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Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
, and is the second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is bordered by the
Northern Territory The Northern Territory (NT; formally the Northern Territory of Australia) is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, ...
,
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a in the southern central part of . It covers some of the most parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, and fifth-largest ...

South Australia
, and
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It borders three other states, Queensland to the north, Victoria (Australia), Victoria to the sou ...
to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the
Coral Sea The Coral Sea () is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% ...

Coral Sea
and the
Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. T ...

Pacific Ocean
. To its north is the
Torres Strait The Torres Strait (), also known as Zenadh Kes, is a strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both s ...

Torres Strait
, separating the Australian mainland from
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; ho, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a country in that comp ...

Papua New Guinea
. With an area of , Queensland is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, and is larger than all but 15 countries. Due to its size, Queensland's geographical features and climates are diverse, including
tropical rainforest Tropical rainforests are rainforest Rainforests are characterized by a closed and continuous tree canopy Canopy may refer to: Plants * Canopy (biology), aboveground portion of plant community or crop (including forests) * Canopy (grape ...

tropical rainforest
s, rivers,
coral reef A coral reef is an underwater ecosystems, ecosystem characterized by reef-building corals. Reefs are formed of Colony (biology), colonies of coral polyp (zoology), polyps held together by calcium carbonate. Most coral reefs are built from sto ...

coral reef
s,
mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure, and alignment that have arisen from the same cause, usu ...

mountain range
s and sandy beaches in its
tropical The tropics are the region of Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere at S; these latitudes correspond to ...
and
sub-tropical The subtropical zones or subtropics are geographical zone, geographic and Köppen climate classification, climate zones located to the north and south of the tropics, tropical zone. Geographically part of the north and south temperate zones, th ...
coastal regions, as well as
desert upright=1.5, alt=see caption, Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali ("Empty quarter") in the United Arab Emirates">Rub'_al_Khali.html" ;"title="Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali">Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali ("Empty quarter") in the United Arab ...

desert
s and
savanna A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ' woods), a low-density forming open s with plenty of sunlight and li ...

savanna
in the
semi-arid A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and variability of meteorological variables ove ...
and
desert upright=1.5, alt=see caption, Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali ("Empty quarter") in the United Arab Emirates">Rub'_al_Khali.html" ;"title="Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali">Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali ("Empty quarter") in the United Arab ...
climatic regions of its interior. Queensland has a population of over 5.2 million, concentrated along the coast and particularly in
South East Queensland South East Queensland (SEQ) is a bioregion, bio-geographical, megalopolis, metropolitan, political, and administrative Regions of Queensland, region of the States and territories of Australia, state of Queensland in Australia, with a population of ...
. The capital and largest city in the state is
Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller low ...

Brisbane
, Australia's third-largest city. Ten of Australia's thirty largest cities are located in Queensland, with the largest outside Brisbane being the
Gold Coast Gold Coast may refer to: Places Africa * Gold Coast (region), in West Africa, which was made up of the following colonies, before being established as the independent nation of Ghana: ** Portuguese Gold Coast (Portuguese, 1482–1642) ** Dutch Gol ...

Gold Coast
, the
Sunshine CoastSunshine Coast may refer to: * Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia **Sunshine Coast Region, a local government area of Queensland named after the region **Sunshine Coast Stadium * Sunshine Coast (British Columbia), geographic subregion of the Bri ...
,
Townsville Townsville is a city on the north-eastern coast of Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is borde ...

Townsville
,
Cairns Cairns (, ) is a city in Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is bordered by the Northern Terri ...

Cairns
and
Toowoomba Toowoomba ( , nicknamed 'The Garden City' and 'T-Bar') is a city in the Toowoomba Region of the Darling Downs, Queensland, Australia. It is west of Queensland's capital city Brisbane by road. The estimated urban population of Toowoomba as of Ju ...

Toowoomba
. A high proportion of the state's population is multicultural, with 28.9% of inhabitants being
immigrants Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship ...
. Queensland was first inhabited by
Aboriginal Australians Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific ...
and
Torres Strait Islanders Torres Strait Islanders () are the Indigenous peoples of the Torres Strait Islands, which are part of the state of Queensland, Australia. Ethnically distinct from the Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal people of the rest of Australia, they are ...
. Dutch navigator
Willem Janszoon Willem Janszoon (; ), sometimes abbreviated to Willem Jansz., was a Dutch Republic, Dutch navigator and colonial governor. Janszoon served in the Dutch East Indies, Dutch East Indies in the periods 16031611 and 16121616, including as governor of ...
, the first European to land in Australia, explored the west coast of the
Cape York Peninsula Cape York Peninsula is a large remote peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding w ...
in 1606. In 1770,
James Cook Captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a milit ...

James Cook
claimed the east coast of Australia for the
Kingdom of Great Britain The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called Great Britain,"After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", ''The American Pageant, Volume 1'', Cengage Learning (2012) was a s ...

Kingdom of Great Britain
. In 1788,
Arthur Phillip Admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, ...

Arthur Phillip
founded the colony of
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It borders three other states, Queensland to the north, Victoria (Australia), Victoria to the sou ...
, which included all of what is now Queensland. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades, and the
Moreton Bay Penal Settlement The Moreton Bay Penal Settlement operated from 1825 to 1842. It became the city of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. History The Moreton Bay Penal Settlement was established on the Redcliffe Peninsula on Moreton Bay in 1824, under the instructi ...
was established at Brisbane in 1824 by
John Oxley John Joseph William Molesworth Oxley (1784 – 25 May 1828) was an List of explorers, explorer and surveyor of Australia in the early period of British colonisation. He served as Surveyor General of New South Wales and is perhaps best known ...

John Oxley
. Queensland was separated from New South Wales on 6 June 1859 (now commemorated as Queensland Day), thereby establishing Queensland as a
self-governing __NOTOC__ Self-governance, self-government, or self-rule is the ability of a person or group to exercise all necessary functions of regulation Regulation is the management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends. In system ...
Crown colony A Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In , a colony is a subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the colonizers, the ...
with
responsible government Responsible government is a conception of a system of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, go ...
, named in honour of
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
. Queensland was among the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with
Federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized ...
on 1 January 1901. Since the era of the late 20th century, Queensland has received a high level of internal migration from the other
states and territories of Australia The states and territories are federation, federated administrative divisions in Australia, ruled by regional governments that constitute the second level of governance between the Australian Government, federal government and local governme ...
and remains a popular destination for interstate migration. Queensland has the third-largest economy among Australian states, with strengths in mining, agriculture, transportation, international education, insurance and banking. Nicknamed the ''Sunshine State'' for its tropical and sub-tropical climates,
Great Barrier Reef The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef A coral reef is an underwater ecosystems, ecosystem characterized by reef-building corals. Reefs are formed of Colony (biology), colonies of coral polyp (zoology), polyps held tog ...

Great Barrier Reef
and numerous beaches, tourism is also important to the state's economy.


History

The history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy
indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a particular place. The term ' ...
presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement. The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch, Spanish and French navigators before being encountered by in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants (which did not result in any settlement or treaty), as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "
blackbirding Blackbirding involves the coercion of people through deception or kidnapping to work as slaves or poorly paid labourers in countries distant to their native land. The term has been most commonly applied to the large-scale taking of people indig ...
". The
Australian Labor Party The Australian Labor Party (ALP), also simply known as Labor and historically spelt Labour, is the major , one of two in , along with the . It has been in in the since the . The ALP is a federal party, with in each . They are currently i ...
has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by
Richard Daintree Richard Daintree CMG (13 December 1832 – 20 June 1878) was a pioneering Australian geologist and photographer. In particular, Daintree was the first Government geologist for North Queensland North Queensland or the Northern Region is the n ...

Richard Daintree
, in the collection of the
National Museum of Australia The National Museum of Australia, in the national capital Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city of Australia. Founded following the Federation of Australia, federation of the colonies of Australia as the seat of government for the ne ...

National Museum of Australia
.


Indigenous history

The Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC, likely via boat or land bridge across
Torres Strait The Torres Strait (), also known as Zenadh Kes, is a strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both s ...

