A real estate investment trust (REIT) is a company that owns, and in most cases operates, income-producing
real estate Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more genera ...
. REITs own many types of commercial real estate, including
office An office is a space where an organization's employees perform administrative work in order to support and realize objects and goals of the organization. The word "office" may also denote a position within an organization with specific ...
apartment An apartment (American English), or flat (British English, Indian English, South African English), is a self-contained housing unit (a type of residential real estate) that occupies part of a building, generally on a single story. There are ma ...
buildings, warehouses, hospitals, shopping centers, hotels and commercial forests. Some REITs engage in financing real estate. Most countries' laws on REITs entitle a real estate company to pay less in corporation tax and
capital gains tax A capital gains tax (CGT) is the tax on profits realized on the sale of a non-inventory asset. The most common capital gains are realized from the sale of stocks, bonds, precious metals, real estate, and property. Not all countries impose ...
. REITs have been criticised as enabling speculation on housing, and reducing housing affordability, without increasing finance for building. REITs can be
publicly traded A public company is a company whose ownership is organized via shares of stock which are intended to be freely traded on a stock exchange or in over-the-counter markets. A public (publicly traded) company can be listed on a stock exchange (li ...
on major exchanges, publicly registered but non-listed, or private. The two main types of REITs are equity REITs and mortgage REITs (mREITs). In November 2014, equity REITs were recognized as a distinct asset class in the
Global Industry Classification Standard The Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS) is an industry taxonomy developed in 1999 by MSCI and Standard & Poor's (S&P) for use by the global financial community. The GICS structure consists of 11 sectors, 24 industry groups, 69 industrie ...
by S&P Dow Jones Indices and
MSCI MSCI Inc. is an American finance company headquartered in New York City. MSCI is a global provider of equity, fixed income, real estate indexes, multi-asset portfolio analysis tools, ESG and climate products. It operates the MSCI World, MS ...
. The key statistics to examine the financial position and operation of a REIT include
net asset value Net asset value (NAV) is the value of an entity's assets minus the value of its liabilities, often in relation to open-end, mutual funds, hedge funds, and venture capital funds. Shares of such funds registered with the U.S. Securities and Exch ...
funds from operations Funds from operations (FFO) is the term that investors use in order to describe the cash flow of a real estate company or a real estate investment trust (REIT). FFO is a performance indicator created by the National Association of Real Estate Invest ...
(FFO), and adjusted funds from operations (AFFO).



REITs were created in the United States after President
Dwight D. Eisenhower Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (born David Dwight Eisenhower; ; October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American military officer and statesman who served as the 34th president of the United States from 1953 to 1961. During World War II, ...
signed Public Law 86-779, sometimes called the Cigar Excise Tax Extension of 1960. The law was enacted to give all investors the opportunity to invest in large-scale, diversified portfolios of income-producing real estate in the same way they typically invest in other asset classes – through the purchase and sale of liquid securities. The first REIT was American Realty Trust founded by Thomas J. Broyhill, cousin of Virginia U.S. Congressman Joel Broyhill in 1961 who pushed for the creation under Eisenhower. As of 2021, at least 39 countries around the world have established REITs. A comprehensive index for the REIT and global listed property market is the FTSE EPRA/Nareit Global Real Estate Index Series, which was created jointly in October 2001 by the index provider FTSE Group, Nareit and the
European Public Real Estate Association The European Public Real Estate Association (EPRA), is a non-profit association representing Europe's publicly listed property companies. It is run by an independent Board of Directors chaired by Pere Viñolas Serra. History From its formation ...
(EPRA). As of 29 January 2021, the global index included 490 stock exchange listed real estate companies from 39 countries representing an equity market capitalization of about $1.7 trillion.


