HOME
TheInfoList



Salvation (from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language ...
: ''salvatio'', from ''salva'', 'safe, saved') is the state of being saved or protected from harm or a dire situation. In
religion Religion is a social-cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, morals, beliefs, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, and spiritual elem ...
and
theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine and, more broadly, of religious belief. It is taught as an academic discipline, typically in universities and seminaries. It occupies itself with the unique content of analyzing the supe ...
, ''salvation'' generally refers to the deliverance of the
soul In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, the soul is the incorporeal essence of a living being. Soul or psyche (Ancient Greek: ψυχή ''psykhḗ'', of ψύχειν ''psýkhein'', "to breathe", cf. Latin 'anima') comprises ...
from
sin In a religious context, sin is a transgression against divine law. Each culture has its own interpretation of what it means to commit a sin. While sins are generally actions, any thought, word, or act considered immoral, selfish, shameful, harmf ...

sin
and its consequences."Salvation." ''
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press (OUP). It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive res ...
'' (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. 1989. "The saving of the soul; the deliverance from sin and its consequences."
The academic study of salvation is called ''
soteriology Soteriology (; el, σωτηρία ' "salvation" from σωτήρ ' "savior, preserver" and λόγος ' "study" or "word") is the study of religious doctrines of salvation. Salvation theory occupies a place of special significance in many religions. ...
''.


Meaning

In
religion Religion is a social-cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, morals, beliefs, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, and spiritual elem ...
and theology, ''salvation'' is the saving of the
soul In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, the soul is the incorporeal essence of a living being. Soul or psyche (Ancient Greek: ψυχή ''psykhḗ'', of ψύχειν ''psýkhein'', "to breathe", cf. Latin 'anima') comprises ...
from
sin In a religious context, sin is a transgression against divine law. Each culture has its own interpretation of what it means to commit a sin. While sins are generally actions, any thought, word, or act considered immoral, selfish, shameful, harmf ...

sin
and its consequences. It may also be called ''deliverance'' or ''redemption'' from sin and its effects. Depending on the religion or even denomination, salvation is considered to be caused either only by the
grace Grace may refer to: Places United States * Grace, Idaho, a city * Grace (CTA station), Chicago Transit Authority's Howard Line, Illinois * Grace, Kentucky, an unincorporated community * Grace, Carroll County, Missouri, an unincorporated community ...
of God (i.e. unmerited and unearned), or by faith, good deeds (works), or a combination thereof. Religions often emphasize that man is a sinner by nature and that the penalty of sin is death (physical death, spiritual death: spiritual separation from God and eternal punishment in hell).


