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The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and art critics, founded in 1848 by
William Holman Hunt William Holman Hunt (2 April 1827 – 7 September 1910) was an English painter and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. His paintings were notable for their great attention to detail, vivid colour, and elaborate symbolism. ...

William Holman Hunt
,
John Everett Millais Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, ( , ; 8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896) was an English painter The following is a list of notable Kingdom of England, English and United Kingdom, British painters (in chronological order). English pai ...

John Everett Millais
,
Dante Gabriel Rossetti Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882), generally known as Dante Gabriel Rossetti (), was an English poet, illustrator, painter, and translator, and member of the Rossetti family. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Broth ...
,
William Michael Rossetti William Michael Rossetti (25 September 1829 – 5 February 1919) was an English writer and critic. Early life Born in London, Rossetti was a son of immigrant Italian scholar Gabriele Rossetti Gabriele Pasquale Giuseppe Rossetti (28 Februa ...

William Michael Rossetti
,
James Collinson James Collinson (9 May 1825 – 24 January 1881) was a Victorian painter who was a member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and ...

James Collinson
,
Frederic George Stephens Frederic George Stephens (10 October 1827 – 9 March 1907) was a British art critic, and one of the two 'non-artistic' members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Life Stephens was born to Septimus Stephens of Aberdeen and Ann (née Cook) in ...

Frederic George Stephens
and
Thomas Woolner Thomas Woolner (17 December 1825 – 7 October 1892) was an English sculptor and poet who was one of the founder-members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of En ...
who formed a seven-member "Brotherhood" modelled in part on the
Nazarene movement The epithet Nazarene was adopted by a group of early 19th-century German Romanticism, German Romantic painters who aimed to revive spirituality in art. The name Nazarene came from a term of derision used against them for their affectation of a bi ...
. The Brotherhood was only ever a loose association and their principles were shared by other artists of the time, including
Ford Madox Brown Ford Madox Brown (16 April 1821 – 6 October 1893) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ...

Ford Madox Brown
, Arthur Hughes and
Marie Spartali Stillman Marie Euphrosyne Spartali (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximatel ...
. Later followers of the principles of the Brotherhood included
Edward Burne-Jones Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1st Baronet, (; 28 August 183317 June 1898) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Cro ...
,
William Morris William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, artist, novelist, architectural conservationist, printer, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement ...

William Morris
and
John William Waterhouse John William Waterhouse (6 April 184910 February 1917) was an English painter The following is a list of notable Kingdom of England, English and United Kingdom, British painters (in chronological order). English painters Born 16th century * ...

John William Waterhouse
. The group sought a return to the abundant detail, intense colours and complex compositions of
Quattrocento The cultural and artistic events of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of ...
Italian art. They rejected what they regarded as the mechanistic approach first adopted by
Mannerist Mannerism, also known as Late Renaissance, is a style in European art ''; by Johannes Vermeer Johannes Vermeer ( , , #Pronunciation of name, see below; October 1632 – December 1675) was a Dutch Baroque Period Painting, painter who speciali ...
artists who succeeded
Raphael Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (; March 28 or April 6, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture ...

Raphael
and
Michelangelo Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (; 6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564), known simply as Michelangelo (), was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance In art history, the High Renaissance was ...

Michelangelo
. The Brotherhood believed the
Classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical architecture, architecture derived from Greek and ...
poses and elegant compositions of Raphael in particular had been a corrupting influence on the
academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership. Academia is the ...
teaching of art, hence the name "Pre-Raphaelite". In particular, the group objected to the influence of
Sir Joshua Reynolds Sir Joshua Reynolds (16 July 1723 – 23 February 1792) was an English painter, specialising in Portrait, portraits. John Russell (art critic), John Russell said he was one of the major European painters of the 18th century. He promoted the Gra ...
, founder of the English
Royal Academy of Arts The Royal Academy of Arts (RA) is an art institution based in Burlington House Burlington House is a building on Piccadilly in Mayfair, London. It was originally a private Palladian architecture, Palladian mansion owned by the Earl of B ...

Royal Academy of Arts
, whom they called "Sir Sloshua". To the Pre-Raphaelites, according to William Michael Rossetti, "sloshy" meant "anything lax or scamped in the process of painting ... and hence ... any thing or person of a commonplace or conventional kind". The group associated their work with
John Ruskin John Ruskin (8 February 1819 20 January 1900) was an English writer, philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphys ...

John Ruskin
, an English critic whose influences were driven by his religious background. Christian themes were abundant. The group continued to accept the concepts of
history painting History painting is a genre in painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a soli ...
and
mimesis Mimesis (; grc, μίμησις, ''mīmēsis'') is a term used in literary criticism Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by li ...

mimesis
, imitation of nature, as central to the purpose of art. The Pre-Raphaelites defined themselves as a reform movement, created a distinct name for their form of art, and published a periodical, '' The Germ'', to promote their ideas. The group's debates were recorded in the ''Pre-Raphaelite Journal''. The Brotherhood separated after almost five years.


Beginnings

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded in John Millais's parents' house on Gower Street, London in 1848. At the first meeting, the painters
John Everett Millais Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, ( , ; 8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896) was an English painter The following is a list of notable Kingdom of England, English and United Kingdom, British painters (in chronological order). English pai ...

John Everett Millais
,
Dante Gabriel Rossetti Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882), generally known as Dante Gabriel Rossetti (), was an English poet, illustrator, painter, and translator, and member of the Rossetti family. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Broth ...
, and
William Holman Hunt William Holman Hunt (2 April 1827 – 7 September 1910) was an English painter and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. His paintings were notable for their great attention to detail, vivid colour, and elaborate symbolism. ...