Torres Strait
, and became divided into over 90 different language groups. During the last
ice age An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents an ...

ice age
Queensland's landscape became arider and largely desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. ource?Warming again made the land hospitable, as it brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests.A History of Queensland by Raymond Evans, Cambridge University Press, 2007


European colonisation

In February 1606, Dutch navigator
Willem Janszoon Willem Janszoon (; ), sometimes abbreviated to Willem Jansz., was a Dutch Republic, Dutch navigator and colonial governor. Janszoon served in the Dutch East Indies, Dutch East Indies in the periods 16031611 and 16121616, including as governor of ...
landed near the site of what is now
Weipa Weipa is a coastal mining town in the local government area of Weipa Town in Queensland, Australia. It is the largest town on the Cape York Peninsula. It exists because of the enormous bauxite deposits along the coast. The ''Port of Weipa'' is ...
, on the western shore of Cape York. This was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, and it also marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was also explored by French and Spanish explorers (commanded by
Louis Antoine de Bougainville Louis-Antoine, Comte de Bougainville (, , ; 12 November 1729 – August 1811) was a French admiral and exploration, explorer. A contemporary of the British explorer James Cook, he took part in the Seven Years' War in North America and the America ...
and Luís Vaez de Torres, respectively) prior to the arrival of Lieutenant
James Cook Captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a milit ...

James Cook
in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from
King George III George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 173829 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and of Monarchy of Ireland, Ireland from 25 October 1760 until Acts of Union 1800, the union of the two kingdoms on 1 January 1801, after which he wa ...

King George III
of the
Kingdom of Great Britain The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called Great Britain,"After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", ''The American Pageant, Volume 1'', Cengage Learning (2012) was a s ...

Kingdom of Great Britain
on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland, 'New South Wales'. The Aboriginal population declined significantly after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. There has been controversy regarding the origins of smallpox in Australia; while many sources have claimed that it originated with European colonisation, this theory has been contradicted by scientific evidence.Campbell, Judy; 2002, ''Invisible Invaders: Smallpox and Other Diseases in Aboriginal Australia 1780–1880'', Carlton, Melbourne University Press, pp60–2, 80–1, 194–6, 201, 216–7 There is circumstantial evidence that Macassan mariners visiting Arnhem Land introduced smallpox to Australia. In 1823,
John Oxley John Joseph William Molesworth Oxley (1784 – 25 May 1828) was an List of explorers, explorer and surveyor of Australia in the early period of British colonisation. He served as Surveyor General of New South Wales and is perhaps best known ...

John Oxley
, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
to scout possible penal colony sites in
Gladstone William Ewart Gladstone (; 29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman and Liberal Party (UK), Liberal politician. In a career lasting over 60 years, he served for 12 years as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, spread ove ...

Gladstone
(then
Port Curtis Port Curtis is a suburb The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as ...
) and
Moreton Bay Moreton Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approxi ...

Moreton Bay
. At Moreton Bay, he found the
Brisbane River The Brisbane River ( urrball Meeannjin, or informally Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, South-East Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay on the Coral Sea. John O ...

Brisbane River
. He returned in 1824 and established a penal settlement at what is now Redcliffe. The settlement, initially known as Edenglassie, was then transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre.
Edmund Lockyer Edmund Lockyer, (21 January 1784 – 10 June 1860) was a British soldier and explorer of Australia. Born in Plymouth, Devon, Lockyer was the son of Thomas Lockyer, a sailmaker, and his wife Ann, ''née Grose''. Lockyer began his army career a ...
discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement, which had already commenced, was officially permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port. While most early immigrants came from
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It borders three other states, Queensland to the north, Victoria (Australia), Victoria to the sou ...
, the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay from Europe was the ''Artemisia'', in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. Earlier than this immigrant ship, was the arrival of the Irish famine orphan girls to Queensland. Devised by the then British Secretary of State for the Colonies, The Earl Grey Scheme established a special emigration scheme which was designed to resettle destitute girls from the workhouses of Ireland during the Great Famine. The very first ship, the “Earl Grey”, departed Ireland for a 124-day sail to Sydney. After controversy developed upon their arrival in Australia, a small group of 37 young orphans, sometimes referred to as The Belfast Girls or the Feisty Colleens, never set foot on Sydney soil, and instead sailed up to Brisbane (then Moreton Bay) on 21 October 1848 on board the ''Ann Mary''. This scheme continued until 1852.


Frontier War

A war, which contemporaries called a " war of extermination", erupted between settlers and Aboriginal people in colonial Queensland. The Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia, perhaps due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. The "Native Police Force", employed by the Queensland government, was key in the oppression of the indigenous people. The largest reported massacre of colonists by Aboriginals was in 1861 on the Nogoa River where 19 people were killed. One author estimates 24,000 Aboriginal men, women and children died at the hands of the
Native Police Australian native police units, consisting of Aboriginal Aborigine, aborigine or aboriginal may refer to: * Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area **List of indigenous peoples, including: ...
in colonial Queensland between 1859 and 1897 alone.


Separation from New South Wales

A public meeting was held in 1851 to consider the proposed
separation of Queensland The Separation of Queensland was an event in 1859 in which the land that forms the present-day State of Queensland in Australia was excised from the Colony of New South Wales and created as a separate Colony of Queensland. History European settl ...
from New South Wales. On 6 June 1859, Queen Victoria signed Letters Patent to form the separate colony of Queensland as a
self-governing __NOTOC__ Self-governance, self-government, or self-rule is the ability of a person or group to exercise all necessary functions of regulation Regulation is the management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends. In syste ...
Crown colony A Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In , a colony is a subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the colonizers, the ...
with
responsible government Responsible government is a conception of a system of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, go ...
.
Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller low ...

Brisbane
was selected as the capital city. On 10 December 1859, a proclamation was read by
George Bowen Sir George Ferguson Bowen (; 2 November 1821 – 21 February 1899), was an Irish author and colonial administrator whose appointments included postings to the Ionian Islands, Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Au ...
, the first
Governor of Queensland A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (p ...
, formally establishing Queensland as a separate colony from
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It borders three other states, Queensland to the north, Victoria (Australia), Victoria to the sou ...
. On 22 May 1860 the first Queensland election was held and
Robert Herbert Sir Robert George Wyndham Herbert, (12 June 1831 – 6 May 1905), was the first Premier Premier is a title for the head of government in some countries, states and sub-national governments. A second in command to a premier is designated as a ...

Robert Herbert
, Bowen's private secretary, was appointed as the first
Premier of Queensland The premier of Queensland is the head of government in the Australian state of Queensland. By convention the premier is the leader of the party with a parliamentary majority in the unicameral Legislative Assembly of Queensland. The premier is ap ...
.


Late 19th century and Federation

In 1865, the first rail line in the state opened between
Ipswich Ipswich () is a large port town and borough in Suffolk Suffolk () is a ceremonial Counties of England, county of England in East Anglia. It borders Norfolk to the north, Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex to the south. The North Sea lie ...
and Grandchester. Queensland's economy expanded rapidly in 1867 after James Nash discovered gold on the Mary River near the town of
Gympie Gympie is a city and a Suburbs and localities (Australia), locality in the Gympie Region, Queensland, Australia. In the Wide Bay-Burnett District, Gympie is about north of the state capital, Brisbane. The city lies on the Mary River (Queensla ...

Gympie
, sparking a gold rush. While still significant, they were on a much smaller scale than the gold rushes of Victoria and New South Wales. Immigration to Australia and Queensland, in particular, began in the 1850s to support the state economy. During the period from the 1860s until the early 20th century, many labourers, known at the time as
Kanakas Kanakas were workers from various Pacific Islands This is a list of islands in the Pacific Ocean, collectively called the Pacific Islands. Three major groups of islands in the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest ...
, were brought to Queensland from neighbouring Pacific Island nations to work in the state's sugar cane fields. Some of these people had been kidnapped under a process known as
blackbirding Blackbirding involves the coercion of people through deception or kidnapping to work as slaves or poorly paid labourers in countries distant to their native land. The term has been most commonly applied to the large-scale taking of people indig ...
or press ganging, and their employment conditions constituted an allegedly-exploitative form of indentured labour.
Italian immigrants The Italian diaspora is the large-scale emigration of Italians from Italy. There were two major Italian diasporas in Italian history. The first diaspora began around 1880, two decades after the Risorgimento, Unification of Italy, and ended in the ...
entered the sugar cane industry from the 1890s. During the 1890s, the six Australian colonies, including Queensland, held a series of referendums which culminated in the
Federation of Australia The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies In the British Empire, a self-governing colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of fo ...
on 1 January 1901. During this time, Queensland had a population of half a million people. Since that time Queensland has remained a
federated state A federated state (which may also be referred to as a state, a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, sub ...
within Australia.


20th century

Following Federation in 1901, the
White Australia policy The White Australia policy is a term encapsulating a set of historical racial policies that aimed to forbid people of non-European ethnic origin, especially Asians and Pacific Islanders, from immigration to Australia, immigrating to Australia, s ...
came into effect, which saw all foreign workers in Australia deported under the Pacific Island Labourers Act of 1901, which saw the Pacific Islander population of the state decrease rapidly. In 1905, women voted in state elections for the first time. The state's first university, the
University of Queensland , mottoeng = By means of knowledge and hard work , established = , endowment = A$224.3 million , budget = A$2.1 billion , type = Public university, Public research university , chancellor = Peter Varghese , vice_chancellor = Deborah Te ...

