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Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the creation and distribution of printed works, such as
book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of v ...

book
s,
newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of works in sequential segments ...

newspaper
s, and
magazine A magazine is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The most familiar example i ...

magazine
s. With the advent of digital information systems, the scope has expanded to include
electronic publishing Electronic publishing (also referred to as publishing, digital publishing, or online publishing) includes the digital publication of e-book An ebook (short for electronic book), also known as an e-book or eBook, is a publication made availabl ...
such as
ebooks An ebook (short for electronic book), also known as an e-book or eBook, is a publication made available in form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the of computers or other electronic devices. Although sometimes defined as "an ...

ebooks
,
academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The most ...
s,
micropublishing Micropublishing is used in three senses: *Publishing on microforms as pioneered by Eugene Power. *The book publishing industry sometimes uses this term in discussing publishing companies below a certain revenue level. *It is also used to describ ...
,
websites A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, google.com, and amazon.com. All ...
,
blog A blog (a truncation In mathematics and computer science, truncation is limiting the number of numerical digit, digits right of the decimal point. Truncation and floor function Truncation of positive real numbers can be done using the flo ...
s,
video game publishing A video game publisher is a company that publishing, publishes video games that have been developed either internally by the publisher or externally by a video game developer. They often finance the development, sometimes by paying a video game ...
, and the like. Publishing may produce private, club, commons or public goods and may be conducted as a commercial, public, social or community activity. The commercial publishing industry ranges from large multinational conglomerates such as
Bertelsmann Bertelsmann is a German private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
,
RELX RELX (pronounced "Rel-ex", sometimes written RElX) is a British-Dutch multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from m ...
, Pearson and
Thomson Reuters Thomson Reuters Corporation () is a Canadian-American . The company was founded in , , Canada, where it is headquartered at the . Thomson Reuters was created by the 's purchase of the British company in April 2008 and is majority owned ...
to thousands of small independents. It has various divisions such as: trade/retail publishing of fiction and non-fiction, educational publishing (k-12) and academic and scientific publishing. Publishing is also undertaken by governments, civil society and private companies for administrative or compliance requirements, business, research, advocacy or public interest objectives. This can include
annual report An annual report is a comprehensive report on a company's activities throughout the preceding year. Annual reports are intended to give shareholders and other interested people information about the company's activities and financial performance. Th ...
s,
research reportsA research report 220px, Example of a front page of a report A report is a document that presents information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines ...
,
market research Market research is an organized effort to gather information about target markets A target market is a group of customers within a business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Pr ...

market research
, policy briefings and
technical reportA technical report (also scientific report) is a document that describes the process, progress, or results of technical or scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has chara ...
s.
Self-publishing Self The self is an individual person as the object of its own reflective consciousness. Since the ''self'' is a reference by a subject to the same subject, this reference is necessarily Subjective character of experience, subjective. The sens ...
has become very common. "Publisher" can refer to a publishing company or organization, or to an individual who leads a publishing company,
imprint Imprint or imprinting may refer to: Entertainment * Imprint (TV series), ''Imprint'' (TV series), Canadian television series * Imprint (Masters of Horror), "Imprint" (''Masters of Horror''), episode of TV show ''Masters of Horror'' * Imprint (film ...
, periodical or newspaper.


Publishing in law

Publication To publish is to make content Content or contents may refer to: Media * Content (media), information or experience provided to audience or end-users by publishers or media producers ** Content industry, an umbrella term that encompasses comp ...

Publication
is important as a
legal concept Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', 90. with its precise definition a matter of longstanding debate. It has bee ...
: # As the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to
marry in Stockholm Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people called spouse A religious marriage. A spouse is a significant other in a marriage in Stockholm Marr ...
or enter
bankruptcy Bankruptcy is a legal process through which people or other entities who cannot repay debts to creditor A creditor or lender is a party 300px, '' Hip, Hip, Hurrah!'' (1888) by Peder Severin Krøyer, a painting portraying an artists' par ...

bankruptcy
# As the essential precondition of being able to claim
defamation Defamation (also known as calumny, vilification, libel, slander, or traducement) is the oral or written communication of a false statement about another that unjustly harms their reputation and usually constitutes a tort A tort, in commo ...
; that is, the alleged
libel Defamation (also known as calumny, vilification, libel, slander, or traducement) is the oral or written communication of a false statement about another that unjustly harms their reputation and usually constitutes a tort A tort, in commo ...

