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Plymouth () is a port
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...
and
unitary authority A unitary authority is a local authority Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of public policy, government policy and also an academic discipline that s ...
in
South West England South West England is one of nine official regions of England The regions, formerly known as the government office regions, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, count ...
. It is located on the south coast of
Devon Devon (, archaically known as Devonshire) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Ch ...

Devon
, approximately south-west of
Exeter Exeter () is a city in Devon Devon (, archaically known as Devonshire) is a Counties of England, county in South West England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is bounded by Cornwall ...
and south-west of
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
. It is bordered by
Cornwall Cornwall (; kw, Kernow ) is a Historic counties of England, historic county and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in South West England. It is recognised as one of the Celtic nations, and is the homeland of the Cornish people ...

Cornwall
to the west and south-west. Plymouth's early history extends to the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric that was characterized by the use of , in some areas , and other early features of urban . The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the , as proposed in modern times by , for classifying and studying a ...
when a first settlement emerged at
Mount Batten Mount Batten is a 24-metre (80-ft) tall outcrop of rock on a 600-metre (2000-ft) peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a main ...
. This settlement continued as a trading post for the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
, until it was surpassed by the more prosperous village of Sutton founded in the ninth century, now called Plymouth. In 1620, the
Pilgrim Fathers The Pilgrims were the English settlers who came to North America on the ''Mayflower ''Mayflower'' was an English ship that transported a group of English families known today as the Pilgrims from England to the New World in 1620. After a g ...
departed Plymouth for the
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The re ...
and established
Plymouth Colony Plymouth Colony (sometimes Plimouth) was an British America, English colonial venture in America from 1620 to 1691 at a location that had previously been surveyed and named by Captain John Smith (explorer), John Smith. The settlement served as t ...
, the second English settlement in what is now the United States of America. During the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers"), mainly over the manner of Kingdom of England, England's governance and issues of re ...
, the town was held by the Parliamentarians and was besieged between 1642 and 1646. Throughout the Industrial Revolution, Plymouth grew as a commercial shipping port, handling imports and passengers from the Americas, and exporting local minerals (
tin Tin is a with the Sn (from la, ) and  50. Tin is a silvery-colored metal that characteristically has a faint yellow hue. Tin is soft enough to be cut with little force and a bar of tin can be bent by hand with little effort. When bent ...

tin
, copper,
lime Lime refers to: * Lime (fruit), a green citrus fruit * Lime (material), inorganic materials containing calcium, usually calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide * Lime (color), a color between yellow and green Lime may also refer to: Botany * Austra ...
,
china clay Kaolinite ( ) is a clay mineral Clay minerals are , sometimes with variable amounts of , , s, s, and other s found on or near some s. Clay minerals form in the presence of water and have been important to life, and many theories of in ...
and
arsenic Arsenic is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same num ...

arsenic
). The neighbouring town of Devonport became strategically important to the Royal Navy for its shipyards and dockyards. In 1914, three neighbouring independent towns, viz. the
county borough County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to refer to a borough or a city independent of county council A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a cou ...
of Plymouth, the County Borough of Devonport, and the urban district of East Stonehouse were merged, becoming the County Borough of Plymouth. In 1928, it achieved city status. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, due to the city's naval importance, the German military targeted and partially destroyed the city by bombing, an act known as the
Plymouth Blitz File:Winston Churchill is cheered by workers during a visit to bomb-damaged Plymouth, 2 May 1941. H9265.jpg, Winston Churchill is cheered by workers during a visit to bomb-damaged Plymouth, 2 May 1941. H9265 The Plymouth Blitz was a Strategic b ...
. After the war, the city centre was completely rebuilt. Subsequent expansion led to the incorporation of
Plympton Plympton now forms a suburb of the city of Plymouth Plymouth () is a port city status in the United Kingdom, city in England on the south coast of Devon, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London. Enclosing the city ...
,
Plymstock Plymstock is a commuter suburb of Plymouth and former civil parishes in England, civil parish in the English county of Devon. Geography Situated on the east bank of the River Plym, Plymstock is geographically and historically part of the South ...
, and other outlying suburbs, in 1967. The city is home to () people, making it the 30th-most populous built-up area in the United Kingdom and the second-largest city in the South West, after
Bristol Bristol () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routle ...