Judaism

In contemporary
Judaism Judaism ( he, יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', "Judah", via Greek ''Ioudaismos''; the term itself is of Anglo-Latin origin c. 1400) is an Abrahamic primarily ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, ...
, redemption (
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancestors. It is the only Canaanite language still spoken and the only tru ...
: ), refers to
God God, in monotheistic thought, is conceived of as the supreme being, creator, and principal object of faith.Swinburne, R.G. "God" in Honderich, Ted. (ed)''The Oxford Companion to Philosophy'', Oxford University Press, 1995. God is usually conceiv ...
redeeming the
people of Israel Israelis ( he, ישראלים ''Yiśraʾelim'', ar, الإسرائيليين ''al-ʾIsrāʾīliyyin'') are the citizens or permanent residents of the State of Israel, a multiethnic state populated by people of different ethnic backgrounds. The l ...
from their various exiles. This includes the final redemption from the present exile.Brandon, Samuel G. F. 9992012.
Salvation, Judaism
" ''
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., and other publishers ( ...
''. Accessed 25 June 2020.
Judaism holds that adherents do not need personal salvation as Christians believe. Jews do not subscribe to the doctrine of
original sin#REDIRECT Original sin#REDIRECT Original sin {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
. Instead, they place a high value on individual morality as defined in the law of God—embodied in what Jews know as the
Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses) of the Hebrew Bible. This is commonly known as the Written Tor ...
or The Law, given to
Moses Moses he, מֹשֶׁה, romanized: ''Mōshé'', ISO 259-3: '; syr, ܡܘܫܐ, ''Mūše''; ar, موسى '; el, Mωϋσῆς, '. (), also known as Moshe Rabbenu ( he, מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ "Moshe our Teacher"), is the most important prophet ...
by God on
biblical Mount Sinai In the Bible, Mount Sinai (, ''Har Sinai'') is the mountain at which the Ten Commandments were given to Moses by God. In the Book of Deuteronomy, these events are described as having transpired at Mount Horeb. "Sinai" and "Horeb" are generally con ...
. In Judaism, salvation is closely related to the idea of
redemption Redemption may refer to: Religion * Redemption (theology), an element of salvation to express deliverance from sin * Redemptive suffering, a Roman Catholic belief that suffering can partially remit punishment for sins if offered to Jesus * Pidyon ...
, a saving from the states or circumstances that destroy the value of human existence. God, as the universal spirit and Creator of the World, is the source of all salvation for humanity, provided an individual honours God by observing his precepts. So redemption or salvation depends on the individual. Judaism stresses that salvation cannot be obtained through anyone else or by just invoking a deity or believing in any outside power or influence. Malekar, Ezekiel Isaac. 20 November 2004.
The Speaking Tree: Concept of Salvation In Judaism
" ''The Times of India''. Accessed: 4 May 2013
When examining Jewish intellectual sources throughout history, there is clearly a spectrum of opinions regarding death versus the
afterlife The afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the world to come) is an existence in which the essential part of an individual's identity or their stream of consciousness continues to live after the death of their physical body. Accordi ...
. Possibly an over-simplification, one source says salvation can be achieved in the following manner: Live a holy and righteous life dedicated to
Yahweh Yahweh was the national god of the kingdoms of Israel (Samaria) and Judah, with origins reaching at least to the early Iron Age and apparently to the Late Bronze Age. In the oldest biblical literature he is a storm-and-warrior deity who lea ...
, the God of Creation. Fast, worship, and celebrate during the appropriate holidays. By origin and nature, Judaism is an ethnic religion. Therefore, salvation has been primarily conceived in terms of the destiny of Israel as the elect people of Yahweh (often referred to as “the Lord”), the God of Israel. In the biblical text of
Psalms The Book of Psalms ( or ; he, תְּהִלִּים, , lit. "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms, the Psalter or "the Psalms", is the first book of the ''Ketuvim'' ("Writings"), the third section of the Tanakh, and a book of the Chr ...

Psalms
, there is a description of death, when people go into the earth or the "
realm of the dead The underworld is the supernatural world of the dead in various religious traditions and myths, located below the world of the living. Chthonic is the technical adjective for things of the underworld. The concept of an underworld is found in ...
" and cannot praise God. The first reference to resurrection is collective in
Ezekiel Ezekiel (; he, יְחֶזְקֵאל ''Yĕḥezqēʾl'' ; in the Septuagint written in grc-koi, Ἰεζεκιήλ ''Iezekiḗl'' ) is the central protagonist of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible. In Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, Ezekie ...

Ezekiel
's vision of the dry bones, when all the Israelites in exile will be resurrected. There is a reference to individual resurrection in the
Book of Daniel The Book of Daniel is a 2nd-century BCE biblical apocalypse with an ostensible 6th century BCE setting, combining a prophecy of history with an eschatology (a portrayal of end times) both cosmic in scope and political in focus. It gives "an acco ...
(165 BCE), the last book of the Hebrew Bible.Krell, Marc A. "Afterlife and Salvation". ''Religion Library: Judaism''

Accessed 4 May 2013
It was not until the 2nd century BCE that there arose a belief in an
afterlife The afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the world to come) is an existence in which the essential part of an individual's identity or their stream of consciousness continues to live after the death of their physical body. Accordi ...
, in which the dead would be resurrected and undergo divine judgment. Before that time, the individual had to be content that his posterity continued within the holy nation. The salvation of the individual Jew was connected to the salvation of the entire people. This belief stemmed directly from the teachings of the
Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses) of the Hebrew Bible. This is commonly known as the Written Tor ...
. In the Torah, God taught his people sanctification of the individual. However, he also expected them to function together (spiritually) and be accountable to one another. The concept of salvation was tied to that of restoration for Israel.


