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The Second Desmond Rebellion (1579–1583) was the more widespread and bloody of the two
Desmond Rebellions The Desmond Rebellions occurred in 1569–1573 and 1579–1583 in the Irish province of Munster Munster ( gle, an Mhumhain or ) is one of the provinces of Ireland Since pre-historic times, there have been four Provinces of Ireland ...
in Ireland launched by the Fitzmaurice/FitzGerald Dynasty of Desmond in
Munster Munster ( gle, an Mhumhain or ) is one of the provinces of Ireland Since pre-historic times, there have been four Provinces of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.ht ...

Munster
against English rule. The second rebellion began in July 1579 when James Fitzmaurice landed in Ireland with a force of
Papal The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Chr ...

Papal
troops, triggering an insurrection across the south of Ireland on the part of the Desmond dynasty, their allies, and others who were dissatisfied for various reasons with English government of the country. The rebellion ended with the 1583 death of
Gerald FitzGerald, 14th Earl of Desmond Gerald FitzGerald, 14th Earl of Desmond (1583), also counted as the 15th or 16th, was an Irish magnate and soldier. In 1565 he fought the private Battle of Affane against his neighbours, the Butlers. He was the leader of the Second Desmond Rebel ...
, and the defeat of the rebels. The rebellion was in equal part a protest by
feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society ...
lords against the intrusion of central government into their domains; a conservative Irish reaction to English policies that were altering traditional
Gaelic Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Gaelic languages are spoken in Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man. Whe ...

Gaelic
society; and a religious conflict, in which the rebels claimed that they were upholding
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...
against a
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
queen who had been pronounced a
heretic Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization. The term is usually used in reference to violations of important religi ...
in 1570 by the papal bull ''
Regnans in Excelsis ''Regnans in Excelsis'' ("Reigning on High") is a papal bull that Pope Pius V Pope Pius V (17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572), born Antonio Ghislieri (from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri, O.P.), was head of the Catholic Church The Cat ...
''. The result of the rebellions was the destruction of the Desmond dynasty and the subsequent Munster Plantations – the
colonisation Colonization, or colonisation refers to large-scale population movements where the migrants maintain strong links with their—or their ancestors'—former country, gaining significant privileges over other inhabitants of the territory by such ...

colonisation
of Munster with English settlers. In addition, the fighting laid waste to a large part of the south of Ireland. War-related famine and disease are thought to have killed up to a third of Munster's pre-war population.


Background


First rebellion, 1569–73

The Munster branch of the FitzGeralds, known as the
Geraldines The FitzGerald/FitzMaurice Dynasty is a Cambro-Normans, Cambro-Norman, Anglo-Normans, Anglo-Norman and later Hiberno-Norman aristocratic dynasty. ( ga, MacGearailt/MacMhuiris). They have been Peerage of Ireland, peers of Ireland since at lea ...
, were holders of the title
Earl of Desmond The title of Earl of Desmond has been held historically by Lords in Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great ...
, which at the time of the rebellions was held by
Gerald FitzGerald, 14th Earl of Desmond Gerald FitzGerald, 14th Earl of Desmond (1583), also counted as the 15th or 16th, was an Irish magnate and soldier. In 1565 he fought the private Battle of Affane against his neighbours, the Butlers. He was the leader of the Second Desmond Rebel ...
, referred to here as the ''Earl of Desmond''. The first Desmond rebellion (1569–73) had been an armed protest against English intrusion into the Desmond territories. Specifically it was against the creation of the office of "Lord President" (governor) in the province of Munster and the English pursuit of policies that favoured the FitzGerald's rivals, the Butlers of Ormonde, and various English colonists. The most pressing grievance of the Geraldines had been the government's arrest of Gerald the Earl and his brother John of Desmond in 1568 for their part in a private war against the Butlers in 1565, which had culminated in the
Battle of Affane The Battle of Affane ( Irish: ''Cath Áth Mheáin'') was fought in county Waterford, in south-eastern Ireland, in 1565, between the forces of the Fitzgerald Earl of Desmond The title of Earl of Kingdom of Desmond, Desmond has been held historica ...
in
County Waterford County Waterford ( ga, Contae Phort Láirge) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in cert ...
. The
First Desmond Rebellion The Desmond Rebellions occurred in 1569–1573 and 1579–1583 in the Irish province of Munster. They were rebellions by the Earl of Desmond, the head of the FitzGerald dynasty, Fitzmaurice/FitzGerald Dynasty in Munster, and his followers, ...
was launched in 1569, in the absence of the Desmond leadership, by James Fitzmaurice, the "captain general" of the FitzGerald army. That rebellion was quashed by the English crown forces and their Irish allies (primarily the Butlers, led by Thomas Butler, 3rd Earl of Ormonde), and ended in 1573.


Outcomes

The English response after the first rebellion was conciliation of the Geraldines. Fitzmaurice, the leader of the rebellion, was pardoned and the Earl and his brother John of Desmond were released from imprisonment and returned to their lands. As late as 1579, it looked most unlikely that the FitzGeralds would again challenge English rule in Munster. However, a combination of personal, economic, and religious factors, and the actions of James Fitzmaurice himself, led to an explosion of rebellion in July of that year. Fitzmaurice, who had led the first rebellion, found himself without property and powerless after peace was restored. Lands that he had inherited were confiscated and colonised by English settlers. The Earl of Desmond was forbidden from exacting military service and quartering his troops on his dependants (a practice known as
coyne and liveryCoign and livery or coyne and livery ( ga, coinmheadh is buannacht) in Gaelic Ireland was the free entertainment which a chief exacted from his subjects for his servants and followers. Originally in Brehon law it took the form of a banquet, feast hel ...
), and he was reduced to maintaining only 20 horsemen in his private service. This abolition by the government of private armies meant that Fitzmaurice, who was a professional soldier, was without a source of income. Fitzmaurice was therefore impoverished, and in 1574 he was evicted by the Earl from lands he had been renting since 1573. On top of these discontents, Fitzmaurice also had a genuine commitment to the Catholic
counter-reformation The Counter-Reformation (), also called the Catholic Reformation () or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic Church, Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revo ...
and a deep antipathy to Protestantism, which had been introduced into Ireland by the English. Fitzmaurice left Ireland for France in 1575, seeking help from Catholic powers to restart the rebellion.