Around the time of their creation in 1960, the first REITs primarily consisted of mortgage companies. The industry experienced significant expansion in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The growth primarily resulted from the increased use of mREITs in
land development Land development is the alteration of landscape in any number of ways such as: * Changing landforms from a natural or semi-natural state for a purpose such as agriculture or housing * Subdividing real estate into lots, typically for the purpose ...
and construction deals. The
Tax Reform Act of 1976 The Tax Reform Act of 1976 was passed by the United States Congress in September 1976, and signed into law by President Gerald Ford Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. ( ; born Leslie Lynch King Jr.; July 14, 1913December 26, 2006) was an American pol ...
authorized REITs to be established as corporations in addition to business trusts. The Tax Reform Act of 1986 also impacted REITs. The legislation included new rules designed to prevent taxpayers from using partnerships to shelter their earnings from other sources. Three years later, REITs witnessed significant losses in the stock market. Retail REIT Taubman Centers Inc. launched the modern era of REITs in 1992 with its creation of the UPREIT. In an UPREIT, the parties of an existing partnership and a REIT become partners in a new "operating partnership". The REIT typically is the general partner and the majority owner of the operating partnership units, and the partners who contributed properties have the right to exchange their operating partnership units for REIT shares or cash. The industry struggled beginning in 2007 as the global financial crisis kicked in. In response to the global credit crisis, listed REITs responded by deleveraging (paying off debt) and re-equitizing (selling stock to get cash) their balance sheets. Listed REITs and REOCs raised $37.5 billion in 91 secondary equity offerings, nine IPOs and 37 unsecured debt offerings as investors continued to act favorably to companies strengthening their balance sheets following the credit crisis. REIT dividends have a 100 percent payout ratio for all income at lower rates. This inhibits internal growth of the REIT and causes investors to not tolerate low or non-existent yields as the interest rates are more sensitive. Economic climates characterized by rising interest rates can cause a net negative effect on REIT shares. The dividends paid by REITs look less attractive when compared to bonds that have increasing coupon rates. Also, when investors shy away from REITs, it makes it difficult for management to raise additional funds to acquire more property.



The first REIT in
Kenya ) , national_anthem = "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"() , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Nairobi , coordinates = , largest_city = Nairobi , ...
was approved by the Capital Markets Authority in October 2015. The REIT is issued by Stanlib Kenya under the name Fahari I-Reit scheme. The REIT scheme will provide unit holders stable cash inflows from the income generating real estate properties. The unrestricted IPO will be listed on the main investment market segment of the Nairobi Securities Exchange.


REITs have been in existence in Ghana since 1994. The Home Finance Company, now HFC Bank, established the first REIT in Ghana in August 1994. HFC Bank has been at the forefront of mortgage financing in Ghana since 1993. It has used various collective investment schemes as well as corporate bonds to finance its mortgage lending activities. Collective Investment Schemes, of which REITs are a part, are regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission of Ghana.


In 2007, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) issued the first set of guidelines for the registration and issuance of requirements for the operation of REITs in Nigeria as detailed in the Investment and Securities Act (ISA). The first REIT, the N50 billion Union Homes Hybrid Real Estate Investment Trust, was launched in September 2008. In November 2015 there were three listed REITS on the Nigerian Stock Exchange: Skye Shelter Fund, Union Home and UPDC. A Haldane McCall REIT did not list after failing to reach the minimum 50% subscription in a January 2015 initial public offer amid poor market prospects.

South Africa

By October 2015 there were 33 South African REITS and three non-South African REITs listed on the
Johannesburg Stock Exchange JSE Limited (previously the JSE Securities Exchange and the Johannesburg Stock Exchange) is the largest stock exchange in Africa. It is located in Sandton, Johannesburg, South Africa, after it moved from downtown Johannesburg in 2000. In 2003 ...
, according to the SA REIT Association, which said market capitalization was more than R455 billion.



The REIT concept was launched in Australia in 1971. General Property Trust was the first Australian real estate investment trust (LPT) on the Australian stock exchanges (now the
Australian Securities Exchange Australian Securities Exchange Ltd or ASX, is an Australian public company that operates Australia's primary securities exchange, the Australian Securities Exchange (sometimes referred to outside of Australia as, or confused within Australia as, ...
). REITs which are listed on an exchange were known as Listed Property Trusts (LPTs) until March 2008, distinguishing them from private REITs which are known in Australia as Unlisted Property Trusts. They have since been renamed Australian Real Estate Investment Trusts (A-REITs) in line with international practice.Mahipal Singh, Security Analysis with Investment and Portfolio Management, Isha Books 2011, page 145. REITs have shown numerous benefits over direct investment including lower tax rates and increased liquidity. There are now more than 70 A-REITs listed on the ASX, with market capitalization in excess of A$100bn. Australia is also receiving growing recognition as having the world's largest REITs market outside the United States. More than 12 percent of global listed property trusts can be found on the ASX.