Bristol
. It is governed locally by
Plymouth City Council Plymouth City Council is the unitary authority for Plymouth, Devon. It has traditionally been controlled by Labour or the Conservatives, with Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrats rarely winning seats. The council is run by the "leader and cab ...
and is represented nationally by three
MPs A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) ...
. Plymouth's economy remains strongly influenced by shipbuilding and seafaring but has tended toward a service economy since the 1990s. It has ferry links to Brittany (
Roscoff Roscoff (; br, Rosko) is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what ...
and
St Malo Saint-Malo (, , ; Gallo: ''Saent-Malô''; ) is a historic French port in Ille-et-Vilaine, Brittany Brittany (; french: link=no, Bretagne ; br, Breizh, or ; Gallo language, Gallo: ''Bertaèyn'' ) is a peninsula and cultural region in the w ...

St Malo
) and to Spain (
Santander Santander may refer to: Places *Santander, Spain, the original place to receive this name, a port city and capital of the autonomous community of Cantabria, Spain *Santander Department, a department of Colombia *Santander State, former state of Co ...
). It has the largest operational naval base in Western Europe,
HMNB Devonport Her Majesty's Naval Base, Devonport (HMNB Devonport) is one of three operating bases in the United Kingdom for the Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by Kingdom of En ...

HMNB Devonport
, and is home to the
University of Plymouth The University of Plymouth is a public research university A public university or public college is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiar ...
. Plymouth is categorized as a Small-Port City using the Southampton System for port-city classification.


History


Early history

Upper Palaeolithic The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) also called the Late Stone Age is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age, is a period in human prehis ...

Upper Palaeolithic
deposits, including bones of
Homo sapiens Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species of primate, characterized by bipedality, bipedalism and large, complex brains. This has enabled the development of advanced tools, culture, and language. Humans are highl ...

Homo sapiens
, have been found in local caves, and artefacts dating from the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric that was characterized by the use of , in some areas , and other early features of urban . The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the , as proposed in modern times by , for classifying and studying a ...
to the Middle
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
have been found at
Mount Batten Mount Batten is a 24-metre (80-ft) tall outcrop of rock on a 600-metre (2000-ft) peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a main ...
, showing that it was one of few principal trading ports of pre-Roman
Britannia Britannia () is the national personification upright=0.9, An early example of National personification in a gospel book dated 990: Germania.html"_;"title="Sclavinia,_Germania">Sclavinia,_Germania,_Sclavinia,_Germania,_Gallia">Germania.ht ...
dominating continental trade with
Armorica Armorica or Aremorica ( br, Arvorig, ) is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul between the Seine and the Loire that includes the Brittany Peninsula, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic Coast. Name ...

Armorica
. An unidentified settlement named ''TAMARI OSTIA'' (mouth/estuaries of the Tamar) is listed in Ptolemy's ''Geographia'' and is presumed to be located in the area of the modern city. An ancient
promontory fort A promontory fort is a fortification, defensive structure located above a steep cliff, often only connected to the mainland by a small neck of land, thus using the topography to reduce the Rampart (fortification), ramparts needed. Although their d ...
was located at
Rame Head Rame Head or Ram Head ( kw, Penn an Hordh) is a coastal headland, southwest of the village of Rame in southeast Cornwall Cornwall (; kw, Kernow ) is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in South West England. It is rec ...
at the mouth of
Plymouth Sound Plymouth Sound, or locally just The Sound, is a deep Inlet An inlet is an indentation of a shoreline, usually long and narrow, such as a small bay or arm, that often leads to an enclosed body of salt water, such as a sound In physics ...

