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Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, is a
non-departmental public body In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer t ...
in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
sponsored by the
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the government department Ministry or department, also less commonly used secretariat, office, or directorate are designations used by a first-level Executive (government), ...
. An internationally important
botanical Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A ...

botanical
research and education institution, it employs 1,100 staff. Its board of trustees is chaired by
Dame Amelia Fawcett Dame Amelia Chilcott Fawcett (born 16 September 1956) is a American-British business executive who is currently Chairman of Kinnevik AB in Stockholm and the Lead Director of State Street Corporation in Boston, Massachusetts. Fawcett is the Chairm ...
. The organisation manages
botanic gardens at Kew
botanic gardens at Kew
in
Richmond upon Thames The London Borough of Richmond upon Thames () in southwest London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the ...
in southwest London, and at
Wakehurst
Wakehurst
, a
National Trust The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, commonly known as the National Trust, is a charity and membership organisation for heritage conservation in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, cou ...
property in
Sussex Sussex (), from the Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, e ...

Sussex
which is home to the internationally important
Millennium Seed Bank '' seeds Image:Ravenala madagascariensis2.jpg, ''Ravenala madagascariensis'' seeds The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership (MSBP or MSB), formerly known as the Millennium Seed Bank Project, is the largest ''ex situ'' plant conservation biology, cons ...
, whose scientists work with partner organisations in more than 95 countries. Kew, jointly with the
Forestry Commission The Forestry Commission is a non-ministerial government department Non-ministerial government departments (NMGDs) are a type of Departments of the Government of the United Kingdom, department of the Government of the United Kingdom that deal ...
, founded
Bedgebury National Pinetum Bedgebury National Pinetum at Bedgebury, Kent Kent is a Counties of England, county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north-west, Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west. The cou ...
in
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
in 1923, specialising in growing
conifers Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants The spermatophytes (; ), also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesi ...

conifers
. In 1994 the Castle Howard Arboretum Trust, which runs the Yorkshire Arboretum, was formed as a partnership between Kew and the
Castle Howard Castle Howard is a stately home in North Yorkshire, England, within the civil parish of Henderskelfe, located north of York. It is a private residence and has been the home of the Earl of Carlisle, Carlisle branch of the House of Howard, Howard ...

Castle Howard
Estate. In 2019, the organisation had 2,316,699 public visitors at Kew, and 312,813 at Wakehurst. Its site at Kew has 40 historically important buildings; it became a
UNESCO World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNES ...
in 2003. The collections at Kew and Wakehurst include over 27,000 taxa of living plants, 8.3 million plant and fungal herbarium specimens, and over 40,000 species in the seed bank.


Mission

The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew states that its mission is to apply scientific discovery and research to fully develop the information about and potential uses of plants and fungi.


Governance

Kew is governed by a
board of trustees A board of directors is a group of people who jointly supervise the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit or a nonprofit organization such as a business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency. The powers, du ...
which comprises a chairman and eleven members. Ten members and the chairman are appointed by the
Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs A secretary, administrative professional, or personal assistant A personal assistant, also referred to as personal aide (PA) or personal secretary (PS), is a job title describing a person who assists a specific person with their daily busin ...
.
Her Majesty the Queen The precise Style (manner of address), style of Monarchy of the United Kingdom, British sovereigns has varied over the years. style is officially proclaimed in two languages:UK ParliamentRoyal Titles Act 1953(1 & 2 Eliz. 2 c. 9) Proclamation of 28 ...

Her Majesty the Queen
appoints her own trustee on the recommendation of the Secretary of State. the Board members are: *Dame
Amelia Fawcett Dame Amelia Chilcott Fawcett (born 16 September 1956) is a American-British business executive who is currently Chairman of Kinnevik AB in Stockholm and the Lead Director of State Street Corporation in Boston, Massachusetts. Fawcett is the Chair ...
(Chair) *
Nick Baird Nick Baird Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George, CMG Commander of the Royal Victorian Order, CVO (born 1962) is group corporate affairs director of energy firm, Centrica. Before that he was Chief Executive Officer of UK Trade & Inve ...
* Judith Batchelar *Professor
Liam Dolan Liam Dolan One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org website where: is the Sherardian Professor of Botany in the Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Department of Plant Sciences at the Univ ...
*Catherine Dugmore *Sarah Flannigan * Professor Christopher Gilligan * Professor Ian Graham *
Krishnan Guru-Murthy Krishnan Guru-Murthy (born 5 April 1970) is an English journalist. He presents the ''Channel 4 News'' and the foreign-affairs documentary series ''Unreported World''. Early life and career Guru-Murthy's father, an Indian consultant radiolog ...
* Professor
Sue Hartley Susan Elaine Hartley is a British ecologist Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment ...
* Sir
Paul Nurse Sir Paul Maxime Nurse (born 25 January 1949), is an English geneticist A geneticist is a biologist who studies genetics, the science of genes, heredity, and variation of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ...
* David Richardson *Jantiene Klein Roseboom van der Veer