Hong Kong

REITs have been in existence in Hong Kong since 2005, when
The Link REIT Link Real Estate Investment Trust (, or ; previously known as The Link Real Estate Investment Trust (, or ), managed by Link Asset Management Limited, is the first real estate investment trust in Hong Kong and currently the largest in Asia ...
was launched by the
Hong Kong Housing Authority The Hong Kong Housing Authority (HA) is the main provider of public housing in Hong Kong. It was established in April 1973 under the Housing Ordinance and is an agency of the Government of Hong Kong. In the same year, the Resettlement Depar ...
on behalf of the Hong Kong Government. Since 2005, there have been 7 REIT listings as at July 2007, most of which, including Sunlight REIT have not enjoyed success because of low yield. Except for The Link and Regal Real Estate Investment Trust, share prices of all but one are significantly below initial public offering (IPO) price. Hong Kong issuers' use of financial engineering (
interest rate swap In finance, an interest rate swap (IRS) is an interest rate derivative (IRD). It involves exchange of interest rates between two parties. In particular it is a "linear" IRD and one of the most liquid, benchmark products. It has associations wit ...
s) to improve initial yields has also been cited as having reduced investors' interest As of July 2012 there are nine REITs listed with a total market capitalisation of approximately €15 billion which amounts to almost 2% of the total global REIT market capitalisation. Two out of the nine listed REITs are also included in the EPRA index, an index published by the
European Public Real Estate Association The European Public Real Estate Association (EPRA), is a non-profit association representing Europe's publicly listed property companies. It is run by an independent Board of Directors chaired by Pere Viñolas Serra. History From its formation ...
(EPRA). The current top five REITs in Hong Kong are The Link REIT with a total market capitalisation of €8 billion, Hui Xian REIT with a total market capitalisation of €2.3 billion, Champion REIT with a total market capitalisation of €1.8 billion, Fortune REIT with a total market capitalisation of €1 billion and with a total market capitalisation of €700 million.


As of August 2014,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the so ...
approved creation of real estate investment trusts in the country. Indian REITs (country specific/generic version I-REITs) will help individual investors enjoy the benefits of owning an interest in the securitised real estate market. The greatest benefit will be that of fast and easy liquidation of investments in the real estate market unlike the traditional way of disposing of real estate. The government and
Securities and Exchange Board of India The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is the regulatory body for securities and commodity market in India under the ownership of Ministry of Finance within the Government of India. It was established on 12 April 1988 as an executiv ...
through various notifications is in the process of making it easier to invest in real estate in India directly and indirectly through foreign direct investment, through listed real estate companies and mutual funds. In the budget of 2014, finance minister Arun Jaitley has introduced a law for setting up of REITs. As in 2021, there are three REITs listed in National Stock Exchange of India. These are Embassy, Mindspace and Brookfields. Overall, the shareholding of Indian REITs is skewed towards institutional investors (mostly FPIs), with very minimal contribution from retail investors.


CSRC (China Securities Regulatory Commission) and NDRC (National Development and Reform Commission) jointly announced the start of pilot projects in REITs on April 30, 2020. This official announcement represents the beginning of REITs in Mainland China.


Japan permitted the establishment of REITs in December 2001. J-REIT securities are traded on the
Tokyo Stock Exchange The , abbreviated as Tosho () or TSE/TYO, is a stock exchange located in Tokyo, Japan. It is the third largest stock exchange in the world by aggregate market capitalization of its listed companies, and the largest in Asia. It had 2,292 listed ...
among other exchanges in Japan. A J-REIT (a listed real estate investment trust) is strictly regulated under the Law concerning Investment Trusts and Investment Companies (LITIC) and established as an investment company under the LITIC. In addition to REITs, Japanese law also provides for a parallel system of special purpose companies which can be used for the securitization of particular properties on the private placement basis. REIT shares targeted in 2016 accounted for 7 percent of the United States market, which were subsequently sold for less than half of the initial value at $31 billion.


The Bursa Malaysia has 18 REIT listed with five Islamic REITS (shariah compliant – according to Islamic investment compliance).


Dana Investasi Real Estat Berbentuk Kontrak Investasi Kolektif (DIREs) have lacked popularity because of high sale tax and double taxation. Until 2016, only one DIRE was established, which was in 2012. However, tax incentives plans demonstrate an intention of policymakers and lawmakers to boost the competitiveness of the market, and to encourage DIREs to be listed domestically.


The Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan is in the process of implementing a REIT regulatory framework that will allow full foreign ownership, free movement of capital and unrestricted repatriation of profits. It will curb speculation in Pakistani real estate markets and gives access to small investors who want to diversify into real estate. The Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan is proposing a regulatory framework similar to that of Singapore and Hong Kong. The Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan expected that about six REITs would be licensed within the first year, mainly large asset management companies. Pakistan has seen an outflow of investments by foreign real estate development companies, mostly based in Malaysia and Dubai. SECP has issued licenses to four parties namely, Arif Habib REIT Management Company, AKD REIT Management Company, Eden Developers REIT Management Company and SB Global REIT Management Company.


The legal framework enabling the establishment of REITs in the Philippines have been in place after the Real Estate Investment Trust Act of 2009 (Republic Act No. 9856) passed into law on December 17, 2009. Its Implementing Rules and Regulations were approved by the Securities and Exchange Commission in May 2010. However, it failed to attract investors due to its restrictive tax policies and high friction cost. Regulations on REITs was relaxed in January 2020 which led to the establishment of the first REIT in the country, AREIT Inc. of
Ayala Land Ayala Land, Inc. (ALI) is a real estate firm based in the Philippines. It is a subsidiary of Ayala Corporation. It began as a division of Ayala Corporation until it was spun off and incorporated in 1988. It became publicly listed in the Phili ...
which had its public offering in August of the same year. However foreign investors still have poor reception towards REITs during that year when there was also a prevailing COVID-19 pandemic.


Commonly referred to as S-REITs, there are more than 40 REITs listed on the
Singapore Exchange The Singapore Exchange Limited (SGX) is a Singaporean investment holding company that provides different services related to securities and derivatives trading and others. SGX is also a member of the World Federation of Exchanges and the Asi ...
, with the latest REIT, Cromwell European REIT, listed on 30 November 2017. The first one to be set up being CapitaMall Trust in July 2002. They represent a range of property sectors including retail, office, industrial, hospitality and residential. S-REITs hold a variety of properties in countries including Japan, China, Indonesia and Hong Kong, in addition to local properties. In recent years, foreign assets listing on the Singapore Exchange has grown to overtake those traditional listing with local assets. S-REITs are regulated as Collective Investment Schemes under the Monetary Authority of Singapore's Code on Collective Investment Schemes, or alternatively as Business Trusts. Some of the regulations that S-REITs have to adhere to includes: * Maximum
gearing ratio The debt-to-equity ratio (D/E) is a financial ratio indicating the relative proportion of shareholders' equity and debt used to finance a company's assets. Closely related to leveraging, the ratio is also known as risk, gearing or leverage. The two ...
of 35% * Annual valuation of its properties * Restriction to certain types of investments the S-REITs can make * Distribution of at least 90% of its taxable income S-REITs benefit from tax advantaged status where the tax is payable only at the investor level and not at the REITs level. In addition to REITs, there are ten Business Trusts ("BTs") (similar to REITs but may hold assets that are not conventional and are not subjected to stringent rules as compared to SREITs), and six Stapled Instruments (composed of a stapled Business Trust Unit and a REIT unit), which are listed on the Singapore Exchange. The total market capitalisation of the listed Trust on Singapore Exchange approximate SGD 100 billion (as at 30 Nov 17).


The Securities and Exchange Commission created regulations to establish REITs as an investment vehicle in late 2012, opening the doors for the first REITs to be listed in 2013. There are at least two tens of REITS. Introduced in 2014 to replace the Property Funds for Public Offering (PFPO) scheme, REITs have gained popularity, and the total market capitalisation has reached THB 85 billion across two million square metres of assets.

United Arab Emirates

The REIT legislation was introduced by
Dubai International Financial Centre The Dubai International Financial Centre (DIFC) is a special economic zone in Dubai covering , established in 2004 as a financial hub for companies operating throughout the Middle East, Africa and South Asia (MEASA) markets. DIFC is regulated by ...
(DIFC) to promote the development of REIT's in the UAE by passing The Investment Trust Law No.5 that went into effect on August 6, 2006. This restricts all 'true' REIT structures to be domiciled within the DIFC. The first REIT license to be issued will be backed by Dubai Islamic Bank with a REIT named 'Emirates REIT' headed up by the dot com entrepreneur, Sylvain Vieujot. The issue is that DIFC domiciled REITs cannot acquire non-Freezone assets within the Emirate of Dubai. The only federally approved Freezone within the UAE is the DIFC itself so therefore any properties outside this zone are purchasable by local Gulf (GCC) passport holders only. However, through a collaboration with local authorities, Emirates REIT has been able to establish a platform enabling it to purchase properties anywhere in Dubai given a minimum of 51% of local ownership of its shares. This allows the company to diversify its portfolio with an efficient revenue generating mix of properties in the prime locations of Dubai. Emirates REIT is the first REIT established within the United Arab Emirates. It is also the first REIT listed on NASDAQ Dubai and one of the five Shari'a compliant REIT in the world with a focus on Income-producing assets. Emirates REIT has a portfolio of over US$575.3 million consisting of a total of seven properties primarily focus on commercial and office space as of Dec 2014. It has had substantial growth over the last four years.