Christianity

Christianity's primary premise is that the Incarnation (Christianity), incarnation and death of
Jesus Christ Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, ''Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianit ...
formed the climax of a divine plan for humanity's salvation. This plan was conceived by God before the creation of the world, achieved at the cross, and it would be completed at the
Last Judgment The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Reckoning, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday or The Day of the Lord ( he, יום הדין, Yom ha-din, ar, یوم القيامة, Yawm al-qiyāmah, Day of Resurrection or ar, یوم الدین, italic=n ...
, when the
Second Coming of Christ of Second Coming, c. 1700 The Second Coming (sometimes called the Second Advent or the Parousia) is a Christian and Islamic belief regarding the return of Jesus after his ascension to heaven about two thousand years ago. The idea is based on mes ...
would mark the catastrophic end of the world.Stefon, Matt. 9992019.
Christianity
" ''
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., and other publishers ( ...
''. Accessed 25 July 2020.
For Christianity, salvation is only possible through Jesus Christ. Christians believe that Jesus' death on the cross was the once-for-all sacrifice that atoned for the sin of humanity. The Christian religion, though not the exclusive possessor of the idea of redemption, has given to it a special definiteness and a dominant position. Taken in its widest sense, as deliverance from dangers and ills in general, most religions teach some form of it. It assumes an important position, however, only when the ills in question form part of a great system against which human power is helpless. According to Christian belief, sin as the human predicament is considered to be universal. For example, in the
Apostle Paul Paul the Apostle,; el, Παῦλος, translit=Paulos; cop, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; he, פאולוס השליח; – AD commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Hebrew name Saul of Tarsus,; ar, بولس الطرسوسي; el, Σαῦ ...
declared everyone to be under sin—Jew and Gentile alike. Salvation is made possible by the life, death, and
resurrection of Jesus The resurrection of Jesus, or anastasis, is the Christian belief that God raised Jesus on the third day after his crucifixion, starting – or restoring – his exalted life as Christ and Lord. According to the New Testament writings he was firs ...
, which in the context of salvation is referred to as the "
atonement Atonement (also atoning, to atone) is the concept of a person taking action to correct previous wrongdoing on their part, either through direct action to undo the consequences of that act, equivalent action to do good for others, or some other exp ...
"."Christian Doctrines of Salvation". Religion facts. June 20, 2009. http://www.religionfacts.com/christianity/beliefs/salvation.htm Christian
soteriology Soteriology (; el, σωτηρία ' "salvation" from σωτήρ ' "savior, preserver" and λόγος ' "study" or "word") is the study of religious doctrines of salvation. Salvation theory occupies a place of special significance in many religions. ...
ranges from exclusive salvationNewman, Jay. 1982. ''Foundations of religious tolerance.'' Toronto: University of Toronto Press. to
universal reconciliation In Christian theology, universal reconciliation (also called universal salvation, Christian universalism, or in context simply universalism) is the doctrine that all sinful and alienated human souls—because of divine love and mercy—will ultimate ...
Parry, Robin A. 2004. ''Universal salvation? The Current Debate.'' William B. Eerdmans Publishing. concepts. While some of the differences are as widespread as Christianity itself, the overwhelming majority agrees that salvation is made possible by the work of Jesus Christ, the
Son of God Historically, many rulers have assumed titles such as son of God, son of a god or son of heaven. The term "son of God" is used in the Hebrew Bible as another way of referring to humans with special relationships with God. In Exodus, the nation ...
, dying on the cross. Variant views on salvation are among the main fault lines dividing the various
Christian denomination A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity that comprises all church congregations of the same kind, identifiable by traits such as a name, peculiar history, organization, leadership, theological doctrine, worship s ...
s, both between
Roman Catholicism The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international ...