University of Queensland
, was established in Brisbane in 1909. In 1911, the first alternative treatments for polio were pioneered in Queensland and remain in use across the world today.
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
had a major impact on Queensland. Over 58,000 Queenslanders fought in World War I and over 10,000 of them died. Australia's first major airline,
Qantas Qantas Airways Limited ( ) is the of Australia and its largest airline by fleet size, international flights and international destinations. It is the , having been founded in November 1920; it began international passenger flights in May 1935 ...

Qantas
(originally standing for "Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services"), was founded in Winton in 1920 to serve outback Queensland. In 1922, Queensland abolished the
Queensland Legislative Council The Queensland Legislative Council was the upper house of the parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), re ...
, becoming the only Australian state with a
unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliament'' or ''unicameral legislature'' is a legislature which co ...
parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
. In 1935,
cane toad The cane toad (''Rhinella marina''), also known as the giant neotropical toad or marine toad, is a large, Terrestrial animal, terrestrial true toad native to South America, South and mainland Central America, but which has been Introduced specie ...
s were deliberately introduced to Queensland from Hawaii in an unsuccessful attempt to reduce the number of French's cane and greyback
cane beetle ''Dermolepida albohirtum'', the cane beetle, is a native Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, ...
s that were destroying the roots of sugar cane plants, which are integral to Queensland's economy. The toads have remained an environmental pest since that time. In 1962, the first commercial production of oil in Queensland and Australia began at Moonie. During World War II, Brisbane became central to the
Allied An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them. Members of an alli ...
campaign when the AMP Building (now called MacArthur Central) was used as the for
General Douglas MacArthur General of the Army Douglas MacArthur (26 January 18805 April 1964) was an American five-star general and Field Marshal Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is the most senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the gener ...

General Douglas MacArthur
, chief of the Allied Pacific forces, until his headquarters were moved to Hollandia in August 1944. In 1942, during the war, Brisbane was the site of a violent clash between visiting US military personnel and Australian servicemen and civilians, which resulted in one death and hundreds of injuries. This incident became known colloquially as the
Battle of Brisbane The Battle of Brisbane was a riot between United States military personnel on one side and Australian servicemen and civilians on the other, in Brisbane, Queensland's capital city, on 26 and 27 November 1942, during which time the two nations we ...
. The end of World War II saw a wave of immigration from across Europe, with many more immigrants coming from
southern The name Southern may refer to: * South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earl ...

southern
and
eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current Chinese airline based in Shanghai *Eastern Air, former name of Zambia Skyways *Eastern Air Lines, a defunct American airline that operated from 1926 to 1991 *Eastern Air Lin ...

eastern
Europe than in previous decades. In the latter decades of the 20th century, the
humid subtropical climate A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitude In geography Geograp ...
—regulated by the availability of air conditioning—saw Queensland become a popular destination for migrants from interstate. Since that time, Queensland has continuously seen high levels of migration from the other states and territories of Australia. The final end of the
White Australia policy The White Australia policy is a term encapsulating a set of historical racial policies that aimed to forbid people of non-European ethnic origin, especially Asians and Pacific Islanders, from immigration to Australia, immigrating to Australia, s ...
in 1973 saw the beginning of a wave of immigration from around the world, and most prominently from Asia, which continues to the present.


21st century

After three decades of record population growth, Queensland was impacted by major floods between late 2010 and early 2011, causing extensive damage and disruption across the state. In 2020, Queensland was impacted by the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic
. Despite a low number and abrupt decline in cases from April 2020 onward,
social distancing In public health, social distancing, also called physical distancing, (NB. Regula Venske is president of the .) is a set of or measures intended to of a by maintaining a physical distance between people and reducing the number of times pe ...

social distancing
requirements were implemented from March 2020 including the closure of the state borders.


Geography and environment

With a total area of 1,852,642 square kilometres (715,309 square miles), Queensland is an expansive state with a highly diverse range of climates and geographical features. If Queensland were an independent nation, it would be the world's 16th largest, being approximately the same size as Mexico,
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
and
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
. Queensland's eastern coastline borders the
Coral Sea The Coral Sea () is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% ...

Coral Sea
, an arm of the Pacific Ocean. The state is bordered by the
Torres Strait The Torres Strait (), also known as Zenadh Kes, is a strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both s ...

Torres Strait
to the north, with Boigu Island off the coast of
New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu Hiri Motu, also known as Police Motu, Pidgin Motu, or just Hiri, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign ...

New Guinea
representing the northern extreme of its territory. The triangular
Cape York Peninsula Cape York Peninsula is a large remote peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding w ...
, which points toward New Guinea, is the northernmost part of the state's mainland. West of the peninsula's tip, northern Queensland is bordered by the
Gulf of Carpentaria The Gulf of Carpentaria () is a large, shallow sea enclosed on three sides by northern Australia and bounded on the north by the eastern Arafura Sea (the body of water that lies between Australia and New Guinea). The northern boundary is ge ...
. To the west, Queensland is bordered by the
Northern Territory The Northern Territory (NT; formally the Northern Territory of Australia) is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, ...
, at the
138th meridian east The meridian 138° east of Prime Meridian, Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, Australasia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole. Th ...
, and to the southwest by northeastern
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a in the southern central part of . It covers some of the most parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, and fifth-largest ...

South Australia
. The state's southern border with
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It borders three other states, Queensland to the north, Victoria (Australia), Victoria to the sou ...
is constituted in the east by the
watershed Watershed is a hydrological term, which has been adopted in other fields in a more or less figurative sense. It may refer to: Hydrology * Drainage divide, the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins ** European watershed * Drainage basin, ...
from Point Danger to the , and the Dumaresq,
MacintyreMacIntyre or Macintyre (Scottish Gaelic, Gaelic ''Mac an t-Saoir'') is a Scotland, Scottish surname, of Goidelic languages, Gaelic origin, relating to Clan MacIntyre. Its meaning is "Son of the Carpenter". The corresponding English name is Wright (s ...
and Barwon rivers. The west of the southern border is defined by the 29th parallel south (including some minor historical encroachments), until it reaches South Australia. Like much of eastern Australia, the
Great Dividing Range The Great Dividing Range, also known as the East Australian Cordillera or the Eastern Highlands, is a cordillera A cordillera is an extensive chain of mountains A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust 350px, Plates in t ...

Great Dividing Range
runs roughly parallel with, and inland from, the coast, and areas west of the range are more arid than the humid coastal regions. The
Great Barrier Reef The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef A coral reef is an underwater ecosystems, ecosystem characterized by reef-building corals. Reefs are formed of Colony (biology), colonies of coral polyp (zoology), polyps held tog ...

Great Barrier Reef
, which is the world's largest
coral reef A coral reef is an underwater ecosystems, ecosystem characterized by reef-building corals. Reefs are formed of Colony (biology), colonies of coral polyp (zoology), polyps held together by calcium carbonate. Most coral reefs are built from sto ...

coral reef
system, runs parallel to the state's
Coral Sea The Coral Sea () is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% ...

Coral Sea
coast between the
Torres Strait The Torres Strait (), also known as Zenadh Kes, is a strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both s ...

Torres Strait
and
K'gari Fraser Island (K'gari) is the traditional land of the Butchulla people, and a list of heritage registers, heritage-listed island located along the southeastern coast in the Wide Bay–Burnett region, Queensland, Australia. It is approximately n ...
. Queensland's coastline includes the world's three largest sand islands:
K'gari Fraser Island (K'gari) is the traditional land of the Butchulla people, and a list of heritage registers, heritage-listed island located along the southeastern coast in the Wide Bay–Burnett region, Queensland, Australia. It is approximately n ...
, Moreton and North Stradbroke. The state contains six
World Heritage A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
-listed preservation areas: the Great Barrier Reef along the Coral Sea coast, K'gari on the
Wide Bay–Burnett Wide Bay–Burnett is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteristics ( human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ( env ...
region's coastline, the
wet tropics The Wet Tropics of Queensland World Heritage Site consists of approximately 8,940 km2 of Australian wet tropical forests growing along the north-east Queensland portion of the Great Dividing Range. The Wet Tropics of Queensland meets all ...
in
Far North Queensland Far North Queensland (FNQ) is the northernmost part of the Australian state The States and Territories of Australia are the regional governments in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign sta ...
including the
Daintree Rainforest The Daintree Rainforest is a region on the northeast coast of Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country com ...

Daintree Rainforest
,
Lamington National Park The Lamington National Park is a national park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land t ...