William Holman Hunt
were present. Hunt and Millais were students at the
Royal Academy of Arts The Royal Academy of Arts (RA) is an art institution based in Burlington House Burlington House is a building on Piccadilly in Mayfair, London. It was originally a private Palladian architecture, Palladian mansion owned by the Earl of B ...

Royal Academy of Arts
and had met in another loose association, the Cyclographic Club, a sketching society. At his own request Rossetti became a pupil of
Ford Madox Brown Ford Madox Brown (16 April 1821 – 6 October 1893) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ...

Ford Madox Brown
in 1848.McGann, Jerome J. ''The Complete Writings and Pictures of Dante Gabriel Rossetti'', NINES consortium, Creative Commons License; http://www.rossettiarchive.org/docs/s40.rap.html retrieved 16 December 2012. At that date, Rossetti and Hunt shared lodgings in Cleveland Street,
Fitzrovia Fitzrovia () is a district of central London, England, near the West End of London, West End. The eastern part of area is in the London Borough of Camden, and the western in the City of Westminster. It has its roots in the Manor of Tottenham Cour ...
, Central London. Hunt had started painting ''The Eve of St. Agnes'' based on Keats's poem of the same name, but it was not completed until 1867.Hilton, Timothy (1970). ''The Pre-Raphaelites''. London: Thames and Hudson. pp. 28–33. . As an aspiring poet, Rossetti wished to develop the links between
Romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18th and 19th centuries ** Romantic music, of that era ** Romantic poetry, of that era ** Romanticism in science, of that er ...
poetry and art. By autumn, four more members, painters
James Collinson James Collinson (9 May 1825 – 24 January 1881) was a Victorian painter who was a member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and ...

James Collinson
and
Frederic George Stephens Frederic George Stephens (10 October 1827 – 9 March 1907) was a British art critic, and one of the two 'non-artistic' members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Life Stephens was born to Septimus Stephens of Aberdeen and Ann (née Cook) in ...

Frederic George Stephens
, Rossetti's brother, poet and critic
William Michael Rossetti William Michael Rossetti (25 September 1829 – 5 February 1919) was an English writer and critic. Early life Born in London, Rossetti was a son of immigrant Italian scholar Gabriele Rossetti Gabriele Pasquale Giuseppe Rossetti (28 Februa ...

William Michael Rossetti
, and sculptor
Thomas Woolner Thomas Woolner (17 December 1825 – 7 October 1892) was an English sculptor and poet who was one of the founder-members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of En ...
, had joined to form a seven-member-strong brotherhood. Ford Madox Brown was invited to join, but the more senior artist remained independent but supported the group throughout the PRB period of Pre-Raphaelitism and contributed to '' The Germ''. Other young painters and sculptors became close associates, including
Charles Allston Collins image:ConventThoughtsCollins.jpg, ''Convent Thoughts'' (1850–51; Ashmolean Museum, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford) Charles Allston Collins (London 25 January 1828 – 9 April 1873) was a British painter, writer, and illustrator associated with ...

Charles Allston Collins
, and Alexander Munro. The PRB intended to keep the existence of the brotherhood secret from members of the Royal Academy.


Early doctrines

The brotherhood's early doctrines, as defined by William Michael Rossetti, were expressed in four declarations:
# to have genuine ideas to express; # to study Nature attentively, so as to know how to express them; # to sympathise with what is direct and serious and heartfelt in previous art, to the exclusion of what is conventional and self-parading and learned by rote; and # most indispensable of all, to produce thoroughly good pictures and statues.
The principles were deliberately non-dogmatic, since the brotherhood wished to emphasise the personal responsibility of individual artists to determine their own ideas and methods of depiction. Influenced by
Romanticism Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to ...
, the members thought freedom and responsibility were inseparable. Nevertheless, they were particularly fascinated by
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

medieval
culture, believing it to possess a and creative integrity that had been lost in later eras. The emphasis on medieval culture clashed with principles of
realism Realism, Realistic, or Realists may refer to: In the arts *Realism (arts), the general attempt to depict subjects truthfully in different forms of the arts Arts movements related to realism include: *Classical Realism *Literary realism, a movem ...
which stress the independent observation of nature. In its early stages, the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood believed its two interests were consistent with one another, but in later years the movement divided and moved in two directions. The realists were led by Hunt and Millais, while the medievalists were led by Rossetti and his followers,
Edward Burne-Jones Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1st Baronet, (; 28 August 183317 June 1898) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Cro ...
and
William Morris William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, artist, novelist, architectural conservationist, printer, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement ...

William Morris
. The split was never absolute, since both factions believed that art was essentially spiritual in character, opposing their
idealism In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, lan ...

idealism
to the
materialist Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds matter In classical physics Classical physics is a group of physics theories that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories. If a currently accepted the ...
realism associated with
Courbet Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet ( , , ; 10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realism Realism, Realistic, or Realists may refer to: In the arts *Realism (arts), the general attempt to depict subjects truthful ...

Courbet
and
Impressionism Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a specific period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or ...