Second rebellion

The factors which drove Fitzmaurice into rebellion also created a wide pool of potential rebels in southern Ireland. Firstly, the disbanded Irish soldiers from various lords' private armies faced destitution and even death in an English-ruled Ireland. In the wake of the first Desmond Rebellion,
Henry Sidney Sir Henry Sidney (1529 – 5 May 1586), Lord Deputy of Ireland, was the eldest son of Sir William Sidney of Penshurst, a prominent politician and courtier during the reigns of Henry VIII of England, Henry VIII and Edward VI of England, Edwar ...

Henry Sidney
, the
Lord Deputy of Ireland The Lord Deputy was the representative of the monarch and head of the Irish executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of ...
, and
William Drury Sir William Drury (2 October 152713 October 1579) was an English statesman and soldier. Family William Drury, born at Hawstead in Suffolk Suffolk () is an East Anglia East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England. The a ...
, the
Lord President of Munster The post of Lord President of Munster was the most important office in the English government of the Irish province of Munster from its introduction in the Elizabethan era for a century, to 1672, a period including the Desmond Rebellions in Munster ...
, had up to 700 unemployed or "masterless" soldiers executed, judging them to be a danger to the public peace. The surviving mercenary soldiers in Munster would form the backbone of the coming rebellion. Secondly, many of the local Irish Lords felt that their interests were threatened by the English policy of
plantations A plantation is an agricultural estate, generally centered on a plantation house, meant for farming that specializes in cash crops, usually mainly planted with a single crop, with perhaps ancillary areas for vegetables for eating and so on. The c ...
– confiscating land for which the owner did not have an English title and establishing English colonies on it. Thirdly, the imposition of
seneschal The word ''seneschal'' () can have several different meanings, all of which reflect certain types of supervising or administering in a historic context. Most commonly, a seneschal was a senior position filled by a court appointmentCourt appointments ...
s, or English military governors, in various areas where the local leaders had previously been independent meant that some chieftains, such as
Fiach MacHugh O'Byrne Fiach Mac Aodha Ó Broin (anglicised as Feagh or Fiach MacHugh O'Byrne) (1534 – 8 May, 1597) was Lord of Ranelagh and sometime leader of the Clann Uí Bhroin, or the O'Byrne clan, during the Tudor conquest of Ireland, Elizabethan conquest of ...
of the
Wicklow Mountains The Wicklow Mountains (, Archaism, archaic: ''Cualu'') form the largest continuous upland area in the Republic of Ireland. They occupy the whole centre of County Wicklow and stretch outside its borders into the Local government in the Republic ...

Wicklow Mountains
, were already engaged in a low level war with the English authorities throughout the 1570s. Finally, cultural and religious conflict also played a role in fomenting discontent. In the early 1570s, Sir
John Perrot Sir John Perrot (7 November 1528 – 3 November 1592) served as Lord Deputy of Ireland, lord deputy to Queen Elizabeth I of England during the Tudor conquest of Ireland. It was speculated that he was an illegitimate son of Henry VIII. "Sir John ...

John Perrot
, the English Lord Deputy, had banned aspects of traditional Gaelic Irish culture, including
Brehon law Early Irish law, historically referred to as (English: Freeman-ism) or (English: Law of Freemen), also called Brehon law, comprised the statutes which governed everyday life in Early Medieval Ireland. They were partially eclipsed by the Norma ...
,
bard In Celtic cultures, a bard was a professional story teller, verse-maker, music composer, oral historian Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using a ...

bard
ic
Irish language Irish ( in Standard Irish Standard may refer to: Symbols * Colours, standards and guidons, kinds of military signs * Heraldic flag, Standard (emblem), a type of a large symbol or emblem used for identification Norms, conventions or requ ...
poetry, and Irish dress. In addition, the English had introduced
Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an , based on the and of . It is the , with about 2.5 billion followers. Its adherents, known as , make up a majority of the population in , and believe that is the , whose comin ...
as the state religion in Ireland, whereas the majority of the population were
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman Catholic
. This was an increasingly important proof of loyalty to the Dublin administration after the promulgation of
Pope Pius V Pope Pius V (17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572), born Antonio Ghislieri (from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri, O.P.), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian ...

Pope Pius V
's
papal bull A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Catholic Church. It is named after the leaden Seal (emblem), seal (''bulla (seal), bulla'') that was traditionally appended to the end in order to auth ...
''
Regnans in Excelsis ''Regnans in Excelsis'' ("Reigning on High") is a papal bull that Pope Pius V Pope Pius V (17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572), born Antonio Ghislieri (from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri, O.P.), was head of the Catholic Church The Cat ...
'' in 1570, when the Papacy excommunicated Elizabeth and her officials. Fitzmaurice appealed to both of these sentiments, speaking only Irish, wearing Irish dress, and also championing the cause of the counter-reformation.