Lamington National Park
in
South East Queensland South East Queensland (SEQ) is a bioregion, bio-geographical, megalopolis, metropolitan, political, and administrative Regions of Queensland, region of the States and territories of Australia, state of Queensland in Australia, with a population of ...
, the Riversleigh fossil sites in
North West Queensland The Gulf Country is the region of woodland and savanna grassland surrounding the Gulf of Carpentaria in north western Queensland and eastern Northern Territory on the north coast of Australia. The region is also called the Gulf Savannah. It co ...
, and the
Gondwana Rainforests The Gondwana Rainforests of Australia, formerly known as the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves, are the most extensive area of subtropical rainforest in the world. Collectively, the rainforests are a World Heritage Site with fifty separate reser ...
in South East Queensland. The state is divided into several unofficial regions which are commonly used to refer to large areas of the state's vast geography. These include: *
South East Queensland South East Queensland (SEQ) is a bioregion, bio-geographical, megalopolis, metropolitan, political, and administrative Regions of Queensland, region of the States and territories of Australia, state of Queensland in Australia, with a population of ...
in the state's coastal extreme south-eastern corner, an urban region which includes the state's three largest cities: capital city
Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller low ...

Brisbane
and popular coastal tourist destinations the
Gold Coast Gold Coast may refer to: Places Africa * Gold Coast (region), in West Africa, which was made up of the following colonies, before being established as the independent nation of Ghana: ** Portuguese Gold Coast (Portuguese, 1482–1642) ** Dutch Gol ...

Gold Coast
and
Sunshine CoastSunshine Coast may refer to: * Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia **Sunshine Coast Region, a local government area of Queensland named after the region **Sunshine Coast Stadium * Sunshine Coast (British Columbia), geographic subregion of the Bri ...
. In some definitions, it also includes the city of
Toowoomba Toowoomba ( , nicknamed 'The Garden City' and 'T-Bar') is a city in the of the , , Australia. It is west of Queensland's capital city by road. The estimated urban population of Toowoomba as of June 2018 was 136,861, Estimated resident popula ...

Toowoomba
. South East Queensland accounts for more than 70% of the state's population. * The
Darling Downs The Darling Downs is a farming region on the western slopes of the Great Dividing Range in southern Queensland, Australia. The Downs are to the west of South East Queensland and are one of the major regions of Queensland. The name was generally ...
in the state's inland south-east, which consists of fertile agricultural (particularly cattle grazing) land and in some definitions includes the city of Toowoomba. The region also includes the mountainous
Granite Belt The Granite Belt is an area of the Great Dividing Range in the Darling Downs region of Queensland and the New England, Australia, New England region of New South Wales, Australia. The Granite Belt is centered on the town of Stanthorpe, Queenslan ...
, the state's coldest region which occasionally experiences snow. *
Wide Bay–Burnett Wide Bay–Burnett is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteristics ( human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ( env ...
in the state's coastal south-east, to the north of the South East Queensland region. It is rich in
sugar cane Sugarcane or sugar cane is a species of (often hybrid) tall, Perennial plant, perennial grass (in the genus ''Saccharum'', tribe Andropogoneae) that is used for sugar Sugar industry, production. The plants are 2–6 m (6–20 ft) tall w ...

sugar cane
farms and includes the cities of
Bundaberg Bundaberg is a city in the Bundaberg Region, Queensland, Australia. It is the headquarters of the Bundaberg Regional Council and a major centre within the broader Wide Bay–Burnett geographical region. In the Bundaberg had a population of 50 ...

Bundaberg
,
Hervey Bay Hervey Bay () is a city in the Fraser Coast Region of Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is ...
as well as
K'gari Fraser Island (K'gari) is the traditional land of the Butchulla people, and a list of heritage registers, heritage-listed island located along the southeastern coast in the Wide Bay–Burnett region, Queensland, Australia. It is approximately n ...
, the world's largest sand island. *
Central Queensland Central Queensland is an ambiguous geography, geographical division of Queensland (States and territories of Australia, a state in Australia) that centres on the eastern coast, around the Tropic of Capricorn. Its major regional centre is Rockhamp ...
on the state's central coastline, which is dominated by cattle farmland and coal mining. It contains the
Capricorn Coast The Capricorn Coast is a stretch of coastline in Central Queensland, Australia and is part of the Shire of Livingstone (formerly part of Rockhampton Region). The region straddles the Tropic of Capricorn, after which it is named. The Capricorn Coa ...
and
Whitsunday Islands The Whitsunday Islands are a collection of 74 continental islands of various sizes off the central coast of Queensland, Australia Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia ...

Whitsunday Islands
tourist regions, as well as the cities of
Rockhampton Rockhampton is a city in the Rockhampton Region The Rockhampton Region is a Local Government Area in Central Queensland, Australia, located on the Tropic of Capricorn about north of Brisbane. Rockhampton is the region's major city; the regi ...
and Mackay. *
North Queensland North Queensland or the Northern Region is the northern part of the Australian state of Queensland that lies just south of Far North Queensland. Queensland is a massive state, larger than many countries, and its Tropical North Queensland, tropica ...
on the state's northern coastline, which is dominated by cattle farmland and mining and which includes the city of
Townsville Townsville is a city on the north-eastern coast of Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is borde ...

Townsville
. *
Far North Queensland Far North Queensland (FNQ) is the northernmost part of the Australian state The States and Territories of Australia are the regional governments in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign sta ...
on the state's extreme northern coastline along the
Cape York Peninsula Cape York Peninsula is a large remote peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding w ...
, which includes
tropical rainforest Tropical rainforests are rainforest Rainforests are characterized by a closed and continuous tree canopy Canopy may refer to: Plants * Canopy (biology), aboveground portion of plant community or crop (including forests) * Canopy (grape ...

tropical rainforest
, the state's highest mountain,
Mount Bartle Frere Mount Bartle Frere (pronunciation mæɔnt̥ ˈbɐːɾəɫ ˈfɹɪə (Ngajanji: ''Choorechillum'') is the highest mountain in Queensland at an elevation of . The mountain was named after Sir Henry Bartle Frere, 1st Baronet, Sir Henry Bartle Frer ...
, the
Atherton Tablelands on the Atherton Tablelands. The Atherton Tableland is a fertile plateau which is part of the Great Dividing Range in Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, s ...

Atherton Tablelands
pastoral region (dominated by
sugar cane Sugarcane or sugar cane is a species of (often hybrid) tall, Perennial plant, perennial grass (in the genus ''Saccharum'', tribe Andropogoneae) that is used for sugar Sugar industry, production. The plants are 2–6 m (6–20 ft) tall w ...

sugar cane
and
tropical fruit The tropics are the region of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent A continent is one of several larg ...

tropical fruit
s), the most visited section of the
Great Barrier Reef The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef A coral reef is an underwater ecosystems, ecosystem characterized by reef-building corals. Reefs are formed of Colony (biology), colonies of coral polyp (zoology), polyps held tog ...

Great Barrier Reef
, as well as the city of
Cairns Cairns (, ) is a city in Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is bordered by the Northern Terri ...

Cairns
. *
South West Queensland South West Queensland is a remote region in the Australian state of Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian st ...
in the state's inland south-west, which is a primarily agricultural region dominated by cattle farmland, and which includes the
Channel Country regions of Australia, with Channel Country in red Image:Channel Country.jpg, Overhead Channel Country / Cooper Creek The Channel Country is a region of outback Australia mostly in the state of Queensland but also in parts of South Australia, Nort ...

Channel Country
region of intertwining rivulets. *
Central West Queensland Central West Queensland is a remote region in the Australian state of Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian ...
in the state's inland central-west, dominated by cattle farmland and which includes the city of Longreach. * The
Gulf Country The Gulf Country is the region of woodland and savanna A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland-grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the Canopy (forest), canopy does not close. The open ...
(also known as North West Queensland), in the state's inland north-west along the
Gulf of Carpentaria The Gulf of Carpentaria () is a large, shallow sea enclosed on three sides by northern Australia and bounded on the north by the eastern Arafura Sea (the body of water that lies between Australia and New Guinea). The northern boundary is ge ...
, which is dominated by
savanna A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ' woods), a low-density forming open s with plenty of sunlight and li ...

savanna
and mining and includes the
city of Mount Isa The City of Mount Isa is a Local government in Australia, local government area in north west Queensland. The City covers the urban locality of Mount Isa, the administrative centre, and surrounding area, sharing a boundary with the Northern Terr ...
.