Saudi Arabia

Commonly referred to as Real Estate Investment Fund, the regulations were launched in July 2006 by the Saudi Capital Market Authority, The regulation did not allow the funds to be traded in the stock market and force all funds to be structured by a licensed Investment companies by CMA with a presence of a real estate developer and some other key persons.

Sri Lanka

On 1 August 2020, the Securities and Exchange Commission of Sri Lanka (SEC) announced that REITS will be introduced as an extension of the current Unit Trust Code and the new Rules, which came into effect from 31 July 2020 is in the form of a Gazette Notification published by the SEC. These Rules which are comprehensive, will govern the setting up of and the conduct of a Sri Lankan REITs. Specific provisions have been included for the verification of title and valuation of property that will form part of the assets of the REIT. Amongst the requirements is the mandatory distribution of approximately 90% of income to the unit holders, which is currently not a requirement for any of the listed entities. Further, due to the availability of the tax pass through mechanism to Unit Trusts, REITs also could benefit to be a viable business concept to Sri Lanka that will open new horizons for entrepreneurs to take the real estate industry to greater heights.



Bernheim Comofi (now AG Real Estate) introduced Belgian REITs in 1995 with the constitution of Befimmo. Others REITs in Belgium include
Cofinimmo Cofinimmo is the foremost listed Belgian real estate company specialising in rental property. The company owns a property portfolio worth over €4 billion, representing a total area of nearly 2,000,000m² spread over Belgium, The Netherlands, Fra ...
and Ascensio.


REITs were introduced in Bulgaria in 2004 with the Special Purpose Investment Companies Act. They are pass-through entities for corporate income tax purposes (i.e., they are not subject to corporate income-tax), but are subject to numerous restrictions.


Finnish REITs were established in 2010, when the Finnish parliament passed "the tax exemption law" (Laki eräiden asuntojen vuokraustoimintaa harjoittavien osakeyhtiöiden verohuojennuksesta, 299/2009). Together with the "Law on Real Estate Funds" (Kiinteistörahastolaki, 1173–1997) it enables the existence of tax-efficient residential REITs. ''Qualifications'' * REITs have to be established as public listed companies (julkinen osakeyhtiö, Oyj) for this specific purpose. When the REIT is established the minimum equity is 5M€ and it has to be distributed over five separate investors. * Minimum holding period: five years. * At least 80% of its assets have to be invested in residential real-estate. * At least 80% of the REIT's gross revenues must come from residential rental income. * At least 90% of the REIT's taxable income, excluding unrealised capital gains, has to be distributed to its shareholders through dividends. * The corporation is income-tax-exempt, but the shareholders will have to pay individual income tax on the dividends. * The largest individual shareholder may own less than 10% of company shares (maximum 30% till the end of 2013). Orava Residential REIT is the only REIT in Finland.


The French acronyms for REIT are ''SIIC'' or "SCPI" (which are two different kinds of real-estate trust). In
France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic, Pacific Ocean, Pac ...
, Unibail-Rodamco is the largest SIIC. Gecina is the second-largest publicly traded property company in France, with the third-highest asset value among European REITs.


Germany Germany,, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the second most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is situated betwee ...
planned to introduce REITs in order to create a new type of real estate investment vehicle. The Government feared that failing to introduce REITs in Germany would result in a significant loss of investment capital to other countries. Nonetheless, there still is political resistance to these plans, especially from the Social Democratic Party. In June 2006 the
ministry of finance A ministry of finance is a part of the government in most countries that is responsible for matters related to the finance. Lists of current ministries of finance Named "Ministry" * Ministry of Finance (Afghanistan) * Ministry of Finance and ...
announced that they planned to introduce REITs in 2007. The legal details seem to adopt much of the British REIT regulation. A law concerning REITs was enacted 1 June 2007, effective retroactively to 1 January 2007: * REITs have to be established as corporations - "REIT-AG" or "REIT-
Aktiengesellschaft (; abbreviated AG, ) is a German word for a corporation limited by share ownership (i.e. one which is owned by its shareholders) whose shares may be traded on a stock market. The term is used in Germany, Austria, Switzerland (where it is equiva ...
". * At least 75% of its assets have to be invested in real estate. * At least 75% of the G-REIT's gross revenues must be real-estate related. * At least 90% of the REIT's taxable income has to be distributed to its shareholders through dividends. * The corporation is income-tax-exempt, but the shareholders will have to pay individual income tax on the dividends. * Investments in residential properties built before 1 January 2007 are not permitted. The German public real-estate sector accounts for 0.21% of the total global REIT market capitalization. Three out of the four G-REITS are represented in the EPRA index, an index managed by the
European Public Real Estate Association The European Public Real Estate Association (EPRA), is a non-profit association representing Europe's publicly listed property companies. It is run by an independent Board of Directors chaired by Pere Viñolas Serra. History From its formation ...


The 2013 Finance Act contained provisions for creating REIT structures in Ireland. Irish based REITs include Hibernia REIT, Green REIT, Yew Grove REIT and IRES REIT.


Created in 2009, similar to British REITs, the SOCIMI (Sociedad cotizada de Capital Inmobiliario) boosted after a policy of fiscal incentives to help recover the biggest home prices crisis in Spain, in 2013. There are more than 70 REITS in Spain, but the liquidity is low and the holding period is large.

United Kingdom

The legislation laying out the rules for REITs in the United Kingdom was enacted in the Finance Act 2006 (now see the
Corporation Tax Act 2010 The Corporation Tax Act 2010 (c.4) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that received Royal Assent on 3 March 2010. It was first presented ( first reading) in the House of Commons on 19 November 2009 and received its third reading ...
sections 518 to 609) and came into effect in January 2007 when nine UK property-companies converted to REIT status, including five FTSE 100 members at that time: British Land, Hammerson,
Land Securities Land Securities Group plc is the largest commercial property development and investment company in the United Kingdom. The firm became a real estate investment trust (REIT) when REITs were introduced in the United Kingdom in January 2007. It ...
, Liberty International and Slough Estates (now known as "SEGRO"). The other four companies were
Brixton Brixton is a district in south London, part of the London Borough of Lambeth, England. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. Brixton experienced a rapid rise in population during the 19th cen ...
(now known as "SEGRO"), Great Portland Estates, Primary Health Properties and Workspace Group. British REITs have to distribute 90% of their income to investors. They must be a close-ended
investment trust An investment trust is a form of investment fund found mostly in the United Kingdom and Japan. Investment trusts are constituted as public limited companies and are therefore closed ended since the fund managers cannot redeem or create shares. ...
and be UK-resident and publicly listed on a
stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an exchange where stockbrokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock, bonds and other financial instruments. Stock exchanges may also provide facilities for the ...
. The EPRA in Brussels each year publishes a breakdown of the UK REIT structure requirements. To support the introduction of REITs in the UK, several commercial property and financial-services companies formed the REITs and Quoted Property Group. Other key bodies involved include the London Stock Exchange the British Property Federation and Reita. The Reita campaign was launched on 16 August 2006 by the REITs and Quoted Property Group in order to provide a source of information on REITs, quoted property and related investment-funds. Reita aims to raise awareness and understanding of REITs and of investment in quoted property companies. It does this primarily through its portal www.reita.org, providing knowledge, education and tools for financial advisers and investors. Doug Naismith, managing director of European Personal Investments for Fidelity International, said in 2011: "As existing markets expand and REIT-like structures are introduced in more countries, we expect to see the overall market grow by some ten percent per annum over the next five years, taking the market to $1 trillion by 2010." The
Finance Act 2012 The Finance Act 2012 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom enacting the 2012 United Kingdom Budget. The Chancellor of the Exchequer delivers the annual budget speech outlining changes in spending, tax, duty and other financial matter ...
brought five main changes to the REIT regime in the UK: # the abolition of the 2% entry charge to join the regime - this should make REITs more attractive due to reduced costs # relaxation of the listing requirements - REITs can now be AIM quoted (the London Stock Exchange's international market for smaller growing companies) – making a listing more attractive due to reduced costs and greater flexibility # a REIT now has a three-year grace period before having to comply with close company rules (a close company is a company under the control of five or fewer investors) # a REIT will not be considered to be a close company if it can be made close by the inclusion of institutional investors (authorised unit trusts, OEICs, pension schemes, insurance companies and bodies which are sovereign immune) - this makes REITs attractive investment trusts # the interest cover test of 1.25 times finance costs is not as onerous Boyd Carson of Sapphire Capital Partners LLP commented that "the most important of these advantages is the ability for REITs to be listed on the AIM and the abolition of the 2% entry charge to the regime is also a significant step forward." However, "UK-REITs are still not as cash driven as the market would likely prefer".