Aborted invasion of 1578

In exile in Europe from 1575, Fitzmaurice tried to get backing for a new rebellion. He intrigued at the French and Spanish courts for a foreign invasion of Ireland. However,
Philip II of Spain Philip II) in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption ...

Philip II of Spain
showed no interest in supporting him, as he was already overstretched fighting the Dutch Revolt in the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
. Fitzmaurice had more success though at the court of
Pope Gregory XIII Pope Gregory XIII ( la, Gregorius XIII; 7 January 1502 – 10 April 1585), born Ugo Boncompagni, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . ...

Pope Gregory XIII
, where he met with exiled English
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman Catholic
priests such as William Allen and Nicholas Sanders who were seeking to invade England, depose Elizabeth, and restore a Catholic monarchy. With the English adventurer Captain
Thomas Stukley Thomas Stucley (c. 15254 August 1578), also written Stukeley or Stukley and known as the Lusty Stucley,Vivian 1895, p. 721, pedigree of Stucley was an England, English mercenary who fought in France, Ireland, and at the Battle of Lepanto (1 ...
, Fitzmaurice planned an expedition which was to make
Giacomo Boncompagni Giacomo Boncompagni (also ''Jacopo Boncompagni''; 8 May 1548 – 18 August 1612) was an Italian feudal lord of the 16th century, the illegitimate son of Pope Gregory XIII (Ugo Boncompagni). He was also Duke of Sora, Aquino, Italy, Aquino, Arce, Ita ...

Giacomo Boncompagni
, the nephew of Pope Gregory,
King of Ireland Monarchical systems of government have existed in Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North C ...
. This was supported by the English Catholics. Stukley was provided by the Pope with infantry and sailed from
Civitavecchia Civitavecchia (; meaning "ancient town") is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides man ...

Civitavecchia
in Rome with 1000 men in March 1578, including pardoned highwaymen, musketeers, and some professional officers, including Hercules of Pisano and Sebastiano di San Giuseppe of
Bologna Bologna (, , ; egl, label=Bolognese Bologna (, , ; egl, label=Bolognese dialect, Bolognese, Bulåggna ; lat, Bonōnia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy. It is the seventh most populous ...

Bologna
. In
Cadiz
Cadiz
in Spain he added some Irishmen and
King Philip II
King Philip II
sent him to
Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Grande Lisboa, Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's admin ...

Lisbon
to secure better ships and meet with Fitzmaurice. Having no ships to offer, King
Sebastian of Portugal Sebastian ( pt, Sebastião I ; 20 January 1554 – 4 August 1578) was King of Portugal from 11 June 1557 to 4 August 1578 and the penultimate Portuguese monarch of the House of Aviz. He was the son of João Manuel, Prince of Portugal, and his ...
instead invited Stukley to join an invasion of
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco
, Stukley was killed there in August 1578 at the
Battle of Alcácer Quibir The Battle of Alcácer Quibir (also known as "Battle of Three Kings" ( ar, معركة الملوك الثلاثة) or "Battle of wadi al-Makhazin" ( ar, links=no, معركة وادي المخازن) in Morocco) was fought in northern Morocco ...
, thus ending Fitzmaurice's initial plans for invading Ireland.


1579 invasion

Nicholas Sanders, Fitzmaurice, and others returned to Rome and formed a new expedition with Papal authority. With a small force of Irish, Spanish, and Italian troops, they set sail for Ireland in early June 1579 from
Corunna
Corunna
in Galicia, Spain. The fleet consisted of Fitzmaurice's own vessel and three Spanish
shallop Shallop is a name used for several types of boats and small ships (French ''chaloupe'') used for coastal navigation from the seventeenth century. Originally smaller boats based on the chalupa, the watercraft named this ranged from small boats a l ...
s. Fitzmaurice was joined by Matthew de Oviedo and by Nicholas Sanders as Papal commissary. En route in the
English channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" (Cotentinais Cotentinais is the dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two ...

English channel
, they captured two English vessels and arrived at
Dingle Dingle (Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Grea ...

Dingle
harbour (part of the area now known as
County Kerry County Kerry ( gle, Contae Chiarraí) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers ...

County Kerry
) on 16 July. On the 18th they cast anchor in the nearby small Smerwick harbour (now known as
Ard na Caithne ''Ard na Caithne'' (), meaning height of the arbutus ''Arbutus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as wel ...
), where they established a defensive garrison at Dún an Óir (''Fort of Gold'', Spanish: ''Fuerte del Oro''), an
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
promontory fort A promontory fort is a defensive structure located above a steep cliff, often only connected to the mainland by a small neck of land, thus using the topography to reduce the ramparts needed. Although their dating is problematic, most seem to date ...
nearby. Nicholas Sanders paraded the Papal banner with some ceremony at
Dingle Dingle (Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Grea ...

Dingle
and Fitzmaurice proclaimed a
holy war A religious war or holy war ( la, bellum sacrum) is a war primarily caused or justified by differences in religion. In the modern period, debates are common over the extent to which religious, War#Economic, economic, or ethnic conflict, ethnic ...
sanctioned by letters from Pope Gregory. This was a very serious matter in 16th century thinking, as it released the Catholic subjects of
Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to i ...

Elizabeth I
from their duty of obedience to her, on the grounds that she was a
heretic Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization. The term is usually used in reference to violations of important religi ...
(the Pope had
excommunicated Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure A censure is an expression of strong disapproval or harsh criticism. In parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is the accepted rules Rule or ruling may refer to: ...
her in 1570). The fact that Fitzmaurice had openly challenged the legitimacy of the
Tudor dynasty The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended from the Tudors of Penmynydd. Tudor monarchs ruled the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July ...
to rule Ireland meant that, unlike the first Desmond rebellion of 1569–73, this one would be very unlikely to end with a negotiated peace. The rebels were joined on 25 July by two
galley A galley is a type of ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research, and fis ...

galley
s with 100 more Spanish troops.