Roman Catholicism
and
Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and ...
and within Protestantism, notably in the Calvinist–Arminian debate, and the fault lines include conflicting definitions of depravity,
predestination Predestination, in Christian theology, is the doctrine that all events have been willed by God, usually with reference to the eventual fate of the individual soul. Explanations of predestination often seek to address the "paradox of free will", w ...
,
atonement Atonement (also atoning, to atone) is the concept of a person taking action to correct previous wrongdoing on their part, either through direct action to undo the consequences of that act, equivalent action to do good for others, or some other exp ...
, but most pointedly justification. Salvation, according to most denominations, is believed to be a process that begins when a person first becomes a Christian, continues through that person's life, and is completed when they stand before Christ in judgment. Therefore, according to Catholic apologist James Akin, the faithful Christian can say in faith and hope, "I ''have been'' saved; I ''am being'' saved; and I ''will be'' saved." Christian salvation concepts are varied and complicated by certain theological concepts, traditional beliefs, and
dogmas Dogma in the broad sense is any belief held unquestioningly and with undefended certainty. It may be in the form of an official system of principles or doctrines of a religion, such as Roman Catholicism, Judaism, or Protestantism, as well as the ...
. Scripture is subject to individual and ecclesiastical interpretations. While some of the differences are as widespread as Christianity itself, the overwhelming majority agrees that salvation is made possible by the work of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, dying on the cross. The purpose of salvation is debated, but in general most
Christian theologians Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice. * help them better understand Christian tenets * make comparisons between Christianity and other traditions * defend Christianity against objections and criticism * facilitate ...
agree that God devised and implemented his plan of salvation because he loves them and regards human beings as his children. Since human existence on Earth is said to be "given to sin," salvation also has connotations that deal with the of human beings from sin, and the
suffering Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual. Suffering is the basic element that makes up the negative valence of affective ph ...
associated with the
punishment , England Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or suffering, unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority—in contexts ranging from child discipline to criminal law—as a response and deterrent to ...
of sin—i.e., "the
wages of sin ''Wages of Sin'' is the fourth studio album by the Swedish melodic death metal band Arch Enemy. It is the first Arch Enemy album to feature the vocals of Angela Gossow. It is also the first album they use Standard-C tuning, which they still use t ...
are
death (1906) Death is the permanent, Irreversible process, irreversible cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism. Brain death is sometimes used as a legal definition of death. The remains of a previously living organism ...
." Christians believe that salvation depends on the
grace Grace may refer to: Places United States * Grace, Idaho, a city * Grace (CTA station), Chicago Transit Authority's Howard Line, Illinois * Grace, Kentucky, an unincorporated community * Grace, Carroll County, Missouri, an unincorporated community ...
of God. Stagg writes that a fact assumed throughout the Bible is that humanity is in, "serious trouble from which we need deliverance…. The fact of sin as the human predicament is implied in the mission of Jesus, and it is explicitly affirmed in that connection." By its nature, salvation must answer to the plight of humankind as it actually is. Each individual's plight as sinner is the result of a fatal choice involving the whole person in bondage, guilt, estrangement, and death. Therefore, salvation must be concerned with the total person. "It must offer
redemption Redemption may refer to: Religion * Redemption (theology), an element of salvation to express deliverance from sin * Redemptive suffering, a Roman Catholic belief that suffering can partially remit punishment for sins if offered to Jesus * Pidyon ...
from bondage, forgiveness for guilt, reconciliation for estrangement, renewal for the marred image of God."


Mormonism

According to doctrine of the
Latter Day Saint movement The Latter Day Saint movement (also called the LDS movement, LDS restorationist movement, or Smith–Rigdon movement) is the collection of independent church groups that trace their origins to a Christian Restorationist movement founded by Jose ...
, the plan of salvation is a plan that
God God, in monotheistic thought, is conceived of as the supreme being, creator, and principal object of faith.Swinburne, R.G. "God" in Honderich, Ted. (ed)''The Oxford Companion to Philosophy'', Oxford University Press, 1995. God is usually conceiv ...

God
created to save, redeem, and exalt
humankind Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, language and tools. They are the only extant members ...
. The elements of this plan are drawn from various sources, including the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, ''tà biblía'', "the books") is a collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred to Christians, Jews, Samaritans, Rastafari and others. It appears in the form of an anthology, a compilati ...
,
Book of Mormon The Book of Mormon is a sacred text of the Latter Day Saint movement, which, according to Latter Day Saint theology, contains writings of ancient prophets who lived on the American continent from approximately 2200 BC to AD 421. It was first publ ...
, Doctrine & Covenants, Pearl of Great Price, and numerous statements made by the leadership of
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, often informally known as the LDS Church or Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that considers itself to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus ...
(LDS Church). The first appearance of the graphical representation of the plan of salvation is in the 1952 missionary manual entitled ''A Systematic Program for Teaching the Gospel.''


Islam

In Islam, salvation refers to the eventual entrance to
Paradise In religion, paradise is a place of exceptional happiness and delight. Paradisiacal notions are often laden with pastoral imagery, and may be cosmogonical or eschatological or both, often compared to the miseries of human civilization: in paradi ...

Paradise
. Islam teaches that people who die disbelieving in
God God, in monotheistic thought, is conceived of as the supreme being, creator, and principal object of faith.Swinburne, R.G. "God" in Honderich, Ted. (ed)''The Oxford Companion to Philosophy'', Oxford University Press, 1995. God is usually conceiv ...