Plymouth Sound
with ancient
hillforts A hillfort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. They are typically Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several l ...
located at Lyneham Warren to the east ,
Boringdon Camp Boringdon Camp is an English Iron Age and Roman Britain, Roman earthwork in Cann Woods, near Plympton, Plymouth, Devon. It is a scheduled ancient monument and owned by South Hams District Council. The site is on a hilltop at above sea level, with ...
and
Maristow Maristow House in the parish of Bickleigh (formerly Tamerton Foliot), Devon, England, is a large country house set in landscaped parkland, on the River Tavy to the north of Plymouth. It was built in about 1560, rebuilt in the mid-18th century and ...
Camp to the nort

The settlement of
Plympton Plympton now forms a suburb of the city of Plymouth Plymouth () is a port city status in the United Kingdom, city in England on the south coast of Devon, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London. Enclosing the city ...
, further up the
River Plym The River Plym is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reachin ...
than the current Plymouth, was also an early trading port. As the river silted up in the early 11th century, mariners and merchants were forced to settle downriver, at the current day
Barbican A barbican (from fro, barbacane) is a fortified outpost or fortified gateway, such as at an outer defense perimeter of a city or castle, or any tower situated over a gate or bridge which was used for defensive purposes. In the Middle Ages, ba ...
near the river mouth. At the time this village was called Sutton, meaning ''south town'' in
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
. The name ''Plym Mouth'', meaning "mouth of the River Plym" was first mentioned in a
Pipe Roll The Pipe rolls, sometimes called the Great rolls,Brown ''Governance'' pp. 54–56 or the Great Rolls of the Pipe are a collection of financial records maintained by the English Exchequer, or Treasury, and its successors. The earliest date from ...
of 1211. The name ''Plymouth'' first officially replaced Sutton in a charter of
King Henry VI Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and English claims to the French throne#Kings of France (1422), disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. The only child of Henry ...

King Henry VI
in 1440. See
Plympton Plympton now forms a suburb of the city of Plymouth Plymouth () is a port city status in the United Kingdom, city in England on the south coast of Devon, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London. Enclosing the city ...
for the derivation of the name ''Plym''.


Early defence and Renaissance

During the
Hundred Years' War The Hundred Years’ War (french: link=yes, La guerre de Cent Ans; 1337–1453) was a series of armed conflicts between the kingdoms of and during the . It originated from disputed claims to the between the English and the French roy ...
a French attack (1340) burned a manor house and took some prisoners, but failed to get into the town. In 1403 the town was burned by Breton raiders. On 12 November 1439, the English Parliament made Plymouth the first town incorporated. In the late fifteenth century,
Plymouth Castle Plymouth Castle was a castle built in the early 15th century to defend the town and harbour of Plymouth Plymouth () is a port city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. Lon ...

Plymouth Castle
, a "castle quadrate", was constructed close to the area now known as The Barbican; it included four round towers, one at each corner, as featured on the city coat of arms. The castle served to protect Sutton Pool, which is where the fleet was based in Plymouth prior to the establishment of
Plymouth Dockyard Her Majesty's Naval Base, Devonport (HMNB Devonport) is one of three operating bases in the United Kingdom for the Royal Navy (the others being HMNB Clyde and HMNB Portsmouth) and is the sole nuclear repair and refuelling facility for the Roya ...

Plymouth Dockyard
. In 1512, an Act of Parliament was passed to further fortify Plymouth. The work included defensive walls at the entrance to Sutton Pool (across which a chain was extended in times of danger). Defences on St Nicholas Island also date from this time, and a string of six artillery
blockhouse A blockhouse is a small fortification, usually consisting of one or more rooms with Loophole (firearm), loopholes, allowing its defenders to fire in various directions. It usually refers to an isolated fort in the form of a single building, se ...

blockhouse
s were built, including one on Fishers Nose at the south-eastern corner of the Hoe. This location was further strengthened by the building of a fort (later known as Drake's Fort) in 1596; it was the site of the
Citadel A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city. It may be a castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brooke ...

Citadel
, established in the 1660s (see below). During the 16th century, locally produced wool was the major export commodity. Plymouth was the home port for successful maritime traders, among them
Sir John Hawkins Sir John Hawkins (also spelled Hawkyns) (1532 – 12 November 1595) was a pioneering English naval commander and administrator. He was also a privateer and an early promoter of English involvement in the Atlantic slave trade. His elder brother ...
, who led England's first foray into the
Atlantic slave trade The Atlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, or Euro-American slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of various enslaved African African(s) may refer to: * Anything from or pertaining to the continent of Africa: ** ...
, as well as Sir
Francis Drake Sir Francis Drake ( – 28 January 1596) was an English Exploration, explorer, sea captain, Privateering, privateer, Atlantic slave trade, slave trader, Officer (armed forces), naval officer, and politician. Drake is best known for Franc ...

