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The Province of Georgia (also Georgia Colony) was one of the
Southern colonies The Southern Colonies within British America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire in America from 1607 to 1783. These colonies were formally known as British America and the British West Indies before t ...
in
British America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, terri ...

British America
. It was the last of the thirteen original American colonies established by
Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the British Isles, the List of European islands by area, largest European island, and the List of i ...

Great Britain
in what later became the United States. In the original grant, a narrow strip of the province extended to the
Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. T ...

Pacific Ocean
. The colony's
corporate charter Articles of incorporation, also referred to as the certificate of incorporation or the corporate charter, are a document or charter that establishes the existence of a corporation in the United States The United States of America (USA), comm ...
was granted to General
James Oglethorpe James Edward Oglethorpe (22 December 1696 – 30 June 1785) was a British soldier, Member of Parliament, and philanthropist, as well as the founder of the colony of Georgia in what was then British America. As a social reformer, he hoped to re ...

James Oglethorpe
on April 21, 1732, by
George IIGeorge II or 2 may refer to: People * George II of Antioch (seventh century AD) * George II of Armenia (late ninth century) * George II of Abkhazia (916–960) * Patriarch George II of Alexandria (1021–1051) * George II of Georgia (1072–1089) * ...
, for whom the colony was named. The charter was finalized by the King's
privy council A privy council is a body that advises the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of state He or HE may refer to: ...
on June 9, 1732. Oglethorpe envisioned a colony which would serve as a haven for English subjects who had been imprisoned for debt and "the worthy poor". General Oglethorpe imposed very strict laws that many colonists disagreed with, such as the banning of alcoholic beverages. He disagreed with
slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their . Slavery typically involves the enslaved person bein ...
and thought a system of
smallholding A smallholding or smallholder is a small farm operating under a small-scale agriculture model. Definitions vary widely for what constitutes a smallholder or small-scale farm, including factors such as size, food production technique or technology ...
s more appropriate than the large
plantations A plantation is an agricultural estate, generally centered on a plantation house, meant for farming that specializes in cash crops, usually mainly planted with a single crop, with perhaps ancillary areas for vegetables for eating and so on. The c ...
common in the colonies just to the north. However, land grants were not as large as most colonists would have preferred. Another reason for the founding of the colony was as a
buffer state A buffer state is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign state or ...
and a "
garrison Garrison (from the French language, French ''garnison'', itself from the verb ''garnir'', "to equip") is the collective term for any body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it. The term now often applies to cert ...

garrison
province" which would defend the southern British colonies from
Spanish Florida Spanish Florida ( es, La Florida) was the first major European land claim and attempted settlement in North America during the European Age of Discovery The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (sometimes also, particularly regionally, Age ...
. Oglethorpe imagined a province populated by "sturdy farmers" who could guard the border; because of this, the colony's charter prohibited
slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their . Slavery typically involves the enslaved person bein ...
. The ban on slavery was lifted by 1751 and the colony became a
royal colony Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administ ...
by 1752.


Foundation

Although many believe that the colony was formed for the imprisoned, the colony was actually formed as a place of no slavery. Oglethorpe did have the vision to make it a place for debtors, but it transformed into a royal colony. The following is an historical accounting of these first English settlers sent to Georgia:
A committee was appointed to visit the jails and obtain the discharge of such poor prisoners as were worthy, carefully investigating ''character, circumstances and antecedents''.
Thirty-five families, numbering one hundred and twenty persons, were selected.
On the 16th of November, 1732, the emigrants embarked at Gravesend on the ship Anne ... arriving January 13th 733in the harbor of Charleston, S. C. ...
They set sail the day following ... into Port Royal, some eighty miles southward, to be conveyed in small vessels to the river Savannah.
Oglethorpe continued up the river to scout a location suitable for settlement. On February 12, 1733, Oglethorpe led the settlers to their arrival at Yamacraw Bluff, in what is now the city of
Savannah A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the '' plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest A forest is an ...
, and established a camp with the help of a local elderly
Creek A creek is a stream that is usually smaller than a river Creek may refer to: People * Muscogee, also known as Creek, Native Americans * Murder of Amber Creek, Amber Creek (1982–1997), American murder victim * Mitch Creek (born 1992), Austral ...
chief,
Tomochichi Tomochichi (to-mo-chi-chi') (c. 1644 – October 5, 1739) was the head chief of a Yamacraw town on the site of present-day Savannah, Georgia in Chippewa Square, completed in 1910 by Daniel Chester French Savannah () is the oldest city in t ...