libel
must have been published # For
copyright Copyright is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. ...

copyright
purposes, where there is a difference in the protection of
published Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works, such as book A book is a medi ...
and unpublished works


History

Publishing became possible with the
invention of writing The history of writing traces the development of expressing language by letters or other marks and also the studies and descriptions of these developments. In the history of how writing systems A writing system is a method of visually repr ...
, and became more practical upon the
introduction of printing Introduction, The Introduction, Intro, or The Intro may refer to: General use * Introduction (music), an opening section of a piece of music * Introduction (writing), a beginning section to a book, article or essay which states its purpose and go ...
. Prior to printing, distributed works were copied manually, by
scribe A scribe is a person who serves as a professional copyist A copyist is a person who makes copies. The term is sometimes used for artists who make copies of other artists' paintings. However, the modern use of the term is almost entirely conf ...

scribe
s. Due to printing, publishing progressed hand-in-hand with the development of books. The Chinese inventor
Bi Sheng Bi Sheng and his invention at Beijing Printing Museum Bì Shēng (畢昇 972–1051 AD) was a Chinese artisan, engineer, and inventor of the world's first movable type Movable type (US English; moveable type in British English) is the system ...
made
movable type Movable type (US English; moveable type in British English) is the system and technology Technology ("science of craft", from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , ''wikt:-logia, -logia'') is the sum of any ...
of earthenware circa 1045, but there are no known surviving examples of his work. The Korean civil servant Choe Yun-ui, who lived during the Goryeo Dynasty, invented the first metal moveable type in 1234-1250 AD Around 1450, in what is commonly regarded as an independent invention,
Johannes Gutenberg Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (; – 3 February 1468) was a German inventor An invention is a unique or novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, typically written in prose and published as a book. ...

Johannes Gutenberg
invented movable type in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and
hand mould A hand mold is a simple mold used for low quantity work. It is used in the injection molding Injection moulding (U.S. spelling: injection molding) is a manufacturing process for producing parts by injecting molten material into a mould, or m ...
. This invention gradually made books less expensive to produce and more widely available. Early printed books, single sheets and images which were created before 1501 in Europe are known as
incunable File:Prohemium..JPG, Illumination with doodles and drawings (marginalia), including an open-mouthed human profile, with multiple tongues sticking out. Copulata, "De Anima", f. 2a. HMD Collection, WZ 230 M772c 1485 An incunable or incunabulum (p ...

incunable
s or ''incunabula''. "A man born in 1453, the year of the fall of Constantinople, could look back from his fiftieth year on a lifetime in which about eight million books had been printed, more perhaps than all the scribes of Europe had produced since Constantine founded his city in A.D. 330." Eventually, printing enabled other forms of publishing besides books. The history of modern newspaper publishing started in Germany in 1609, with
publishing of magazines
publishing of magazines
following in 1663. Missionaries brought printing presses to sub-Saharan Africa in the mid-18th century. Historically, publishing has been handled by
publishers Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works, such as book A book is a medi ...
, although some authors self-published. The establishment of the World Wide Web in 1989 soon propelled the
website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext File:Douglas Engelbart in 2008.jpg, Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother of All Demos" i ...

website
into a dominant medium of publishing.
Wikis A wiki ( ) is a hypertext publication Collaborative editing, collaboratively edited and managed by its own audience directly using a web browser. A typical wiki contains multiple pages for the subjects or scope of the project and could be ei ...
and
Blogs A blog (a truncation In mathematics and computer science, truncation is limiting the number of numerical digit, digits right of the decimal point. Truncation and floor function Truncation of positive real numbers can be done using the floo ...
soon developed, followed by
online book An online book is a resource in book A book is a medium for recording information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the ...
s,
online newspapers An online newspaper (or electronic news or electronic news publication) is the electronic publishing, online version of a newspaper, either as a stand-alone publication or as the online version of a printed periodical literature, periodical. Goin ...

online newspapers
, and
online magazine An online magazine is a magazine published on the Internet, through bulletin board systems and other forms of public computer networks. One of the first magazines to convert from a print magazine format to being online only was the computer maga ...
s. Since its start, the World Wide Web has been facilitating the
technological convergence Technological convergence, also known as digital convergence, is the tendency for technologies Technology ("science of craft", from Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , '' -logia'') is the sum of Art techniques and mate ...
of commercial and self-published content, as well as the convergence of publishing and producing into online production through the development of
multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different such as , , , , or into a single interactive presentation, in contrast to traditional mass media which featured little to no interaction fr ...