Francis Drake
, Mayor of Plymouth in 1581–2. Crews for the first English failed settlement attempt at
Roanoke Colony The establishment of the Roanoke Colony (; ') was an attempt by Sir Walter Raleigh Sir Walter Raleigh (; – 29 October 1618), also spelled Ralegh, was an English statesman, soldier, writer and explorer. One of the most notable figure ...
in North America departed in 1587 under Sir
Walter Raleigh Sir Walter Raleigh (; – 29 October 1618), also spelled Ralegh, was an English statesman, soldier, writer and explorer. One of the most notable figures of the Elizabethan era, he played a leading part in English colonisation of North America, ...

Walter Raleigh
's and Drake's leadership; returning bearing maize, tobacco and
potatoes The potato is a starch Starch or amylum is a polymeric A polymer (; Greek '' poly-'', "many" + '' -mer'', "part") is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attr ...

potatoes
. In 1588, according to legend, Drake insisted on completing his game of bowls on the
Hoe Hoe or HOE may refer to: * Hoe (food), a Korean dish of raw fish * Hoe (letter), a Georgian letter * Hoe (tool), a hand tool used in gardening and farming ** Hoe-farming, a term for primitive forms of agriculture * Backhoe, a piece of excavating ...

Hoe
before engaging the
Spanish Armada The Spanish Armada ( es, Grande y Felicísima Armada, links=no, lit=Great and Most Fortunate Navy) was a Habsburg Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal ...

Spanish Armada
. In 1620 the Pilgrims set sail for the
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The re ...
from Plymouth, establishing
Plymouth Colony Plymouth Colony (sometimes Plimouth) was an British America, English colonial venture in America from 1620 to 1691 at a location that had previously been surveyed and named by Captain John Smith (explorer), John Smith. The settlement served as t ...
– the second English colony in what is now the United States of America. During the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers"), mainly over the manner of Kingdom of England, England's governance and issues of re ...
Plymouth sided with the Parliamentarians and was besieged for almost four years by the . The last major attack by the Royalists was by Sir
Richard Grenville Arms of Grenville: ''Gules, three clarions or'' Sir Richard Grenville (15 June 1542 – 10 September 1591), also spelt Greynvile, Greeneville, and Greenfield, was an English sailor who, as captain of , died at the Battle of Flores (1591), f ...
leading thousands of soldiers towards Plymouth, but they were defeated by the Plymothians at Freedom Fields Park. The civil war ended as a Parliamentary win, but monarchy was restored by in 1660, who imprisoned many of the Parliamentary heroes on
Drake's Island Image:Drake's Island 2.jpg, 250px, Drake's Island as seen from Mount Edgecumbe Drake's Island is a island lying in Plymouth Sound, the stretch of water south of the city of Plymouth, Devon. The rocks which make up the island are volcanic tuff ...

Drake's Island
. Construction of the began in 1665, after
the Restoration Restoration is the act of restoring something to its original state and may refer to: * Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage * Restoration style Film and television * ''The Restoration'' (1909 film), a film by D.W. Griffith starr ...
; it was armed with cannon facing both out to sea and into the town, rumoured to be a reminder to residents not to oppose
the Crown The Crown is the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

the Crown
.
Mount Batten Mount Batten is a 24-metre (80-ft) tall outcrop of rock on a 600-metre (2000-ft) peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a main ...
tower also dates from around this time.


Plymouth Dock, naval power and Foulston

Throughout the 17th century, Plymouth had gradually lost its pre-eminence as a trading port. By the mid-17th century, commodities manufactured elsewhere in England cost too much to transport to Plymouth, and the city had no means of processing sugar or tobacco imports, major products from the colonies. Local sailors turning to piracy such as
Henry Every Henry Every, also known as Henry Avery (20 August 1659after 1696), sometimes erroneously given as Jack Avery or John Avery, was an English people, English pirate who operated in the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic and Indian Ocean, Indian oceans in th ...