Kew Science


Scientific staff

There are approximately 350 researchers working at Kew. The Director of Science is Alexandre Antonelli. Monique Simmonds is Deputy Director of Science. Mark Chase is Senior Research Professor. Phil Stevenson is the Senior Research Leader and Head of the Biological Chemistry and In Vitro Research. The group has four Research Leaders— Melanie Howes, Vis Sarasan, Moses Langat and Tom Prescott. Kew Science staff include those of the Kew Madagascar Conservation Centre.


Databases

The scientific staff at Kew maintain a variety of plant and fungal data and digital resources, including;


Plants of the World Online

Plants of the World Online is an online database launched in March 2017 as one of nine strategic outputs with the ultimate aim being "to enable users to access information on all the world's known seed-bearing plants by 2020". It links taxonomic data with images from the collection, to provide a single point of access with information on identification, distribution, traits, conservation, molecular phylogenies and uses. In addition it serves as a backbone for global resources such as World Flora Online.


International Plant Names Index

The International Plant Names Index (IPNI) includes information from the ''
Index Kewensis The 1893 ''Index Kewensis'' (IK), maintained by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, is a non-departmental public body In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly kno ...
'', a project which began in the 19th century to provide an "Index to the Names and Authorities of all known flowering plants and their countries". The
Harvard University Herbaria The Harvard University Herbaria and Botanical Museum are institutions located on the grounds of Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in ...
and the
Australian National Herbarium The Australian National Botanic Gardens (ANBG) is a heritage-listed botanical garden located in , Canberra, in the Australian Capital Territory, Australia. Established in 1949, the Gardens is administered by the Australian Government's Department ...
co-operate with Kew in the IPNI database, which was launched in its present form in 1999 to produce an authoritative source of information on
botanical nomenclature Botanical nomenclature is the formal, scientific naming of plants. It is related to, but distinct from taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such ...
including publication details of seed plants,
ferns A fern (Polypodiopsida or Polypodiophyta ) is a member of a group of vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia ar ...

ferns
and
lycophytes The lycophytes, when broadly Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribed, are a vascular plant (tracheophyte) subgroup of the kingdom Plantae. They are sometimes placed in a division Lycopodiophyta or Lycophyta or in a subdivision Lycopodiophytina. ...
. It is a nomenclatural listing of all published taxonomic plant names including new species, new combinations and new names at rank of Family down to infraspecific. It provides data for other related projects including
Tropicos Tropicos is an online Botany, botanical database containing taxonomic information on plants, mainly from the Neotropical realm (Central America, Central, and South America). It is maintained by the Missouri Botanical Garden and was established ov ...
and
GBIF The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) is an international organisation that focuses on making scientific data on biodiversity available via the Internet using web services. The data are provided by many institutions from around the ...
.


Neotropikey

Information and key to
flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...

flowering plant
s of the
Neotropics The Neotropical realm is one of the eight biogeographic realm A biogeographic realm or ecozone is the broadest biogeographic Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species In biology, a species is the basic unit of bio ...
(tropical South and Central America).


World Checklist of Selected Plant Families

The World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP) is a register of accepted scientific names and synonyms of 200 selected seed plant families. WCSP is widely used and most authoritative web resources on plants use it as their basis.


World Checklist of Vascular Plants

The World Checklist of Vascular Plants (WCVP) includes all known
vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ''phutá'' 'plants'), form a large group of plants ( 300,000 ...
species (
flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...

flowering plant
s,
conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The division contains a single e ...
s,
fern A fern (Polypodiopsida or Polypodiophyta ) is a member of a group of vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia art ...

fern
s,
clubmosses Lycopodiopsida is a class of herbaceous vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ' ...
and firmosses). It is derived from the WCSP and the IPNI and therefore only includes names found in those databases. It is the taxonomic database for Plants of the World Online. Since WCSP includes only selected families, WCVP will seek to complete the process.