Rebellion begins

Fitzmaurice's small force might well have been crushed rapidly had he not been joined on 1 August by John of Desmond.
John Fitzedmund Fitzgerald John Fitzedmund Fitzgerald (died 1589) was the hereditary Seneschal of Imokilly (Imokilly is the area around Youghal, both words deriving from ''Eochaill'', meaning a yew wood), an Irish nobleman of the originally Welsh-Norman FitzGerald dynasty i ...
, like Fitzmaurice, had been a soldier and had a large following among his kinsmen and the disaffected and unemployed soldiers of Munster. It was only after John's joining of the rebellion that it was joined by these soldiers in large numbers. John and his brother, James Fitzedmund Fitzgerald, the
Seneschal The word ''seneschal'' () can have several different meanings, all of which reflect certain types of supervising or administering in a historic context. Most commonly, a seneschal was a senior position filled by a court appointment Court appointmen ...
of
Imokilly Imokilly ( ga, Uí Mhic Coille) is one of the Barony (Ireland), baronies of Republic of Ireland, Ireland, an historical geographical unit of land. Its chief town is Youghal. It is one of 24 baronies in the county of County Cork, Cork. Other neighbou ...
, marked their entry into the rebellion by assassinating two English officials, Henry Davells and Arthur Carter in a
tavern A tavern is a place of business where people gather to drink alcoholic beverage An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuu ...

tavern
in
Tralee Tralee ( ; ga, Trá Lí, ; formerly , meaning 'strand of the Lee River') is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage ...

Tralee
. John of Desmond and Fitzmaurice together commanded a force of over 3000 men, including a small number of European soldiers, and several thousand native Irish troops. The prospect of further continental reinforcements was hampered though, when
Sir William Winter Admiral Sir William Wynter (c.1521 – 20 February 1589) was an admiral and principal officer of the Council of the Marine under Queen Elizabeth I of England and served the crown during the Anglo-Spanish War (1585), Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) ...
, on 29 July 1579, four days after the landing at Smerwick, seized the ships of the invasion force and cut off their sea-routes. The Earl of Desmond, who was reasonably satisfied with the English settlement of the first rebellion, initially tried to stay out of Fitzmaurice's rebellion and attempted to raise the Geraldines to put it down. However, he managed to assemble only 60 men – in contrast to the thousands raised at short notice by his brother John, indicating that most of the FitzGeralds and their allies sympathised with the rebellion. A number of the invasion force went to other parts of Ireland. A small number went to Carrigafoyle Castle on the southern banks of the
River Shannon The River Shannon ( ga, Abhainn na Sionainne, ', '), at in length, is the longest river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows i ...
(in northern County Kerry), the seat of the Earl of Desmond. This contingent included an Italian engineer, Captain Julian, who set about perfecting the castle's defences. Fitzmaurice himself mounted a sortie to
Connacht Connacht ( ; ga, Connachta or ), or Connaught, is one of the provinces of Ireland Since pre-historic times, there have been four Provinces of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, ...

Connacht
to try to provoke rebellion there. However, he was killed in a skirmish with the forces of the Burkes of Clanwilliam on 18 August, after his men stole some horses belonging to Theobald Burke (ironically a cousin of Fitzmaurice). This left the rebellion under the command of John of Desmond, now effectively the leader of the Geraldines. The rebels were left in control of southern Munster and the English did not have enough troops to re-take it. Drury, the English Lord Deputy, marched 600 men to Limerick, where he was joined by
Nicholas Malby Sir Nicholas Malby (1530?–1584) was an English soldier active in Ireland, Lord President of Connaught from 1579 to 1581. Life He was born probably about 1530. In 1556 his name appears in a list of persons willing to take part in the plantation ...
, with a force of 1,100 English soldiers. Drury was in poor health and died shortly afterwards. He left the Crown forces under the command of Malby.


Gerald the Earl joins the rebellion

In late October, Malby marched through the Desmond territory, devastating the countryside there and demanded that Gerald the Earl of Desmond surrender his castle at
Askeaton Askeaton (, Waterfall of Géitine, also historically spelt Askettin), is a town in County Limerick, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. The town on the N69 road (Ireland), N69, the road between Limerick and Tralee, is built on the banks of the River Dee ...
. Desmond refused and resisted when Malby tried to take the castle by force. William Pelham, the Lord Justice of Ireland, then proclaimed Desmond a traitor, meaning that he was to be captured and executed. This forced Gerald and the remaining FitzGeralds to join the rebellion. The Earl assumed leadership of the rebellion in a spectacular manner. On 13 November 1579, he and his followers sacked the town of Youghal, massacring its English garrison, hanging the English officials there, looting the town, and abusing the civilian population. Desmond's force then blockaded the city of
Cork Cork or CORK may refer to: Materials * Cork (material), an impermeable buoyant plant product ** Cork (plug), a cylindrical or conical object used to seal a container ***Wine cork Places Ireland * Cork (city) ** Metropolitan Cork, also known as G ...
before withdrawing westwards into the mountains of Kerry. MacCarthy Mor, meanwhile, chief of the MacCarthys, announced his joining of the rebellion by sacking
Kinsale Kinsale (; ) is a historic port and fishing town in County Cork, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. Located approximately south of Cork (city), Cork City on the southeast coast near the Old Head of Kinsale, it sits at the mouth of the River Bandon, a ...

Kinsale
.