God
do not receive salvation. It also teaches that non-Muslims who die believing in God but disbelieving in his message (Islam), are left to his will. Those who die believing in the one God and his message (Islam) receive salvation. Narrated Anas, that Muhammad said: Islam teaches that all who enter into Islam must remain so in order to receive salvation. For those who have not been granted Islam or to whom the message has not been brought:


Tawhid

Belief in the “One God”, also known as the ''
Tawhid Tawhid ( ar, توحيد, ', meaning "unification or oneness of God as per Islam (Arabic: الله Allāh)"; also romanized as ''Tawheed'', ''Touheed'', ''Tauheed'' or ''Tevhid'') is the indivisible oneness concept of monotheism in Islam. Tawhi ...
'' () in Arabic, consists of two parts (or principles): # ''Tawḥīdu r-Rubūbiyya'' (): Believing in the attributes of God and attributing them to no other but God. Such attributes include Creation, having no beginning, and having no end. These attributes are what make a God. Islam also teaches 99 names for God, and each of these names defines one attribute. One breaks this principle, for example, by believing in an Idol as an intercessor to God. The idol, in this case, is thought of having powers that only God should have, thereby breaking this part of Tawheed. No intercession is required to communicate with, or worship, God. # ''Tawḥīdu l-'ulūhiyya'' (): Directing worship, prayer, or deed to God, and God only. For example, worshiping an idol or any saint or prophet is also considered Shirk.


Sin and repentance

Islam also stresses that in order to gain salvation, one must also avoid sinning along with performing good deeds. Islam acknowledges the inclination of humanity towards sin. Therefore, Muslims are constantly commanded to seek God's forgiveness and repent. Islam teaches that no one can gain salvation simply by virtue of their belief or deeds, instead it is the Mercy of God, which merits them salvation. However, this repentance must not be used to sin any further. Islam teaches that God is Merciful. Islam describes a true believer to have
Love of God Love of God can mean either love for God or love by God. Love for God (''philotheia'') is associated with the concepts of worship, and devotions towards God. The Greek term ''theophilia'' means the love or favour of God, and ''theophilos'' means f ...
and
Fear of God Fear of God refers to fear or a specific sense of respect, awe, and submission to a deity. People subscribing to popular monotheistic religions might fear divine judgment, hell or God's omnipotence. Christianity In the New Testament, this fear is ...
. Islam also teaches that every person is responsible for their own sins. The Quran states; Al-Agharr al-Muzani, a companion of Mohammad, reported that Ibn 'Umar stated to him that Mohammad said, Sin in Islam is not a state, but an action (a bad deed); Islam teaches that a child is born sinless, regardless of the belief of his parents, dies a Muslim; he enters heaven, and does not enter hell.


Five Pillars

Islam is built on five principles, acts of worship that Islam teaches to be mandatory. Not performing the mandatory acts of worship may deprive Muslims of the chance of salvation. According to Ibn 'Umar, Muhammad said that Islam is based on the following five principles: # To
testify In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter. Etymology The words "testimony" and "testify" both derive from the Latin word ''testis'', referring to the notion of a disinterested third-party witness. Law ...
that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and Muhammad is Allah's Apostle. # To offer the compulsory prayers dutifully and perfectly. # To pay
Zakat Zakat ( ar, زكاة; , "that which purifies", also Zakat al-mal , "zakat on wealth", or Zakah) is a form of almsgiving to the Muslim Ummah treated in Islam as a religious obligation or tax, which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer ('' ...
to poor and needy (i.e. obligatory charity of 2.5% annually of surplus wealth). # To perform
Hajj The Hajj (; ar, حَجّ ' "pilgrimage"; sometimes also spelled Hadj, Hadji or Haj in English) is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest city for Muslims. Hajj is a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be c ...
. (i.e. Pilgrimage to Mecca) # To observe fast during the month of Ramadhan.


Indian religions

Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion and ''dharma'', or way of life. It is the world's third-largest religion, with over 1.25 billion followers, or 15–16% of the global population, known as Hindus. The word ''Hindu'' is an exonym, and wh ...
,
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on origi ...
,
Jainism Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion and the method of acquiring perfect knowledge of self and universe and perfect joy through extrasensory means as sensory means are inadequate to acquire them. The ...