Tomochichi
. A
Yamacraw The Yamacraw were a Native American band that emerged in the early 18th century, occupying parts of what became Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a co ...

Yamacraw
Indian village had occupied the site, but Oglethorpe arranged for the Indians to move. The day is still celebrated as
Georgia Day Georgia Day is the holiday which the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia recognizes in honor of its Colonial history of the United States, colonial founding as the Province of Georgia. On February 12, 1733 James Oglethorpe landed the ...
. The original charter specified the colony as being between the
Savannah A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the '' plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest A forest is an ...

Savannah
and
Altamaha River The Altamaha River is a major river in the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. It flows generally eastward for 137 miles (220 km) from its Source (river or stream), origin at the confluence of the Oconee River and Ocmulgee River ...
s, up to their
headwater 270px, FarringdonFarringdon may refer to: People * Nicholas de Farndone, 14th century Mayor of London Places London * Farringdon, London, an area of Clerkenwell which takes its name from ''Farringdon Station''. * Farringdon Road, a road in C ...
s (the headwaters of the Altamaha are on the
Ocmulgee River The Ocmulgee River () is a western tributary of the Altamaha River, approximately 255 mi (410 km) long, in the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. It is the westernmost major tributary of the Altamaha.
), and then extending westward "to the south seas." The area within the charter had previously been part of the original grant of the
Province of Carolina Carolina was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as ...
, which was closely linked to Georgia.


Development of the colony

The
Privy Council A privy council is a body that advises the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of state He or HE may refer to: ...
approved the establishment charter on June 9, 1732, and for the next two decades the council of trustees governed the province, with the aid of annual
subsidies A subsidy or government incentive is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy. Although commonly extended from the government, the term ...

subsidies
from Parliament. However, after many difficulties and the departure of Oglethorpe, the trustees proved unable to manage the
proprietary colony A proprietary colony was a type of English colony mostly in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcon ...
, and on June 23, 1752, they submitted a deed of reconveyance to the
crown '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which is 339th National Treasure of South Korea. It is basically following the standard type of Silla's Crown. It was excavated by Swedish Crown Pri ...
, one year before the expiration of the charter. On January 2, 1755, Georgia officially ceased to be a proprietary colony and became a
crown colony A Crown colony or royal colony was a colony administered by The Crown within the British Empire. There was usually a Governor#United Kingdom overseas territories, Governor, appointed by the monarch of the UK on the advice of the ''Home'' (UK) Gov ...
. From 1732 until 1758, the minor civil divisions were districts and towns. In 1758, without
Indian Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...
permission, the Province of Georgia was divided into eight parishes by the Act of the Assembly of Georgia on March 15. The Town and District of
Savannah A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the '' plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest A forest is an ...
was named Christ Church Parish.1773 Map of Georgia's Colonial Parishes
/ref> The District of Abercorn and Goshen, plus the District of Ebenezer, was named the Parish of St. Matthew. The District of Halifax was named the Parish of St. George. The District of
Augusta Augusta may refer to: Places Australia * Augusta, Western Australia Brasil * Rua Augusta (São Paulo) Canada * Augusta, Ontario * North Augusta, Ontario * Augusta Street (Hamilton, Ontario) France * Augusta Suessionum ("Augusta of the Suessii" ...
was named the Parish of St. Paul. The Town of Hardwick and the District of Ogeechee, including the island of Ossabaw, was named the Parish of St. Philip. From Sunbury in the District of Midway and Newport to the south branch of Newport, including the islands of St. Catherine and Bermuda, was named the Parish of St. John. The Town and District of Darien, to the
Altamaha River The Altamaha River is a major river in the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. It flows generally eastward for 137 miles (220 km) from its Source (river or stream), origin at the confluence of the Oconee River and Ocmulgee River ...
, including the islands of Sapelo and Eastwood and the sea islands north of Egg Island, was named the Parish of St. Andrew. The Town and District of Frederica, including the islands of Great and Little St. Simons, along with the adjacent islands, was named the Parish of St. James. Following Britain's victory in the
French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a theater of the Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Gre ...