Spring 1580 campaign

The ferocity of Desmond's actions were repaid in kind by the Crown forces early in the following year. Thomas Butler, 3rd Earl of Ormonde, Sir William Pelham, and Sir
George CarewGeorge Carew may refer to: *George Carew (admiral) (c. 1504–1545) soldier and adventurer, died in the sinking of the Tudor warship the ''Mary Rose'' *George Carew (priest) (1497/8–1583), English Anglican Dean of Christ Church, Dean of Windsor an ...
were sent to Munster to subdue the rebels and proceeded to systematically destroy the Desmond lands in
County Limerick County Limerick ( ga, Contae Luimnigh) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers ...
,
County Cork County Cork ( ga, Contae Chorcaí) is the largest and the southernmost county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first ...
, and north
County Kerry County Kerry ( gle, Contae Chiarraí) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers ...

County Kerry
and to kill the civilians who lived there at random. These tactics were intended to cause so much economic and human damage to the Desmonds' followers that they would be forced to leave the rebellion. The Crown troops were not only English but also composed of Irish forces antagonistic to the Geraldines, notably, apart from Ormonde's followers, the over 1000 fighting men of the
MacCarthy Reagh The Mac Cárthaigh Riabhach (anglicised ''MacCarthy Reagh'') dynasty are a branch of the MacCarthy dynasty, Kings of Desmond, deriving from the Eóganacht Chaisil sept. History The Mac Cárthaigh Riabhach seated themselves as kings of Carbery (b ...
s of
Carbery
Carbery
, and also the O'Driscolls.
Hugh O'Neill, 3rd Earl of Tyrone Hugh O'Neill (Irish language, Irish: ''Aodh Mór Ó Néill''; literally ''Hugh The Great O'Neill''; c. 1550 – 20 July 1616), was an Irish people, Irish Gaels, Gaelic lord, Earl of Tyrone (known as the Great Earl) and was later created ''The ...
, also led a contingent from his lands in
Ulster Ulster (; ga, Ulaidh or ''Cúige Uladh'' ; sco, label=Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster Scots, Ulstèr or ''Ulster'') is one of the four traditional Irish provinces of Ireland, provinces, in the north of Ireland. It is made up of nine Counties ...

Ulster
. In March 1580, the Crown forces had an important strategic victory, taking the Desmond stronghold at Carrigafoyle Castle at the mouth of the Shannon. With 1400 soldiers and assisted by William Winter and his naval forces, William Pelham captured Carrigafoyle, the principal Desmond stronghold at the mouth of
River Shannon The River Shannon ( ga, Abhainn na Sionainne, ', '), at in length, is the longest river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows i ...
and massacred the rebel garrison there. They had now cut off the Geraldine forces from the north of the country and prevented a landing of foreign troops into the main Munster port of
Limerick Limerick ( ; ga, Luimneach ) is a city in County Limerick County Limerick ( ga, Contae Luimnigh) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chamber ...

Limerick
. When news of the destruction of Carrigafoyle castle spread, other Desmond strongholds fell swiftly. The castle at
Askeaton Askeaton (, Waterfall of Géitine, also historically spelt Askettin), is a town in County Limerick, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. The town on the N69 road (Ireland), N69, the road between Limerick and Tralee, is built on the banks of the River Dee ...
was abandoned with its Spanish defenders blowing up the walls, and the garrisons at
Newcastle West Newcastle West () or simply Newcastle (''An Caisleán Nua'', formerly anglicized Castlenoe) is a town in west County Limerick County Limerick ( ga, Contae Luimnigh) is a Counties of Ireland, county in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is locat ...

Newcastle West
, Balliloghan,
Rathkeale Rathkeale () is a town in west County Limerick, in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is 30 km (18 mi) southwest of Limerick city on the N21 road to Tralee, County Kerry, and lies on the River Deel. Rathkeale has a significant Irish Travel ...
, and Ballyduff surrendered soon afterwards. Many of the lords who had joined the rebellion surrendered as well, judging the English to have the upper hand. Those who surrendered included MacCarthy Mor, Roche, Barry, and others. It looked as if the rebellion was beaten by the summer of 1580, but it was revived by the outbreak of new rebellion in the eastern province of Leinster.


Rebellion in Leinster

In July 1580, Fiach McHugh O'Byrne, based in the
Wicklow Mountains The Wicklow Mountains (, Archaism, archaic: ''Cualu'') form the largest continuous upland area in the Republic of Ireland. They occupy the whole centre of County Wicklow and stretch outside its borders into the Local government in the Republic ...

Wicklow Mountains
launched the rebellion in the east of Ireland. He assembled a coalition of local lords and clan leaders, including the Kavanaghs, the O'Tooles, and the O'Moores. Many of these had already been fighting on and off with English garrisons for several years. In particular, the arbitrary killings by an English officer named Masterson, based in Wicklow, seems to have provoked many into revolt. In a symbolic rejection of English rule, the rebels bestowed the title of King of Leinster on Creon MacMurrough Kavanagh, whose ancestors had held this title before the English conquest. O'Byrne was joined by James Eustace, 3rd Viscount Baltinglass, an Old English (Ireland), Old English Welsh Marches, marcher lord of the Pale, who was motivated primarily by his devout Catholicism. In August, John of Desmond and Nicholas Sanders met Baltinglass in Laois to try to co-ordinate their forces, but aside from limited co-operation in the Barrow valley region, they were unable to forge a common strategy. Nevertheless, the outbreak of rebellion so close to the centre of English government in Dublin was of grave concern to the English. Sir
Henry Sidney Sir Henry Sidney (1529 – 5 May 1586), Lord Deputy of Ireland, was the eldest son of Sir William Sidney of Penshurst, a prominent politician and courtier during the reigns of Henry VIII of England, Henry VIII and Edward VI of England, Edwar ...