Climate

Because of its size, there is significant variation in climate across the state. There is ample rainfall along the coastline, with a
monsoon A monsoon () is traditionally a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology ...

monsoon
al wet season in the
tropical The tropics are the region of Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere at S; these latitudes correspond to ...
north, and humid sub-tropical conditions along the southern coastline. Low rainfall and hot humid summers are typical for the inland and west. Elevated areas in the south-eastern inland can experience temperatures well below freezing in mid-winter providing
frost Frost is a thin layer of ice Ice is water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is ...

frost
and, rarely,
snowfall Snow comprises individual ice Ice is water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the mai ...

snowfall
. The climate of the coastal regions is influenced by warm ocean waters, keeping the region free from extremes of temperature and providing moisture for rainfall. There are six predominant climatic zones in Queensland, based on temperature and humidity: * Hot humid summer, warm humid winter (far north and coastal):
Cairns Cairns (, ) is a city in Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is bordered by the Northern Terri ...

Cairns
, Innisfail * Hot humid summer, warm dry winter (north and coastal):
Townsville Townsville is a city on the north-eastern coast of Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is borde ...

Townsville
, Mackay * Hot humid summer, mild dry winter (coastal elevated areas and coastal south-east):
Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller low ...

Brisbane
,
Bundaberg Bundaberg is a city in the Bundaberg Region, Queensland, Australia. It is the headquarters of the Bundaberg Regional Council and a major centre within the broader Wide Bay–Burnett geographical region. In the Bundaberg had a population of 50 ...

Bundaberg
,
Rockhampton Rockhampton is a city in the Rockhampton Region The Rockhampton Region is a Local Government Area in Central Queensland, Australia, located on the Tropic of Capricorn about north of Brisbane. Rockhampton is the region's major city; the regi ...
* Hot dry summer, mild dry winter (central inland and north-west): ,
Emerald Emerald is a gemstone A gemstone (also called a fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with ...
, Longreach * Hot dry summer, cool dry winter (southern inland):
Roma Roma or ROMA may refer to: Places Australia * Roma, Queensland, a town ** Roma Airport ** Roma Courthouse ** Electoral district of Roma Roma was an electoral district An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative ...
, Charleville,
Goondiwindi Goondiwindi () is a rural town and Suburbs and localities (Australia), locality in the Goondiwindi Region, Queensland, Australia. It is on the border of Queensland and New South Wales. In the , Goondiwindi had a population of 6,355 people. Geog ...
* Warm humid summer, cold dry winter (elevated south-eastern areas):
Toowoomba Toowoomba ( , nicknamed 'The Garden City' and 'T-Bar') is a city in the Toowoomba Region of the Darling Downs, Queensland, Australia. It is west of Queensland's capital city Brisbane by road. The estimated urban population of Toowoomba as of Ju ...

Toowoomba
,
Warwick Warwick ( ) is a market town and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Br ...
,
Stanthorpe Stanthorpe is a rural town and locality in the Southern Downs Region The Southern Downs Region is a local government area A local government area (LGA) is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1 ...
The annual mean climatic statistics for selected Queensland cities are shown below: The coastal far north of the state is the wettest region in Australia, with
Mount Bellenden Ker Mount Bellenden Ker is the second-highest mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area ...
, south of Cairns, holding many Australian rainfall records with its annual average rainfall of over . Snow is rare in Queensland, although it does fall with some regularity along the far southern border with New South Wales, predominantly in the Stanthorpe district although on rare occasions further north and west. The most northerly snow ever recorded in Australia occurred near Mackay; however, this was exceptional. Natural disasters are often a threat in Queensland: severe
tropical cyclone A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of Atmosphere of Earth, air and together with oc ...
s can impact the central and northern coastlines and cause severe damage, with recent examples including
Larry Larry is a masculine given name in English, derived from Lawrence (given name), Lawrence or Laurence. It can be a shortened form of those names. Larry may refer to the following: People Arts and entertainment * Larry D. Alexander, American arti ...
, Yasi, Ita and
Debbie Debbie (or Debby or Deb) is a feminine given name, commonly but not always short for Deborah (given name), Deborah (or Debra and related variants). Notable people *Debbie Allen, American actress, choreographer and film director *Debbie Armstrong, ...
. Flooding from rain-bearing systems can also be severe and can occur anywhere in Queensland. One of the deadliest and most damaging floods in the history of the state occurred in early 2011. Severe springtime
thunderstorm A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm or a lightning storm, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustics, acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder. Relatively weak thunderstorms are s ...

thunderstorm
s generally affect the south-east and inland of the state and can bring damaging winds, torrential rain, large
hail Hail is a form of solid precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth's atmosphere File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmo ...

hail
and even
tornado A tornado is a violently rotating column of air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmos ...

tornado
es. The ever recorded in Australia occurred in Queensland near
Bundaberg Bundaberg is a city in the Bundaberg Region, Queensland, Australia. It is the headquarters of the Bundaberg Regional Council and a major centre within the broader Wide Bay–Burnett geographical region. In the Bundaberg had a population of 50 ...

Bundaberg
in November 1992. Droughts and
bushfires Bushfires in Australia are a widespread and regular occurrence that have contributed significantly to shaping the nature of the continent over millions of years. Eastern Australia is one of the most fire-prone regions of the world, and its pre ...
can also occur; however, the latter are generally less severe than those that occur in southern states. The highest official maximum temperature recorded in the state was at Birdsville Police Station on 24 December 1972, although the
Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer , eastern Russia. near Florida peninsula. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a satellite-based sensor used for earth and climate measurements. There are two MODIS sensors in Earth orbit: one on board the Terra (sat ...
(MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite measured a ground surface temperature of . Queensland has the highest average maximums of any Australian state, and
Stanthorpe Stanthorpe is a rural town and locality in the Southern Downs Region The Southern Downs Region is a local government area A local government area (LGA) is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1 ...
,
Hervey Bay Hervey Bay () is a city in the Fraser Coast Region of Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is ...
, Mackay,
Atherton Atherton may refer to: Places Australia * Atherton, Queensland, a town on the Atherton Tablelands of Far North Queensland * Atherton Tableland, a fertile plateau in Queensland * Shire of Atherton, a former local government area of Queensland on ...
,
Weipa Weipa is a coastal mining town in the local government area of Weipa Town in Queensland, Australia. It is the largest town on the Cape York Peninsula. It exists because of the enormous bauxite deposits along the coast. The ''Port of Weipa'' is ...
and
Thursday Island Thursday Island, colloquially known as TI, or in the Kawrareg dialect, Waiben or Waibene, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very s ...
are the only large population centres not to have recorded a temperature above . The lowest recorded minimum temperature is at Stanthorpe on 23 June 1961 and at The Hermitage (near
Warwick Warwick ( ) is a market town and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Br ...
) on 12 July 1965. Temperatures below are, however, generally uncommon over the majority of populated Queensland.


Demographics

In March 2020, Queensland had an estimated population of 5,160,023. Approximately half of the state's population live in
Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller low ...

Brisbane
, and over 70% live in
South East Queensland South East Queensland (SEQ) is a bioregion, bio-geographical, megalopolis, metropolitan, political, and administrative Regions of Queensland, region of the States and territories of Australia, state of Queensland in Australia, with a population of ...
. Nonetheless, Queensland is the second most decentralised state in Australia after
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
. Since the 1980s, Queensland has consistently been the fastest-growing state in Australia, as it receives high levels of both international immigration and migration from interstate. There have however been short periods where
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
and
Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Western Australia
have grown faster.


Cities

Ten of Australia's thirty largest cities are located in Queensland. In 2019, the largest cities in the state by population of their Greater Capital City Statistical Area or Significant Urban Area (metropolitan areas) as defined by the
Australian Bureau of Statistics The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statutory agency of the Australian Government The Australian Government, also known as the Commonwealth Government, is the national government of Australia Austra ...
were:


Ancestry and immigration

Early settlers during the 19th century were largely
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...
,
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
,
Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Scotland *Scottish English *Scottish national identity, the Scottish iden ...
and
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
, while there was a wave of immigration from
southern The name Southern may refer to: * South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earl ...

southern
and eastern Europe (most notably
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...
) in the decades following the
second world war World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. In the 21st century,
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...
(most notably
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...
and
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...
) has been the primary source of immigration. At the 2016 census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: The 2016 census showed that 28.9% of Queensland's inhabitants were born overseas. Only 54.8% of inhabitants had both parents born in Australia, with the next most common birthplaces being New Zealand, England,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
,
Mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies ...

Mainland China
and South Africa. Brisbane has the 26th largest immigrant population among world metropolitan areas. 4% of the population, or 186,482 people, identified as
Indigenous Australians Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continen ...
(
Aboriginal Australians Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific ...
and
Torres Strait Islanders Torres Strait Islanders () are the Indigenous peoples of the Torres Strait Islands, which are part of the state of Queensland, Australia. Ethnically distinct from the Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal people of the rest of Australia, they are ...
) in 2016.