multimedia
content. A U.S. based study in 2016 that surveyed 34 publishers found that the publishing industry in the US in general is overwhelmingly represented by straight, able bodied, white females. ''Salon'' described the situation as "lack of diversity behind the scenes in book world". A survey in 2020 by the same group found there has been no statistical significant change in the lack of diversity since the 2016 survey four years earlier. Lack of diversity in the American publishing industry has been an issue for years. Within the industry, there was the least amount of diversity in higher level editorial positions.


The traditional process of publishing

Book publishers buy or commission copy from independent authors; newspaper publishers, by contrast, usually hire staff to produce copy, although they may also employ freelance journalists, called stringers. Magazines may employ either strategy or a mixture. Traditional book publishers are selective about what they publish. They do not accept manuscripts direct from authors. Authors must first submit a query letter or proposal, either to a
literary agent A literary agent is an law of agency, agent who represents writers and their written works to publishers, theatrical producers, film producers, and film studios, and assists in sale and deal negotiation. Literary agents most often represent novelis ...

literary agent
or direct to the publisher. depending on the publisher's submission guidelines. If the publisher does accept unsolicited
manuscripts A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand – or, once practical typewriter A typewriter is a machine, mechanical or electromechanical machine for typing characters s ...
, then the manuscript is placed in the
slush pile In publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works, such as books, new ...
, which
publisher's readerA publisher's reader or first reader is a person paid by a publisher or book sales club to read manuscripts from the slush pile, and to advise their employers as to quality and marketability of the work. In the US, most publishers use a full-time ...
s sift through to identify manuscripts worthy of publication. The acquisitions editors review these and if they agree, send them to the editorial staff. Larger companies have more levels of assessment between submission and publication than smaller companies. Unsolicited submissions have a very low rate of acceptance, with some estimates as low as 3 out of every 10,000 being accepted.


Stages of publishing

The publishing process includes creation, acquisition,
copy editing Copy editing (also known as copyediting and manuscript editing) is the process of revising written material to improve readability and fitness, as well as ensuring that text is free of grammatical and factual errors. ''The Chicago Manual of Style ...
, production,
printing Printing is a process for mass reproducing text and images An Synthetic aperture radar, SAR radar imaging, radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour shows the Teide volcano. The city of Santa Cru ...

printing
(and its electronic equivalents),
marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in advertising; operation of adv ...

marketing
, and
distributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics) Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or generalized functions, are objects that generalize the classical notion of functions in mathematical analysis. Distr ...
. Although listed as distinct stages, parts of these occur concurrently. As editing of text progresses, front cover design and initial layout takes place, and sales and marketing of the book begins. The publisher may
subcontract A subcontractor is an individual or (in many cases) a business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "an ...
various aspects of this process to specialist companies and/or
freelancer ''Freelance'' (sometimes spelled ''free-lance'' or ''free lance''), ''freelancer'', or ''freelance worker'', are terms commonly used for a person who is self-employedSelf-employment is the state of working for oneself rather than an employer. Ge ...

freelancer
s.


Binding

In the case of books, binding follows upon the printing process. It involves folding the printed sheets, "securing them together, affixing boards or sides to it, and covering the whole with leather or other materials".