Henry Sidney
, the former Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Lord Deputy of Ireland, influenced the response from his membership of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, Privy council and in August 1580 a new Lord Deputy, Arthur Grey, 14th Baron Grey de Wilton, was sent from England with 6000 troops. Grey's immediate priority was to put down the Leinster rebellion. On 25 August 1580, English forces under Grey were routed in the Battle of Glenmalure with the forces of O'Byrne and Viscount Baltinglass. While trying to storm O'Byrne's fortress at Glenmalure in the heart of the Wicklow mountains, they were ambushed and mauled, losing over 800 men killed. William Stanley (Elizabethan), William Stanley was sent by Grey de Wilton to defend the The Pale, Pale area of Leinster. For the remainder of the war, O'Byrne and his allies raided English settlements in the east and south east, but were unable to take strategic advantage of their victory at Glenmalure. The rebellion and its aftermath saw a number of people from the Pale and other Old English areas such as Wexford (who had previously always been loyal to English authority) hanged as traitors. Those executed included Dermot O'Hurley the Catholic Archbishop of Cashel and Margaret Ball the wife of the Lord Mayor of Dublin, also died in prison in Dublin Castle. Those executed often proclaimed their Catholic faith on the scaffold and were honoured by their Church as Catholic martyr

These executions were a major factor in the long term alienation of the Old English (Ireland), Old English from the English state in Ireland.


1580 Spanish and Papal landing

On 10 September 1580, a squadron of Spanish ships under the command of Don Juan Martinez de Recalde landed a Papal force of Spanish and Italians numbering 600 men commanded by Sebastiano di San Giuseppe (aka Sebastiano da Modena; Sebastian de San José), at Smerwick, on the Dingle Peninsula near the same point where Fitzmaurice had landed the previous year. They had arms for several thousand men, sent by Philip II to aid the rebellion, and paid for by Pope Gregory. Desmond, Baltinglass, and John of Desmond made an effort to link up with the expeditionary force but English forces under Ormonde and Grey blocked them and prompt naval action by Richard Bingham (soldier), Richard Bingham blockaded the Papal force's ships into the bay at Smerwick. San Giuseppe had no choice but to fortify his men in the fort at Dún an Óir. In October 1580, Grey de Wilton with up to 4000 troops arrived at Smerwick and laid siege to the garrison. The invasion forces were geographically isolated on the tip of the narrow Dingle Peninsula, cut off by Mount Brandon on one side and the much larger English force on the other. They had no means of escape. In addition, the English had brought up heavy artillery by sea, which rapidly broke down the improvised defences of Dún an Óir. After a three-day siege, Colonel Di san Giuseppe surrendered on 10 October 1580, on agreeing to take a bribe as his reward. Local historian Margaret Anna Cusack (1868) explained that: "In a few days the courage of the Spanish commander failed, and he entered into treaty with the Lord Deputy. A bargain was made that he should receive a large share of the spoils... The English were admitted to the fortress on the following day, and a feast was prepared for them."Cusack MF, ''An Illustrated History of Ireland from AD 400 to 1800'' Dublin, 1868 Grey de Wilton ordered the massacre and the Italian and Spanish mercenaries were beheaded and their bodies thrown into the sea. Among the English soldiers present at the siege and massacre was the writer and explorer Walter Raleigh. This was brought against him as a criminal charge in one of his trials. Raleigh argued that he was "obliged to obey the commands of his superior officer" but he was unable to exonerate himself.''The Scenery and Antiquities of Ireland''
Chapter IV. (1841)


End of the rebellion

With the massacre at Smerwick, the tide had turned decisively against the rebels. However, the war dragged on for two more years of increasingly bitter guerrilla fighting. The civilian population was to suffer tremendously as a result of the war, being targeted by both sides and having their crops, livestock, and homes destroyed. Grey, the ruthless English commander, described his own tactics as "burning their corn, spoiling their harvest and driving their cattle". The result was famine and diseases caused by malnutrition. In the summer of 1582, Elizabeth I removed Grey from the office of Lord Deputy for his excessive brutality. By mid 1582, Warham St. Leger (1525?-1597), Warham St Leger reported that around 30,000 people had died of famine in Munster alone in the previous six months and hundreds were dying in Cork city of starvation and disease. Meanwhile, the rebellion slowly fell apart. As a result of the defeat at Smerwick, Papal assistance to Nicholas Sanders was cut off. After spending almost two years as a fugitive in the south-west of Ireland, he is believed to have died of cold and starvation in the spring of 1581. In April 1581, a general pardon was offered to all but the rebellion's leaders. Many of the Earl of Desmond's erstwhile supporters surrendered. Baltinglass fled for France in August 1581. Fiach MacHugh O'Byrne made a false surrender in April 1581 but continued his raiding after a short period. However he finally surrendered in September 1582, ending the fighting in Leinster. For the Earl of Desmond, there would be no pardon, and he was pursued by Crown forces until the end. For the remainder of the war, the Earl and the remaining Geraldines evaded capture on the run in the mountains of Kerry and Tipperary and engaged in guerrilla warfare. In early 1582, John of Desmond was killed in a skirmish north of Cork. The rebellion was finally ended in 1583, when the Earl of Ormonde assumed command of Crown forces. Ormonde took a less ruthless approach to the campaign than previous officers, preferring diplomacy to scorched-earth tactics. He contained the rebels to west Cork and Kerry and persuaded many of Desmond's closest relatives to surrender. On 11 November 1583 the end came when the Earl was killed in Glenaginty in the Slieve Mish Mountains (near
Tralee Tralee ( ; ga, Trá Lí, ; formerly , meaning 'strand of the Lee River') is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage ...