Language

At the 2016 census, 81.2% of inhabitants spoke only English at home, with the next most common languages being
Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration o ...
(1.5%),
Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Vietnam ** Oversea ...

Vietnamese
(0.6%),
Cantonese Cantonese ( zh, t=廣東話, s=广东话, first=t; Yale Yale University is a private Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference comprising eight private research un ...

Cantonese
(0.5%), Spanish (0.4%) and Italian (0.4%).


Religion

At the 2016 census, the most commonly cited religious affiliations were (29.2%),
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...
(21.7%) and
Anglicanism Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia * ...

Anglicanism
(15.3%).


Economy

In 2019, Queensland had a
gross state product Gross regional domestic product (GRDP), gross domestic product of region (GDPR), or gross state product (GSP) is a statistic that measures the size of a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( ...
of A$357,044 million, the third-highest in the nation after
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It borders three other states, Queensland to the north, Victoria (Australia), Victoria to the sou ...
and
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
. The construction of
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s and railways along Queensland's coast in the 19th century set up the foundations for the state's export-oriented mining and agricultural sectors. Since the 1980s, a sizeable influx of interstate and overseas migrants, large amounts of federal government investment, increased mining of vast mineral deposits and an expanding aerospace sector have contributed to the state's economic growth. Primary industries include bananas,
pineapple The pineapple (''Ananas comosus'') is a tropical plant with an edible fruit and is the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae. The pineapple is indigenous to South America, where it has been cultivated for many centurie ...

pineapple
s, peanuts, a wide variety of other tropical and temperate fruit and vegetables, grain crops,
wineries A winery is a building or property that produces wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. The ...

wineries
, cattle raising, cotton,
sugarcane Sugarcane or sugar cane is a species of (often hybrid) tall, perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, ...

sugarcane
, and
wool Wool is the textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitti ...
. The mining industry includes
bauxite Bauxite is a sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic matter, organic particles at Earth#Surface, Earth's surface, followed by cementation ( ...

bauxite
, coal, silver, lead,
zinc Zinc is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical element ...

zinc
, gold and copper. Secondary industries are mostly further processing of the above-mentioned primary produce. For example, bauxite is shipped by sea from
Weipa Weipa is a coastal mining town in the local government area of Weipa Town in Queensland, Australia. It is the largest town on the Cape York Peninsula. It exists because of the enormous bauxite deposits along the coast. The ''Port of Weipa'' is ...
and converted to alumina at
Gladstone William Ewart Gladstone (; 29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman and Liberal Party (UK), Liberal politician. In a career lasting over 60 years, he served for 12 years as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, spread ove ...

Gladstone
. There is also copper refining and the refining of sugar cane to sugar at a number of mills along the eastern coastline. Major tertiary industries are retail, tourism and international education. In 2018, there were 134,312 international students enrolled in the state, largely focused on Brisbane. Most of the state's international students are from Asia. Brisbane is categorised as a
global city A global city, also called a power city, world city, alpha city or world center, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1 ...
, and is among Asia-Pacific cities with largest GDPs. It has strengths in mining, banking, insurance, transportation, information technology, real estate and
food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, protein (nutrient), proteins, vi ...
. Some of the largest companies headquartered in Brisbane, all among Australia's largest, include
Suncorp Group Suncorp Group Limited is an Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and n ...
,
Virgin Australia Virgin Australia, the trading name of Virgin Australia Airlines Pty Ltd, is an Australian-based airline. It is the largest airline by fleet size to use the Virgin Group, Virgin brand. It commenced services on 31 August 2000 as ''Virgin Blue'' ...
,
Aurizon Aurizon, formerly QR National, is a freight rail transport company in Australia, and the largest of its kind in the nation. Formerly a Queensland Government-owned company, it was privatised and floated on the Australian Securities Exchange, ASX ...

Aurizon
,
Bank of Queensland The Bank of Queensland (branded BOQ) is an Australian retail bank with headquarters in Brisbane, Queensland. The bank is one of the oldest financial institutions in Queensland, having begun as a building society, It now has 160 branches throughout ...
,
Flight Centre Flight Centre Travel Group (FCTG) is an Australian travel agency , Brazil File:Tao Ko Travel Service HQ 20131103.jpg, Travel agency in Taiwan A travel agency is a private Retailing, retailer or public service that provides travel and touris ...
, CUA,
Sunsuper Sunsuper Superannuation Fund (Sunsuper) is an Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island ...
,
QSuper QSuper is an Australian superannuation fund based in Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States ...
,
Domino's Pizza Enterprises Domino's Pizza Enterprises Limited (DPE) is the largest pizza chain in Australia in terms of network stores numbers and network sales, as well as the largest franchisee for the Domino's Pizza brand in the world.Star Entertainment Group The Star Entertainment Group Limited is an Australian gambling File:A photo of a gambling stand in Paris.jpg, A gambling stand in Paris Gambling (also known as betting) is the wagering of money or something of Value (economics), value (referred ...
,
ALS Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; also known as Lou Gehrig's disease in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the At ...
, TechnologyOne, NEXTDC, Super Retail Group, New Hope Coal, Jumbo Interactive, National Storage, Collins Foods and Boeing Australia.


Tourism

As a result of its varied landscapes, warm climate and abundant natural environment, tourism is Queensland's leading tertiary industry with millions of interstate and international visitors visiting the state each year. The industry generates $8.8 billion annually, accounting for 4.5% of Queensland's Gross State Product. It has an annual export of $4.0 billion annually. The sector directly employs about 5.7% of Queensland citizens. Accommodation in Queensland caters for nearly 22% of the total expenditure, followed by restaurants/meals (15%), airfares (11%), fuel (11%) and shopping/gifts (11%). The most visited tourist destinations of Queensland include
Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller low ...

Brisbane
(including Moreton and South Stradbroke Island, South Stradbroke islands, the
Gold Coast Gold Coast may refer to: Places Africa * Gold Coast (region), in West Africa, which was made up of the following colonies, before being established as the independent nation of Ghana: ** Portuguese Gold Coast (Portuguese, 1482–1642) ** Dutch Gol ...

Gold Coast
, the
Sunshine CoastSunshine Coast may refer to: * Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia **Sunshine Coast Region, a local government area of Queensland named after the region **Sunshine Coast Stadium * Sunshine Coast (British Columbia), geographic subregion of the Bri ...
, the
Great Barrier Reef The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef A coral reef is an underwater ecosystems, ecosystem characterized by reef-building corals. Reefs are formed of Colony (biology), colonies of coral polyp (zoology), polyps held tog ...

Great Barrier Reef
,
Cairns Cairns (, ) is a city in Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is bordered by the Northern Terri ...

Cairns
, Port Douglas, Queensland, Port Douglas, the
Daintree Rainforest The Daintree Rainforest is a region on the northeast coast of Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country com ...

Daintree Rainforest
,
K'gari Fraser Island (K'gari) is the traditional land of the Butchulla people, and a list of heritage registers, heritage-listed island located along the southeastern coast in the Wide Bay–Burnett region, Queensland, Australia. It is approximately n ...
and the
Whitsunday Islands The Whitsunday Islands are a collection of 74 continental islands of various sizes off the central coast of Queensland, Australia Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia ...

Whitsunday Islands
. Brisbane is the third most popular destination in Australia following
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
and Melbourne. Major attractions in its metropolitan area include South Bank Parklands, the Queensland Cultural Centre (including the Queensland Museum, Queensland Art Gallery, Gallery of Modern Art, Brisbane, Gallery of Modern Art, Queensland Performing Arts Centre and State Library of Queensland), Brisbane City Hall, City Hall, the Story Bridge, the Howard Smith Wharves, ANZAC Square, Brisbane, ANZAC Square, St John's Cathedral (Brisbane), St John's Cathedral, Fortitude Valley, Queensland, Fortitude Valley (including Fortitude Valley, Queensland#Commercial area, James Street and Chinatown, Brisbane, Chinatown), West End, Queensland, West End, the Teneriffe, Queensland, Teneriffe woolstores precinct, the
Brisbane River The Brisbane River ( urrball Meeannjin, or informally Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, South-East Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay on the Coral Sea. John O ...

Brisbane River
and its Brisbane River#Brisbane Riverwalk, Riverwalk network, the City Botanic Gardens, Roma Street Parkland, New Farm Park (including the Brisbane Powerhouse), the Kangaroo Point Cliffs and park, the Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary, the Mount Coot-tha Forest, Mount Coot-tha Reserve (including Mount Coot-tha Lookout and Brisbane Botanic Gardens, Mount Coot-tha, Mount Coot-tha Botanic Gardens), the D'Aguilar Range and D'Aguilar National Park, National Park, as well as
Moreton Bay Moreton Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approxi ...