Jainism
and
Sikhism Sikhism () or Sikhi ( pa, ਸਿੱਖੀ ', , from pa, ਸਿੱਖ, lit=disciple', 'seeker', or 'learner, translit=Sikh, label=none)''Sikhism'' (indigenously known as ''Sikhī'') originated from the word ''Sikh'', which comes from the Sanskrit ro ...
share certain key concepts, which are interpreted differently by different groups and individuals. In these religions one is not liberated from sin and its consequences, but from the ''
saṃsāra ''Saṃsāra'' is a Sanskrit/Pali word that means "world". It is also the concept of rebirth and "cyclicality of all life, matter, existence", a fundamental belief of most Indian religions. In short, it is the cycle of death and rebirth. ''Sa ...

saṃsāra
'' (cycle of rebirth) perpetuated by passions and delusions and its resulting
karma Karma (; sa, कर्म}, ; pi, kamma, italic=yes) means action, work, or deed. The term also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect, often descriptively called the principle of karma, wherein intent and actions of an individu ...
. They differ however on the exact nature of this liberation. Salvation is always self-attained in Dharmic traditions, and a more appropriate term would be ''
moksha ''Moksha'' (; sa, मोक्ष, '), also called ''vimoksha'', ''vimukti'' and ''mukti'', is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism for various forms of emancipation, enlightenment, liberation, and release. In its soteriological ...
'' ('liberation') or ''mukti'' ('release'). This state and the conditions considered necessary for its realization is described in early texts of Indian religion such as the
Upanishads The Upanishads (; sa, उपनिषद् ) are late Vedic Sanskrit texts of religious teachings which form the foundations of Hinduism.Wendy Doniger (1990), ''Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism'', 1st Edition, University of Chicago ...
and the
Pāli Canon The Pāli Canon is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pāli language. It is the most complete extant early Buddhist canon. It derives mainly from the Tamrashatiya school. During the Fi ...
, and later texts such the
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali Patañjali Statue (traditional form indicating kundalini or incarnation of Shesha)">Shesha.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="kundalini or incarnation of Shesha">kundalini or incarnation of Shesha) The ''Yoga S ...
and the
Vedanta Vedanta (; Sanskrit: वेदान्त, IAST: '; also Uttara Mīmāṃsā) is one of the six (''āstika'') schools of Hindu philosophy. Literally meaning "end of the Vedas", Vedanta reflects ideas that emerged from, or were aligned with, t ...
tradition. ''Moksha'' can be attained by ''
sādhanā Sādhanā (Sanskrit साधना; ; ) Sadhana is a generic term coming from the yogic tradition that refers to any spiritual exercise that is aimed at progressing the sādhaka towards the very ultimate expression of his or her life in this r ...
'', literally 'means of accomplishing something'. It includes a variety of disciplines, such as
yoga Yoga (; sa, योग; ) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India. Yoga is one of the six orthodox philosophical schools of Hinduism. There is a broad variety of yoga school ...
and
meditation Meditation is a practice where an individual uses a technique – such as mindfulness, or focusing the mind on a particular object, thought, or activity – to train attention and awareness, and achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm an ...
.
Nirvana ' ( , , ; sa, निर्वाण} ''nirvāṇa'' ; Pali: ''nibbāna''; Prakrit: ''ṇivvāṇa'', literally "blown out", as in an oil lampRichard Gombrich, ''Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benāres to Modern Colombo.'' ...
is the profound peace of mind that is acquired with ''moksha''. In
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on origi ...
and
Jainism Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion and the method of acquiring perfect knowledge of self and universe and perfect joy through extrasensory means as sensory means are inadequate to acquire them. The ...