Tralee
in County Kerry) by the local Moriarty clan of Castledrum on the Dingle peninsula. The Earl and his followers had raided the property of clan Moriarty, stole cattle and mistreated the sister of the clan chief, Owen Moriarty. Men of clan Moriarty, with 25 soldiers, pursued the Earl's followers until they captured and killed the Earl at Glenaginty. Owen Moriarty received 1000 pounds of silver from the English government for Desmond's head, which was sent to Queen Elizabeth in London, while his body was triumphantly displayed on the walls of Cork city.


Aftermath

Munster continued to suffer from bubonic plague and famine in the years following the rebellion, and was described as having vast empty areas and a substantially reduced population. Perhaps as much as one third of the province's population perished in the war. The main political consequence of the rebellion was the annihilation of the Desmond dynasty's power in southern Ireland. Their lands were confiscated, along with those of their allies. Following a survey in 1584 by the Surveyor General of Ireland, Sir Valentine Browne it was subsequently colonisation, colonised with English settlers – the Munster Plantations. The Earl of Desmond title was later restored and during another rebellion, the Nine Years War (Ireland), Nine Years War in the 1590s, the English attempted to introduce a new Protestant Geraldine Earl who had grown up in England, but without success. In Leinster, Fiach MacHugh O'Byrne submitted but was later killed leading a new rebellion in Nine Years War. James Eustace, 3rd Viscount of Baltinglass went into exile, dying in Spain in 1585. His title and property, including Rathfarnham Castle were confiscated. Many more former rebels were pardoned but had some land confiscated and had to pay substantial fines. The destruction of so many important landed families in Ireland and colonisation of their lands with English settlers meant that the Second Desmond Rebellion was one of the most important events in the Tudor conquest of Ireland – a century long process which saw all of Ireland under English control by 1603. The killing of many of the Irish mercenary class in the war was likewise an important development for the English authorities in establishing their monopoly on the use of force in Ireland. The Rebellion also established the theme of religious conflict in Irish history for the first time. The divide between Irish Catholic landowners and Protestant English settlers and government would dominate Irish life for another century and still has reverberations to this day.


Notable participants

Invasion/Rebellion side – the Irish and their Catholic supporters * James Fitzmaurice FitzGerald, cousin of the Earl of Desmond, organiser of the rebellions *
Gerald FitzGerald, 14th Earl of Desmond Gerald FitzGerald, 14th Earl of Desmond (1583), also counted as the 15th or 16th, was an Irish magnate and soldier. In 1565 he fought the private Battle of Affane against his neighbours, the Butlers. He was the leader of the Second Desmond Rebel ...
*
Pope Gregory XIII Pope Gregory XIII ( la, Gregorius XIII; 7 January 1502 – 10 April 1585), born Ugo Boncompagni, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . ...

Pope Gregory XIII
, provided funds and forces * Captain
Thomas Stukley Thomas Stucley (c. 15254 August 1578), also written Stukeley or Stukley and known as the Lusty Stucley,Vivian 1895, p. 721, pedigree of Stucley was an England, English mercenary who fought in France, Ireland, and at the Battle of Lepanto (1 ...
, English adventurer, leader of first proposed invasion force *
Giacomo Boncompagni Giacomo Boncompagni (also ''Jacopo Boncompagni''; 8 May 1548 – 18 August 1612) was an Italian feudal lord of the 16th century, the illegitimate son of Pope Gregory XIII (Ugo Boncompagni). He was also Duke of Sora, Aquino, Italy, Aquino, Arce, Ita ...

Giacomo Boncompagni
, the illegitimate son of Pope Gregory proposed as
King of Ireland Monarchical systems of government have existed in Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North C ...
* William Allen, English priest in Rome who supported the rebellion * Nicholas Sanders, English priest and Papal legate on the invasion force * Hercules of Pisano, military member of the first attempted invasion * Sebastiano di San Giuseppe of
Bologna Bologna (, , ; egl, label=Bolognese Bologna (, , ; egl, label=Bolognese dialect, Bolognese, Bulåggna ; lat, Bonōnia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy. It is the seventh most populous ...

Bologna
, commander of the invasion garrison at Dún an Óir *
Philip II of Spain Philip II) in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption ...