North America


Canadian REITs were established in 1993. They are required to be configured as
trusts A trust is a legal relationship in which the holder of a right gives it to another person or entity who must keep and use it solely for another's benefit. In the Anglo-American common law, the party who entrusts the right is known as the "sett ...
and are not taxed if they distribute their net
taxable income Taxable income refers to the base upon which an income tax system imposes tax. In other words, the income over which the government imposed tax. Generally, it includes some or all items of income and is reduced by expenses and other deductions. T ...
to shareholders. REITs have been excluded from the income trust tax legislation passed in the 2007 budget by the Conservative government. Many Canadian REITs have limited liability. On December 16, 2010, the Department of Finance proposed amendments to the rules defining “Qualifying REITs” for Canadian tax purposes. As a result, “Qualifying REITs” are exempt from the new entity-level, “specified investment flow-through” (SIFT) tax that all publicly traded income trusts and partnerships are paying as of January 1, 2011.


Mexico has passed legislation to allow for the equivalent of REITs, known as FIBRAs (Fideicomiso de Infraestructura y Bienes Raíces), to be traded in the Mexican Stock Exchange. Like REITs legislation in other countries, companies must qualify as a FIBRA by complying with the following rules: * at least 70% of assets must be invested in financing or owning of real estate assets, with the remaining amount invested in government-issued securities or debt-instrument mutual funds. * Acquired or developed real estate assets must be income generating and held for at least four years. * If shares, known as Certificados de Participación Inmobiliarios or CPIs, are issued privately, there must be more than 10 unrelated investors in the FIBRA. * The FIBRA must distribute 95% of annual profits to investors. The first Mexican REIT was launched in 2011 and is called FIBRA UNO. According to '' The Wall Street Journal'', Mexican REITs debuted in March 2011 "after government regulatory changes made the structure possible. Fibras offered investors an easy way to own Mexican real estate and pick up an attractive dividend at the same time. Like U.S. REITs, Fibras avoid paying corporate taxes as long as they distribute at least 95% of their income to shareholders as dividends."

United States


The U.S. Congress enacted the law providing for REITs in 1960. The law was intended to provide a real estate investment structure similar to the one that
mutual fund A mutual fund is a professionally managed investment fund that pools money from many investors to purchase securities. The term is typically used in the United States, Canada, and India, while similar structures across the globe include the SICAV ...
s provide for investment in stocks. REITs are strong income vehicles because, to avoid incurring liability for U.S. federal income tax, REITs generally must pay out an amount equal to at least 90 percent of their
taxable income Taxable income refers to the base upon which an income tax system imposes tax. In other words, the income over which the government imposed tax. Generally, it includes some or all items of income and is reduced by expenses and other deductions. T ...
in the form of dividends to shareholders. From 2008 to 2011, REITs faced challenges from both a slowing
United States economy The United States is a highly developed mixed-market economy and has the world's largest nominal GDP and net wealth. It has the second-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP) behind China. It has the world's seventh-highest per capita ...
and the late-2000s financial crisis. For the five-year period ending in 2019, the S&P 500 index, an index of stocks for US large cap companies, returned an annualized 12.5% compared with an annualized return of 9.0% for the FTSE NAREIT All Equity REITs index. However, for the years 1972-2019 the total annualized returns were 12.1% for the S&P 500 versus 13.3% for the FTSE NAREIT index. There are more than 190 public REITs listed on exchanges in the United States.