Types of publishers

There are four major types of publishers in book publishing: * Commercial publishers are more rigid and selective as to which books they publish. If accepted, authors pay no costs to publish in exchange for selling rights to their work. They receive in-house editing, design, printing, marketing and distribution services, and are paid royalties on sales. * Self-publishers: Authors use self-publishing houses to publish their books and retain full rights to their works. Self-publishing houses are more open than traditional publishing houses, allowing emerging and established authors to publish their work. A number of modern or self-publishing houses offer enhanced services (e.g. editing, design) and authors may choose which one to use. Authors shoulder pre-publishing expenses and in return retain all the rights to their works, keep total control, and are paid royalties on sales. *
Vanity press #REDIRECT Vanity press#REDIRECT Vanity press A vanity press, vanity publisher, or subsidy publisher is a publishing house in which authors pay to have their books published. Where mainstream publishers aim to sell enough copies of a book to cover t ...
es portray themselves as traditional publishers but are, in fact, just a self-publishing service. Unlike genuine self-publishing services, the author is often obliged to use some or all of their additional services, and the press will often take rights to the work as part of their contract. * Hybrid publishers operate with a different revenue model than traditional publishing, while keeping the rest of the practices of publishing the same. There have been attempts to bridge this gap using hybrid models. No one model has been fully proven at this stage. Derided in the 1911 ''Encyclopædia Britannica'' as "a purely commercial affair" that cared more about profits than about literary quality, publishing is like any business, with a need for the expenses not to exceed the income. Publishing is now a major industry with the largest companies
Reed Elsevier RELX (pronounced "Rel-ex", sometimes written RElX) is a British-Dutch multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mu ...
and Pearson PLC having global publishing operations. Some businesses maximize their profit margins through
vertical integration In microeconomics Microeconomics (from Greek prefix ''mikro-'' meaning "small" + ''economics'') is a branch of economics that studies the behavior of individuals and Theory of the firm, firms in making decisions regarding the allocation o ...
; book publishing is not one of them. Although newspaper and magazine companies still often own printing presses and binderies, book publishers rarely do. Similarly, the trade usually sells the finished products through a
distributor A distributor is an enclosed rotating used in s that have mechanically timed . The distributor's main function is to route secondary, or high voltage, from the to the s in the correct , and for the correct amount of time. Except in system ...
who stores and distributes the publisher's wares for a percentage fee or sells on a sale or return basis. The advent of the Internet has provided the electronic way of book distribution without the need of physical printing, physical delivery and storage of books. This, therefore, poses an interesting question that challenges publishers, distributors, and retailers. The question pertains to the role and importance the publishing houses have in the overall publishing process. It is a common practice that the author, the original creator of the work, signs the contract awarding him or her only around 10% of the proceeds of the book. Such contract leaves 90% of the book proceeds to the publishing houses, distribution companies, marketers, and retailers. One example (rearranged) of the distribution of proceeds from the sale of a book was given as follows: * 45% to the retailer * 10% to the wholesaler * 10.125% to the publisher for printing (this is usually subcontracted out) * 7.15% to the publisher for marketing * 12.7% to the publisher for pre-production * 15% to the author (royalties) Within the electronic book path, the publishing house's role remains almost identical. The process of preparing a book for e-book publication is exactly the same as print publication, with only minor variations in the process to account for the different mediums of publishing. While some costs, such as the discount given to retailers (normally around 45%) are eliminated, additional costs connected to ebooks apply (especially in the conversion process), raising the production costs to a similar level.
Print on demand Print on demand (POD) is a printing Printing is a process for mass reproducing text and images An Synthetic aperture radar, SAR radar imaging, radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour show ...
is rapidly becoming an established alternative to traditional publishing. Book clubs are almost entirely direct-to-retail, and niche publishers pursue a mixed strategy to sell through all available outlets — their output is insignificant to the major booksellers, so lost revenue poses no threat to the traditional symbiotic relationships between the four activities of printing, publishing, distribution, and retail.


Industry sub-divisions


Newspaper publishing

Newspapers are regularly scheduled publications that present recent news, typically on a type of inexpensive paper called
newsprint Newsprint is a low-cost, non-archival paper Paper is a thin sheet material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, ...
. Most newspapers are primarily sold to
subscriber The subscription business model is a business model in which a customer must pay a recurring price at regular intervals for access to a product. The model was pioneered by publishers of books and periodicals in the 17th century, and is now used ...
s, through retail newsstands or are distributed as advertising-supported
free newspaper Free newspapers are distributed free of charge File:Galuel RMS - free as free speech, not as free beer (cropped).png, upRichard Stallman illustrating his famous sentence "Think free as in free speech, not free beer" with a beer glass. Brusse ...
s. About one-third of publishers in the United States are newspaper publishers.


Periodical publishing

Nominally, periodical publishing involves publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. Newspapers and magazines are both periodicals, but within the industry, the periodical publishing is frequently considered a separate branch that includes magazines and even
academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The most ...
s, but not newspapers. About one-third of publishers in the United States publish periodicals (not including newspapers). The library and information science communities often refer to periodicals as serials.