French and Indian War
, King George III issued the
Proclamation of 1763 A portion of eastern North America; the 1763 "proclamation line" is the border between the red and the pink areas. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued by King George III on 7 October 1763. It followed the Treaty of Paris (1763), which fo ...

Proclamation of 1763
. One of its provisions was to extend Georgia's southern boundary from the Altamaha River to the St. Marys River. Two years later, on March 25, 1765, Governor James Wright approved an act of the General Assembly creating four new parishesSt. David, St. Patrick, St. Thomas, and St. Mary in the recently acquired land, and it further assigned
Jekyll Island Jekyll Island is located off the coast of the U.S. state of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe ...

Jekyll Island
to St. James Parish. The Georgia colony had had a sluggish beginning. James Oglethorpe did not allow liquor, and colonists who came at the trustees' expense were not allowed to own more than of land for their farm in addition to a 60 foot by 90 foot plot in town. Those who paid their own way could bring ten indentured servants and would receive 500 acres of land. Additional land could neither be acquired nor sold. Discontent grew in the colony because of these restrictions, and Oglethorpe lifted them. With slavery, liquor, and land acquisition the colony developed much faster.
Slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their . Slavery typically involves the enslaved person bein ...
had been permitted from 1749. There was some internal opposition to slavery, particularly from Scottish settlers, but by the time of the
War of Independence Conflicts called war of independence or independence war include: * Algerian War of Independence The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian Revolution or the Algerian War of Independence,( ar, الثورة الجزائرية '; '' ber, Tagra ...
, Georgia was much like the other Southern colonies.


Revolutionary War period and beyond

During the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) ...
Georgia's population was at first divided about exactly how to respond to revolutionary activities and heightened tensions in other provinces. When violence broke out in 1775, radical Patriots (also known as Whigs) stormed the royal magazine at
Savannah A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the '' plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest A forest is an ...
and carried off its ammunition, took control of the provincial government, and drove many
Loyalist Loyalism, in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. ...
s out of the province. In 1776 a
provincial congress The Provincial Congresses were extra-legal legislative bodies established in ten of the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Br ...
had declared independence and created a constitution for the new
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
. Georgia also served as the staging ground for several important raids into British-controlled Florida. In 1777 the original eight
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
of the state of Georgia were created. Prior to that Georgia had been divided into local government units called parishes. Settlement had been limited to the near vicinity of the
Savannah River The Savannah River is a major river in the southeastern United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North ...