Moreton Bay
(including Moreton, North Stradbroke and Bribie Island, Bribie islands, and coastal suburbs such as Shorncliffe, Queensland, Shorncliffe, Wynnum, Queensland, Wynnum and those on the Redcliffe Peninsula). The
Gold Coast Gold Coast may refer to: Places Africa * Gold Coast (region), in West Africa, which was made up of the following colonies, before being established as the independent nation of Ghana: ** Portuguese Gold Coast (Portuguese, 1482–1642) ** Dutch Gol ...

Gold Coast
is home to numerous popular surf beaches such as those at Surfers Paradise, Queensland, Surfers Paradise and Burleigh Heads, Queensland, Burleigh Heads. It also includes the largest concentration of amusement parks in Australia, including Dreamworld (Australian theme park), Dreamworld, Warner Bros. Movie World, Movie World, Sea World (Australia), Sea World, Wet'n'Wild Water World, Wet 'n' Wild and WhiteWater World, as well as the Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary. The Gold Coast's hinterland includes
Lamington National Park The Lamington National Park is a national park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land t ...

Lamington National Park
in the McPherson Range. The
Sunshine CoastSunshine Coast may refer to: * Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia **Sunshine Coast Region, a local government area of Queensland named after the region **Sunshine Coast Stadium * Sunshine Coast (British Columbia), geographic subregion of the Bri ...
includes popular surfing and beach destinations including Noosa Heads, Queensland, Noosa Heads and Mooloolaba. It is also home to UnderWater World, Queensland, UnderWater World and Steve Irwin's Australia Zoo. Its hinterland includes the Glass House Mountains National Park.
Cairns Cairns (, ) is a city in Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is bordered by the Northern Terri ...

Cairns
is renowned as the gateway to the
Great Barrier Reef The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef A coral reef is an underwater ecosystems, ecosystem characterized by reef-building corals. Reefs are formed of Colony (biology), colonies of coral polyp (zoology), polyps held tog ...

Great Barrier Reef
,
Far North Queensland Far North Queensland (FNQ) is the northernmost part of the Australian state The States and Territories of Australia are the regional governments in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign sta ...
(including Port Douglas, Queensland, Port Douglas) and the
Daintree Rainforest The Daintree Rainforest is a region on the northeast coast of Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country com ...

Daintree Rainforest
. The
Whitsunday Islands The Whitsunday Islands are a collection of 74 continental islands of various sizes off the central coast of Queensland, Australia Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia ...

Whitsunday Islands
off the coast of
North Queensland North Queensland or the Northern Region is the northern part of the Australian state of Queensland that lies just south of Far North Queensland. Queensland is a massive state, larger than many countries, and its Tropical North Queensland, tropica ...
are a popular tourist destinations for their resort facilities and access to the Great Barrier Reef.


Politics and government

One of the six founding States and territories of Australia, states of Australia, Queensland has been a
federated state A federated state (which may also be referred to as a state, a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, sub ...
subject to the Constitution of Australia, Australian Constitution since 1 January 1901. It is Sovereign state, sovereign, other than in the Section 51 of the Constitution of Australia, matters ceded in the Australian Constitution to the federal government. It is a parliamentary system, parliamentary constitutional monarchy. The Constitution of Queensland sets out the operation of the state's government. The state's constitution contains several entrenched clause, entrenched provisions which cannot be changed in the absence of a referendum. There is also a Statutory law, statutory bill of rights, the Queensland Human Rights Act (2019). Queensland's system of government is influenced by the Westminster system and Politics of Australia, Australia's federal system of government. The government is Separation of powers in Australia, separated into three branches: * Legislature: the unicameralism, unicameral Parliament of Queensland, comprising the Legislative Assembly of Queensland, Legislative Assembly and the Monarchy of Australia, Monarch (represented by the Governor of Queensland, Governor); * Executive: the Executive Council of Queensland, which formalises decisions of the Cabinet of Queensland, which is composed of the Premier of Queensland, Premier and other ministers of state appointed by the Governor on the advice of Parliament; * Judiciary: the Supreme Court of Queensland, Supreme Court and other state courts, whose judges are appointed by the Governor on advice of Parliament. Executive (government), Executive authority is nominally vested in the
Governor of Queensland A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (p ...
(currently Jeannette Young) who represents and is appointed by the Monarchy of Australia, Monarch of Australia (currently Elizabeth II) on the advice of the
Premier of Queensland The premier of Queensland is the head of government in the Australian state of Queensland. By convention the premier is the leader of the party with a parliamentary majority in the unicameral Legislative Assembly of Queensland. The premier is ap ...
. The Premier, who is the state's Head of government, along with the Cabinet of Queensland (whose decisions are formalised by the Executive Council of Queensland, Executive Council), exercise executive authority in practice. The Premier is appointed by the Governor and Responsible government, must have support of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. The Premier is in practice a leading member of the Legislative Assembly and parliamentary leader of his or her political party, or coalition of parties, and members of Cabinet will be drawn from the same party or coalition. The current Premier and Deputy Premier of Queensland, Deputy Premier are Annastacia Palaszczuk and Steven Miles (politician), Steven Miles of the Australian Labor Party, Labor Party respectively. Government House, Brisbane, Government House at Paddington, Queensland, Paddington in
Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller low ...

Brisbane
is the seat of the Governor, having replaced Old Government House, Queensland, Old Government House at Gardens Point, Brisbane, Gardens Point in Brisbane's Brisbane central business district, CBD in the early 20th century. The executive branch simply referred to as the Queensland Government. Legislature, Legislative authority is exercised by the Parliament of Queensland, Queensland Parliament which uniquely for Australian states is unicameralism, unicameral, containing only one house, the Legislative Assembly. The Parliament was bicameral legislature, bicameral until 1922, when the Queensland Legislative Council, Legislative Council was abolished by the Labor "suicide squad", so called because they were appointed for the purpose of voting to abolish their own offices. Bill (law), Bills receive royal assent from the Governor of Queensland, Governor before being passed into law. The Parliament's seat is at Parliament House, Brisbane, Parliament House at Gardens Point, Brisbane, Gardens Point in Brisbane's Brisbane central business district, CBD. Members of the Legislative Assemby represent Electoral districts of Queensland, 93 electoral districts. Elections in Queensland are held at the end of each fixed four-year parliamentary term, and are determined by instant-runoff voting. The state's judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of Queensland and the District Court of Queensland, established by the Queensland Constitution, as well as the Magistrates Court of Queensland and other courts and tribunals established by legislation. Cases may be appealed to the High Court of Australia. As with all Australian states and territories, Queensland has a Common law legal system. The Supreme and District courts are headquartered at the Queen Elizabeth II Courts of Law, Brisbane, Queen Elizabeth II Courts of Law in Brisbane's CBD. The state's politics are traditionally regarded as being Conservatism in Australia, conservative relative to other states. Historically, the lack of an upper house, a former gerrymander favouring rural electoral districts as well as the former system of optional preferential voting has meant that Queensland had a long tradition of domination by strong-willed, populism, populist premiers, often accused of authoritarian tendencies, holding office for long periods. This tendency was exemplified by the government of the state's longest-serving Premier Joh Bjelke-Petersen.


Local government

Local government is the mechanism by which Local government areas of Queensland, local government areas can manage their own affairs to the extent permitted by the Local Government Act 2009. Queensland is divided into 77 local government areas, which are created by the state government under legislation. Each local government area has a council responsible for providing a range of local services and utilities. Local councils derive their income from both rates and charges on resident ratepayers, and grants and subsidies from the state and federal governments.


Federal representation

In the federal Parliament of Australia, Queensland accounts for 30 of the 151 Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives, electoral divisions in the House of Representatives (Australia), House of Representatives (on the basis of population size) and 12 of the 76 seats in the Australian Senate, Senate (on the basis of equality between the states). The current partisan makeup of Queensland's House of Representatives delegation is 23 Liberal National Party of Queensland, Liberal National, 6 Australian Labor Party, Labor and 1 Katter's Australian Party. The current partisan makeup of Queensland's Senate delegation is 6 Liberal National Party of Queensland, Liberal National, 3 Australian Labor Party, Labor, 2 Pauline Hanson's One Nation, One Nation and 1 Australian Greens, Green.


Culture

Queensland is home to major art galleries including the Queensland Art Gallery and the Queensland Gallery of Modern Art as well as cultural institutions such as the Queensland Ballet, Opera Queensland, Queensland Theatre Company, and Queensland Symphony Orchestra, all based at the Queensland Cultural Centre in
Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller low ...