Jainism
, it is the state of being free from
suffering Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual. Suffering is the basic element that makes up the negative valence of affective ph ...
. In
Hindu philosophy Hindu philosophy encompasses the philosophies, world views and teachings of Hinduism that emerged in Ancient India. These include six systems (''shad-darśana'') – Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta.Andrew Nicholson (2013) ...
, it is union with the
Brahman ''Brahman'' ( sa, ब्रह्मन् , hi, ब्रह्म) connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), ''Idealistic Thought of India'', Routledge, , page 426 and Conclusion chapt ...
(
Supreme Being God, in monotheistic thought, is conceived of as the supreme being, creator, and principal object of faith.Swinburne, R.G. "God" in Honderich, Ted. (ed)''The Oxford Companion to Philosophy'', Oxford University Press, 1995. God is usually conceiv ...
). The word literally means 'blown out' (as in a candle) and refers, in the Buddhist context, to the blowing out of the fires of desire, aversion, and delusion, and the imperturbable stillness of mind acquired thereafter.
Richard Gombrich Richard Francis Gombrich (; born 17 July 1937) is a British Indologist and scholar of Sanskrit, Pāli, and Buddhist studies. He was the Boden Professor of Sanskrit at the University of Oxford from 1976 to 2004. He is currently Founder-President o ...
, ''Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benāres to Modern Colombo.'' Routledge
In
Theravada Buddhism Theravāda (; Pāli, lit. "School of the Elders") is the most commonly accepted name of Buddhism's oldest existing school. The school's adherents, termed Theravādins, have preserved their version of Gautama Buddha's teaching or ''Buddha Dhamma' ...
the emphasis is on one's own liberation from samsara. The
Mahayana Mahāyāna (; "Great Vehicle") is a term for a broad group of Buddhist traditions, texts, philosophies, and practices. Mahāyāna is considered one of the two main existing branches of Buddhism (the other being Theravada). Mahāyāna Buddhism de ...
traditions emphasize the ''
bodhisattva In Buddhism, a bodhisattva ( ) is any person who is on the path towards Buddhahood. In the Early Buddhist schools as well as modern Theravada Buddhism, a bodhisattva (Pali: ''bodhisatta'') refers to anyone who has made a resolution to become a B ...
'' path, in which "each Buddha and Bodhisattva is a redeemer," assisting the Buddhist in seeking to achieve the redemptive state.Joseph Edkins, ''Chinese Buddhism'' (1893), p. 364. The assistance rendered is a form of self-sacrifice on the part of the teachers, who would presumably be able to achieve total detachment from worldly concerns, but have instead chosen to remain engaged in the material world to the degree that this is necessary to assist others in achieving such detachment.


Jainism

In
Jainism Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion and the method of acquiring perfect knowledge of self and universe and perfect joy through extrasensory means as sensory means are inadequate to acquire them. The ...

Jainism
, ''salvation'', ''moksha'', and ''nirvana'' are one and the same.: ''"Moksa and Nirvana are synonymous in Jainism".'' p.168Michael Carrithers, Caroline Humphrey (1991) ''The Assembly of listeners: Jains in society'' Cambridge University Press. : ''"Nirvana: A synonym for liberation, release, moksa."'' p.297 When a soul ( ''atman'') achieves ''moksha'', it is released from the cycle of births and deaths, and achieves its pure self. It then becomes a ''
siddha ''Siddha'' (Sanskrit: '; "perfected one") is a term that is used widely in Indian religions and culture. It means "one who is accomplished". It refers to perfected masters who have achieved a high degree of physical as well as spiritual pe ...
'' ('one who has accomplished his ultimate objective'). Attaining Moksha requires annihilation of all ''
karmas Karma (; sa, कर्म}, ; pi, kamma, italic=yes) means action, work, or deed. The term also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect, often descriptively called the principle of karma, wherein intent and actions of an individu ...
'', good and bad, because if karma is left, it must bear fruit.


See also

*
Antinomianism Antinomianism (Ancient Greek: ἀντί, "against" and νόμος, "law") is any view which rejects laws or legalism and argues against moral, religious or social norms (Latin: mores), or is at least considered to do so. The term has both religious ...
*
Assurance (theology)Assurance of salvation is a Protestant Christian doctrine that states that the inner witness of the Holy Spirit allows the Christian disciple to know that they are justified. Based on the writings of St. Augustine of Hippo, ''assurance'' was histori ...
*
Baptism Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christian rite of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity. It may be performed by sprinkling or pouring water on the head, or by imme ...