Savannah River
; the western area of the new state remained under the control of the .
James WrightJames or Jim Wright may refer to: Sportspeople *Jim Wright (1920s pitcher) (1900–1963), Major League Baseball pitcher *Jim Wright (1970s pitcher) (born 1950), Major League Baseball pitcher *Jim Wright (1980s pitcher) (born 1955), Major League Bas ...
, the last Royal Governor of the Province of Georgia, dismissed the royal
assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is the body of ethics, Procedural l ...
in 1775. He was briefly a
prisoner A prisoner (also known as an inmate or detainee) is a person who is deprived of liberty against their will. This can be by confinement, captivity, or forcible restraint. The term applies particularly to serving a prison sentence in a prison. ...
of the revolutionaries before escaping to a British warship in February 1776. During the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from thirteen American colonies of British America British America comprised the colonia ...
Wright would become the only royal governor of the
Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...
to regain control of part of his colony after British forces captured Savannah on December 29, 1778. British and Loyalist forces restored large areas of Georgia to colonial rule, especially along the coast, while Patriots continued to maintain an independent governor, congress, and
militia A militia () is generally an army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-ba ...
in other areas. In 1779 the British repelled an attack of militia,
Continental Army The Continental Army was the army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land- ...
, and French military and naval forces on
Savannah A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the '' plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest A forest is an ...
. The 1781 siege of Augusta, by militia and Continental forces, restored it to Patriot control. When the war was lost for Britain, Wright and British forces evacuated Savannah on July 11, 1782. After that the Province of Georgia ceased to exist as a British colony.
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Wester ...
was a member of the
Second Continental Congress The Second Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British c ...
, a signer of the
Declaration of Independence#REDIRECT Declaration of independence {{Redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation ...

Declaration of Independence
, the tenth
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
to ratify the
Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, ...
on July 24, 1778, and the fourth state to be admitted to under the
U.S. Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the Supremacy Clause, supreme law of the United States, United States of America. This founding document, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Its first t ...

U.S. Constitution
, on January 2, 1788. On April 24, 1802, Georgia ceded to the
U.S. Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States and consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Wa ...

U.S. Congress
parts of its western lands, that it had claims for going back to when it was a province (colony). These lands were incorporated into the
Mississippi Territory The Territory of Mississippi was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from April 7, 1798, until December 10, 1817, when the western half of the territory was admitted to the United States, Union as the History of ...
and later (with other adjoining lands) became the states of
Alabama (We dare defend our rights) , anthem = "Alabama (state song), Alabama" , image_map = Alabama in United States.svg , seat = Montgomery, Alabama, Montgomery , LargestCity = Huntsville, Alabama, Huntsville , LargestCounty = Baldwin County, Ala ...
and
Mississippi Mississippi () is a in the region of the , bordered to the north by ; to the east by ; to the south by the ; to the southwest by ; and to the northwest by . Mississippi's western boundary is largely defined by the . Mississippi is the and ...
.


See also

* Georgia Experiment *
Georgia cracker Georgia Cracker refers to the original American pioneer settler A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area. A settler who migrates to an area previously uninha ...
* History of Georgia (U.S. state) *
List of colonial governors of Georgia This is of the governors of the Province of Georgia The Province of Georgia (also Georgia Colony) was one of the Southern colonies in British America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire in America fro ...
*
Oglethorpe Plan Portrait of Oglethorpe at Wormsloe Historic Site The Oglethorpe Plan is an urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused ...
*
Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...


References


Further reading

* * Greene, Evarts Boutell. ''Provincial America, 1690-1740'' (1905
ch 15 online pp 249-269 covers 1732 to 1763.
* * McIlvenna, Noeleen (2015). ''The Short Life of Free Georgia.'' Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. *


External links



* ttp://fax.libs.uga.edu/egmont/ Sir John Percival papers also called: The Egmont Papers, 1732–1745. University of Georgia Hargrett Library.
Diary of Viscount Percival
afterwards first Earl of Egmont. University of Georgia Hargrett Library.
Charter of Georgia
from the Avalon Project
Royal Charter for the Colony of Georgia, 09 June 1732
from the collection of the Georgia Archives.
Original Grantees of the Colony of Georgia, 21 December 1733
from the collection of the Georgia Archives.
1758 Act Dividing Georgia into ParishesColonial Will Books, 1754-1779 from the Georgia Archives
{{DEFAULTSORT:Georgia, Province of
Province of Georgia The Province of Georgia (also Georgia Colony) was one of the Southern colonies The Southern Colonies within British America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire in America from 1607 to 1783. These c ...
Thirteen Colonies Colonial United States (British) Former British colonies and protectorates in the Americas 1732 establishments in the British Empire 1776 disestablishments in the British Empire