Henry Every
became infamous, celebrated in the London play The Successful Pyrate. It played a part in the
Atlantic slave trade The Atlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, or Euro-American slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of various enslaved African African(s) may refer to: * Anything from or pertaining to the continent of Africa: ** ...
during the early 18th century, although it was relatively small. In the nearby parish of
Stoke Damerel Stoke, also referred to by its earlier name of Stoke Damerel, is a parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical ...
the first dockyard,
HMNB Devonport Her Majesty's Naval Base, Devonport (HMNB Devonport) is one of three operating bases in the United Kingdom for the Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by Kingdom of En ...

HMNB Devonport
, opened in 1690 on the eastern bank of the
River Tamar The Tamar (; kw, Dowr Tamar) is a river in south west England, that forms most of the border between Devon (to the east) and Cornwall (to the west). A part of the Tamar valley is a World Heritage Site due to its historic mining activities. Th ...
. Further docks were built here in 1727, 1762 and 1793. The settlement that developed here was called "Dock" or "Plymouth Dock" at the time, and a new town, separate from Plymouth, grew up. In 1712 there were 318 men employed and by 1733 the population had grown to 3,000 people. Before the latter half of the 18th century, grain, timber and then coal were Plymouth's main imports. During this time the real source of wealth was from the neighbouring town of Plymouth Dock (renamed in 1824 to Devonport) and the major employer in the entire region was the dockyard. The ''
Three Towns Three Towns is a term used to refer to several groups of towns. United Kingdom There are several groups of towns in the United Kingdom referred to as the Three Towns, many of which form contiguous settlements, or are in close proximity to each ot ...
'' conurbation of Plymouth, Stonehouse and
DevonportDevonport may refer to: * Devonport, Plymouth, Devon, England ** HMNB Devonport, naval base/dockyard ** Plymouth Devonport (UK Parliament constituency), parliamentary constituency formerly known as Devonport * Devonport, New Zealand, a suburb of Auc ...
enjoyed some prosperity during the late 18th and early 19th century and were enriched by a series of neo-classical urban developments designed by London architect
John Foulston John Foulston (1772 – 30 December 1841) was an English architect who was a pupil of Thomas Hardwick and set up a practice in London in 1796.Peter Leach, ''Foulston, John (1772–1841)'', rev., Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford Un ...
. Foulston was important for both Devonport and Plymouth and was responsible for several grand public buildings, many now destroyed, including the Athenaeum, the and Royal Hotel, and much of Union Street. Local chemist
William Cookworthy William Cookworthy (12 April 170517 October 1780) was an English Quaker Quakers, also called Friends, belong to a historically Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movem ...

William Cookworthy
established his short-lived Plymouth Porcelain venture in 1768 to exploit the deposits of
china clay Kaolinite ( ) is a clay mineral Clay minerals are , sometimes with variable amounts of , , s, s, and other s found on or near some s. Clay minerals form in the presence of water and have been important to life, and many theories of in ...
that he had discovered in Cornwall. He was acquainted with engineer
John Smeaton John Smeaton (8 June 1724 – 28 October 1792) was a British civil engineer A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering Civil engineering is a Regulation and licensure in engineering, professional engineering discip ...

John Smeaton
, the builder of the third
Eddystone Lighthouse The Eddystone Lighthouse is a lighthouse that is located on the dangerous Eddystone Rocks, south of Rame Head in Cornwall, England. The rocks are submerged below the surface of the sea and are composed of Precambrian gneiss. View at 1:50000 s ...

Eddystone Lighthouse
. The Breakwater in Plymouth Sound was designed by John Rennie to protect the fleet moving in and out of Devonport; work started in 1812. Numerous technical difficulties and repeated storm damage meant that it was not completed until 1841, twenty years after Rennie's death. In the 1860s, a ring of
Palmerston fortsThe Palmerston Forts are a group of forts and associated structures around the coasts of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guar ...
was constructed around the outskirts of Devonport, to protect the dockyard from attack from any direction. Some of the most significant imports to Plymouth from the Americas and Europe during the latter half of the 19th century included maize, wheat, barley, sugar cane,
guano Guano (Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation ...

guano
,
sodium nitrate Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the chemical formula, formula . This alkali metal nitrate salt (chemistry), salt is also known as Chile saltpeter (large deposits of which were historically mined in Chile) to distinguish it from ord ...
and
phosphate In chemistry, a phosphate is an anion, salt (chemistry), salt, functional group or ester derived from a phosphoric acids and phosphates, phosphoric acid. It most commonly means orthophosphate, a derivative of phosphoric acid, orthophosphoric a ...

phosphate
. Aside from the dockyard in the town of Devonport, industries in Plymouth such as the gasworks, the railways and tramways, and a number of small chemical works had begun to develop in the 19th century, continuing into the 20th century.


''Plan for Plymouth'' 1943

During the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
, Plymouth was the port of entry for many troops from around the
Empire An empire is a "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries". Narrowly defined, an empire is a sovereign state called an empire and ...

Empire
. It was developed as a facility for the manufacture of
munitions Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or device that can be used with the intent to inflict physical damage or harm. Weapons are u ...
. Although major units of the Royal Navy moved to the safety of
Scapa Flow #REDIRECT Scapa Flow Scapa Flow viewed from its eastern end in June 2009 Scapa Flow (; ) is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is par ...

Scapa Flow
, Devonport was an important base for escort vessels and repairs. Flying boats operated from Mount Batten. During the Second World War,
DevonportDevonport may refer to: * Devonport, Plymouth, Devon, England ** HMNB Devonport, naval base/dockyard ** Plymouth Devonport (UK Parliament constituency), parliamentary constituency formerly known as Devonport * Devonport, New Zealand, a suburb of Auc ...

Devonport
was the headquarters of
Western Approaches Command Commander-in-Chief, Western Approaches was the commander of a major operational command of the Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's Navy, naval warfare force. Although warships were used by English and Scottish kings fro ...
until 1941, and
Sunderland Sunderland () is a port city and the administrative centre of the City of Sunderland metropolitan borough in Tyne and Wear, North East England. Sunderland is situated near the mouth of the River Wear which flows through the city and as well as ...

Sunderland
flying boats were operated by the
Royal Australian Air Force "Through Adversity to the Stars" , colours = , colours_label = , march = Royal Australian Air Force March Past (Eagles of Australia) , mascot = , anni ...
. It was an important embarkation point for US troops for
D-Day The Normandy landings were the landing operation Allied invasion of Sicily, 1943 A landing operation is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended fo ...

D-Day
. The city was heavily bombed by the
Luftwaffe The ''Luftwaffe'' () was the aerial-warfare branch of the German ''Wehrmacht The ''Wehrmacht'' (, ) was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the German Army (1935–1945), ''Heer'' (army), th ...
, in a series of 59 raids known as the
Plymouth Blitz File:Winston Churchill is cheered by workers during a visit to bomb-damaged Plymouth, 2 May 1941. H9265.jpg, Winston Churchill is cheered by workers during a visit to bomb-damaged Plymouth, 2 May 1941. H9265 The Plymouth Blitz was a Strategic b ...
. Although the
dockyards A shipyard (also called a dockyard) is a place where ships are Shipbuilding, built and repaired. These can be yachts, military vessels, cruise liners or other cargo or passenger ships. Dockyards are sometimes more associated with maintenance an ...

dockyards
were the principal targets, much of the city centre and over 3,700 houses were completely destroyed and more than 1,000 civilians lost their lives. This was largely due to Plymouth's status as a major port. was hit by Incendiary device, incendiary bombs and partially destroyed in 1941 during the Blitz, but has not been demolished. It has been designated as an official permanent monument to the bombing of Plymouth during World War II. The redevelopment of the city was planned by Patrick Abercrombie, Sir Patrick Abercrombie in his 1943 ''Plan for Plymouth'' whilst simultaneously working on the reconstruction plan for London. Between 1951 and 1957 over 1000 homes were completed every year, mostly using innovative prefabricated systems of just three main types/ The Plan for Plymouth was, on the one hand, a template for the rapid reassembly of a destroyed city centre, but Abercrombie also took the opportunity to lay out a whole hierarchy of settlements across the city of communities, neighbourhoods and districts. Central to this was a revision of transport infrastructure that prioritised the position of the railway as a gateway to the city centre and provided in the long-term for a dual carriageway road by-pass that only finally came into being in the 1980s (forty years after being planned). By 1964 over 20,000 new homes had been built, transforming the dense overcrowded and unsanitary slums of the pre-war city into a low density, dispersed suburbia. Most of the city centre shops had been destroyed and those that remained were cleared to enable a zoned reconstruction according to his plan. In 1962 the modernist high rise of the Plymouth Civic Centre, Civic Centre was constructed, an architecturally significant example of mid-twentieth century civic slab-and-tower set piece. The
Plymouth City Council Plymouth City Council is the unitary authority for Plymouth, Devon. It has traditionally been controlled by Labour or the Conservatives, with Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrats rarely winning seats. The council is run by the "leader and cab ...
allowed it to fall into disrepair but it was grade II listed in 2010 by English Heritage to prevent its demolition. Post-war, Devonport Dockyard was kept busy refitting aircraft carriers such as the and, later, nuclear submarines. New light industrial factories were constructed in the newly zoning, zoned industrial sector, attracting rapid growth of the urban population. The army had substantially left the city by 1971, after barracks were pulled down in the 1960s, but the city remains home to the 42 Commando of the Royal Marines.