Impressionism
. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was greatly influenced by nature and its members used great detail to show the natural world using bright and sharp-focus techniques on a white canvas. In attempts to revive the brilliance of colour found in
Quattrocento The cultural and artistic events of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of ...
art, Hunt and Millais developed a technique of painting in thin glazes of pigment over a wet white ground in the hope that the colours would retain jewel-like transparency and clarity. Their emphasis on brilliance of colour was a reaction to the excessive use of
bitumen Asphalt, also known as bitumen (, ), is a sticky, black, highly viscous The viscosity of a fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress, or externa ...

bitumen
by earlier British artists, such as Reynolds, David Wilkie and
Benjamin Robert Haydon Benjamin Robert Haydon (; 26 January 178622 June 1846) was a United Kingdom, British Painting, painter who specialised in grand historical pictures, although he also painted a few contemporary subjects and portraits. His commercial success was dama ...
. Bitumen produces unstable areas of muddy darkness, an effect the Pre-Raphaelites despised. In 1848, Rossetti and Hunt made a list of "Immortals", artistic heroes whom they admired, especially from literature, some of whose work would form subjects for PRB paintings, notably including
Keats John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English poet prominent in the second generation of Romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18t ...

Keats
and
Tennyson Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was a British poet. He was the Poet Laureate A poet laureate (plural: poets laureate) is a poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themse ...
.


First exhibitions and publications

The first exhibitions of Pre-Raphaelite work occurred in 1849. Both Millais's '' Isabella'' (1848–1849) and Holman Hunt's ''
Rienzi ' (''Rienzi, the last of the tribune Tribune () was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who l ...
'' (1848–1849) were exhibited at the Royal Academy. Rossetti's '' Girlhood of Mary Virgin'' was shown at a Free Exhibition on Hyde Park Corner. As agreed, all members of the brotherhood signed their work with their name and the initials "PRB". Between January and April 1850, the group published a literary magazine, ''The Germ'' edited by William Rossetti which published poetry by the Rossettis, Woolner, and Collinson and essays on art and literature by associates of the brotherhood, such as
Coventry Patmore Coventry Kersey Dighton Patmore (23 July 1823 – 26 November 1896) was an English poet and critic A critic is a person who communicates an assessment and an opinion of various forms of creative works such as art Art is a diverse ran ...

Coventry Patmore
. As the short run-time implies, the magazine did not manage to achieve sustained momentum. (Daly 1989)


Public controversy

In 1850, the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood became the subject of controversy after the exhibition of Millais' painting ''
Christ in the House of His Parents ''Christ in the House of His Parents'' (1849–50) is a painting by John Everett Millais Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, ( , ; 8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896) was an English painter The following is a list of notable Kingdom of ...
'' was considered to be
blasphemous Blasphemy is an insult that shows contempt, disrespect, or lack of Reverence (emotion), reverence concerning a deity, a sacred object, or something considered inviolable. Some religions consider blasphemy to be a religious crime. ...
by many reviewers, notably
Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian e ...

Charles Dickens
. Dickens considered Millais' Mary to be ugly. Millais had used his sister-in-law, Mary Hodgkinson, as the model for Mary in his painting. The brotherhood's medievalism was attacked as backward-looking and its extreme devotion to detail was condemned as ugly and jarring to the eye. According to Dickens, Millais made the Holy Family look like alcoholics and slum-dwellers, adopting contorted and absurd "medieval" poses. After the controversy, Collinson left the brotherhood and the remaining members met to discuss whether he should be replaced by Charles Allston Collins or Walter Howell Deverell, but were unable to make a decision. From that point the group disbanded, though its influence continued. Artists who had worked in the style initially continued but no longer signed works "PRB". The brotherhood found support from the critic
John Ruskin John Ruskin (8 February 1819 20 January 1900) was an English writer, philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphys ...

John Ruskin
, who praised its devotion to nature and rejection of conventional methods of composition. The Pre-Raphaelites were influenced by Ruskin's theories. He wrote to ''
The Times ''The Times'' is a British Newspaper#Daily, daily Newspaper#National, national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title ''The Daily Universal Register'', adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. ''The Times'' and its s ...
'' defending their work and subsequently met them. Initially, he favoured Millais, who travelled to Scotland in the summer of 1853 with Ruskin and Ruskin's wife, Euphemia Chalmers Ruskin, née Gray (now best known as
Effie Gray Euphemia Chalmers Millais, Lady Millais (''née'' Gray; 7 May 1828 – 23 December 1897) was a Scottish painter and the wife of Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Pre-Raphaelite painter John Everett Millais. She had previously been married to the art ...

Effie Gray
). The main object of the journey was to paint Ruskin's portrait. Effie became increasingly attached to Millais, creating a crisis. In subsequent annulment proceedings, Ruskin himself made a statement to his lawyer to the effect that his marriage had been unconsummated. The marriage was annulled on grounds of non-
consummation In many traditions and statutes of civil or religious law, the consummation of a marriage, often called simply ''consummation'', is the first (or first officially credited) act of sexual intercourse Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulati ...
, leaving Effie free to marry Millais, but causing a public scandal. Millais began to move away from the Pre-Raphaelite style after his marriage, and Ruskin ultimately attacked his later works. Ruskin continued to support Hunt and Rossetti and provided funds to encourage the art of
Elizabeth Siddall Elizabeth Eleanor Siddall (25 July 1829 – 11 February 1862), better known as Elizabeth Siddal, was an English artist, poet, and Model (art), artists' model. Significant collections of her artworks can be found at Wightwick Manor and the Ashmol ...
, Rossetti's wife. By 1853 the original PRB had virtually dissolved, with only Holman Hunt remaining true to its stated aims. But the term "Pre-Raphaelite" stuck to Rossetti and others, including
William Morris William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, artist, novelist, architectural conservationist, printer, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement ...

William Morris
and
Edward Burne-Jones Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1st Baronet, (; 28 August 183317 June 1898) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Cro ...
, with whom he became involved in
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
in 1857. Hence the term Pre-Raphaelite is associated with the much wider and long-lived art movement, including the dreamy, yearning images of women produced by Rossetti and several of his followers.