World Checklist of Useful Plant Species

A checklist of 40,292 species, including nine non-plant taxa (e.g.
nostoc ''Nostoc'', also known as star jelly Star jelly (also called astromyxin, astral jelly) is a gelatinous substance sometimes found on grass or even on branches of trees. According to folklore, it is deposited on the Earth during meteor showers. St ...

nostoc
, forkweed,
brown algae The brown algae (singular: alga), comprising the class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or objects * Cl ...
), compiled from multiple pre-existing datasets.


Collaborative projects


The Plant List

Kew also cooperated with the
Missouri Botanical Garden The Missouri Botanical Garden is a botanical garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is genera ...

Missouri Botanical Garden
and other international bodies in
The Plant List The Plant List is a list of botanical name A botanical name is a formal scientific name In taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such clas ...
(TPL). Unlike the IPNI, it provides information on which names are currently accepted. The Plant List is an
Internet encyclopedia project An encyclopedia (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United ...
which was launched in 2010 to compile a comprehensive list of
botanical nomenclature Botanical nomenclature is the formal, scientific naming of plants. It is related to, but distinct from taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such ...
. The Plant List has 1,064,035 scientific plant names of species rank of which 350,699 are accepted species names. In addition, the list has 642 plant families and 17,020 plant genera. It was last updated in 2013, and was superseded by World Flora Online.


World Flora Online

World Flora Online was developed as a successor to The Plant List, in 2012, aiming to include all known plants by 2020.


See also

* Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew's two main sites: **
Kew Gardens Kew Gardens is a botanical garden, botanic garden in southwest London that houses the "largest and most diverse botany, botanical and mycology, mycological collections in the world". Founded in 1840, from the exotic garden at Kew Park, its li ...

Kew Gardens
**
Wakehurst
Wakehurst
* Botanists active at Kew Gardens *''
Curtis's Botanical Magazine ''The Botanical Magazine; or Flower-Garden Displayed'', is an illustrated publication which began in 1787. The longest running botanical magazine, it is widely referred to by the subsequent name ''Curtis's Botanical Magazine''. Each of the issues ...
'', an illustrated publication which began in 1787 and is published by
Wiley-Blackwell Wiley-Blackwell is an international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons John Wiley & Sons, Inc., commonly known as Wiley (), is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multina ...
for the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew * Directors of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew *
GrassBase GrassBase (or GrassBase – The Online World Grass Flora) is a World Wide Web, web-based database of grasses, continually maintained and updated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. As of 2015, GrassBase was one of the largest (along with GrassWorld ...
* ''
Index Kewensis The 1893 ''Index Kewensis'' (IK), maintained by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, is a non-departmental public body In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly kno ...
'', a massive index of plant names started and maintained by Kew Gardens *
Joseph Dalton Hooker Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911) was a United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, British botanist and explorer in the 19th century. He was a founder of geographical botany and Charles Darwin's closest friend ...

Joseph Dalton Hooker
, who succeeded his father,
William Jackson Hooker Sir William Jackson Hooker (6 July 178512 August 1865) was an English botany, botanist and botanical illustrator, who became the first director of Kew Gardens, Kew when in 1831 it was recommended to be placed under state ownership as a botan ...
, as director in 1865 * ''
Kew Bulletin The ''Kew Bulletin'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal on plant and fungal Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy and conservation published by Springer Science+Business Media on behalf of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Articles on palynology, ...
'', a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by
Springer Science+Business Media Springer Science+Business Media, commonly known as Springer, is a German multinational publishing company of books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing. Originally founded in 1842 i ...
on behalf of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew * The Great Plant Hunt, a primary school science initiative created by Kew Gardens, commissioned and funded by the
Wellcome Trust The Wellcome Trust is a charitable foundation focused on health research based in London, in the United Kingdom. It was established in 1936 with legacies from the pharmaceutical magnate Henry Wellcome Sir Henry Solomon Wellcome (August 21, 185 ...
* Kew Gardens (Leases) Act 2019, an Act of Parliament relating the Gardens


References


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links

*
''A Year at Kew'' – BBC documentary behind the scenes at Kew Gardens
{{authority control 1759 establishments in England Botanical research institutes Charities based in London Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Exempt charities Kew, London Non-departmental public bodies of the United Kingdom government Organisations based in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames