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The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within
Western Christianity in Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Città del Vaticano; la, Status Civitatis Vaticanae),—' * german: Vatikanstadt, cf. '—' (in Austria: ') * pl, Miasto Watykańskie, cf. '—' * pt ...
in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history ...

Catholic Church
and in particular to
papal authority Papal supremacy is the doctrine of the Catholic Church that the Pope, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ, the visible source and foundation of the unity both of the bishops and of the whole company of the faithful, and as pastor of the en ...
, arising from what were perceived to be errors, abuses, and discrepancies by the Catholic Church. The Reformation was the start of
Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholic Church, errors in the Catholic Church. Protestants originating in the Ref ...
and the split of the Western Church into Protestantism and what is now the Roman Catholic Church. It is also considered to be one of the events that signify the end of the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of w ...
and the beginning of the
early modern period The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, adve ...
in Europe.Davies ''Europe'' pp. 291–293 Prior to
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a Germans, German professor of Christian theology, theology, priest, author, composer, former Order of Saint Augustine, Augustinian monk, and is best known as a seminal f ...

Martin Luther
, there were many earlier reform movements. Although the Reformation is usually considered to have started with the publication of the ''
Ninety-five Theses The ''Ninety-five Theses'' or ''Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences''-The title comes from the 1569 Basel pamphlet printing. The first printings of the ''Theses'' use an incipit The incipit () of a text is the first few word ...
'' by Martin Luther in 1517, he was not
excommunicated Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure A censure is an expression of strong disapproval or harsh criticism. In parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is the accepted rules Rule or ruling may refer to: Hum ...
until January 1521 by
Pope Leo X Pope Leo X (born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, 11 December 14751 December 1521) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world' ...

Pope Leo X
. The
Edict of Worms The Diet of Worms of 1521 (german: Reichstag zu Worms ) was an Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), imperial diet (a formal deliberative assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire called by Emperor Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V and conducted in ...
of May 1521 condemned Luther and officially banned citizens of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Age ...
from defending or propagating his ideas.Fahlbusch, Erwin, and Bromiley, Geoffrey William (2003). ''The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3''. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans. p. 362. The spread of
Gutenberg's
Gutenberg's
printing press A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an ink Ink is a gel, sol, or solution Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, Making a saline water solution by dissolving Salt, table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) in water ...
provided the means for the rapid dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular. Luther survived after being declared an outlaw due to the protection of Elector
Frederick the Wise Frederick III (17 January 1463 – 5 May 1525), also known as Frederick the Wise ( German ''Friedrich der Weise''), was Elector of Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; hsb, Sakska), officially the Free State of Saxony (German: , Upper Sorbian ...
. The initial movement in Germany diversified, and other reformers such as
Huldrych Zwingli Huldrych Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli (1 January 1484 – 11 October 1531) was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland Map of the Swiss Confederacy by Sebastian Münster () The Protestant Reformation in Switzerland was promoted initi ...

Huldrych Zwingli
and
John Calvin John Calvin (; Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family The Indo-European languages are a language fami ...

John Calvin
arose. Key events of the period include:
Diet of Worms The Diet of Worms of 1521 (german: Reichstag zu Worms ) was an imperial diet (a formal deliberative assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic ...

Diet of Worms
(1521), formation of the
Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life ...
Duchy of Prussia The Duchy of Prussia (german: Herzogtum Preußen, pl, Księstwo Pruskie) or Ducal Prussia (german: Herzogliches Preußen, link=no; pl, Prusy Książęce, link=no) was a duchy A duchy is a medieval In the history of Europe The histor ...

Duchy of Prussia
(1525),
English Reformation The English Reformation took place in 16th-century England The Tudor period occurred between 1485 and 1603 in History of England, England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603. The Tudor pe ...
(1529 onwards), the
Council of Trent The Council of Trent ( la, Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in (or Trento, in northern ), was the 19th of the . Prompted by the , it has been described as the embodiment of the ."Trent, Council of" in Cross, F. L. (ed.) ''Th ...

Council of Trent
(1545–63), the
Peace of Augsburg The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman E ...
(1555), the
excommunication of Elizabeth I "Regnans in Excelsis" ("Reigning on High") is a papal bull that Pope Pius V Pope Pius V (17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572), born Antonio Ghislieri (from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri, O.P.), was head of the Catholic Church The Catho ...
(1570),
Edict of Nantes The Edict of Nantes () was signed in April 1598 by King Henry IV and granted the Calvinist Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protesta ...
(1598) and
Peace of Westphalia The Peace of Westphalia (german: Westfälischer Friede, ) is the collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück Osnabrück (; wep, Ossenbrügge; archaic ''Osnaburg'') is a city in the ...
(1648). The ''Counter-Reformation'', also called the ''Catholic Reformation'' or the ''Catholic Revival'', was the period of Catholic reforms initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation. The end of the Reformation era is disputed.


Overview

Movements had been made towards a Reformation prior to Martin Luther, so some Protestants, such as
Landmark Baptists A landmark is a recognizable natural or artificial feature used for navigation, a feature that stands out from its near environment and is often visible from long distances. In modern use, the term can also be applied to smaller structures or fea ...
, in the tradition of the
Radical Reformation The Radical Reformation represented a response to corruption both in the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian c ...
prefer to credit the start of the Reformation to reformers such as
Arnold of Brescia Arnold of Brescia ( 1090 – June 1155), also known as Arnaldus ( it, Arnaldo da Brescia), was an Italian canon regular from Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population_note = ...
,
Peter Waldo Peter Waldo (), Valdo, Valdes, or Waldes (c. 1140 – c. 1205), also Pierre Vaudès or de Vaux, was the leader of the Waldensians, a Christian spiritual movement of the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval ...
,
John Wycliffe John Wycliffe (; also spelled Wyclif, Wickliffe, and other variants; 1320s – 31 December 1384) was an English scholastic philosopher Scholasticism was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itse ...

John Wycliffe
,
Jan Hus Jan Hus (; ; – 6 July 1415), sometimes Anglicization, anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, and referred to in historical texts as ''Iohannes Hus'' or ''Johannes Huss'', was a Czechs, Czech Theology, theologian and philosopher who became a Chu ...

Jan Hus
, Petr Chelčický, and
Girolamo Savonarola Girolamo Savonarola (, , ; 21 September 1452 – 23 May 1498) or Jerome Savonarola was an Italian Dominican Order, Dominican friar from Ferrara and preacher active in Renaissance Florence. He was known for his prophecies of civic glory, the des ...

Girolamo Savonarola
. Due to the reform efforts of Hus and other Bohemian reformers,
Utraquist Utraquism (from the ''sub utraque specie'', meaning "under both kinds") or Calixtinism (from ; : ''calix'', mug, borrowed from Greek ''kalyx'', shell, husk; : kališníci) was a belief amongst , a reformist movement, that (both bread and wine, ...
Hussitism upright=1.2, The Lands of the Bohemian Crown during the Hussite Wars. The movement began in Prague">Hussite_Wars.html" ;"title="Lands of the Bohemian Crown during the Hussite Wars">Lands of the Bohemian Crown during the Hussite Wars. The movemen ...

Hussitism
was acknowledged by the
Council of Basel The Council of Florence is the seventeenth ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest C ...
and was officially tolerated in the
Crown of Bohemia The Lands of the Bohemian Crown were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are sometimes also considered parts of Western Europe, Sou ...
, although other movements were still subject to persecution, including the
Lollards Lollardy, also known as Lollardism or the Lollard movement, was a Proto-Protestantism, Proto-Protestant Christianity, Christian religious movement that existed from the mid-14th century until the 16th-century English Reformation. It was initially ...
in England and the
Waldensians The Waldensians (also known as Waldenses (), Vallenses, Valdesi or Vaudois) are adherents of a proto-Protestant Proto-Protestantism, also called pre-Protestantism or pre-Reformation movements, refers to individuals and movements that propagat ...
in France and Italian regions. Luther began by criticising the sale of
indulgences Apostolic Benediction and Plenary Indulgence Parchment In the teaching of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christi ...
, insisting that the Pope had no authority over
purgatory Purgatory (, via Anglo-Norman language, Anglo-Norman and Old French) is, according to the belief of some Christianity, Christians (mostly Catholics), an intermediate state after physical death for expiatory purification. There is disagreement amo ...

purgatory
and that the
Treasury of MeritThe treasury of merit or treasury of the Church (''thesaurus ecclesiae''; el, θησαυρός, ''thesaurós'', treasure; el, ἐκκλησία, ''ekklēsía''‚ convening, congregation, parish) consists, according to Catholic The Catholi ...
had no foundation in the Bible. The Reformation developed further to include a distinction between
Law and Gospel In Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus ...
, a complete reliance on Scripture as the only source of proper doctrine (''
sola scriptura , meaning by scripture alone, is a Christian theological doctrine held by some Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants orig ...
'') and the belief that
faith Faith, derived from ''fides'' and ''feid'', is confidence or trust in a , thing, or In the context of , one can define faith as " in or in the doctrines or teachings of religion". Religious people often think of faith as confidence based on ...
in
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label= Hebrew/ Aramaic ( AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, ...
is the only way to receive God's pardon for sin (''
sola fide ''Justificatio sola fide'' (or simply ''sola fide''), meaning justification by faith alone, is a Christian theological doctrine commonly held to distinguish the Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism Protest ...
'') rather than good works. Although this is generally considered a Protestant belief, a similar formulation was taught by
Molinist Molinism, named after 16th-century Spanish Jesuit theologian Luis de Molina, is a view about the Divine Providence, providence of God in light of human free will. Prominent contemporary Molinists are William Lane Craig, Alfred Freddoso, Thomas F ...
and
Jansenist Jansenism was a theological movement within Catholicism, primarily active in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of met ...
Catholics. The
priesthood of all believers The universal priesthood or the priesthood of all believers is a principle in some branches of Christianity which abrogates the doctrine of holy orders found in some other branches, including the Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: ...
downplayed the need for saints or priests to serve as mediators, and mandatory
clerical celibacy Clerical celibacy is the requirement in certain religion Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitute ...
was ended. '' Simul justus et peccator'' implied that although people could improve, no one could become good enough to earn forgiveness from God. Sacramental theology was simplified and attempts at imposing Aristotelian epistemology were resisted. Luther and his followers did not see these theological developments as changes. The 1530 ''
Augsburg Confession The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustan Confession or the Augustana from its Latin name, ''Confessio Augustana'', is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Protestant Reform ...
'' concluded that "in doctrine and ceremonies nothing has been received on our part against Scripture or the Church Catholic", and even after the ''Council of Trent'',
Martin Chemnitz Martin Chemnitz (9 November 1522 – 8 April 1586) was an eminent second-generation German, Evangelical Lutheran, Christian theologian Christian theology is the theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the Divinity, di ...

Martin Chemnitz
published the 1565–73 ''
Examination of the Council of Trent ''Examination of the Council of Trent'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through ...
'' as an attempt to prove that Trent innovated on doctrine while the Lutherans were following in the footsteps of the Church Fathers and Apostles. The initial movement in Germany diversified, and other reformers arose independently of Luther such as
Zwingli Huldrych Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli (1 January 1484 – 11 October 1531) was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland, born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenaries, Swiss mercenary syst ...
in
Zürich Zürich () is the in and the capital of the . It is located in north-central Switzerland, at the northwestern tip of . As of January 2020, the municipality has 434,335 inhabitants, the urban area (agglomeration) 1.315 million (2009), and the 1. ...

Zürich
and John Calvin in Geneva. Depending on the country, the Reformation had varying causes and different backgrounds and also unfolded differently than in Germany. The spread of
Gutenberg's
Gutenberg's
printing press A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an ink Ink is a gel, sol, or solution Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, Making a saline water solution by dissolving Salt, table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) in water ...
provided the means for the rapid dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular. During Reformation-era
confessionalization In Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity File:Petersdom von Engelsburg gesehen.jpg, 250px, St. Peter's Basilica i ...
, Western Christianity adopted different confessions (
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...

Catholic
,
Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life ...
,
Reformed Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformat ...
,
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; t ...

Anglican
,
Anabaptist Anabaptism (from New Latin language, Neo-Latin , from the Greek language, Greek : "re-" and "baptism", german: Täufer, earlier also )Since the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term (translation: "Re-ba ...
,
Unitarian Unitarian or Unitarianism may refer to: Christian and Christian-derived theologies A Unitarian is a follower of, or a member of an organisation that follows, any of several theologies referred to as Unitarianism: * Unitarianism (1565–present), ...
, etc.). Radical Reformers, besides forming communities outside state sanction, sometimes employed more extreme doctrinal change, such as the rejection of the tenets of the councils of
Nicaea Nicaea or Nicea (; el, wikt:Νίκαια, Νίκαια, ''Níkaia'') was an ancient Greek city in northwestern Anatolia and is primarily known as the site of the First Council of Nicaea, First and Second Council of Nicaea, Second Councils of Nic ...
and
Chalcedon Chalcedon ( or ; , sometimes transliterated as ''Chalkedon'') was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula ...
with the Unitarians of
Transylvania Transylvania is a historical region in central Romania. To the east and south its natural border is the Carpathian Mountains, and to the west the Apuseni Mountains. Broader definitions of Transylvania also encompass the western and north-western R ...

Transylvania
.
Anabaptist Anabaptism (from New Latin language, Neo-Latin , from the Greek language, Greek : "re-" and "baptism", german: Täufer, earlier also )Since the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term (translation: "Re-ba ...
movements were especially persecuted following the
German Peasants' War The German Peasants' War, Great Peasants' War or Great Peasants' Revolt (german: Deutscher Bauernkrieg) was a widespread popular revolt in some German-speaking areas in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central ...
. Leaders within the Roman Catholic Church responded with the
Counter-Reformation The Counter-Reformation (), also called the Catholic Reformation () or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic Church, Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revol ...
, initiated by the '' Confutatio Augustana'' in 1530, the ''
Council of Trent The Council of Trent ( la, Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in (or Trento, in northern ), was the 19th of the . Prompted by the , it has been described as the embodiment of the ."Trent, Council of" in Cross, F. L. (ed.) ''Th ...

Council of Trent
'' in 1545, the
Jesuits The Society of Jesus ( la, Societas Iesu; abbreviated SJ), also known as the Jesuits (; la, Iesuitæ), is a religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church headquartered in Rome. It was founded by Ignatius of Loyola and six co ...
in 1540, the Defensio Tridentinæ fidei in 1578, and also a series of wars and expulsions of Protestants that continued until the 19th century. Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, came under the influence of Protestantism. Southern Europe remained predominantly Catholic apart from the much-persecuted
Waldensians The Waldensians (also known as Waldenses (), Vallenses, Valdesi or Vaudois) are adherents of a proto-Protestant Proto-Protestantism, also called pre-Protestantism or pre-Reformation movements, refers to individuals and movements that propagat ...
. Central Europe was the site of much of the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
and there were continued expulsions of Protestants in Central Europe up to the 19th century. Following World War II, the removal of ethnic Germans to either East Germany or Siberia reduced Protestantism in the
Warsaw Pact The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), officially the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, commonly known as the Warsaw Pact (WP), was a collective defense Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement ...
countries, although some remain today. The absence of Protestants, however, does not necessarily imply a failure of the Reformation. Although Protestants were excommunicated and ended up worshipping in communions separate from Catholics, contrary to the original intention of the Reformers, they were also suppressed and persecuted in most of Europe at one point. As a result, some of them lived as crypto-Protestants, also called
Nicodemite A nicodemite is a person suspected of publicly misrepresenting their religious faith to conceal their true beliefs. The term is normally term of disparagement , disparaging. It was introduced into 16th century religious discourse, and persisted i ...
s, contrary to the urging of John Calvin, who wanted them to live their faith openly. Some crypto-Protestants have been identified as late as the 19th century after immigrating to Latin America.


History


Origins and early history


Earlier reform movements

John Wycliffe John Wycliffe (; also spelled Wyclif, Wickliffe, and other variants; 1320s – 31 December 1384) was an English scholastic philosopher Scholasticism was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itse ...

John Wycliffe
questioned the privileged status of the clergy which had bolstered their powerful role in England and the luxury and pomp of local parishes and their ceremonies. He was accordingly characterised as the "evening star" of
scholasticism Scholasticism was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people ...
and as the morning star or of the
English Reformation The English Reformation took place in 16th-century England The Tudor period occurred between 1485 and 1603 in History of England, England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603. The Tudor pe ...
. In 1374,
Catherine of Siena Catherine of Siena (25 March 1347 – 29 April 1380), a lay member of the Dominican Order (English: 'To praise, to bless and to preach') , leader_title = Master of the Order of Preachers, Master , leader_name = Gerard Timone ...

Catherine of Siena
began travelling with her followers throughout northern and central Italy advocating reform of the clergy and advising people that repentance and renewal could be done through "the total love for God." She carried on a long correspondence with
Pope Gregory XI Pope Gregory XI ( la, Gregorius, born Pierre Roger de Beaufort; c. 1329 – 27 March 1378) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number o ...

Pope Gregory XI
, asking him to reform the clergy and the administration of the
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
. The oldest Protestant churches, such as the
Moravian Church , image = AgnusDeiWindow.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , caption = Church emblem featuring the Agnus Dei is the Latin name under which the "Lamb of God" is honoured within the Roman Rite Mass, Roman Catholic Mass and, by extension, other Christ ...

Moravian Church
, date their origins to
Jan Hus Jan Hus (; ; – 6 July 1415), sometimes Anglicization, anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, and referred to in historical texts as ''Iohannes Hus'' or ''Johannes Huss'', was a Czechs, Czech Theology, theologian and philosopher who became a Chu ...

Jan Hus
(John Huss) in the early 15th century. As it was led by a Bohemian noble majority, and recognised, for some time, by the Basel Compacts, the Hussite Reformation was Europe's first "
Magisterial Reformation The Magisterial Reformation is a phrase that "draws attention to the manner in which the Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Martin Luther, a 16th-century German Protestant Re ...
" because the ruling magistrates supported it, unlike the "
Radical Reformation The Radical Reformation represented a response to corruption both in the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian c ...
", which the state did not support. Common factors that played a role during the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation included the rise of the
printing press A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an ink Ink is a gel, sol, or solution Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, Making a saline water solution by dissolving Salt, table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) in water ...
,
nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target ...
,
simony Simony () is the act of selling church offices and roles or sacred things. It is named after Simon Magus, who is described in the Acts of the Apostles as having offered two disciples of Jesus payment in exchange for their empowering him to impar ...

simony
, the appointment of
Cardinal-nephew A cardinal-nephew ( la, cardinalis nepos; it, cardinale nipote; es, valido de su tío; pt, cardeal-sobrinho; french: prince de fortune)Signorotto and Visceglia, 2002, p. 114. Modern French scholarly literature uses the term "cardinal-neveu'". ...
s, and other corruption of the
Roman Curia The Roman Curia ( la, Romana Curia ministerium suum implent) comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdi ...
and other ecclesiastical hierarchy, the impact of
humanism Humanism is a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality Reality is the ...

humanism
, the new learning of the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
versus
scholasticism Scholasticism was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people ...
, and the
Western Schism The Western Schism, also known as the Papal Schism, the Vatican Standoff, the Great Occidental Schism, or the Schism of 1378 (), was a split within the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is ...
that eroded loyalty to the
Papacy The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...
. Unrest due to the Great Schism of Western Christianity (1378–1416) excited wars between princes, uprisings among the peasants, and widespread concern over corruption in the Church, especially from
John Wycliffe John Wycliffe (; also spelled Wyclif, Wickliffe, and other variants; 1320s – 31 December 1384) was an English scholastic philosopher Scholasticism was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itse ...

John Wycliffe
at
Oxford University Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London, southeast of Birmingham, and northeast of Bristol. The city is home to the Unive ...

Oxford University
and from
Jan Hus Jan Hus (; ; – 6 July 1415), sometimes Anglicization, anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, and referred to in historical texts as ''Iohannes Hus'' or ''Johannes Huss'', was a Czechs, Czech Theology, theologian and philosopher who became a Chu ...

Jan Hus
at the
Charles University in Prague Charles University, known also as Charles University in Prague ( cs, Univerzita Karlova (UK); la, Universitas Carolina; german: Karls-Universität) or historically as the University of Prague ( la, Universitas Pragensis), is the oldest and larges ...
. Hus objected to some of the practices of the Roman Catholic Church and wanted to return the church in
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, ...

Bohemia
and
Moravia Moravia ( , also , ; cs, Morava ; german: link=no, Mähren ; pl, Morawy ; szl, Morawa; la, Moravia) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geography, geographical areas which at some point in time had a cult ...

Moravia
to earlier practices:
liturgy Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy represents a community, communal response to and participation in the sacred through activities reflecting praise, thanksgiving, remembrance ...
in the language of the people (i.e. Czech), having lay people receive
communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also called the Holy Communion or Lord's Supper), the Christian rite involving the eating of bread and drinking of wine, reenacting the Last Supper **Communion (chant), the Gregorian chant that acc ...
in both kinds (bread ''and'' wine—that is, in Latin, communio sub utraque specie), married priests, and eliminating
indulgences Apostolic Benediction and Plenary Indulgence Parchment In the teaching of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christi ...
and the concept of
purgatory Purgatory (, via Anglo-Norman language, Anglo-Norman and Old French) is, according to the belief of some Christianity, Christians (mostly Catholics), an intermediate state after physical death for expiatory purification. There is disagreement amo ...

purgatory
. Some of these, like the use of local language as the liturgical language, were approved by the pope as early as in the 9th century. The leaders of the Roman Catholic Church condemned him at the
Council of Constance The Council of Constance was a 15th-century ecumenical council An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matte ...
(1414–1417) and he was burnt at the stake, despite a promise of safe-conduct.Oberman and Walliser-Schwarzbart
Luther: Man between God and the Devil
' pp. 54–55
Wycliffe was posthumously condemned as a heretic and his corpse exhumed and burned in 1428. The Council of Constance confirmed and strengthened the traditional medieval conception of church and empire. The council did not address the national tensions or the theological tensions stirred up during the previous century and could not prevent
schism A schism ( , , or, less commonly, ) is a division between people, usually belonging to an organization, movement, or religious denomination. The word is most frequently applied to a split in what had previously been a single religious body, s ...
and the
Hussite Wars The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars or the Hussite Revolution, were a series of wars fought between the and the combined Catholic forces of , the , European monarchs loyal to the , as well as various Hussite factions. After initial ...
in Bohemia.
Pope Sixtus IV Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of memb ...

Pope Sixtus IV
(1471–1484) established the practice of selling indulgences to be applied to the dead, thereby establishing a new stream of revenue with agents across Europe.
Pope Alexander VI Pope Alexander VI (born Rodrigo de Borja; ca-valencia, Roderic Llançol i de Borja ; es, Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja, lang ; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as th ...

Pope Alexander VI
(1492–1503) was one of the most controversial of the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
popes. He was the father of seven children, including
Lucrezia
Lucrezia
and
Cesare Borgia Cesare Borgia (; ca-valencia, Cèsar Borja ; es, link=no, César Borja ; 13 September 1475 – 12 March 1507) was an Italian politician and ''condottieri, condottiero'' (mercenary leader) of Valencian (Spanish) origin, whose fight for power w ...

Cesare Borgia
. In response to papal corruption, particularly the sale of indulgences, Luther wrote ''The Ninety-Five Theses''. A number of theologians in the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Age ...
preached reformation ideas in the 1510s, shortly before or simultaneously with Luther, including Christoph Schappeler in
Memmingen Memmingen () is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origi ...

Memmingen
(as early as 1513).


Magisterial Reformation

The Reformation is usually dated to 31 October 1517 in
Wittenberg Wittenberg ( , ; Low Saxon Low Saxon or Lower Saxon may refer to: Geography *Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state (''Land'') situated in Northern Germany, northwestern ...
, Saxony, when Luther sent his '' Ninety-Five Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences'' to the
Archbishop of Mainz The Elector of Mainz was one of the seven Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire. As both the Archbishop of Mainz and the ruling prince of the Electorate of Mainz, the Elector of Mainz held a powerful position during the Middle Ages. The Archb ...
. The theses debated and criticised the Church and the papacy, but concentrated upon the selling of indulgences and doctrinal policies about
purgatory Purgatory (, via Anglo-Norman language, Anglo-Norman and Old French) is, according to the belief of some Christianity, Christians (mostly Catholics), an intermediate state after physical death for expiatory purification. There is disagreement amo ...
,
particular judgment Particular judgment, according to Christian eschatology, is the divine judgment that a departed person undergoes immediately after death, in contradistinction to the general judgment General judgment is the Christian theological concept of a ...
, and the authority of the pope. He would later in the period 1517–1521 write works on devotion to Virgin Mary, the intercession of and devotion to the saints, the sacraments, mandatory clerical celibacy, and later on the authority of the pope, the ecclesiastical law, censure and excommunication, the role of secular rulers in religious matters, the relationship between Christianity and the law, good works, and monasticism.Schofield ''Martin Luther'' p. 122 Some nuns, such as Katharina von Bora and Ursula of Munsterberg, left the monastic life when they accepted the Reformation, but other orders adopted the Reformation, as Lutherans continue to have Template:Lutheran orders, monasteries today. In contrast, Reformed areas typically secularised monastic property. Reformers and their opponents made heavy use of inexpensive pamphlets as well as vernacular Bibles using the relatively new printing press, so there was swift movement of both ideas and documents.Rubin, "Printing and Protestants" Review of Economics and Statistics pp. 270–286Atkinson Fitzgerald "Printing, Reformation and Information Control" ''Short History of Copyright'' pp. 15–22 Magdalena Heymair printed pedagogical writings for teaching children Bible stories. Parallel to events in Germany, a movement began in History of Switzerland, Switzerland under the leadership of
Huldrych Zwingli Huldrych Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli (1 January 1484 – 11 October 1531) was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland Map of the Swiss Confederacy by Sebastian Münster () The Protestant Reformation in Switzerland was promoted initi ...

Huldrych Zwingli
. These two movements quickly agreed on most issues, but some unresolved differences kept them separate. Some followers of Zwingli believed that the Reformation was too conservative, and moved independently toward more radical positions, some of which survive among modern day
Anabaptist Anabaptism (from New Latin language, Neo-Latin , from the Greek language, Greek : "re-" and "baptism", german: Täufer, earlier also )Since the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term (translation: "Re-ba ...
s. After this first stage of the Reformation, following the excommunication of Luther in ''Decet Romanum Pontificem'' and the condemnation of his followers by the edicts of the 1521 Diet of Worms, the work and writings of
John Calvin John Calvin (; Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family The Indo-European languages are a language fami ...

John Calvin
were influential in establishing a loose consensus among various churches in Switzerland, History of Scotland, Scotland, Hungary, Germany and elsewhere. Although the
German Peasants' War The German Peasants' War, Great Peasants' War or Great Peasants' Revolt (german: Deutscher Bauernkrieg) was a widespread popular revolt in some German-speaking areas in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central ...
of 1524–1525 began as a tax and anti-corruption protest as reflected in the Twelve Articles, its leader Thomas Müntzer gave it a radical Reformation character. It swept through the Bavarian, Thuringian and Swabian principalities, including the Black Company of Florian Geier, a knight from Giebelstadt who joined the peasants in the general outrage against the Catholic hierarchy. In response to reports about the destruction and violence, Luther condemned the revolt in writings such as ''Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants''; Zwingli and Luther's ally Philipp Melanchthon also did not condone the uprising. Some 100,000 peasants were killed by the end of the war.


Radical Reformation

The Radical Reformation was the response to what was believed to be the corruption in both the Roman Catholic Church and the
Magisterial Reformation The Magisterial Reformation is a phrase that "draws attention to the manner in which the Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Martin Luther, a 16th-century German Protestant Re ...
. Beginning in Germany and Switzerland in the 16th century, the Radical Reformation developed radical Protestant churches throughout Europe. The term includes Thomas Müntzer, Andreas Karlstadt, the Zwickau prophets, and Anabaptists like the Hutterites and Mennonites. In parts of Germany, Switzerland and Austria, a majority sympathised with the Radical Reformation despite intense persecution. Although the surviving proportion of the European population that rebelled against Catholic, Lutheranism, Lutheran and Zwinglian churches was small, Radical Reformers wrote profusely and the literature on the Radical Reformation is disproportionately large, partly as a result of the proliferation of the Radical Reformation teachings in the United States. Despite significant diversity among the early Radical Reformers, some "repeating patterns" emerged among many Anabaptist groups. Many of these patterns were enshrined in the Schleitheim Confession, ''Schleitheim Confession'' (1527) and include Believer's baptism, believers' (or adult) baptism, memorial view of the Eucharist, Lord's Supper, belief that Scripture is the final authority on matters of faith and practice, emphasis on the New Testament and the Sermon on the Mount, interpretation of Scripture in community, separation from the world and a Two kingdoms doctrine, two-kingdom theology, pacifism and nonresistance, communalism and economic sharing, belief in the freedom of the will, non-swearing of oaths, "yieldedness" (''Gelassenheit'') to one's community and to God, the Shunning, ban (i.e., shunning), salvation through divinization (''Vergöttung'') and ethical living, and discipleship (''Nachfolge Christi'').


Literacy

The Reformation was a triumph of literacy and the new printing press. Luther Bible, Luther's translation of the Bible into German was a decisive moment in the spread of literacy, and stimulated as well the printing and distribution of religious books and pamphlets. From 1517 onward, religious pamphlets flooded Germany and much of Europe.Edwards ''Printing, Propaganda, and Martin Luther'' By 1530, over 10,000 publications are known, with a total of ten million copies. The Reformation was thus a media revolution. Luther strengthened his attacks on Rome by depicting a "good" against "bad" church. From there, it became clear that print could be used for propaganda in the Reformation for particular agendas, although the term propaganda derives from the Catholic ''Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, Congregatio de Propaganda Fide'' (''Congregation for Propagating the Faith'') from the Counter-Reformation. Reform writers used existing styles, cliches and stereotypes which they adapted as needed. Especially effective were writings in German, including Luther's translation of the Bible, his Luther's Small Catechism, Smaller Catechism for parents teaching their children, and his Luther's Large Catechism, Larger Catechism, for pastors. Using the German vernacular they expressed the Apostles' Creed in simpler, more personal, Trinitarian language. Illustrations in the German Bible and in many tracts popularised Luther's ideas. Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472–1553), the great painter patronised by the electors of Wittenberg, was a close friend of Luther, and he illustrated Luther's theology for a popular audience. He dramatised Luther's views on the relationship between the Old and New Testaments, while remaining mindful of Luther's careful distinctions about proper and improper uses of visual imagery.Weimer "Luther and Cranach" ''Lutheran Quarterly'' pp. 387–405


Causes of the Reformation

The following supply-side factors have been identified as causes of the Reformation: * The presence of a
printing press A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an ink Ink is a gel, sol, or solution Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, Making a saline water solution by dissolving Salt, table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) in water ...
in a city by 1500 made Protestant adoption by 1600 far more likely. * Protestant literature was produced at greater levels in cities where media markets were more competitive, making these cities more likely to adopt Protestantism. * Ottoman incursions decreased conflicts between Protestants and Catholics, helping the Reformation take root. * Greater political autonomy increased the likelihood that Protestantism would be adopted. * Where Protestant reformers enjoyed princely patronage, they were much more likely to succeed. * Proximity to neighbours who adopted Protestantism increased the likelihood of adopting Protestantism. * Cities that had higher numbers of students enrolled in heterodox universities and lower numbers enrolled in orthodox universities were more likely to adopt Protestantism. The following demand-side factors have been identified as causes of the Reformation: * Cities with strong cults of saints were less likely to adopt Protestantism. * Cities where primogeniture was practised were less likely to adopt Protestantism. * Regions that were poor but had great economic potential and bad political institutions were more likely to adopt Protestantism. * The presence of bishoprics made the adoption of Protestantism less likely. * The presence of monasteries made the adoption of Protestantism less likely. A 2020 study linked the spread of Protestantism to personal ties to Luther (e.g. letter correspondents, visits, former students) and trade routes.


Reformation in Germany

In 1517, Luther nailed the ''Ninety-five theses'' to the Castle Church door, and without his knowledge or prior approval, they were copied and printed across Germany and internationally. Different reformers arose more or less independently of Luther in 1518 (for example Andreas Karlstadt, Philip Melanchthon, Erhard Schnepf, Johannes Brenz and Martin Bucer) and in 1519 (for example
Huldrych Zwingli Huldrych Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli (1 January 1484 – 11 October 1531) was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland Map of the Swiss Confederacy by Sebastian Münster () The Protestant Reformation in Switzerland was promoted initi ...

Huldrych Zwingli
, Nikolaus von Amsdorf, Ulrich von Hutten), and so on. After the Heidelberg Disputation (1518) where Luther described the Theology of the Cross as opposed to the Theology of Glory and the Leipzig Disputation (1519), the faith issues were brought to the attention of other German theologians throughout the Empire. Each year drew new theologians to embrace the Reformation and participate in the ongoing, European-wide discussion about faith. The pace of the Reformation proved unstoppable by 1520. The early Reformation in Germany mostly concerns the life of Martin Luther until he was excommunicated by Pope Leo X on 3 January 1521, in the bull ''Decet Romanum Pontificem''. The exact moment
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a Germans, German professor of Christian theology, theology, priest, author, composer, former Order of Saint Augustine, Augustinian monk, and is best known as a seminal f ...

Martin Luther
realised the key doctrine of Theology of Martin Luther#Justification by Faith, Justification by Faith is described in German as the ''Martin Luther#Justification by faith alone, Turmerlebnis''. In ''Table Talk (Luther), Table Talk'', Luther describes it as a sudden realization. Experts often speak of a gradual process of realization between 1514 and 1518. Reformation ideas and Protestant church services were first introduced in cities, being supported by local citizens and also some nobles. The Reformation did not receive overt state support until 1525, although it was only due to the protection of Elector
Frederick the Wise Frederick III (17 January 1463 – 5 May 1525), also known as Frederick the Wise ( German ''Friedrich der Weise''), was Elector of Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; hsb, Sakska), officially the Free State of Saxony (German: , Upper Sorbian ...
(who had a strange dream the night prior to 31 October 1517) that Luther survived after being declared an outlaw, in hiding Martin Luther#At Wartburg Castle, at Wartburg Castle and then Martin Luther#Return to Wittenberg and Peasants' War, returning to Wittenberg. It was more of a movement among the German people between 1517 and 1525, and then also a political one beginning in 1525. Reformer Adolf Clarenbach was burned at the stake near Cologne in 1529. The first state to formally adopt a Protestant confession was the
Duchy of Prussia The Duchy of Prussia (german: Herzogtum Preußen, pl, Księstwo Pruskie) or Ducal Prussia (german: Herzogliches Preußen, link=no; pl, Prusy Książęce, link=no) was a duchy A duchy is a medieval In the history of Europe The histor ...

Duchy of Prussia
(1525). Albert, Duke of Prussia formally declared the "Evangelical" faith to be the state religion. Catholics Labelling#Labelling in argumentation, labeled self-identified Evangelicals "Lutherans" to discredit them after the practice of naming a heresy after its founder. However, the Lutheran Church traditionally sees itself as the "main trunk of the historical Christian Tree" founded by Christ and the Apostles, holding that during the Reformation, the Holy See, Church of Rome fell away. Ducal Prussia was followed by many imperial free cities and other minor States of the Holy Roman Empire, imperial entities. The next sizable territories were the Landgraviate of Hesse (1526; at the Synod of Homberg) and the Electorate of Saxony (1527; Luther's homeland), Electoral Palatinate (1530s), and the Duchy of Württemberg (1534). For a more complete list, see the list of states by the date of adoption of the Reformation and the table of the Augsburg Confession#Years of adoption, adoption years for the Augsburg Confession. The reformation wave swept first the Holy Roman Empire#Reformation and Renaissance, Holy Roman Empire, and then extended beyond it to the rest of the European continent. Germany was home to the greatest number of Protestant reformers. Each state which turned Protestant had their own reformers who contributed towards the ''Evangelical'' faith. In Electoral Saxony the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Saxony was organised and served as an example for other states, although Luther was not dogmatic on questions of polity.


Reformation outside Germany

The Reformation also spread widely throughout Europe, starting with Bohemia, in the Czech lands, and, over the next few decades, to other countries.


Austria

Austria followed the same pattern as the German-speaking states within the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Age ...
, and Lutheranism became the main Protestant confession among its population. Lutheranism gained a significant following in the eastern half of present-day Austria, while Calvinism was less successful. Eventually the expulsions of the Counter-Reformation#politics, Counter-Reformation reversed the trend.


Czech lands

The Hussites were a Christian movement in the Kingdom of Bohemia following the teachings of Czech reformer
Jan Hus Jan Hus (; ; – 6 July 1415), sometimes Anglicization, anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, and referred to in historical texts as ''Iohannes Hus'' or ''Johannes Huss'', was a Czechs, Czech Theology, theologian and philosopher who became a Chu ...

Jan Hus
.


=Jan Hus

= Czech reformer and university professor
Jan Hus Jan Hus (; ; – 6 July 1415), sometimes Anglicization, anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, and referred to in historical texts as ''Iohannes Hus'' or ''Johannes Huss'', was a Czechs, Czech Theology, theologian and philosopher who became a Chu ...

Jan Hus
(c. 1369–1415) became the best-known representative of the Bohemian Reformation and one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. Jan Hus was declared a heretic and executed—burned at stake—at the
Council of Constance The Council of Constance was a 15th-century ecumenical council An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matte ...
in 1415 where he arrived voluntarily to defend his teachings.


=Hussite movement

= This predominantly religious movement was propelled by social issues and strengthened Czech national awareness. In 1417, two years after the execution of Jan Hus, the Czech reformation quickly became the chief force in the country. Hussites made up the vast majority of the population, forcing the Council of Basel to recognize in 1437 a system of two "religions" for the first time, signing the Compacts of Basel for the kingdom (Catholic and Czech Ultraquists, Ultraquism a Hussite movement). Bohemia later also elected two Protestant kings (George of Poděbrady, Frederick V of the Palatinate, Frederick of Palatine). After Habsburgs took control of the region, the Hussite churches were prohibited and the kingdom partially recatholicised. Even later, Lutheranism gained a substantial following, after being permitted by the Habsburgs with the continued persecution of the Czech native Hussite churches. Many Hussites thus declared themselves Lutherans. Two churches with Hussite roots are now the second and third biggest churches among the largely agnostic peoples: Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren, Czech Brethren (which gave origin to the international church known as the
Moravian Church , image = AgnusDeiWindow.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , caption = Church emblem featuring the Agnus Dei is the Latin name under which the "Lamb of God" is honoured within the Roman Rite Mass, Roman Catholic Mass and, by extension, other Christ ...

Moravian Church
) and the Czechoslovak Hussite Church.


Switzerland

In Switzerland, the teachings of the reformers and especially those of Zwingli and Calvin had a profound effect, despite frequent quarrels between the different branches of the Reformation.


= Huldrych Zwingli

= Parallel to events in Germany, a movement began in the Swiss Confederation under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli. Zwingli was a scholar and preacher who moved to
Zürich Zürich () is the in and the capital of the . It is located in north-central Switzerland, at the northwestern tip of . As of January 2020, the municipality has 434,335 inhabitants, the urban area (agglomeration) 1.315 million (2009), and the 1. ...

Zürich
—the then-leading city state—in 1518, a year after Martin Luther began the Reformation in Germany with his
Ninety-five Theses The ''Ninety-five Theses'' or ''Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences''-The title comes from the 1569 Basel pamphlet printing. The first printings of the ''Theses'' use an incipit The incipit () of a text is the first few word ...
. Although the two movements agreed on many issues of theology, as the recently introduced
printing press A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an ink Ink is a gel, sol, or solution Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, Making a saline water solution by dissolving Salt, table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) in water ...
spread ideas rapidly from place to place, some unresolved differences kept them separate. Long-standing resentment between the German states and the Swiss Confederation led to heated debate over how much Zwingli owed his ideas to Lutheranism. Although Zwinglianism does hold uncanny resemblance to Lutheranism (it even had its own equivalent of the ''Ninety-five Theses'', called the 67 Conclusions), historians have been unable to prove that Zwingli had any contact with Luther's publications before 1520, and Zwingli himself maintained that he had prevented himself from reading them. The German Prince Philip of Hesse saw potential in creating an alliance between Zwingli and Luther, seeing strength in a united Protestant front. A meeting was held in his castle in 1529, now known as the Colloquy of Marburg, which has become infamous for its complete failure. The two men could not come to any agreement due to their disputation over one key doctrine. Although Luther preached consubstantiation in the Eucharist over transubstantiation, he believed in the real presence of Christ in the Communion bread. Zwingli, inspired by Dutch theologian Honius, Cornelius Hoen, believed that the Communion bread was only representative and memorial—Christ was not present. Luther became so angry that he famously carved into the meeting table in chalk ''Hoc Est Corpus Meum''—a Biblical quotation from the Last Supper meaning "This is my body". Zwingli countered this saying that ''est'' in that context was the equivalent of the word ''significat'' (signifies). Some followers of Zwingli believed that the Reformation was too conservative and moved independently toward more radical positions, some of which survive among modern day
Anabaptist Anabaptism (from New Latin language, Neo-Latin , from the Greek language, Greek : "re-" and "baptism", german: Täufer, earlier also )Since the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term (translation: "Re-ba ...
s. One famous incident illustrating this was when radical Zwinglians fried and ate sausages during Lent in Zurich city square by way of protest against the Church teaching of good works. Other Protestant movements grew up along the lines of mysticism or humanism (cf. Desiderius Erasmus, Erasmus and Louis de Berquin who was martyred in 1529), sometimes breaking from Rome or from the Protestants, or forming outside of the churches.


= John Calvin

= Following the excommunication of Luther and condemnation of the Reformation by the Pope, the work and writings of John Calvin were influential in establishing a loose consensus among various churches in Switzerland, Scotland, Hungary, Germany and elsewhere. After the expulsion of its Bishop in 1526, and the unsuccessful attempts of the Berne reformer William Farel, Guillaume (William) Farel, Calvin was asked to use the organisational skill he had gathered as a student of law to discipline the "fallen city" of Geneva. His "Ordinances" of 1541 involved a collaboration of Church affairs with the City council and Consistory (Protestantism)#Reformed usage, consistory to bring morality to all areas of life. After the establishment of the Geneva academy in 1559, Geneva became the unofficial capital of the Protestant movement, providing refuge for Protestant exiles from all over Europe and educating them as Calvinist missionaries. These missionaries dispersed Calvinism widely, and formed the French Huguenots in Calvin's own lifetime and spread to Scotland under the leadership of John Knox in 1560. Anne Locke translated some of Calvin's writings to English around this time. The faith continued to spread after Calvin's death in 1563 and reached as far as Constantinople by the start of the 17th century. The Reformation foundations engaged with Augustinians, Augustinianism. Both Luther and Calvin thought along lines linked with the theological teachings of Augustine of Hippo. The Augustinianism of the Reformers struggled against Pelagianism, a heresy that they perceived in the Catholic Church of their day. Ultimately, since Calvin and Luther disagreed strongly on certain matters of theology (such as double-predestination and Holy Communion), the relationship between Lutherans and Calvinists was one of conflict.


Nordic countries

All of Scandinavia ultimately adopted Lutheranism over the course of the 16th century, as the monarchs of Denmark (who also ruled Norway and Iceland) and Sweden (who also ruled Finland) converted to that faith.


=Sweden

= In Sweden, the Reformation was spearheaded by Gustav Vasa, elected king in 1523. Friction with the pope over the latter's interference in Swedish ecclesiastical affairs led to the discontinuance of any official connection between Sweden and the papacy from 1523. Four years later, at the Diet of Västerås, the king succeeded in forcing the diet to accept his dominion over the national church. The king was given possession of all church property, church appointments required royal approval, the clergy were subject to the civil law, and the "pure Word of God" was to be preached in the churches and taught in the schools—effectively granting official sanction to Lutheran ideas. The Apostolic succession#Lutheran churches, apostolic succession was retained in Sweden during the Reformation. The adoption of Lutheranism was also one of the main reasons for the eruption of the Dacke War, a peasants uprising in Småland.


=Finland

=


= Denmark

= Under the reign of Frederick I of Denmark, Frederick I (1523–33), Denmark remained officially Catholic. Frederick initially pledged to persecute Lutherans, yet he quickly adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers, of whom the most famous was Hans Tausen. During his reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads among the Danish population. In 1526, Frederick forbid papal investiture of bishops in Denmark and in 1527 ordered fees from new bishops be paid to the crown, making Frederick the head of the church of Denmark. Frederick's son, Christian, was openly Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his father's death. In 1536, following his victory in the Count's War, he became king as Christian III of Denmark, Christian III and continued the Reformation in Denmark–Norway and Holstein, Reformation of the state church with assistance from Johannes Bugenhagen. By the Copenhagen recess of October 1536, the authority of the Catholic bishops was terminated.


= Faroe Islands

=


= Iceland

= Martin Luther, Luther's influence had already reached Iceland before King Christian's decree. The Germans fished near Iceland's coast, and the Hanseatic League engaged in commerce with the Icelanders. These Germans raised a Lutheran church in Hafnarfjörður as early as 1533. Through German trade connections, many young Icelanders studied in Hamburg. In 1538, when the kingly decree of the new Church ordinance reached Iceland, bishop Ögmundur and his clergy denounced it, threatening excommunication for anyone subscribing to the German "heresy".Jón R. Hjálmarsson, ''History of Iceland: From the Settlement to the Present Day'', (Iceland Review, 1993), p. 70. In 1539, the King sent a new governor to Iceland, Klaus von Mervitz, with a mandate to introduce reform and take possession of church property. Von Mervitz seized a monastery in Viðey with the help of his sheriff, Dietrich of Minden, and his soldiers. They drove the monks out and seized all their possessions, for which they were promptly excommunicated by Ögmundur.


United Kingdom


=England

=


Church of England

The separation of the Church of England from Rome under Henry VIII of England, Henry VIII, beginning in 1529 and completed in 1537, brought England alongside this broad Reformation movement. Although Robert Barnes (martyr), Robert Barnes attempted to get Henry VIII to adopt Lutheran theology, he refused to do so in 1538 and burned him at the stake in 1540. Reformers in the Church of England alternated, for decades, between sympathies between Catholic tradition and Reformed principles, gradually developing, within the context of robustly Protestant doctrine, a tradition considered a middle way (''via media'') between the Catholic and Protestant traditions. The English Reformation followed a different course from the Reformation in continental Europe. There had long been a strong strain of anti-clericalism. England had already given rise to the Lollard movement of
John Wycliffe John Wycliffe (; also spelled Wyclif, Wickliffe, and other variants; 1320s – 31 December 1384) was an English scholastic philosopher Scholasticism was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itse ...

John Wycliffe
, which played an important part in inspiring the Hussites in
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, ...

Bohemia
. Lollardy was suppressed and became an underground movement, so the extent of its influence in the 1520s is difficult to assess. The different character of the English Reformation came rather from the fact that it was driven initially by the political necessities of Henry VIII. Henry had once been a sincere Catholic and had even authored a book strongly criticising Luther. His wife, Catherine of Aragon, bore him only a single child who survived infancy, Mary I of England, Mary. Henry strongly wanted a male heir, and many of his subjects might have agreed, if only because they wanted to avoid another dynastic conflict like the Wars of the Roses. Refused an annulment of his marriage to Catherine, King Henry decided to remove the Church of England from the authority of Rome. In 1534, the Act of Supremacy recognised Henry as "the only Supreme Head on earth of the Church of England".Bray (ed.) ''Documents of the English Reformation'' pp. 113– Between 1535 and 1540, under Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex, Thomas Cromwell, the policy known as the Dissolution of the Monasteries was put into effect. The veneration of some saints, certain pilgrimages and some pilgrim shrines were also attacked. Huge amounts of church land and property passed into the hands of the Crown and ultimately into those of the nobility and gentry. The vested interest thus created made for a powerful force in support of the dissolution. There were some notable opponents to the Henrician Reformation, such as Thomas More and Cardinal John Fisher, who were executed for their opposition. There was also a growing party of reformers who were imbued with the Calvinistic, Lutheran and Zwinglian doctrines then current on the Continent. When Henry died he was succeeded by his Protestant son Edward VI of England, Edward VI, who, through his empowered councillors (with the King being only nine years old at his succession and fifteen at his death) the Duke of Somerset and the Duke of Northumberland, ordered the destruction of images in churches, and the closing of the chantry, chantries. Under Edward VI the Church of England moved closer to continental Protestantism. Yet, at a popular level, religion in England was still in a state of flux. Following a brief Catholic restoration during the reign of Mary (1553–1558), a loose consensus developed during the reign of Elizabeth I of England, Elizabeth I, though this point is one of considerable debate among historians. This "Elizabethan Religious Settlement" largely formed Anglicanism into a distinctive church tradition. The compromise was uneasy and was capable of veering between extreme Calvinism on one hand and Catholicism on the other. But compared to the bloody and chaotic state of affairs in contemporary France, it was relatively successful, in part because Queen Elizabeth lived so long, until the Puritan Revolution or English Civil War in the seventeenth century.


English dissenters

The success of the
Counter-Reformation The Counter-Reformation (), also called the Catholic Reformation () or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic Church, Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revol ...
on the Continent and the growth of a Puritan party dedicated to further Protestant reform polarised the Elizabethan Age, although it was not until the 1640s that England underwent religious strife comparable to what its neighbours had suffered some generations before. The early ''Puritan movement'' (late 16th–17th centuries) was Reformed (or Calvinism, Calvinist) and was a movement for reform in the Church of England. Its origins lay in the discontent with the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. The desire was for the Church of England to resemble more closely the Protestant churches of Europe, especially Geneva. The Puritans objected to ornaments and ritual in the churches as idolatry, idolatrous (vestments, surplices, organs, genuflection), calling the vestments "Papist, popish pomp and rags" (see Vestments controversy). They also objected to ecclesiastical courts. Their refusal to endorse completely all of the ritual directions and formulas of the ''Book of Common Prayer'', and the imposition of its liturgical order by legal force and inspection, sharpened Puritanism into a definite opposition movement. The later Puritan movement, often referred to as dissenters and Nonconformist (Protestantism), nonconformists, eventually led to the formation of various
Reformed Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformat ...
Christian denomination, denominations. The most famous emigration to America was the migration of Puritan separatists from the Anglican Church of England. They fled first to Holland, and then later to America to establish the English Massachusetts Bay Colony, colony of Massachusetts in New England, which later became one of the original United States. These Puritan separatists were also known as "the Pilgrim Fathers, Pilgrims". After establishing a colony at Plymouth Colony, Plymouth (which became part of the colony of Massachusetts) in 1620, the Puritan pilgrims received a charter from the King of England that legitimised their colony, allowing them to do trade and commerce with merchants in England, in accordance with the principles of mercantilism. The Puritans persecuted those of other religious faiths, for example, Anne Hutchinson was banished to Rhode Island during the Antinomian Controversy and Quaker Mary Dyer was hanged in Boston for repeatedly defying a Puritan law banning Quakers from the colony.Rogers, Horatio, 2009.
Mary Dyer of Rhode Island: The Quaker Martyr That Was Hanged on Boston
' pp. 1–2. BiblioBazaar, LLC
She was one of the four executed Quakers known as the Boston martyrs. Executions ceased in 1661 when Charles II of England, King Charles II explicitly forbade Massachusetts from executing anyone for professing Quakerism. In 1647, Massachusetts passed a law prohibiting any Society of Jesus, Jesuit Roman Catholic priests from entering territory under Puritan jurisdiction. Any suspected person who could not clear himself was to be banished from the colony; a second offence carried a death penalty. The Pilgrims held radical Protestant disapproval of Christmas, and its celebration was outlawed in Boston from 1659 to 1681. The ban was revoked in 1681 by the English-appointed governor Edmund Andros, who also revoked a Puritan ban on festivities on Saturday nights. Nevertheless, it was not until the mid-19th century that celebrating Christmas became fashionable in the Boston region.


= Wales

= Bishop Richard Davies (bishop), Richard Davies and dissident Protestant cleric John Penry introduced Calvinist theology to Wales. In 1588, the Bishop of Llandaff published the entire Bible in the Welsh language. The translation had a significant impact upon the Welsh population and helped to firmly establish Protestantism among the Welsh people. The Welsh Protestants used the model of the Synod of Dort of 1618–1619. Calvinism developed through the Puritan period, following the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II, and within Wales' Calvinistic Methodist movement. However few copies of Calvin's writings were available before mid-19th century.


= Scotland

= The Reformation in Scotland's case culminated ecclesiastically in the establishment of a church along Reformed theology, reformed lines, and politically in the triumph of English influence over that of France. John Knox is regarded as the leader of the Scottish reformation. The Scottish Reformation Parliament, Reformation Parliament of 1560 repudiated the pope's authority by the Papal Jurisdiction Act 1560, ''Papal Jurisdiction Act 1560'', forbade the celebration of the Mass (liturgy), Mass and approved a Protestant Confession of Faith. It was made possible by a revolution against French hegemony under the regime of the regent Mary of Guise, who had governed Scotland in the name of her absent daughter Mary, Queen of Scots (then also Queen consort, Queen of France). Although Protestantism triumphed relatively easily in Scotland, the exact form of Protestantism remained to be determined. The 17th century saw a complex struggle between Presbyterianism (particularly the Covenanters) and Anglicanism, Episcopalianism. The Presbyterians eventually won control of the Church of Scotland, which went on to have an important influence on Presbyterian churches worldwide, but Scotland retained a relatively large Scottish Episcopal Church, Episcopalian minority.


Estonia


France

Besides the Waldensians already present in France, Protestantism also spread in from German lands, where the Protestants were nicknamed ''Huguenots''; this eventually led to decades of civil warfare. Though not personally interested in religious reform, Francis I of France, Francis I (reigned 1515–1547) initially maintained an attitude of tolerance, in accordance with his interest in the Renaissance Humanism, humanist movement. This changed in 1534 with the Affair of the Placards. In this act, Protestants denounced the Catholic Mass in placards that appeared across France, even reaching the royal apartments. During this time as the issue of religious faith entered into the arena of politics, Francis came to view the movement as a threat to the kingdom's stability. Following the Affair of the Placards, culprits were rounded up, at least a dozen heretics were put to death, and the persecution of Protestants increased. One of those who fled France at that time was John Calvin, who emigrated to Basel in 1535 before eventually settling in Geneva in 1536. Beyond the reach of the French kings in Geneva, Calvin continued to take an interest in the religious affairs of his native land including the training of ministers for congregations in France. As the number of Protestants in France increased, the number of heretics in prisons awaiting trial also grew. As an experimental approach to reduce the caseload in Normandy, a special court just for the trial of heretics was established in 1545 in the Parlement de Normandie, Parlement de Rouen. When Henry II of France, Henry II took the throne in 1547, the persecution of Protestants grew and special courts for the trial of heretics were also established in the Parlement de Paris. These courts came to known as Chambre Ardente, "''La Chambre Ardente''" ("the fiery chamber") because of their reputation of meting out death penalties on burning gallows. Despite heavy persecution by Henry II, the Reformed Church of France, largely Calvinist in direction, made steady progress across large sections of the nation, in the urban bourgeoisie and parts of the aristocracy, appealing to people alienated by the obduracy and the complacency of the Catholic establishment. French Protestantism, though its appeal increased under persecution, came to acquire a distinctly political character, made all the more obvious by the conversions of nobles during the 1550s. This established the preconditions for a series of destructive and intermittent conflicts, known as the French Wars of Religion, Wars of Religion. The civil wars gained impetus with the sudden death of Henry II of France, Henry II in 1559, which began a prolonged period of weakness for the French crown. wikt:atrocity, Atrocity and outrage became the defining characteristics of the time, illustrated at their most intense in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of August 1572, when the Catholic party killed between 30,000 and 100,000 Huguenots across France. The wars only concluded when Henry IV of France, Henry IV, himself a former Huguenot, issued the
Edict of Nantes The Edict of Nantes () was signed in April 1598 by King Henry IV and granted the Calvinist Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protesta ...
(1598), promising official toleration of the Protestant minority, but under highly restricted conditions. Catholicism remained the official state religion, and the fortunes of French Protestants gradually declined over the next century, culminating in Louis XIV's Edict of Fontainebleau (1685), which revoked the Edict of Nantes and made Catholicism the sole legal religion of France, leading some Huguenots to live as
Nicodemite A nicodemite is a person suspected of publicly misrepresenting their religious faith to conceal their true beliefs. The term is normally term of disparagement , disparaging. It was introduced into 16th century religious discourse, and persisted i ...
s. In response to the Edict of Fontainebleau, Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg declared the Edict of Potsdam (October 1685), giving free passage to Huguenot refugees and tax-free status to them for ten years. In the late 17th century, 150,000–200,000 Huguenots fled to England, the Netherlands, Prussia, Switzerland, and the English and Dutch overseas colonies. A significant community in France remained in the Cévennes region. A separate Protestant community, of the Lutheranism, Lutheran faith, existed in the newly conquered province of Alsace, its status not affected by the Edict of Fontainebleau.


Spain

In the early 16th century, Spain had a different political and cultural milieu from its Western and Central European neighbours in several respects, which affected the mentality and the reaction of the nation towards the Reformation. Spain, which had only recently managed to complete the reconquest of the Peninsula from the Moors in 1492, had been preoccupied with converting the Muslim and Jewish populations of the newly conquered regions through the establishment of the Spanish Inquisition in 1478. The rulers of the nation stressed political, cultural, and religious unity, and by the time of the Lutheran Reformation, the Spanish Inquisition was already 40 years old and had the capability of quickly persecuting any new movement that the leaders of the Catholic Church perceived or interpreted to be religious heterodoxy.Pettegree ''Reformation World'' p. 304 Emperor Charles V, Charles V did not wish to see Spain or the rest of Habsburg Europe divided, and in light of continual threat from the Ottomans, preferred to see the Roman Catholic Church reform itself from within. This led to a
Counter-Reformation The Counter-Reformation (), also called the Catholic Reformation () or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic Church, Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revol ...
in Spain in the 1530s. During the 1520s, the Spanish Inquisition had created an atmosphere of suspicion and sought to root out any religious thought seen as suspicious. As early as 1521, the Pope had written a letter to the Spanish monarchy warning against allowing the unrest in Northern Europe to be replicated in Spain. Between 1520 and 1550, printing presses in Spain were tightly controlled and any books of Protestant teaching were prohibited. Between 1530 and 1540, Protestantism in Spain was still able to gain followers clandestinely, and in cities such as Seville and Valladolid adherents would secretly meet at private houses to pray and study the Bible.Estep ''Renaissance and Reformation'' p. 299 Protestants in Spain were estimated at between 1000 and 3000, mainly among intellectuals who had seen writings such as those of Erasmus. Notable reformers included Dr. Juan Gil and Juan Pérez de Pineda who subsequently fled and worked alongside others such as Francisco de Enzinas to translate the Greek New Testament into the Spanish language, a task completed by 1556. Protestant teachings were smuggled into Spain by Spaniards such as Julián Hernández, who in 1557 was condemned by the Inquisition and burnt at the stake. Under Philip II of Spain, Philip II, conservatives in the Spanish church tightened their grip, and those who refused to recant such as Rodrigo de Valer were condemned to life imprisonment. In May 1559, sixteen Spanish Lutherans were burnt at the stake: fourteen were strangled before being burnt, while two were burnt alive. In October another thirty were executed. Spanish Protestants who were able to flee the country were to be found in at least a dozen cities in Europe, such as Geneva, where some of them embraced Calvinism, Calvinist teachings. Those who fled to England were given support by the Church of England. The Kingdom of Navarre, although by the time of the Protestant Reformation a minor principality territoriality restricted to southern France, had French Huguenot monarchs, including Henry IV of France and his mother, Jeanne III of Navarre, a devout Calvinist. Upon the arrival of the Protestant Reformation, Calvinism reached some Basques through the translation of the Bible into the Basque language by Joanes Leizarraga. As Queen of Navarre, Jeanne III commissioned the translation of the New Testament into Basque and Béarnese language, Béarnese for the benefit of her subjects. Molinism presented a soteriology similar to Protestants within the Roman Catholic Church.


Portugal

During the Reformation era Protestantism was unsuccessful in Portugal, as its spread was frustrated for similar reasons to those in Spain.


Netherlands

The Reformation in the Netherlands, unlike in many other countries, was not initiated by the rulers of the Seventeen Provinces, but instead by multiple popular movements which in turn were bolstered by the arrival of Protestant refugees from other parts of the continent. While the
Anabaptist Anabaptism (from New Latin language, Neo-Latin , from the Greek language, Greek : "re-" and "baptism", german: Täufer, earlier also )Since the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term (translation: "Re-ba ...
movement enjoyed popularity in the region in the early decades of the Reformation, Calvinism, in the form of the Dutch Reformed Church, became the dominant Protestant faith in the country from the 1560s onward. In the early 17th century internal Synod of Dort, theological conflict within the Calvinist church between two tendencies of Calvinism, the Gomarists and the liberal Arminians (or Remonstrants), resulted in Gomarist Calvinism becoming the ''de facto'' state religion.


Belgium

The first two Lutheran :Protestant martyrs, martyrs were monks from Antwerp, Johann Esch and Heinrich Voes, Johann Esch and Heinrich Hoes, who were burned at the stake when they would not recant. Harsh Inquisition of the Netherlands, persecution of Protestants by the Spanish government of Philip II of Spain, Philip II contributed to a desire for independence in the provinces, which led to the Eighty Years' War and, eventually, the separation of the largely Protestant Dutch Republic from the Catholic-dominated Southern Netherlands (present-day Belgium). In 1566, at the peak of Belgian Reformation, there were an estimated 300,000 Protestants, or 20% of the Belgian population.


Latvia


Luxembourg

Luxembourg, a part of the Spanish Netherlands, remained Catholic during the Reformation era because Protestantism was illegal until 1768.


Hungary

Much of the population of the Kingdom of Hungary adopted Protestantism during the 16th century. After the 1526 Battle of Mohács, the Hungarian people were disillusioned by the inability of the government to protect them and turned to the faith they felt would infuse them with the strength necessary to resist the invader. They found this in the teaching of Protestant reformers such as
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a Germans, German professor of Christian theology, theology, priest, author, composer, former Order of Saint Augustine, Augustinian monk, and is best known as a seminal f ...

Martin Luther
. The spread of Protestantism in the country was assisted by its large ethnic German minority, which could understand and translate the Martin Luther (resources), writings of Martin Luther. While Lutheranism gained a foothold among the German- and Slovak-speaking populations, Calvinism became widely accepted among ethnic Hungarians. In the more independent northwest, the rulers and priests, protected now by the Habsburg Monarchy, which had taken the field to fight the Turks, defended the old Catholic faith. They dragged the Protestants to prison and the stake wherever they could. Such strong measures only fanned the flames of protest, however. Leaders of the Protestants included Matthias Dévay, Mátyás Dévai Bíró, Mihály Sztárai, István Szegedi Kis, and Ferenc Dávid. Protestants likely formed a majority of Hungary's population at the close of the 16th century, but
Counter-Reformation The Counter-Reformation (), also called the Catholic Reformation () or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic Church, Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revol ...
efforts in the 17th century reconverted a majority of the kingdom to Catholicism. A significant Protestant minority remained, most of it adhering to the Calvinist faith. In 1558 the
Transylvania Transylvania is a historical region in central Romania. To the east and south its natural border is the Carpathian Mountains, and to the west the Apuseni Mountains. Broader definitions of Transylvania also encompass the western and north-western R ...

Transylvania
n Diet (assembly), Diet of Turda decreed the free practice of both the Catholic and Lutheran religions, but prohibited Calvinism. Ten years later, in 1568, the Diet extended this freedom, declaring that "It is not allowed to anybody to intimidate anybody with captivity or expulsion for his religion". Four religions were declared to be "accepted" (''recepta'') religions (the fourth being Unitarianism, which became official in 1583 as the faith of the only Unitarian king, John Sigismund Zápolya, John II Sigismund Zápolya, r. 1540–1571), while Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox Christianity was "tolerated" (though the building of stone Orthodox churches was forbidden). During the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
, Royal (Habsburg) Hungary joined the Catholic side, until Transylvania joined the Protestant side. Between 1604 and 1711, there was a series of anti-Habsburg uprisings calling for equal rights and freedom for all Christian denominations, with varying success; the uprisings were usually organised from Transylvania. The Habsburg-sanctioned Counter-Reformation efforts in the 17th century reconverted the majority of the kingdom to Catholicism. The center of Protestant learning in Hungary has for some centuries been the University of Debrecen. Founded in 1538, the university was situated in an area of Eastern Hungary under Ottoman Turkish rule during the 1600s and 1700s, being allowed Islamic toleration and thus avoiding Counter-Reformation persecution.


Romania

Transylvania Transylvania is a historical region in central Romania. To the east and south its natural border is the Carpathian Mountains, and to the west the Apuseni Mountains. Broader definitions of Transylvania also encompass the western and north-western R ...

Transylvania
in what is today's Romania was a "dumping ground for undesirables" by the Habsburg monarchy. People who did not conform to the will of the Habsburgs and the leaders of the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history ...

Catholic Church
were forcibly sent there. Centuries of this practice allowed diverse Protestant traditions to emerge in Romania, including Lutheranism, Calvinism and Unitarianism.


Ukraine

Calvinism was popular among Hungarians who inhabited the southwestern parts of the present-day Ukraine. Their descendants are still there, such as the Sub-Carpathian Reformed Church.


Belarus

The first Protestant congregation was founded in Brest-Litovsk in the Reformed tradition, and the Belarusian Evangelical Reformed Church exists today.


Ireland

The Reformation in Ireland was a movement for the reform of religious life and institutions that was introduced into Ireland by the English administration at the behest of King Henry VIII of England. His desire for an annulment of his marriage was known as the King's Great Matter. Ultimately Pope Clement VII refused the petition; consequently it became necessary for the King to assert his lordship over the church in his realm to give legal effect to his wishes. The English Parliament confirmed the King's supremacy over the Church in the Kingdom of England. This challenge to Papal supremacy resulted in a breach with the Roman Catholic Church. By 1541, the Parliament of Ireland, Irish Parliament had agreed to the change in status of the country from that of a Lordship of Ireland, Lordship to that of Kingdom of Ireland. Unlike similar movements for religious reform on the continent of Europe, the various phases of the English Reformation as it developed in Ireland were largely driven by changes in government policy, to which public opinion in England gradually accommodated itself. However, a number of factors complicated the adoption of the religious innovations in Ireland; the majority of the population there adhered to the Catholic Church. However, in the city of Dublin the Reformation took hold under the auspices of George Browne (Archbishop of Dublin), George Browne, Archbishop of Dublin.


Italy

Word of the Protestant reformers reached Italy in the 1520s but never caught on. Its development was stopped by the Counter-Reformation, the Inquisition and also popular disinterest. Not only was the Church highly aggressive in seeking out and suppressing heresy, but there was a shortage of Protestant leadership. No one translated the Bible into Italian; few tracts were written. No core of Protestantism emerged. The few preachers who did take an interest in "Lutheranism", as it was called in Italy, were suppressed or went into exile to northern countries where their message was well received. As a result, the Reformation exerted almost no lasting influence in Italy, except for strengthening the Catholic Church and pushing for an end to ongoing abuses during the Counter-Reformation.MacCulloch ''Reformation'' pp. 401–417Firpo "Italian Reformation" ''Companion to the Reformation World'' pp. 169 ff Some Protestants left Italy and became outstanding activists of the European Reformation, mainly in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (e.g. Giorgio Biandrata, Bernardino Ochino, Giovanni Alciato, Giovanni Battista Cetis, Fausto Sozzini, Francesco Stancaro and Giovanni Valentino Gentile), who propagated Nontrinitarianism there and were chief instigators of the movement of Polish Brethren.Church "Literature of the Italian reformation" ''Journal of Modern History'' pp. 457–473 Some also fled to England and Switzerland, including Peter Vermigli. In 1532, the
Waldensians The Waldensians (also known as Waldenses (), Vallenses, Valdesi or Vaudois) are adherents of a proto-Protestant Proto-Protestantism, also called pre-Protestantism or pre-Reformation movements, refers to individuals and movements that propagat ...
, who had been already present centuries before the Reformation, aligned themselves and adopted the Calvinist theology. The Waldensian Church survived in the Western Alps through many persecutions and remains a Protestant church in Italy.Cameron ''Reformation of the Heretics''


Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

In the first half of the 16th century, the enormous Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was a country of many religions and Churches, including: Roman Catholics, Byzantine Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Oriental Orthodox, Ashkenazi Jews, Crimean Karaites, Karaites, and Sunni Islam, Sunni Muslims. The various groups had their own juridical systems. On the eve of the Protestant Reformation, Christianity held the predominate position within the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and Catholicism received preferential treatment at the expense of the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox. The Reformation first entered Poland through the mostly German-speaking areas in the country's north. In the 1520s Luther's reforms spread among the mostly German-speaking inhabitants of such major cities as Danzig (now Gdańsk), Toruń, Thorn (now Toruń) and Elbing (now Elbląg). In Königsberg (now Kaliningrad), in 1530, a Polish-language edition of Luther's Small Catechism was published. The
Duchy of Prussia The Duchy of Prussia (german: Herzogtum Preußen, pl, Księstwo Pruskie) or Ducal Prussia (german: Herzogliches Preußen, link=no; pl, Prusy Książęce, link=no) was a duchy A duchy is a medieval In the history of Europe The histor ...

Duchy of Prussia
, a vassal of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Polish Crown ruled by the Teutonic Order, Teutonic Knights, emerged as a key center of the movement, with numerous publishing houses issuing not only Bibles, but also catechisms, in German, Polish and Lithuanian. In 1525 the last Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights secularised the territory, became Lutheran, and established Lutheranism as the state Church. Lutheranism found few adherents among the other peoples of the two countries. Calvinism became the most numerous Protestant group because Calvin's teachings on the role of the state within religion appealed to the nobility (known as szlachta), mainly in Lesser Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Several publishing houses were opened in Lesser Poland in the mid-16th century in such locations as Słomniki and Raków, Kielce County, Raków. At that time, Mennonites and Moravian Church, Czech Brothers came to Poland. The former settled in the Vistula Delta where they used their agricultural abilities to turn parts of the delta into plodders. The latter settled mostly in Greater Poland around Leszno. Later on, Socinus and his followers emigrated to Poland. Originally the Reformed Church in Poland included both the Calvinists and the Anti-trinitarians (also known as the Socinians and the Polish Brethren); however, they eventually split due to an inability to reconcile their divergent views on the Trinity. Both Catholics and Orthodox Christians converts became Calvinists and the Anti-Trinitarians. The Commonwealth was unique in Europe in the 16th century for its widespread tolerance confirmed by the Warsaw Confederation. This agreement granted religious toleration to all nobles: peasants living on nobile estates did not receive the same protections. In 1563, the Brest Bible was published (see also Bible translations into Polish). The period of tolerance came under strain during the reign of King Sigismund III Vasa (Zygmunt Wasa). Sigismund, who was also the King of Sweden until deposed, was educated by Jesuits in Sweden before his election as King of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. During his reign, he selected Catholics for the highest offices in the country. This created resentment amongst the Protestant nobility; however, the country did not experience a religiously motivated civil war. Despite concerted efforts, the nobility rejected efforts to revise or rescind the Confederation of Warsaw, and protected this agreement. The Deluge (history), Deluge, a 20-year period of almost continual warfare, marked the turning point in attitudes. During the war with Sweden, when King John II Casimir Vasa, John Casimir (Jan Kazimierz) fled to Silesia, the Icon of Black Madonna of Częstochowa, Mary of Częstochowa became the rallying point for military opposition to the Swedish forces. Upon his return to the country Kihn John Casimir crowned The Most Holy Virgin Mary, Queen of Poland, Mary a Queen of Poland. Despite these wars against Protestant, Orthodox, and Muslim neighbours, the Confederation of Warsaw held with one notable exception. In the aftermath of the Swedish withdrawal and truce, attitudes throughout the nobility (Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant) turned against the Polish Brethren. In 1658 the Polish Brethren were forced to leave the country. They were permitted to sell their immovable property and take their movable property; however, it is still unknown whether they received fair-market value for their lands. In 1666, the Sejm of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Sejm banned apostasy from Catholicism to any other religion, under penalty of death. Finally, in 1717, the Silent Sejm banned non-Catholics from becoming deputies of the Parliament. The strategy the Catholic Church took towards reconverting the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth differed from its strategy elsewhere. The unique government (Poland was a republic where the citizen nobility owned the state) meant the king could not enforce a religious settlement even he if so desired. Instead the Catholic Church undertook a long and steady campaign of persuasion. In the Ruthenian lands (predominately modern day Belarus & Ukraine) the Orthodox Church also undertook a similar strategy. Additionally, the Orthodox also sought to join the Catholic Church (accomplished in the Union of Brest, Union of Brześć [Brest, Belarus, Brest]); however, this union failed to achieve a lasting, permanent, and complete union of the Catholics and Orthodox in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. An important component of the Catholic Reformation in Poland was education. Numerous colleges and universities were set up throughout the country: the Jesuits and Piarists were important in this regard but there were contributions of other religious orders such as the Dominican Order, Dominicans. While in the middle of the 16th century the nobility mostly sent their sons abroad for education (the new German Protestant universities were important in this regard), by the mid-1600s the nobility mostly stayed home for education. The quality of the new Catholic schools was so great that Protestants willingly sent their children to these schools. Through their education, many nobles became appreciative of Catholicism or out-right converted. Even though the majority of the nobility were Catholic circa 1700, Protestants remained in these lands and pockets of Protestantism could be found outside the German-speaking lands of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth into the 20th century. Among the most important Protestants of the Commonwealth were Mikołaj Rej, Marcin Czechowic, Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski and Symon Budny. For more information see the following: * Kot, Stanislas. ''Socinianism in Poland: The Social and Political Ideas of the Polish Antitrinitarians in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries''. Translated by Earl Morse Wilbur. Bacon Hill Boston: Starr King Press, 1957. * Tazbir, Janusz. ''A State without Stakes: Polish Religious Toleration in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries''. Translated by A. T. Jordan. Panstwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, 1973. * Kłoczowski, Jerzy. ''A History of Polish Christianity. [Dzieje Chrześcijaństwa Polskiego]''.English. Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. * Gudziak, Borys A. Crisis and Reform: The Kyivan Metropolitanate, the Patriarchate of Constantinople, and the Genesis of the Union of Brest. Harvard Series in Ukrainian Studies, 2001. * Teter, Magda. Jews and Heretics in Catholic Poland: A Beleaguered Church in the Post-Reformation Era. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. * Nowakowska, Natalia. King Sigismund of Poland and Martin Luther: The Reformation before Confessionalization. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2018.


Moldova

The Reformation was very insignificant in what is now Moldova and saw single congregations of Hussitism and Calvinism being founded across Besserabia. During the Reformation era, Moldova was repeatedly invaded.


Slovenia

Primož Trubar is notable for consolidating the Slovene language and is considered to be the key figure of Slovenian cultural history, in many aspects a major Slovene historical personality. He was the key figure of the Protestant Church of the Slovene Lands, as he was its founder and its first superintendent. The first books in Slovene, ''Catechismus'' and ''Abecedarium (Trubar), Abecedarium'', were written by Trubar.


Slovakia

At one point in history, the majority of Slovaks (~60%) were Lutherans. Calvinism was popular among the Hungarians who inhabited the southernmost parts of what is now Slovakia. Back then, Slovakia used to be a part of the Kingdom of Hungary. The
Counter-Reformation The Counter-Reformation (), also called the Catholic Reformation () or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic Church, Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revol ...
implemented by the Habsburgs severely damaged Slovakian Protestantism, although in the 2010s Protestants are still a substantial minority (~10%) in the country.


Croatia

Lutheranism reached northern parts of the country.


Serbia

Vojvodina turned partially
Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life ...
.


Greece

The Protestant teachings of the Western Church were also briefly adopted within the Eastern Orthodox Church through the Greek people, Greek Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Patriarch Cyril Lucaris in 1629 with the publishing of the ''Confessio'' (Calvinistic doctrine) in Geneva. Motivating factors in their decision to adopt aspects of the Reformation included the East–West Schism, historical rivalry and mistrust between the Greek Orthodox Church, Greek Orthodox and the Roman Catholic Churches along with their concerns of Jesuit priests entering Greek lands in their attempts to propagate the teachings of the
Counter-Reformation The Counter-Reformation (), also called the Catholic Reformation () or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic Church, Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revol ...
to the Greek populace. He subsequently sponsored Maximos of Gallipoli's Bible translations into Greek, translation of the New Testament into the Modern Greek language and it was published in Geneva in 1638. Upon Lucaris's death in 1638, the conservative factions within the Eastern Orthodox Church held two synods: the Synod of Constantinople (1638) and Synod of Iași (1642) criticising the reforms and, in the 1672 convocation led by Patriarch Dositheos II of Jerusalem, Dositheos, they officially condemned the Calvinistic doctrines. In 2019, Christos Yannaras told Norman Russell that although he had participated in the Zoë movement, he had come to regard it as Crypto-Protestant.


Ottoman Empire


Spread

The Reformation spread throughout Europe beginning in 1517, reaching its peak between 1545 and 1620. The greatest geographical extent of Protestantism occurred at some point between 1545 and 1620. In 1620, the Battle of White Mountain defeated Protestants in Bohemia (now the Czech Republic) who sought to have the 1609 Letter of Majesty upheld.
. The
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
began in 1618 and brought a drastic territorial and demographic decline when the House of Habsburg introduced counter-reformational measures throughout their vast possessions in Central Europe. Although the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
concluded with the
Peace of Westphalia The Peace of Westphalia (german: Westfälischer Friede, ) is the collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück Osnabrück (; wep, Ossenbrügge; archaic ''Osnaburg'') is a city in the ...
, the French Counter-Reformation#Politics, Wars of the Counter-Reformation continued, as well as the expulsion of Protestants in Austria. According to a 2020 study in the ''American Sociological Review'', the Reformation spread earliest to areas where Luther had pre-existing social relations, such as mail correspondents, and former students, as well as where he had visited. The study argues that these social ties contributed more to the Reformation's early breakthroughs than the printing press.


Conclusion and legacy

There is no universal agreement on the exact or approximate date the Reformation ended. Various interpretations emphasise different dates, entire periods, or argue that the Reformation never really ended. However, there are a few popular interpretations.
Peace of Augsburg The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman E ...
in 1555 officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups and made the legal division of Christianity permanent within the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Age ...
, allowing rulers to choose either Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism as the official Creed, confession of their state. It could be considered to end with the enactment of the Creed#Christian confessions of faith, confessions of faith. Other suggested ending years relate to the
Counter-Reformation The Counter-Reformation (), also called the Catholic Reformation () or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic Church, Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revol ...
or the 1648
Peace of Westphalia The Peace of Westphalia (german: Westfälischer Friede, ) is the collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück Osnabrück (; wep, Ossenbrügge; archaic ''Osnaburg'') is a city in the ...
. From a
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...

Catholic
perspective, the Second Vatican Council called for an end to the Counter-Reformation. *In the history of theology or philosophy, the Reformation era ended with the Age of Orthodoxy. The Orthodox Period, also termed the Template:17th-century scholasticism, Scholastic Period, succeeded the Reformation with the 1545–1563 ''Council of Trent'', the 1562 Anglican ''Thirty-nine Articles'', the 1580 ''Book of Concord'', and other Creed#Christian confessions of faith, confessions of faith. The Orthodox Era ended with the development of both Pietism and the Enlightenment. * The
Peace of Westphalia The Peace of Westphalia (german: Westfälischer Friede, ) is the collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück Osnabrück (; wep, Ossenbrügge; archaic ''Osnaburg'') is a city in the ...
might be considered to be the event that ended the Reformation. * Some historians argue that the Reformation never ended as new churches have splintered from the Catholic Church (e.g., Old Catholics, Polish National Catholic Church, etc.), as well as all the various Protestant churches that exist today. No church splintering from the Catholic Church since the 17th century has done so on the basis of the same issues animating the Reformation, however.


Thirty Years' War: 1618–1648

The Reformation and Counter-Reformation era conflicts are termed the European wars of religion. In particular, the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
(1618–1648) devastated much of Early Modern history of Germany, Germany, killing between 25% and 40% of its entire population. The Catholic House of Habsburg and its allies fought against the Protestant princes of Germany, supported at various times by Denmark, Sweden and Kingdom of France, France. The Habsburgs, who ruled Spain, Austria, the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Crown of Bohemia, Kingdom of Hungary, Hungary, Slovene Lands, the Spanish Netherlands and much of Germany and Italy, were staunch defenders of the Catholic Church. Some historians believe that the era of the Reformation came to a close when Catholic France allied itself with Protestant states against the Habsburg dynasty. Two main tenets of the
Peace of Westphalia The Peace of Westphalia (german: Westfälischer Friede, ) is the collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück Osnabrück (; wep, Ossenbrügge; archaic ''Osnaburg'') is a city in the ...
, which ended the Thirty Years' War, were: * All parties would now recognise the
Peace of Augsburg The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman E ...
of 1555, by which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state, the options being Catholicism, Lutheranism, and now Calvinism (the principle of ). * Christians living in principalities where their denomination was ''not'' the established church were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in public during allotted hours and in private at their will. The treaty also effectively ended the Papacy's pan-European political power. Pope Innocent X declared the treaty "null, void, invalid, iniquitous, unjust, damnable, reprobate, inane, empty of meaning and effect for all times" in his bull ''Zelo Domus Dei''. European sovereigns, Catholic and Protestant alike, ignored his verdict.Cross, (ed.) "Westphalia, Peace of" ''Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church''


Consequences of the Reformation

Six princes of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Age ...
and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free City, Imperial Free Cities, who issued protestation at Speyer, a protest (or dissent) against the edict of the Diet of Speyer (1529), were the first individuals to be called Protestants. The edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V Diet of Speyer (1526), three years earlier. The term ''protestant'', though initially purely political in nature, later acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. Today, Protestantism constitutes the List of Christian denominations by number of members, second-largest form of Christianity (after Catholicism), with a total of 800 million to 1 billion adherents worldwide or about 37% of all Christians. Protestants have developed Protestant culture, their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts and many other fields.Karl Heussi, ''Kompendium der Kirchengeschichte'', 11. Auflage (1956), Tübingen (Germany), pp. 317–319, 325–326 The following outcomes of the Reformation regarding human capital formation, the Protestant work ethic, Protestant ethic, economic development, governance, and "dark" outcomes have been identified by scholars:


Human capital formation

* Higher literacy rates. * Lower gender gap in school enrollment and literacy rates. * Higher primary school enrollment. * Higher public spending on schooling and better educational performance of military conscripts. * Higher capability in reading, numeracy, essay writing, and history.


Protestant ethic

* More hours worked. * Divergent work attitudes of Protestant and Catholics. * Fewer referendums on leisure, state intervention, and redistribution in Swiss cantons with more Protestants. * Lower life satisfaction when unemployed. * Pro-market attitudes. * Income differences between Protestants and Catholics.


Economic development

* Different levels of income tax revenue per capita, % of labor force in manufacturing and services, and incomes of male elementary school teachers. * Growth of Protestant cities. * Greater entrepreneurship among religious minorities in Protestant states. * Different social ethics. *Industrialization.


Governance

* The Reformation has been credited as a key factor in the development of the state system. * The Reformation has been credited as a key factor in the formation of transnational advocacy movements. * The Reformation impacted the Western legal tradition. * Establishment of state churches. * Poor relief and social welfare regimes. * James Madison noted that
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a Germans, German professor of Christian theology, theology, priest, author, composer, former Order of Saint Augustine, Augustinian monk, and is best known as a seminal f ...

Martin Luther
's two kingdoms doctrine, doctrine of the two kingdoms marked the beginning of the modern conception of separation of church and state. * The Calvinist and Lutheran doctrine of the lesser magistrate contributed to resistance theory in the Early Modern period and was employed in the United States Declaration of Independence. * Reformers such as Calvin promoted mixed government and the separation of powers,Jan Weerda, ''Calvin'', in ''Evangelisches Soziallexikon'', col. 210–11 which governments such as the United States subsequently adopted.


Other outcomes

* Witch trials became more common in regions or other jurisdictions where Protestants and Catholics contested the religious market. * Christopher J. Probst, in his book ''Demonizing the Jews: Luther and the Protestant Church in Nazi Germany'' (2012), shows that a large number of German Protestant clergy and theologians during the Nazi Third Reich used Luther's hostile publications towards the Jews and Judaism to justify at least in part the anti-Semitic policies of the National Socialists. * In its decree on Unitatis redintegratio, ecumenism, the Second Vatican Council of Catholic Bishops declared that by contemporary dialogue that, while still holding views as the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church, between the churches "all are led to examine their own faithfulness to Christ's will for the Church and accordingly to undertake with vigor the task of renewal and reform" (''Unitatis Redintegratio'', 4).


Historiography

Margaret C. Jacob argues that there has been a dramatic shift in the historiography of the Reformation. Until the 1960s, historians focused their attention largely on the great leaders and theologians of the 16th century, especially Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli. Their ideas were studied in depth. However, the rise of the social history, new social history in the 1960s led to looking at history from the bottom up, not from the top down. Historians began to concentrate on the values, beliefs and behavior of the people at large. She finds, "in contemporary scholarship, the Reformation is now seen as a vast cultural upheaval, a social and popular movement, textured and rich because of its diversity."Jacob ''Living the Enlightenment'' p. 215


Music and art

Painting and sculpture *Northern Mannerism#Northern Mannerism, politics and religion, Northern Mannerism *Lutheran art#Reformation era, Lutheran art *German Renaissance#Art, German Renaissance Art *Swedish art#Renaissance and Baroque art, Swedish art *English art#16th and 17th centuries, English art *Old master print#The North after Dürer, Woodcuts *Art in the Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation, Art conflicts *Beeldenstorm Building *Church architecture#The Reformation and its influence on church architecture, Influence on church architecture Literature *Elizabethan literature, Elizabethan *Metaphysical poets *Propaganda during the Reformation, Propaganda *Welsh-language literature#16th and 17th centuries, Welsh *Scottish literature#Early modern era, Scottish *Irish literature#The manuscript tradition, Anglo-Irish *German literature#German Renaissance and Reformation, German *Czech literature#Reformation, Czech *Swiss literature#Emergence of vernacular literature, Swiss *Slovak literature#1500-1650, Slovak *Sorbian literature, Sorbian *Romanian literature#Beginnings, Romanian *Danish literature#16th and 17th centuries, Danish *Faroese literature#Reformation era, Faroese *Norwegian literature#"Four Hundred Years of Darkness", Norwegian *Swedish literature#Reformation literature, Swedish *Finnish literature#Pre-Nineteenth century, Finnish *Icelandic literature#Middle Icelandic literature, Icelandic *Dutch Renaissance and Golden Age literature, Dutch Renaissance and Golden Age *Folklore of the Low Countries#In folk tales, Folklore of the Low Countries *Renaissance humanism#Sixteenth century and beyond, 16th century Renaissance humanism *16th century in poetry *16th century in literature *English Renaissance theatre Musical forms *Hymnody of continental Europe#Reformation, Hymnody of continental Europe *Early music of the British Isles#Reformation, Music of the British Isles *Hymn tune#The Reformation, Hymn tune *Lutheran chorale *Lutheran hymn *Anglican church music#History, Anglican church music *Exclusive psalmody *Anglican chant *Homophony vs. Polyphony#European polyphony, Polyphony Liturgies *Reformed worship#General principles and historical overview, Reformed worship *Regulative principle of worship#John Calvin's Liturgy, Calvin's liturgy *Formula missae *Deutsche Messe *Ecclesiastical Latin *Mass (music)#Renaissance, Lutheran and Anglican Mass in music *Cyclic mass vs. Paraphrase mass *Pre-Tridentine Mass, Roman vs. Use of Sarum, Sarum Rites *Sequence (musical form), Sequence (retained by Lutherans, mostly banned by Trent) Hymnals *First Lutheran hymnal, First and Erfurt Enchiridion, Second Lutheran hymnals *Eyn geystlich Gesangk Buchleyn, First Wittenberg hymnal *Swenske songer eller wisor 1536, Swenske songer *Thomissøn's hymnal *Ausbund *Book of Common Prayer *Metrical psalters *Souterliedekens *Book of Common Order *Genevan Psalter *Hymnbooks of the Church of Scotland#Scottish Psalter (1564), Scottish Psalter Secular music *English Madrigal School *''Greensleeves'' *Madrigal#Continental Europe, German madrigals *Moravian traditional music#History, Moravian traditional music *Meistersinger Partly due to Martin Luther's love for music, music became important in Lutheranism. The study and practice of music was encouraged in Protestant-majority countries. Songs such as the Lutheran hymns or the Calvinist Psalter became tools for the spread of Protestant ideas and beliefs, as well as identity flags. Similar attitudes developed among Catholics, who in turn encouraged the creation and use of music for religious purposes.Chiara Bertoglio ''Reforming Music. Music and the Religious Reformations of the Sixteenth Century (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2017)''


See also

* Women in the Protestant Reformation * Anti-Catholicism * Criticism of Protestantism * Book of Concord * Catholic-Protestant relations * Concordat of Worms * Confessionalization *
Counter-Reformation The Counter-Reformation (), also called the Catholic Reformation () or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic Church, Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revol ...
, the Catholic response * European wars of religion * Free Grace theology * Historiography of religion * List of Protestant Reformers * Propaganda during the Reformation * Protestant culture * Protestantism in Germany * Proto-Protestantism * Church architecture#The Reformation and its influence on church architecture, The Reformation and its influence on church architecture * European City of the Reformation


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading


Surveys

* Appold, Kenneth G. ''The Reformation: A Brief History'' (2011
online
* Collinson, Patrick. ''The Reformation: A History'' (2006) * Elton, Geoffrey R. and Andrew Pettegree, eds. ''Reformation Europe: 1517–1559'' (1999
excerpt and text search
* Elton, G.R., ed. ''The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 2: The Reformation, 1520–1559'' (1st ed. 1958
online free
* Gassmann, Günther, and Mark W. Oldenburg. ''Historical dictionary of Lutheranism'' (Scarecrow Press, 2011). * Hillerbrand, Hans J. ''The Protestant Reformation'' (2nd ed. 2009) * Hsia, R. Po-chia, ed. ''A Companion to the Reformation World'' (2006) * Lindberg, Carter. ''The European Reformations'' (2nd ed. 2009) * Mourret, Fernand. ''History of the Catholic Church'' (vol 5 1931) online free; pp. 325–516; by French Catholic scholar * * * Sascha O. Becker, Steven Pfaff and Jared Rubin. ''Causes and Consequences of the Protestant Reformation'' (2015
online
* Spitz, Lewis William (2003). ''The Protestant Reformation: 1517–1559''.


Theology

* Bagchi, David, and David C. Steinmetz, eds. ''The Cambridge Companion to Reformation Theology'' (2004) * * Barrett, Matthew, and Michael Horton. ''Reformation Theology: A Systematic Summary'' (2017). * Carl Braaten, Braaten, Carl E. and Robert W. Jenson. ''The Catholicity of the Reformation''. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996. . * Cunningham, William. ''The Reformers and the Theology of the Reformation'' (2013). * Payton, James R., Jr. ''Getting the Reformation Wrong: Correcting Some Misunderstandings'' (IVP Academic, 2010) *


Primary sources in translation

* Fosdick, Harry Emerson, ed. ''Great Voices of the Reformation [and of other putative reformers before and after it]: an Anthology'', ed., with an introd. and commentaries, by Harry Emerson Fosdick. (Modern Library, 1952). xxx, 546 pp. * Janz, Denis, ed. ''A Reformation Reader: Primary Texts with Introductions'' (2008
excerpt and text search
* Littlejohn, Bradford, and Jonathan Roberts eds. ''Reformation Theology: A Reader of Primary Sources with Introductions'' (2018). * Martin Luther, Luther, Martin ''Luther's Correspondence and Other Contemporary Letters'', 2 vols., tr. and ed. by Preserved Smith, Charles Michael Jacobs, The Lutheran Publication Society, Philadelphia, Pa. 1913, 1918. vol.2 (1521–1530) from Google Books. Reprint of Vol. 1, Wipf & Stock Publishers (March 2006). . * Spitz, Lewis W. ''The Protestant Reformation: Major Documents''. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1997. .


Historiography

* * * * * 443 pp
excerpt
* * * * * * * Howard, Thomas A. and Mark A. Noll, eds. ''Protestantism after 500 Years'' (Oxford UP, 2016) pp. 384. * * * * * Kooi, Christine. "The Reformation in the Netherlands: Some Historiographic Contributions in English." ''Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte'' 100.1 (2009): 293–307. * * * * * * * * * * Walsham, Alexandra. "Toleration, Pluralism, and Coexistence: The Ambivalent Legacies of the Reformation." ''Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte-Archive for Reformation History'' 108.1 (2017): 181–190
Online
*


External links




16th Century Reformation Reading Room
Extensive online resources, Tyndale Seminary

From th
Rare Book and Special Collections Division
at the Library of Congress
An ecumenical official valuation by Lutherans and Catholics 500 years later


* {{Authority control Protestant Reformation, Anti-Catholicism 16th-century Lutheranism, Reformation Schisms in Christianity Schisms from the Catholic Church