Baptism
*
Born again Born again, or to experience the new birth, is a phrase, particularly in evangelicalism, that refers to "spiritual rebirth", or a regeneration of the human spirit from the Holy Spirit, contrasted with physical birth. In contemporary Christian u ...
* Collective salvation *
Divine filiation Divine filiation is the Christian doctrine that Jesus Christ is the only-begotten Son of God by nature, and when Christians are redeemed by Jesus they become sons (and daughters) of God by adoption. This doctrine is held by most Christians, but the ...
*
Divine Mercy Sunday Divine Mercy Sunday (also known as the Feast of the Divine Mercy) is celebrated on the Second Sunday of Easter, which concludes the Octave of Easter. The feast day is observed by Roman Catholics as well as some Anglo-Catholics of the Church of Eng ...
*
Easter Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the ''Book of Common Prayer''; "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher''The Whole Works of the Most Rev. James Ussher, Volume 4'' and Samuel Pepys''The Diary of Samuel Pe ...
*
Enlightenment (spiritual) Enlightenment is the "full comprehension of a situation". The term is commonly used to denote the Age of Enlightenment, but is also used in Western cultures in a religious context. It translates several Buddhist terms and concepts, most notably '' ...
*
Gnosis Gnosis is the common Greek noun for knowledge (γνῶσις, ''gnōsis'', f.). The term is used in various Hellenistic religions and philosophies. It is best known from Gnosticism, where it signifies a knowledge or insight into humanity's real n ...
*
Good Friday Good Friday is a Christian holiday commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus and his death at Calvary. It is observed during Holy Week as part of the Paschal Triduum. It is also known as Holy Friday, Great Friday, Great and Holy Friday (also Holy a ...
*
Heaven Heaven or the heavens, is a common religious cosmological or transcendent supernatural place where beings such as gods, angels, spirits, saints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned, or reside. According to the beliefs of ...
*
Henosis Henosis ( grc, ἕνωσις) is the classical Greek word for mystical "oneness", "union" or "unity". In Platonism, and especially Neoplatonism, the goal of henosis is union with what is fundamental in reality: the One (Τὸ Ἕν), the Source, ...
*
Legalism (theology) In Christian theology, ''legalism'' (or nomism) is a pejorative term referring to putting law above gospel. The ''Encyclopedia of Christianity in the United States'' defines ''legalism'' as a pejorative descriptor for "the direct or indirect attachm ...
*
Penance Penance is repentance of sins as well as an alternate name for the Catholic, Lutheran, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox sacrament of Reconciliation or Confession. It also plays a part in confession among Anglicans and Methodists, in which ...
*
Perseverance of the saints Perseverance of the saints is a Christian teaching that asserts that once a person is truly "born of God" or "regenerated" by the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, they will continue doing good works and believing in God until the end of their life. ...
*
Prevenient grace Prevenient grace (or enabling grace) is a Christian theological concept rooted in Arminian theology, though it appeared earlier in Catholic theologies. It is divine grace that precedes human decision. In other words, God will start showing love to ...
*
Repentance Repentance is the activity of reviewing one's actions and feeling contrition or regret for past wrongs, which is accompanied by commitment to and actual actions that show and prove a change for the better. In Islam it is often defined as an action, ...
*
Regeneration (theology)Regeneration, while sometimes perceived to be a step in the ''Ordo salutis'' ('order of salvation'), is generally understood in Christian theology to be the objective work of God in a believer's life. Spiritually, it means that God brings Man to new ...
*
Sanctification Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means "to set apart for special use or purpose", that is, to make holy or sacred (compare la, sanctus). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i.e. "made ...
*
Soteriology Soteriology (; el, σωτηρία ' "salvation" from σωτήρ ' "savior, preserver" and λόγος ' "study" or "word") is the study of religious doctrines of salvation. Salvation theory occupies a place of special significance in many religions. ...
*
Steps to Christ ''Steps to Christ'' is a book written by Ellen G. White, pioneer and prophetess of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. It was first published in 1892 by Fleming H. Revell Company. The copyright was purchased by Seventh-day Adventist publisher Review ...
*
Total depravity Total depravity (also called radical corruption or pervasive depravity) is a Christian theological doctrine derived from the concept of original sin. It teaches that, as a consequence of man's fall, every person born into the world is enslaved ...


References


Sources

* * * Presentation
* * * * *


External links

* A. J. Wallace and R. D. Rusk,
"Moral Transformation: the Original Christian Paradigm of Salvation"
' A recent defence of the moral transformation perspective. * , a sermon by
John Wesley John Wesley (; 2 March 1791) was an English cleric, theologian, and evangelist, who was a leader of a revival movement within the Church of England known as Methodism. The societies he founded became the dominant form of the independent Method ...
(Methodist / Wesleyan perspective) *
"God's Plan of Salvation"
(conservative
Evangelical Evangelicalism (), evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide trans-denominational movement within Protestant Christianity that maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvati ...
perspective)
Salvation in Islam


by Samuele Bacchiocchi, Ph. D., Andrews University
''Redemption after Death''
by Charles Augustus Briggs: An article in the December 1889 Issue of The Magazine of Christian Literature Vol 1. No. 3. *

{{Authority control
Religious terminology A word or phrase used exclusively or primarily to describe a religious concept. If a more specific sub-category exists for the specific religion, please add it there and not here. {{Commons category, Religious terminology Terminology Termi ...