. Retrieved July 15, 2010. is a transitional stage of physical Physical may refer to: *Physical examination, a regular overall check-up with a doctor * ...
is associated with a time of significant growth where identity, belongingness, and socialization, especially among peer groups is particularly important. Secondary schools play an important role in youth's socialization, development and forming their ideas and approach to
justice Justice, in its broadest sense, is the principle that people receive that which they deserve, with the interpretation of what then constitutes "deserving" being impacted upon by numerous fields, with many differing viewpoints and perspectives, ...

justice
, democracy and
human rights Human rights are moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
.
Education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...

Education
systems that promote education for justice, that is, respect for the
rule of law The rule of law is defined in the ''Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal of the , published by (OUP). It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a compreh ...

rule of law
(RoL) together with international human rights and fundamental freedoms strengthen the relationship between learners and public institutions with the objective of empowering young people to become champions of peace and justice. Teachers are on the front line of this work and, along with families, play a formative role in shaping the future of youth's attitudes and behaviours.


Career and Life Planning Education

Career and Life Planning Education (CLPE) activities as well as (Career) Development Education take place at secondary schools in
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Pe ...
. Students’ transition from study to work is important in Hong Kong and career education in senior secondary schooling in this country is hence provided. Job shadowing is not yet done in their secondary schools however.


By country

Each country has developed the form of education most appropriate for them. There is an attempt to compare the effectiveness by using the results from the
PISA Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public ser ...
that, each third year, assesses the scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading of a representative sample of 5000 fifteen year olds from each country.


See also

*
Education Index An Education index is a component of the Human Development Index The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expec ...
* :Secondary education by country for secondary education in individual countries *
List of colleges and universities by country This is a list of lists of universities and colleges by country, sorted by continent and region. The lists represent education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), v ...
*
List of the oldest schools in the world This is a list of extant Extant is the opposite of the word extinct. It may refer to: * Extant hereditary titles * Extant literature, surviving literature, such as ''Beowulf'', the oldest extant manuscript written in English * Extant taxon, a t ...
*
List of schools by country This is a list of lists of school A school is an educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high ...
* List of countries by secondary education attainment *
Student orientation Student orientation or new student orientation (often encapsulated into an Orientation week, O-Week, Frosh Week, Welcome Week or Freshers' Week) is a period before the start of an academic year at a university A university () is an educational ...
, can be used for allowing people to find their vocation * Programme for International Student Assessment (2000 to 2012) PISA test of 15yr old attainment


Sources


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Secondary Education Educational stages