Under U.S. Federal income tax law, a REIT is "any corporation, trust or association that acts as an investment agent specializing in real estate and real estate mortgages" under
Internal Revenue Code The Internal Revenue Code (IRC), formally the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, is the domestic portion of federal statutory tax law in the United States, published in various volumes of the United States Statutes at Large, and separately as Title 26 ...
section 856.CCH 2008 U.S. Master Tax Guide, paragr. 2326, page 681. The rules for federal income taxation of REITs are found primarily in Part II (sections 856 through 859) of Subchapter M of Chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code. Because a REIT is entitled to deduct dividends paid to its owners (commonly referred to as shareholders), a REIT may avoid incurring all or part of its liabilities for U.S. federal income tax. To qualify as a REIT, an organization makes an "election" to do so by filing a Form 1120-REIT with the Internal Revenue Service, and by meeting certain other requirements. The purpose of this designation is to reduce or eliminate
corporate tax A corporate tax, also called corporation tax or company tax, is a direct tax imposed on the income or capital of corporations or analogous legal entities. Many countries impose such taxes at the national level, and a similar tax may be imposed ...
, thus avoiding
double taxation Double taxation is the levying of tax by two or more jurisdictions on the same income (in the case of income taxes), asset (in the case of capital taxes), or financial transaction (in the case of sales taxes). Double liability may be mitigated i ...
of owner income. In return, REITs are required to distribute at least 90% of their taxable income into the hands of investors. The REIT structure was designed to provide a real estate investment structure similar to the structure
mutual fund A mutual fund is a professionally managed investment fund that pools money from many investors to purchase securities. The term is typically used in the United States, Canada, and India, while similar structures across the globe include the SICAV ...
s provide for investment in stocks.


In the United States, a REIT is a company that owns, and in most cases operates, income-producing real estate. Some REITs finance real estate. To be a REIT, a company must distribute at least 90 percent of its taxable income to shareholders annually in the form of dividends. To qualify as a REIT under U.S. tax rules, a company must: * Be structured as a corporation, trust, or association * Be managed by a board of directors or trustees * Have transferable shares or transferable certificates of interest * Otherwise be taxable as a domestic corporation * Not be a financial institution or an insurance company * Be jointly owned by 100 persons or more * Have 95 percent of its income derived from dividends, interest, and property income * Pay dividends of at least 90% of the REIT's taxable income * Have no more than 50% of the shares held by five or fewer individuals during the last half of each taxable year (5/50 rule) * Have at least 75% of its total assets invested in real estate * Derive at least 75% of its gross income from rents or mortgage interest * Have no more than 25% of its assets invested in taxable REIT subsidiaries.

South America


REITs were introduced in Brazil in 1993 by the law 8668–93 and initially ruled by the instruction 205/94 and, nowadays, by instruction 472/08 from CVM (Comissão de Valores Mobiliários - which is the Brazilian equivalent of SEC). Locally they are described as "FII"s or "Fundos de Investimento Imobiliário". FII's dividends have been free of taxes for personal investors (not companies) since 2006, but only for the funds which have at least 50 investors and that are publicly traded in the stock market. FIIs, referred to as “REIT” to correspond with the similar investment vehicle in the US, have been used either to own and operate independent property investments, associated with a single property or part property, or to own several real properties (multiple properties) funded through the capital markets.

See also

* Australian real estate investment trust *
Closed-end fund A closed-end fund (CEF) is a fund that raises capital by issuing a fixed number of shares which are not redeemable, and then invest that capital in financial assets such as stocks and bonds. Unlike open-end funds, new shares in a closed-end fund ...
* EPRA index *
Income trust An income trust is an investment that may hold equities, debt instruments, royalty interests or real properties. They are especially useful for financial requirements of institutional investors such as pension funds, and for investors such as retir ...
Investment trust An investment trust is a form of investment fund found mostly in the United Kingdom and Japan. Investment trusts are constituted as public limited companies and are therefore closed ended since the fund managers cannot redeem or create shares. ...
List of real estate investment firms Below is a list of notable real estate investment firms. Largest private real estate investment firms by capital raised Each year Private Equity Real Estate publishes ranking of the largest private real estate investment firms by how much capi ...
Mutual fund A mutual fund is a professionally managed investment fund that pools money from many investors to purchase securities. The term is typically used in the United States, Canada, and India, while similar structures across the globe include the SICAV ...
* Real estate investing * Real estate business *
Real estate development Real estate development, or property development, is a business process, encompassing activities that range from the renovation and re-lease of existing buildings to the purchase of raw land and the sale of developed land or parcels to others. ...
* Real estate mortgage investment conduit (REMIC) * Royalty trust *
Stock market A stock market, equity market, or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include ''securities'' listed on a public stock exchange, a ...
* Taxable REIT subsidiaries


External links

List of U.S. REITs

Nareit - National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts
EPRA - European Public Real Estate Association
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