Later developments and influence

Artists influenced by the brotherhood include John Brett, Philip Calderon, Arthur Hughes,
Gustave Moreau Gustave Moreau (; 6 April 1826 – 18 April 1898) was a French artist and an important figure in the Symbolist movement. Jean Cassou Jean Cassou (9 July 1897 – 16 January 1986) was a French writer, art critic, poet, member of the French Re ...

Gustave Moreau
,
Evelyn De Morgan Evelyn De Morgan (30 August 1855 – 2 May 1919), née Pickering, was an English painter associated early in her career with the later phase of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Pre-Raphaelite Movement, and working in a range of styles includin ...

Evelyn De Morgan
,Hilton, Timothy (1970). ''The Pre-Raphaelites''. London: Thames and Hudson. pp. 202–05. . Frederic Sandys (who entered the Pre-Raphaelite circle in 1857) and
John William Waterhouse John William Waterhouse (6 April 184910 February 1917) was an English painter The following is a list of notable Kingdom of England, English and United Kingdom, British painters (in chronological order). English painters Born 16th century * ...

John William Waterhouse
.
Ford Madox Brown Ford Madox Brown (16 April 1821 – 6 October 1893) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ...

Ford Madox Brown
, who was associated with them from the beginning, is often seen as most closely adopting the Pre-Raphaelite principles. One follower who developed his own distinct style was
Aubrey Beardsley Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (21 August 187216 March 1898) was an English illustrator and author. His black ink drawings were influenced by Woodblock printing in Japan, Japanese woodcuts, and emphasized the grotesque, the decadent, and the erotic. ...
, who was pre-eminently influenced by Burne-Jones. After 1856, Dante Gabriel Rossetti became an inspiration for the medievalising strand of the movement. He was the link between the two types of Pre-Raphaelite painting (nature and Romance) after the PRB became lost in the later decades of the century. Rossetti, although the least committed to the brotherhood, continued the name and changed its style. He began painting versions of femme fatales using models like
Jane Morris Jane Morris (née Burden; 19 October 1839 – 26 January 1914) was an English embroiderer Embroidery is the craft of decorating Textile, fabric or other materials using a sewing needle, needle to apply yarn, thread or yarn. Embroidery ...
, in paintings such as ''Proserpine'', ''The Blue Silk Dress'', and ''La Pia de' Tolomei''. His work influenced his friend
William Morris William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, artist, novelist, architectural conservationist, printer, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement ...

William Morris
, in whose firm Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. he became a partner, and with whose wife Jane he may have had an affair. Ford Madox Brown and Edward Burne-Jones also became partners in the firm. Through Morris's company, the ideals of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood influenced many interior designers and architects, arousing interest in
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

medieval
designs and other crafts leading to the
Arts and Crafts movement The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity found in human cultures and Society, societies through Skill, skills and imagination in order to produce Physical object, objects, Natural environment, ...
headed by William Morris. Holman Hunt was involved with the movement to reform design through the
Della Robbia Pottery The Della Robbia Pottery was a ceramic factory founded in 1894 in Birkenhead, near Liverpool, England. It closed in 1906. Initially it mostly made large pieces with high artistic aspirations, especially relief panels for architectural use, but ...
company. After 1850, Hunt and Millais moved away from direct imitation of medieval art. They stressed the realist and scientific aspects of the movement, though Hunt continued to emphasise the spiritual significance of art, seeking to reconcile religion and science by making accurate observations and studies of locations in Egypt and
Palestine __NOTOC__ Palestine may refer to: * State of Palestine, a ''de jure'' sovereign state in Western Asia * Palestine (region), a geographic region in Western Asia * Palestinian territories, territories occupied by Israel since 1967, namely the West ...
for his paintings on biblical subjects. In contrast, Millais abandoned Pre-Raphaelitism after 1860, adopting a much broader and looser style influenced by Reynolds. William Morris and others condemned his reversal of principles. Pre-Raphaelitism had a significant impact in Scotland and on Scottish artists. The figure in Scottish art most associated with the Pre-Raphaelites was the Aberdeen-born
William Dyce William Dyce (; 19 September 1806 in Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in ...
(1806–1864). Dyce befriended the young Pre-Raphaelites in London and introduced their work to Ruskin. His later work was Pre-Raphaelite in its spirituality, as can be seen in his ''The Man of Sorrows'' and ''David in the Wilderness'' (both 1860), which contain a Pre-Raphaelite attention to detail.
Joseph Noel Paton Sir Joseph Noel Paton (13 December 1821 – 26 December 1901) was a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family nat ...
(1821–1901) studied at the Royal Academy schools in London, where he became a friend of Millais and he subsequently followed him into Pre-Raphaelitism, producing pictures that stressed detail and melodrama such as ''The Bludie Tryst'' (1855). His later paintings, like those of Millais, have been criticised for descending into popular sentimentality.D. Macmillan, ''Scottish Art 1460–1990'' (Edinburgh: Mainstream, 1990), , p. 213. Also influenced by Millais was James Archer (1823–1904), whose work includes ''Summertime, Gloucestershire'' (1860) and who from 1861 began a series of
Arthurian King Arthur ( cy, Brenin Arthur, kw, Arthur Gernow, br, Roue Arzhur) was a Legend, legendary Celtic Britons, British leader who, according to Historians in England during the Middle Ages, medieval histories and Romance (heroic literature), ...
-based paintings including ''La Morte d'Arthur'' and ''Sir Lancelot and Queen Guinevere''. Pre-Raphaelism also inspired painters like
Lawrence Alma-Tadema Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, (; born Lourens Alma Tadema ; 8 January 1836 – 25 June 1912) was a Dutch people, Dutch painter of special Denization, British denizenship. Born in Dronryp, the Netherlands, and trained at the Royal Academy of Fine ...

Lawrence Alma-Tadema
. The movement influenced many later British artists into the 20th century. Rossetti came to be seen as a precursor of the wider European
Symbolist Symbolism was a late 19th-century art movement An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a specific period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) ...
movement. There is evidence to suggest that a number of paintings by the German artist
Paula Modersohn-Becker Paula Modersohn-Becker (8 February 1876 – 20 November 1907) was a German Painting, painter and one of the most important representatives of early expressionism. Her career was cut short when she died from Postpartum period, postpartum embolism ...

Paula Modersohn-Becker
were influenced by Rossetti.
Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery (BM&AG) is a museum and art gallery in Birmingham, England. It has a collection of international importance covering fine art, ceramics, metalwork, jewellery, natural history, archaeology, ethnography, local hi ...
has a world-renowned collection of works by Burne-Jones and the Pre-Raphaelites that, some claim, strongly influenced the young J. R. R. Tolkien, who wrote ''
The Hobbit ''The Hobbit, or There and Back Again'' is a Juvenile fantasy, children's fantasy novel by English author J. R. R. Tolkien. It was published in 1937 to wide critical acclaim, being nominated for the Carnegie Medal (literary award), Carnegie ...
'' and ''
The Lord of the Rings ''The Lord of the Rings'' is an Epic (genre), epic high-fantasy novel by English author and scholar J. R. R. Tolkien. Set in Middle-earth, intended to be Earth at some distant time in the past, the story began as a sequel to Tolkien's 1937 ...
'', with influences taken from the same mythological scenes portrayed by the Pre-Raphaelites. Tolkien considered his own group of school friends and artistic associates, the so-called TCBS, as a group in the vein of the Pre-Raphaelites. In the 20th century artistic ideals changed, and art moved away from representing reality. After the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
, Pre-Raphaelite art was devalued for its literary qualities and was scorned by critics as sentimental and concocted "artistic bric-a-brac". In the 1960s there was a major revival of Pre-Raphaelitism. Exhibitions and catalogues of works, culminating in a 1984 exhibition in London's
Tate Gallery Tate is an institution that houses, in a network of four art galleries, the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' ...
, re-established a canon of Pre-Raphaelite work. Among many other exhibitions, there was another large show at
Tate Britain Tate Britain, known from 1897 to 1932 as the National Gallery of British Art and from 1932 to 2000 as the Tate Gallery, is an art museum on Millbank Millbank is an area of central London in the City of Westminster. Millbank is located by t ...

Tate Britain
in 2012–13. In the late 20th century the Brotherhood of Ruralists based its aims on Pre-Raphaelitism, while the Stuckists and the Birmingham Group have also derived inspiration from it.


List of artists


Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

*
James Collinson James Collinson (9 May 1825 – 24 January 1881) was a Victorian painter who was a member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and ...

James Collinson
(painter) *
William Holman Hunt William Holman Hunt (2 April 1827 – 7 September 1910) was an English painter and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. His paintings were notable for their great attention to detail, vivid colour, and elaborate symbolism. ...

William Holman Hunt
(painter) *
John Everett Millais Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, ( , ; 8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896) was an English painter The following is a list of notable Kingdom of England, English and United Kingdom, British painters (in chronological order). English pai ...

John Everett Millais
(painter) *
Dante Gabriel Rossetti Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882), generally known as Dante Gabriel Rossetti (), was an English poet, illustrator, painter, and translator, and member of the Rossetti family. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Broth ...
(painter, poet) *
William Michael Rossetti William Michael Rossetti (25 September 1829 – 5 February 1919) was an English writer and critic. Early life Born in London, Rossetti was a son of immigrant Italian scholar Gabriele Rossetti Gabriele Pasquale Giuseppe Rossetti (28 Februa ...

William Michael Rossetti
(critic) *
Frederic George Stephens Frederic George Stephens (10 October 1827 – 9 March 1907) was a British art critic, and one of the two 'non-artistic' members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Life Stephens was born to Septimus Stephens of Aberdeen and Ann (née Cook) in ...

Frederic George Stephens
(critic) *
Thomas Woolner Thomas Woolner (17 December 1825 – 7 October 1892) was an English sculptor and poet who was one of the founder-members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of En ...
(sculptor, poet)


Associated artists and figures

* John Brett (painter) *
Ford Madox Brown Ford Madox Brown (16 April 1821 – 6 October 1893) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ...

Ford Madox Brown
(painter, designer) *
Lucy Madox Brown Lucy Madox Brown Rossetti (19 July 1843 – 12 April 1894) was a British artist, author, and model associated with the Pre-Raphaelites. She was married to the writer and art critic William Michael Rossetti. Early life Madox Brown was born in Pa ...

Lucy Madox Brown
(painter, writer) *
Richard Burchett Richard Burchett (1815–1875) was a British artist and educator on the fringes of the Pre-Raphaelite movement, who was for over twenty years the Headmaster of what later became the Royal College of Art. He was later described as "a promine ...
(painter, educator) *
Edward Burne-Jones Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1st Baronet, (; 28 August 183317 June 1898) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Cro ...
(painter, designer) *
Charles Allston Collins image:ConventThoughtsCollins.jpg, ''Convent Thoughts'' (1850–51; Ashmolean Museum, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford) Charles Allston Collins (London 25 January 1828 – 9 April 1873) was a British painter, writer, and illustrator associated with ...

Charles Allston Collins
(painter) *
Frank Cadogan Cowper Frank Cadogan Cowper (16 October 1877 – 17 November 1958)"Obituary: Frank Cad ...
(painter) *
Fanny Cornforth Fanny Cornforth (born Sarah Cox; 3 January 1835 – 24 February 1909) was an English artist's model, and the Mistress (lover), mistress and muse of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Pre-Raphaelite painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Cornforth p ...
(artist's model) *
Antonio Corsi Antonio is a masculine given name of Etruscan language, Etruscan origin deriving from the root name Antonius. It is common name among Romance language-speaking populations as well as several Slavic countries in the Balkans, Lusophone Africa and S ...

Antonio Corsi
(artist's model) *
Evelyn De Morgan Evelyn De Morgan (30 August 1855 – 2 May 1919), née Pickering, was an English painter associated early in her career with the later phase of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Pre-Raphaelite Movement, and working in a range of styles includin ...

Evelyn De Morgan
(painter) *
Walter Deverell Walter Howell Deverell (1827–1854) was a United States-born British artist, closely associated with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Biography Deverell was born in Charlottesville, Virginia, into an English family who moved back to Britain when ...
(painter) *
Fanny Eaton Fanny Eaton (23 June 1835 – 4 March 1924) was a Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often ...
(artist's model) *
Frederick Startridge Ellis Frederick Startridge Ellis (1830–1901) was an English bookseller and author. Life The sixth son of Joseph Ellis, hotel-keeper, of Richmond, was born there on 7 June 1830. He entered, at the age of sixteen, the business of Edward Lumley of Chanc ...
(publisher, editor, poet) *
John William Godward John William Godward (9 August 1861 – 13 December 1922) was an English painter from the end of the Neo-Classicist era. He was a protégé of Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, but his style of painting fell out of favour with the rise of modern art ...
(painter) *
Effie Gray Euphemia Chalmers Millais, Lady Millais (''née'' Gray; 7 May 1828 – 23 December 1897) was a Scottish painter and the wife of Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Pre-Raphaelite painter John Everett Millais. She had previously been married to the art ...

Effie Gray
(artist's model) *
Henry Holiday Henry Holiday (17 June 183915 April 1927) was a British historical genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popula ...
(painter, stained-glass artist,
illustrator An illustrator is an artist who specializes in enhancing writing or elucidating concepts by providing a visual representation that corresponds to the content of the associated text or idea. The illustration may be intended to clarify complicate ...
) * Arthur Hughes (painter, book illustrator) *
Edward Robert Hughes Edward Robert Hughes (5 November 1851 – 23 April 1914) was a British painter, who primarily worked in watercolours, but also produced a number of oil paintings. He was influenced by his uncle and artist, Arthur Hughes (artist), Arthur Hug ...

Edward Robert Hughes
(painter and artist's model) * Frederic, Lord Leighton (painter) * Mary Lizzie Macomber (painter) *
Robert Braithwaite Martineau Robert Braithwaite Martineau (19 January 1826 – 13 February 1869) was an English Painting, painter. Life Martineau was the son of Elizabeth Batty and Philip Martineau, a Master in Chancery. Through his mother, he was the grandson of Robert Bat ...
(painter) *
Annie Miller Annie Miller (1835–1925) was an English people, English artists' model who, among others, sat for the members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, William Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and John Everett Millais. Her on-off relationship wi ...
(artist's model) *
Jane Morris Jane Morris (née Burden; 19 October 1839 – 26 January 1914) was an English embroiderer Embroidery is the craft of decorating Textile, fabric or other materials using a sewing needle, needle to apply yarn, thread or yarn. Embroidery ...
(artist's model) * Louisa, Marchioness of Waterford (painter and artist's model) *
May Morris Mary "May" Morris (25 March 1862 – 17 October 1938) was an English artisan, embroidery designer, jeweller, socialism, socialist, and editor. She was the younger daughter of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Pre-Raphaelite artist and designer Willi ...

May Morris
(embroiderer and designer) *
William Morris William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, artist, novelist, architectural conservationist, printer, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement ...

William Morris
(designer, writer) *
Christina Rossetti Christina Georgina Rossetti (5 December 1830 – 29 December 1894) was an English writer of romanticism, romantic, devotional and children's poems, including "Goblin Market" and "Remember". She also wrote the words of two Christmas carols well k ...

Christina Rossetti
(poet and artist's model) *
John Ruskin John Ruskin (8 February 1819 20 January 1900) was an English writer, philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphys ...

John Ruskin
(critic) * Anthony Frederick Augustus Sandys (painter) * Emma Sandys (painter) * Thomas Seddon (painter) * Frederic Shields (painter) * Elizabeth Siddal (painter, poet, and artist's model) * Simeon Solomon (painter) *
Marie Spartali Stillman Marie Euphrosyne Spartali (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximatel ...
(painter) * Algernon Charles Swinburne (poet) * Henry Wallis (painter) * William Lindsay Windus (painter)


Loosely associated artists

*
Lawrence Alma-Tadema Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, (; born Lourens Alma Tadema ; 8 January 1836 – 25 June 1912) was a Dutch people, Dutch painter of special Denization, British denizenship. Born in Dronryp, the Netherlands, and trained at the Royal Academy of Fine ...

Lawrence Alma-Tadema
(painter) * Sophie Gengembre Anderson (painter) * Wyke Bayliss (painter) * George Price Boyce (painter) * Joanna Mary Boyce (painter) * Sir Frederick William Burton (painter) * Kate Elizabeth Bunce (painter) * Julia Margaret Cameron (photographer) * James Campbell (artist), James Campbell (painter) * John Collier (Pre-Raphaelite painter), John Collier (painter) * William Davis (artist), William Davis (painter) * Frank Bernard Dicksee (painter) * Thomas Cooper Gotch (painter) * Charles Edward Hallé (painter) * John Lee (artist), John Lee (painter) * Edmund Leighton (painter) * James Lionel Michael (minor poet, mentor to Henry Kendall) * Charles William Mitchell (painter) *
Joseph Noel Paton Sir Joseph Noel Paton (13 December 1821 – 26 December 1901) was a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family nat ...
(painter) * Charles Edward Perugini (painter) * Gustav Pope (painter) * Henry Meynell Rheam (painter) * Frederick Smallfield (painter) * James Tissot (painter) * Elihu Vedder (painter) *
John William Waterhouse John William Waterhouse (6 April 184910 February 1917) was an English painter The following is a list of notable Kingdom of England, English and United Kingdom, British painters (in chronological order). English painters Born 16th century * ...

John William Waterhouse
(painter) * William James Webbe (painter) * Daniel Alexander Williamson (painter) * James Abbott McNeill Whistler (painter)


Illustration and poetry

Many members of the ‘inner’ Pre-Raphaelite circle (
Dante Gabriel Rossetti Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882), generally known as Dante Gabriel Rossetti (), was an English poet, illustrator, painter, and translator, and member of the Rossetti family. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Broth ...
,
John Everett Millais Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, ( , ; 8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896) was an English painter The following is a list of notable Kingdom of England, English and United Kingdom, British painters (in chronological order). English pai ...

John Everett Millais
,
William Holman Hunt William Holman Hunt (2 April 1827 – 7 September 1910) was an English painter and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. His paintings were notable for their great attention to detail, vivid colour, and elaborate symbolism. ...

William Holman Hunt
,
Ford Madox Brown Ford Madox Brown (16 April 1821 – 6 October 1893) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ...

Ford Madox Brown
,
Edward Burne-Jones Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1st Baronet, (; 28 August 183317 June 1898) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Cro ...
) and ‘outer’ circle (Frederick Sandys, Arthur Hughes, Simeon Solomon, Henry Hugh Armstead,
Joseph Noel Paton Sir Joseph Noel Paton (13 December 1821 – 26 December 1901) was a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family nat ...
, Frederic Shields, Matthew James Lawless) were working concurrently in painting, illustration, and sometimes poetry. Victorian morality judged literature as superior to painting, because of its “noble grounds for noble emotion.” Robert Williams Buchanan, Robert Buchanan (a writer and opponent of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood) felt so strongly about this artistic hierarchy that he wrote: “The truth is that literature, and more particularly poetry, is in a very bad way when one art gets hold of another, and imposes upon it its conditions and limitations." This was the hostile environment in which Pre-Raphaelites were defiantly working in various media. The Pre-Raphaelites attempted to revitalize subject painting, which had been dismissed as artificial. Their belief that each picture should tell a story was an important step for the unification of painting and literature (eventually deemed the Sister Arts), or at least a break in the rigid hierarchy promoted by writers like Robert Buchanan. The Pre-Raphaelite desire for more extensive affiliation between painting and literature also manifested in illustration. Illustration is a more direct unification of these media and, like subject painting, can assert a narrative of its own. For the Pre-Raphaelites, and Dante Gabriel Rossetti specifically, there was anxiety about the constraints of illustration. In 1855, Rossetti wrote to William Allingham about the independence of illustration: “I have not begun even designing for them yet, but fancy I shall try the ‘Vision of Sin’ and ‘Palace of Art’ etc. – those where one can allegorize on one's own hook, without killing for oneself and everyone a distinct idea of the poet's." This passage makes apparent Rossetti's desire to not just support the poet's narrative, but to create an allegorical illustration that functions separately from the text as well. In this respect, Pre-Raphaelite illustrations go beyond depicting an episode from a poem, but rather function like subject paintings within a text.


Collections

There are major collections of Pre-Raphaelite work in United Kingdom museums such as the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, the
Tate Gallery Tate is an institution that houses, in a network of four art galleries, the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' ...
, Victoria and Albert Museum, Manchester Art Gallery, Lady Lever Art Gallery, and Liverpool's Walker Art Gallery. The Art Gallery of South Australia and the Delaware Art Museum in the US have the most significant collections of Pre-Raphaelite art outside the UK. The Museo de Arte de Ponce in Puerto Rico also has a notable collection of Pre-Raphaelite works, including Sir Edward Burne-Jones' ''The Last Sleep of Arthur in Avalon'', Frederic Lord Leighton's ''Flaming June'', and works by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and Frederic Sandys. The Ger Eenens Collection The Netherlands includes a work by John Collier, Circe (signed and dated 1885), that was exhibited at the Chicago World Fair 1893. The British exhibit occupied 14 rooms, showcased a theme familiar with the Fair's outlook, hence they had a sizeable exhibit of Pre-Raphaelite and New-Classical painters. They were extremely well received. There is a set of Pre-Raphaelite murals in the Old Library at the Oxford Union, depicting scenes from the Arthurian legends, painted between 1857 and 1859 by a team of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Morris, and Edward Burne-Jones. The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, National Trust houses at Wightwick Manor, Wolverhampton, and at Wallington Hall, Northumberland, both have significant and representative collections. Andrew Lloyd Webber is an avid collector of Pre-Raphaelite works, and a selection of 300 items from his collection were shown at an exhibition at the Royal Academy in London in 2003. Kelmscott Manor, the country home of
William Morris William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, artist, novelist, architectural conservationist, printer, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement ...

William Morris
from 1871 until his death in 1896, is owned by the Society of Antiquaries of London and is open to the public. The Manor is featured in Morris' 1890 novel ''News from Nowhere''. It also appears in the background of Water Willow (Rossetti), ''Water Willow'', a portrait of his wife,
Jane Morris Jane Morris (née Burden; 19 October 1839 – 26 January 1914) was an English embroiderer Embroidery is the craft of decorating Textile, fabric or other materials using a sewing needle, needle to apply yarn, thread or yarn. Embroidery ...
, painted by
Dante Gabriel Rossetti Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882), generally known as Dante Gabriel Rossetti (), was an English poet, illustrator, painter, and translator, and member of the Rossetti family. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Broth ...
in 1871. There are exhibitions connected with Morris and Rossetti's early experiments with photography.


Portrayal in popular culture

The story of the brotherhood, from its controversial first exhibition to being embraced by the art establishment, has been depicted in two BBC television series. The first, ''The Love School'', was broadcast in 1975; the second is the 2009 BBC television drama serial ''Desperate Romantics'' by Peter Bowker. Although much of the latter's material is derived from Franny Moyle's factual book ''Desperate Romantics: The Private Lives of the Pre-Raphaelites'', the series occasionally departs from established facts in favour of dramatic licence and is prefaced by the disclaimer: "In the mid-19th century, a group of young men challenged the art establishment of the day. The pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood were inspired by the real world around them, yet took imaginative licence in their art. This story, based on their lives and loves, follows in that inventive spirit." Ken Russell's television film ''Dante's Inferno (1967 TV film), Dante's Inferno'' (1967) contains brief scenes on some of the leading Pre-Raphaelites but mainly concentrates on the life of Rossetti, played by Oliver Reed.


See also

* American Pre-Raphaelites * Early Renaissance painting * English school of painting * Florence Claxton * Hogarth Club * John Wharlton Bunney * List of Pre-Raphaelite paintings * Nazarene movement, Nazarenes * New English Art Club * James Smetham * ''The Light of the World (painting), The Light of the World''


References


Sources

* * Barringer, Tim, Jason Rosenfeld, and Alison Smith (2012). ''Pre-Raphaelites: Victorian Avant-Garde'', London, England: Tate Publishing, * Bucher, Gregory (2004).
Review
of Matthew Dickerson. 'Following Gandalf. Epic Battles and Moral Victory in The Lord of the Rings'", ''Journal of Religion & Society'', 6, ISSN 1522-5658, webpage accessed 13 October 2007 * * Dickerson, Matthew (2003). ''Following Gandalf : epic battles and moral victory in the Lord of the rings'', Grand Rapids, Mich. : Brazos Press, * * *Latham, David, ''Haunted Texts: Studies in Pre-Raphaelitism in Honour of William E. Fredeman'', William Evan Fredeman, David Latham, eds, 2003, University of Toronto Press, , 9780802036629
google books
* *Ramm, John (2003). "The Forgotten Pre-Raphaelite: Henry Wallis", ''Antique Dealer & Collectors Guide'', 56 (March/April), p. 8–9


Further reading

* Andres, Sophia. (2005)
The Pre-Raphaelite Art of the Victorian Novel: Narrative Challenges to Visual Gendered Boundaries
'' Ohio State University Press, * Bate, P.H. [1901] (1972) ''The English Pre-Raphaelite painters : their associates and successors'', New York : AMS Press, * Daly, G. (1989) ''Pre-Raphaelites in Love'', New York : Ticknor & Fields, * des Cars, L. (2000) ''The Pre-Raphaelites : Romance and Realism'', "Découvertes Gallimard, Abrams Discoveries" series, New York : Harry N. Abrams, * Mancoff, D.N. (2003) ''Flora symbolica : flowers in Pre-Raphaelite art'', Munich; London; New York : Prestel, * Marsh, J. and Nunn, P.G. (1998) ''Pre-Raphaelite women artists'', London : Thames & Hudson, * Sharp, Frank C and Marsh, Jan, (2012) ''The Collected Letters of Jane Morris'', Boydell & Brewer, London * Staley, A. and Newall, C. (2004) ''Pre-Raphaelite vision : truth to nature'', London : Tate, * Townsend, J., Ridge, J. and Hackney, S. (2004) ''Pre-Raphaelite painting techniques : 1848–56'', London : Tate,


External links


Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery's Pre-Raphaelite Online ResourcePre-Raphaelites exhibition at Tate BritainLiverpool Walker Art Gallery's Pre-Raphaelite collection
Lecture by
John Ruskin John Ruskin (8 February 1819 20 January 1900) was an English writer, philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphys ...

John Ruskin

The Pre-Raphaelite SocietyPre-Raphaelite online resource project
at the Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery
The Samuel and Mary R. Bancroft Collection of Pre-Raphaelite Art
*
Edward Burne-Jones, Victorian artist-dreamer
', full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Pre-Raphaelite murals
in the Old Library at the Oxford Union. Thi
podcast
covers their painting. Oxford Brookes University has a series of podcasts on the Pre-Raphaelites in Oxford, with dedicated to the Union murals. {{Authority control Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, 19th-century art groups Art movements British artist groups and collectives British art Victorian culture 19th century in the arts Arts organizations established in the 1840s 1848 establishments in England 19th century in art