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The Predynastic Zhou or Proto-Zhou (; ) refers to the state of Zhou that existed in the
Guanzhong Guanzhong (, formerly romanised as Kwanchung) region, also known as the Guanzhong Basin, Wei River Basin, or uncommonly as the Shaanzhong region, is a historical region of China corresponding to the crescentic graben basin within present-day centr ...
region of modern
Shaanxi Shaanxi (, ; alternately Shensi) is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, E), Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), G ...
province during the
Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty that ruled in the middle and lower Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty. T ...

Shang dynasty
of ancient China, before its conquest of Shang in 1046/45 BC which led to the establishment of the
Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ) was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty. The Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history (790 years). The military control of China by the royal house, surn ...
. It was ruled by the Ji 姬 clan.


History

According to
Sima Qian Sima Qian (; ; ) was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220). He is considered the father of Chinese historiography for his ''Records of the Grand Historian'', a general history of China in the ''Jizhuanti'' style (紀傳體) c ...

Sima Qian
, it was established by
Gugong DanfuKing Tai of Zhou () or Gugong Danfu () was a great leader of the Zhou clan during the Shang dynasty. His great-grandson Fa would later conquer the Shang and establish the Zhou dynasty. Name "King Tai" was a posthumous name bestowed upon him by his d ...
when he relocated his clan from their home of Bin to a new settlement along the
Wei River The Wei River () is a major river in west-central China's Gansu and Shaanxi provinces. It is the largest tributary of the Yellow River and very important in the early development of Chinese civilization. The source of the Wei River is close to We ...
.
Sima Qian Sima Qian (; ; ) was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220). He is considered the father of Chinese historiography for his ''Records of the Grand Historian'', a general history of China in the ''Jizhuanti'' style (紀傳體) c ...

Sima Qian
. ''
Records of the Grand Historian The ''Records of the Grand Historian'', also known by its Chinese name ''Shiji'', is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Western Han Dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, ...

Records of the Grand Historian
''.
His two elder sons Taibo and Zhongyong were said to have abandoned the territory and fled south to establish Wu on the lower
Yangtze The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in the Tanggula Mountains (Tibetan Plateau) and flows in a ge ...
. His youngest son Jili then inherited Zhou and expanded it with numerous campaigns against the
Rong Rong or RONG may refer to: Places China *Rong County, Guangxi, Yulin, Guangxi, China *Rong County, Sichuan, Zigong, Sichuan, China Nepal *Rong, Ilam, a rural municipality in Ilam District, Nepal Norway *Rong, Norway, a village in Øygarden muni ...
"
barbarians A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive. The designation is usually applied as a generalization based on a popular stereotype; barbarians can be members of any nation judged by some to be less civilized or o ...
" around Shang. His power threatened King
Wen Ding Wen Wu Ding or Wen Ding (), personal name Zǐ Tuō, was a king of the Shang dynasty of China from 1116 to 1106 BC. Biography According to ''Bamboo Annals'', his capital was at Yin (殷) or Zimou. In the second year of his reign, his vassal Jili ...
and he was tricked into an ambush at a place called Saiku (). Jili's son King Wen was likewise imprisoned by
King Zhou of Shang King Zhou (/oʊ/; ) was the pejorative posthumous name given to Di Xin of Shang (), the last king of the Shang dynasty of ancient China. He is also called Zhou Xin (; Zhòu Xīn). In Chinese, his name Zhòu (紂) also refers to a horse crupper, the ...
at Youli before being ransomed by other nobles. In some accounts, Wen was forced to consume his eldest son as meat cakes or a soup at the king's bequest. His second son then avenged his grandfather and brother at the
Battle of Muye The Battle of Muye or Battle of Mu () was a battle fought in ancient China between the rebel Zhou state and the reigning Shang dynasty. The Zhou army, led by Ji Fa, defeated the defending army of King Zhou of Shang at Muye and captured the Shang ...

Battle of Muye
, defeating King Zhou and ending the Shang.


Rulers

*
Gugong DanfuKing Tai of Zhou () or Gugong Danfu () was a great leader of the Zhou clan during the Shang dynasty. His great-grandson Fa would later conquer the Shang and establish the Zhou dynasty. Name "King Tai" was a posthumous name bestowed upon him by his d ...
, also known as King Tai of Zhou *
Gong Liu Gong Liu or Duke Liu (Chinese: t , s , p ''Gōng Liú'') was a noble of ancient China. He was an important early leader of the Ji clan, which later founded the Zhou dynasty. His father was Ji Ju. Ancestry In Chinese mythology, t ...
, who led the migration of the Zhou people to Bin * Jili, also known as
King Ji of ZhouJili () was a leader of the Predynastic Zhou during the Shang dynasty of ancient China. His son King Wen and grandson King Wu would defeat the Shang to establish the Zhou dynasty. He was posthumously granted the title of king, and often referred to a ...
*
King Wen of Zhou King Wen of Zhou (; 1112–1050 BC, the Civilizing King) was count of Zhou during the late Shang dynasty in ancient China. Although frequently confused with the Duke of Zhou, also known as "Lord Zhou", they are different historical personalities. A ...
*
King Wu of Zhou King Wu of Zhou () was the first king of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. The chronology of his reign is disputed but is generally thought to have begun around 1046 BC and ended three years later in 1043 BC. King Wu's ancestral name was J ...

King Wu of Zhou
, who conquered Shang and established the Zhou dynasty


See also

* Kings of Zhou *
Ancestry of the Zhou dynastyThis is a family tree of Chinese kings covering the period from 2697 BCE up through the end of the Spring and Autumn period in 453 BCE, before the establishment of the title emperor () by Shi Huangdi in 221 BCE. Family tree of Chinese monarchs (an ...


References

{{Reflist Shang dynasty Zhou dynasty