Book publishing

The global book publishing industry accounts for over $100 billion of annual revenue, or about 15% of the total media industry. For-profit publishers of books that serve the general public are often referred to as "trade publishers." Book publishers represent less than a sixth of the publishers in the United States. Most books are published by a small number of very large book publishers, but thousands of smaller book publishers exist. Many small- and medium-sized book publishers specialize in a specific area. Additionally, thousands of authors have created publishing companies and self-published their own works. Within the book publishing, the publisher of record for a book is the entity in whose name the book's is registered. The publisher of record may or may not be the actual publisher. In 2013,
Penguin Penguins (order (biology), order Sphenisciformes , family (biology), family Spheniscidae ) are a group of Water bird, aquatic flightless bird, flightless birds. They live almost exclusively in the southern hemisphere: only one species, the Gal ...
(owned by Pearson) and
Random House Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world. The company has several independently managed subsidiaries around the world. It is part of Penguin Random House Penguin Random Hous ...

Random House
(owned by
Bertelsmann Bertelsmann is a German private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
) merged, narrowing the industry to a handful of big publishers as it adapted to digital media. The merger created the largest consumer book publisher in the world, with a global market share of more than 25 percent. Approximately 60% of English-language books are produced through the "Big Five" publishing houses:
Penguin Random House Penguin Random House LLC is a multinational corporation, multinational conglomerate (company), conglomerate publishing company formed in 2013 from the merger of Penguin Group and Random House. In April 2020, Bertelsmann announced the completion ...

Penguin Random House
,
HachetteHachette may refer to: * Hachette (surname) * Hachette (publisher), a French publisher, the imprint of Lagardère Publishing ** Hachette Book Group, the American subsidiary ** Hachette Distribution Services, the distribution arm See also

* Hach ...
,
HarperCollins HarperCollins Publishers LLC is one of the Big FiveBig Five may refer to: Animals * the Big five game, Big Five, large African wild animals said to be most difficult to hunt: lion, leopard, rhinoceros, elephant and Cape buffalo * Big Five an ...
,
Simon & Schuster Simon & Schuster () is an American publishing company and a subsidiary of ViacomCBS. It was founded in New York City on January 2, 1924 by Richard L. Simon and M. Lincoln Schuster. As of 2016, Simon & Schuster was the third largest publisher in ...

Simon & Schuster
, and
Macmillan MacMillan, Macmillan, McMillen or McMillan may refer to: People * McMillan (surname) * Clan MacMillan, a Highland Scottish clan * Harold Macmillan, British statesman and politician * James MacMillan, Scottish composer Places Australia * Div ...
. In November 2020, ViacomCBS agreed to sell Simon & Schuster, the third largest book publisher in the United States, to Penguin Random House in a deal that will create the first megapublisher. Leadstart, Shristi Publisher, Rupa Publications, and Jaico Publishing House are major publishers in India.


Directory publishing

Directory publishing is a specialized genre within the publishing industry. These publishers produce mailing lists, telephone books, and other types of directories. With the advent of the Internet, many of these directories are now online.


Tie-in publishing

Technically, radio, television, cinemas, VCDs and DVDs, music systems, games, computer hardware and mobile telephony publish information to their audiences. Indeed, the marketing of a major film often includes a
novelization A novelization (or novelisation) is a derivative In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and c ...
, a graphic novel or comic version, the soundtrack album, a game, model, toys and endless promotional publications. Some of the major publishers have entire divisions devoted to a single franchise, e.g. Ballantine Del Rey Lucasbooks has the exclusive rights to ''Star Wars'' in the United States; Random House UK (Bertelsmann)/Century LucasBooks holds the same rights in the United Kingdom. The game industry self-publishes through BL Publishing/
Black Library The Black Library is a division of Games Workshop Games Workshop Group (often abbreviated as GW) is a British manufacturer of miniature wargame Miniature wargaming is a form of wargaming in which players enact battles between opposing m ...
( Warhammer) and Wizards of the Coast (
Dragonlance ''Dragonlance'' is a shared universe created by Laura and Tracy Hickman, and expanded by Tracy Hickman and Margaret Weis under the direction of TSR, Inc. into a series of fantasy novels. The Hickmans conceived ''Dragonlance'' while driving ...
,
Forgotten Realms Forgotten Realms is a campaign setting A campaign setting is usually a fictional world Fiction generally is a narrative form, in any media (communication), medium, consisting of people, events, or places that are imagination, imaginary—in ot ...
, etc.). The BBC has its publishing division that does very well with long-running series such as
Doctor Who ''Doctor Who'' is a British science fiction television programme broadcast by the BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London Lond ...