Brisbane
. The state is the origin of musicians such as the Bee Gees, The Go-Betweens, The Veronicas, The Saints (Australian band), The Saints, Savage Garden, and Sheppard (band), Sheppard as well as writers such as David Malouf, Nick Earls and Li Cunxin. Major annual cultural events include the Ekka, Royal Queensland Exhibition (known locally as the Ekka), an agricultural exhibition held each August at the Brisbane Showgrounds as well as the Brisbane Festival, which includes one of the nation's largest annual fireworks displays called 'Riverfire', and which is held each September.


Sport

The state of Queensland is represented in all of Australia's national sporting competitions and it is also host to a number of domestic and international sporting events. The most popular winter and summer team sports are rugby football, rugby (rugby league and rugby union) and cricket, respectively. In the National Rugby League, the Brisbane Broncos, North Queensland Cowboys and Gold Coast Titans are based in the state. Rugby league's annual State of Origin series is a major event in the Queensland sporting calendar, with the Queensland rugby league team, Queensland Maroons representing the state. The state is represented by the Queensland Reds in the Super Rugby (rugby union). In cricket, the Queensland Bulls represent the state in the Sheffield Shield and the Ryobi One Day Cup, while the Brisbane Heat compete in the Big Bash League. Queensland is also home to the Brisbane Lions and the Gold Coast Suns in the Australian Football League (Australian rules football), and the Brisbane Roar FC in the A-League (soccer). In netball the Queensland Firebirds went undefeated in the 2011 season as they went on to win the Grand Final. Other sports teams are the Brisbane Bullets and the Cairns Taipans, who compete in the National Basketball League (Australia), National Basketball League. Swimming is also a popular sport in Queensland, with many of Australian team members and international medalists hailing from the state. Major sporting include hosted in Queensland: * Gold Coast 600 (motorsport; since 1994) * Gold Coast Marathon (athletics; since 1979) * NRL All Stars Game (rugby league; since 2010) * Townsville 400 (motorsport; since 2009) * World championship tour (WCT) surfing, Quicksilver Pro and Roxy Pro (surfing) * Australian PGA Championship (golf; since 2000) Brisbane will host the 2032 Summer Olympics, marking the third time Australia hosted the Olympic Games following 1956 Summer Olympics, Melbourne 1956 and 2000 Summer Olympics, Sydney 2000.


Symbols and emblems

The official state emblems of Queensland are prescribed in the Emblems of Queensland Act 2005.
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
granted the Queensland Coat of Arms to the Colony of Queensland in 1893, making it the oldest State Arms in Australia. It depicts Queensland's primary industries in the 19th century with a sheaf of wheat, the heads of a bull and a ram, and a column of gold rising from a heap of quartz. Two stalks of sugar cane which surround the state badge at the top, and below is Queensland's state motto, ''Audax at Fidelis'', which means "Bold but Faithful". In 1977, Elizabeth II, Queen Elizabeth II granted the supporting animals, the brolga and the red deer. Since August 2012, the Queensland Coat of Arms has been used as the State government's corporate logo. In November 2003 maroon was officially named as Queensland's state colour, after many years of association with Queensland sporting teams. The koala was officially named the animal or faunal, emblem of Queensland in 1971, after a newspaper poll showed strong public support. The Queensland Government introduced the poll due to a proposal by state tourism ministers for all states to adopt a faunal emblem. In January 1986 that the brolga was announced as the official bird emblem of Queensland, after many years on the Coat of Arms. The Dendrobium bigibbum, Cooktown orchid became known as Queensland's floral emblem in 1959, during celebrations to mark the state's centenary, and the Amphiprion akindynos, Barrier Reef Anemone Fish was officially named as Queensland's aquatic emblem in March 2005. The sapphire was named the official state gem for Queensland in August 1985.


Education

Queensland is home to numerous universities. The state's oldest university, the
University of Queensland , mottoeng = By means of knowledge and hard work , established = , endowment = A$224.3 million , budget = A$2.1 billion , type = Public university, Public research university , chancellor = Peter Varghese , vice_chancellor = Deborah Te ...

University of Queensland
, was established in 1909 and frequently College and university rankings, ranks among the world's top 50. Other major universities include Queensland University of Technology, Griffith University, the University of Southern Queensland, the University of the Sunshine Coast, James Cook University (which was the state's first university outside of
South East Queensland South East Queensland (SEQ) is a bioregion, bio-geographical, megalopolis, metropolitan, political, and administrative Regions of Queensland, region of the States and territories of Australia, state of Queensland in Australia, with a population of ...
), Central Queensland University and Bond University (which was Australia's first private university). International student, International education is an important industry, with 134,312 international students enrolled in the state in 2018, largely focused on Brisbane. Most of the state's international students are from Asia. At the primary and secondary levels, Queensland is home to numerous Queensland state schools, state and private schools.


Infrastructure


Transport

Queensland is served by a number of National Highway (Australia), National Highways and, particularly in South East Queensland, a network of freeways such as the M1 (Queensland), M1. The Department of Transport and Main Roads, Department of Transport & Main Roads oversees the development and operation of main roads and public transport, including taxis and local aviation. Rail transport in Queensland, Principal rail services are provided by Queensland Rail, predominantly between the major centres east of the Great Dividing Range. Freight rail services in Queensland have been provided mostly by
Aurizon Aurizon, formerly QR National, is a freight rail transport company in Australia, and the largest of its kind in the nation. Formerly a Queensland Government-owned company, it was privatised and floated on the Australian Securities Exchange, ASX ...

Aurizon
and Pacific National, with interstate intermodal services provided by Pacific National and SCT Logistics. Major seaports include the Port of Brisbane, Australia's third busiest by value of goods, as well as those at
Gladstone William Ewart Gladstone (; 29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman and Liberal Party (UK), Liberal politician. In a career lasting over 60 years, he served for 12 years as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, spread ove ...

Gladstone
,
Townsville Townsville is a city on the north-eastern coast of Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is borde ...

Townsville
and
Bundaberg Bundaberg is a city in the Bundaberg Region, Queensland, Australia. It is the headquarters of the Bundaberg Regional Council and a major centre within the broader Wide Bay–Burnett geographical region. In the Bundaberg had a population of 50 ...

Bundaberg
. There are large coal export facilities at Hay Point, Queensland, Hay Point, Gladstone and Abbot Point. Major sugar export facilities are located at Lucinda, Queensland, Lucinda and Mackay. Brisbane Airport is the main international and domestic gateway serving the state, and is the List of the busiest airports in Australia, third busiest in Australia. Other international airports include the Gold Coast Airport, Cairns International Airport and Townsville Airport. Regional airports with scheduled domestic flights include Toowoomba Wellcamp Airport, Great Barrier Reef Airport, Hervey Bay Airport, Bundaberg Airport, Mackay Airport, Mount Isa Airport, Whitsunday Coast Airport, Proserpine / Whitsunday Coast Airport, Rockhampton Airport, and Sunshine Coast Airport.
South East Queensland South East Queensland (SEQ) is a bioregion, bio-geographical, megalopolis, metropolitan, political, and administrative Regions of Queensland, region of the States and territories of Australia, state of Queensland in Australia, with a population of ...
has an integrated public transport system operated by TransLink (South East Queensland), TransLink, which provides services bus transport in Queensland, bus, Queensland Rail City network, rail, G:link, light rail and RiverCity Ferries, Brisbane's ferry services through Queensland Rail and contracted operators. The region is divided into seven Fare zones radiating outwards from the Brisbane central business district, which is the central hub for the system. The Queensland Rail City network consists of 152 train stations along 13 suburban rail lines and across the region, and predominately within Brisbane's metropolitan area. There is also a large bus network including Brisbane's large dedicated bus rapid transit network, the Busways in Brisbane, Brisbane busway network. Brisbane's popular RiverCity Ferries, ferry services include the CityCat, Cross River and CityHopper services which have dedicated wharves along the
Brisbane River The Brisbane River ( urrball Meeannjin, or informally Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, South-East Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay on the Coral Sea. John O ...

Brisbane River
. The G:link, Queensland's only light rail network, operates on the Gold Coast.


Other utilities

Queensland Health operates and administers the state's public health system. There are sixteen regional Health and Hospital Services corresponding to geographical regions which are responsible for delivering public health services within their regions. Major public hospitals include the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Princess Alexandra Hospital, the Mater Group, Mater Hospital, the Queen Elizabeth II Jubilee Hospital, and the Queensland Children's Hospital in Brisbane, as well as the Townsville University Hospital, Cairns Hospital, Cairns Hospital, Gold Coast Hospital and Gold Coast University Hospital in the regional cities. There are smaller public hospitals, as well as private hospitals, around the state.


See also

* Outline of Australia * Index of Australia-related articles * Queensland Day


Notes


References


External links

*
Government of Queensland
* * * . * . * * {{Authority control Queensland, Former British colonies and protectorates in Oceania States and territories of Australia States and territories established in 1859 kab:Usṭralya