Philip II of Spain
, provided forces * King
Sebastian of Portugal Sebastian ( pt, Sebastião I ; 20 January 1554 – 4 August 1578) was King of Portugal from 11 June 1557 to 4 August 1578 and the penultimate Portuguese monarch of the House of Aviz. He was the son of João Manuel, Prince of Portugal, and his ...
, diverted Thomas Stuckly and the first force to Morocco, where both were killed * Matthew de Oviedo, accompanied Fitzmaurice on the second invasion force * Gerald FitzGerald, 11th Earl of Kildare, Earl of Kildare, Geraldine leader, requested to join the rebellion * John of Desmond, a brother of the Earl of Desmond, succeeded as leader of the rebellion * James Fitzedmund FitzGerald,
Seneschal The word ''seneschal'' () can have several different meanings, all of which reflect certain types of supervising or administering in a historic context. Most commonly, a seneschal was a senior position filled by a court appointment Court appointmen ...
of
Imokilly Imokilly ( ga, Uí Mhic Coille) is one of the Barony (Ireland), baronies of Republic of Ireland, Ireland, an historical geographical unit of land. Its chief town is Youghal. It is one of 24 baronies in the county of County Cork, Cork. Other neighbou ...
, succeeded as leader of the rebellion * Captain Julian, Italian engineer who attempted to reconstruct Carrigafoyle Castle * Juan Martinez de Recalde, Spanish member of the invasion force who returned later in the Spanish Armada *
Fiach MacHugh O'Byrne Fiach Mac Aodha Ó Broin (anglicised as Feagh or Fiach MacHugh O'Byrne) (1534 – 8 May, 1597) was Lord of Ranelagh and sometime leader of the Clann Uí Bhroin, or the O'Byrne clan, during the Tudor conquest of Ireland, Elizabethan conquest of ...
, Irish chieftain who rebelled in Leinster, Battle of Glenmalure * James Eustace, 3rd Viscount Baltinglass of the Pale who joined the rebellion in Leinster, Battle of Glenmalure * Creon MacMurrough Kavanagh, appointed King of Leinster by the rebellion Kingdom of Ireland: * Elizabeth I of England * Owen Moriarty, Chieftain of the Moriarty clan of Castledrum in Kerry, killed the Earl of Desmond in 1583 * Sir
Henry Sidney Sir Henry Sidney (1529 – 5 May 1586), Lord Deputy of Ireland, was the eldest son of Sir William Sidney of Penshurst, a prominent politician and courtier during the reigns of Henry VIII of England, Henry VIII and Edward VI of England, Edwar ...

Henry Sidney
, the former Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Lord Deputy of Ireland member of the Privy Council of Ireland * Theobald Burke, cousin of James Fitzmaurice FitzGerald, whose forces killed him *
Sir William Winter Admiral Sir William Wynter (c.1521 – 20 February 1589) was an admiral and principal officer of the Council of the Marine under Queen Elizabeth I of England and served the crown during the Anglo-Spanish War (1585), Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) ...
, English naval commander * Sir William Pelham, English army commander * Sir
George CarewGeorge Carew may refer to: *George Carew (admiral) (c. 1504–1545) soldier and adventurer, died in the sinking of the Tudor warship the ''Mary Rose'' *George Carew (priest) (1497/8–1583), English Anglican Dean of Christ Church, Dean of Windsor an ...
, Irish Royal Army commander * Arthur Grey, 14th Baron Grey de Wilton, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Lord Deputy of Ireland * William Stanley (Elizabethan), William Stanley, army commander * Richard Bingham (soldier), Richard Bingham, member of the English army * Sir Walter Raleigh, member of the English army * Edmund Spenser, member of the English army * Thomas Butler, 3rd Earl of Ormonde, supporter of the English forces *
Hugh O'Neill, 3rd Earl of Tyrone Hugh O'Neill (Irish language, Irish: ''Aodh Mór Ó Néill''; literally ''Hugh The Great O'Neill''; c. 1550 – 20 July 1616), was an Irish people, Irish Gaels, Gaelic lord, Earl of Tyrone (known as the Great Earl) and was later created ''The ...
, supporter of the English forces * Owen MacCarthy Reagh, 12th Prince of Carbery, Owen MacCarthy Reagh, 16th Prince of Carbery, supporter of the English forces


See also

* List of Irish rebellions * Rising of the North * Other events of the Tudor conquest of Ireland ** Nine Years War (Ireland), Nine Years War (1594–1603) * Other Spanish invasions of Ireland ** Spanish Armada in Ireland (1588) ** Siege of Kinsale, Battle of Kinsale (1601)


References

* Contemporaneous accounts of the quashing of the rebellion were produced by some of the participants. A chilling, albeit approving, observation on the campaign was set out in ''A View of the Present State of Ireland'

by Edmund Spenser written in 1593 and first licensed for publication in 1633, four decades later. Richard Bingham reported on the events at Smerwick to Francis Walsingham, a chief-advisor to the Queen. The Annals of the Four Masters contain reports from the Irish perspective. * (See pp. 775–776.) * Richard Bagwell, ''Ireland under the Tudors'' 3 vols. (London, 1885–1890). * John O'Donovan (editor), ''Annals of Ireland by the Four Masters'' (1851). * Cyril Falls ''Elizabeth's Irish Wars'' (1950; reprint London, 1996). . * ''Calendar of State Papers: Carew MSS.'' 6 vols (London, 1867–1873). * ''Calendar of State Papers: Ireland'' (London) * Nicholas Canny ''The Elizabethan Conquest of Ireland'' (Dublin, 1976); ''Kingdom and Colony'' (2002). * Steven G. Ellis ''Tudor Ireland'' (London, 1985) {{ISBN, 0-582-49341-2. * ''Dictionary of National Biography'' 22 vols. (London, 1921–1922).*Brian C. Donovan, The Rise of Feagh McHugh O'Byrne in Gaelic Leinster * Colm Lennon, ''Sixteenth Century Ireland – The Incomplete Conquest'', Dublin 1994. * Edward O'Mahony, ''Baltimore, the O'Driscolls, and the end of Gaelic civilisation, 1538–1615'', Mizen Journal, no. 8 (2000): 110–127. * Nicholas Canny, ''Making Ireland British 1580–1650'', Oxford University Press, Oxford 2001.


External links


West Cork and the Elizabethan Wars 1565–1603


* [https://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2181647 Report from BBC.co.uk]
''The Second Desmond Rebellion, The Irish Story''
Second Desmond Rebellion, Sieges Tudor rebellions Battles involving Ireland Wars involving the Papal States Rebellions in Ireland Wars involving Ireland FitzGerald dynasty 16th-century rebellions 16th century in Ireland 16th century in the Papal States Reformation in Ireland