Doctor Who
. These multimedia works are cross-marketed aggressively and sales frequently outperform the average stand-alone published work, making them a focus of corporate interest.Shelagh Vainker in Anne Farrer (ed.), "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", 1990, British Museum publications, .


Recent developments

Accessible publishing Accessible publishing is an approach to publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the creation and ...
uses the digitization of books to mark up books into
XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language #REDIRECT Markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntactically distinguishable fro ...

XML
and then produces multiple formats from this to sell to customers, often targeting those with difficulty reading. Formats include a variety larger print sizes, specialized print formats for
dyslexia Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is a disorder characterized by difficulty reading Reading is the process of taking in the sense or meaning of letters, symbols, ''etc.'', especially by sight or touch. For educators and researche ...

dyslexia
, eye tracking problems and
macular degeneration Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), is a medical condition which may result in blurred vision, blurred or vision loss, no vision in the center of the visual field. Early on there are often no sympto ...
, as well as
Braille Braille ( ; Braille: ⠃⠗⠇; ) is a tactile used by people who are . It is traditionally written with embossed paper. Braille users can read computer screens and other electronic supports using s. They can write braille with the original ...

Braille
, DAISY,
audiobook An audiobook (or a talking book) is a recording of a book or other work being read out loud. A reading of the complete text is described as "unabridged", while readings of a shorter version are an abridgement. Spoken audio has been available in s ...
s and
e-books An ebook (short for electronic book), also known as an e-book or eBook, is a book publication made available in Digital data, digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic ...
. Green publishing means adapting the publishing process to minimise environmental impact. One example of this is the concept of on-demand printing, using digital or print-on-demand technology. This cuts down the need to ship books since they are manufactured close to the customer on a just-in-time basis. A further development is the growth of on-line publishing where no physical books are produced. The ebook is created by the author and uploaded to a website from where it can be downloaded and read by anyone. An increasing number of authors are using
niche marketing Niche may refer to: Science * Developmental niche, a concept for understanding the cultural context of child development *Ecological niche In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is t ...
online to sell more books by engaging with their readers online.


Standardization

Refer to the
ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task w ...
divisions of ICS 01.140.40 and 35.240.30 for further information.


Legal issues

Publication is the distribution of copies or
content Content or contents may refer to: Media * Content (media), information or experience provided to audience or end-users by publishers or media producers ** Content industry, an umbrella term that encompasses companies owning and providing mass m ...
to the
public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Engli ...
. The
Berne Convention The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, usually known as the Berne Convention, is an international agreement governing copyright, which was first accepted in Berne, Switzerland, in 1886. The Berne Convention form ...
requires that this can only be done with the consent of the copyright holder, which is initially always the author. In the
Universal Copyright Convention The Universal Copyright Convention (UCC), adopted in Geneva , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge, Chêne-Bougeries, Cologny, Lancy, Grand-Saconnex, Pregny-Chambésy, Vernier, Switzerland, Vernier, Veyrier , website = ville-geneve.ch Geneva ( ...
, "publication" is defined in article VI as "the reproduction in tangible form and the general distribution to the public of copies of a work from which it can be read or otherwise visually perceived."


Privishing

Privishing (''priv''ate publ''ishing'', but not to be confused with
self-publishing Self The self is an individual person as the object of its own reflective consciousness. Since the ''self'' is a reference by a subject to the same subject, this reference is necessarily Subjective character of experience, subjective. The sens ...
) is a modern term for publishing a book but printing so few copies or with such lack of marketing, advertising or sales support that it effectively does not reach the public. The book, while nominally published, is almost impossible to obtain through normal channels such as bookshops, often cannot be ordered specially, and has a notable lack of support from its publisher, including refusal to reprint the title. A book that is privished may be referred to as "killed". Depending on the motivation, privishing may constitute
breach of contract Breach of contract is a legal Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', 90. with its precise definition a matter of ...
,
censorship Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information. This may be done on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient". Censorship can be conducted by governments ...

censorship
, or good business practice (e.g., not printing more books than the publisher believes will sell in a reasonable length of time).


See also


References


External links


International Publishers' organisation
{{Authority control Mass media industry