Government


Local government history

The first record of the existence of a settlement at Plymouth was in the Domesday Book in 1086 as ''Sudtone'', Saxon for south farm, located at the present-day
Barbican A barbican (from fro, barbacane) is a fortified outpost or fortified gateway, such as at an outer defense perimeter of a city or castle, or any tower situated over a gate or bridge which was used for defensive purposes. In the Middle Ages, ba ...
. From Saxon times, it was in the Hundred (county subdivision), hundred of Roborough (hundred), Roborough. In 1254 it gained status as a town and in 1439, became the first town in England to be granted a Charter by Parliament of England, Parliament. Between 1439 and 1934, Plymouth had a Mayor. In 1914 the
county borough County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to refer to a borough or a city independent of county council A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a cou ...
s of Plymouth and County Borough of Devonport, Devonport, and the urban district of East Stonehouse merged to form a single county borough of Plymouth. Collectively they were referred to as "Three Towns, The Three Towns". In 1919, Nancy Astor was elected the first-ever female member of parliament to take office in the British Houses of Parliament for the constituency of Plymouth Sutton. Taking over office from her husband Waldorf Astor, Lady Astor was a vibrantly active campaigner for her resident constituents. Plymouth was granted City status in the United Kingdom, city status on 18 October 1928. The city's first Lord Mayor was appointed in 1935 and its boundaries further expanded in 1967 to include the town of
Plympton Plympton now forms a suburb of the city of Plymouth Plymouth () is a port city status in the United Kingdom, city in England on the south coast of Devon, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London. Enclosing the city ...
and the civil parish, parish of
Plymstock Plymstock is a commuter suburb of Plymouth and former civil parishes in England, civil parish in the English county of Devon. Geography Situated on the east bank of the River Plym, Plymstock is geographically and historically part of the South ...
. In 1945, Plymouth-born Michael Foot was elected Labour MP for the war-torn constituency of Plymouth Devonport (UK Parliament constituency), Plymouth Devonport which he represented until 1955. After serving as Secretary of State for Education and being responsible for the 1974 Health and Safety at Work Act, went on to become the leader of the Labour Party (1980–1983). The 1971 Local Government Act 1972, Local Government White Paper proposed abolishing county boroughs, which would have left Plymouth, a town of 250,000 people, being administered from a council based at the smaller
Exeter Exeter () is a city in Devon Devon (, archaically known as Devonshire) is a Counties of England, county in South West England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is bounded by Cornwall ...
, on the other side of the county. This led to Plymouth lobbying for the creation of a Tamarside county, to include Plymouth, Torpoint, Saltash, and the rural hinterland. The campaign was not successful, and Plymouth ceased to be a county borough on 1 April 1974 with responsibility for education, social services, highways and libraries transferred to Devon#Politics and administration, Devon County Council. All powers returned when the city become a
unitary authority A unitary authority is a local authority Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of public policy, government policy and also an academic discipline that s ...
on 1 April 1998 under recommendations of the Local Government Commission for England (1992), Banham Commission. In the Parliament of the United Kingdom, Plymouth is represented by the three List of United Kingdom Parliament constituencies, constituencies of Plymouth Moor View (UK Parliament constituency), Plymouth Moor View, Plymouth Sutton and Devonport (UK Parliament constituency), Plymouth Sutton and Devonport and Devon South West (UK Parliament constituency), South West Devon. Prior to Brexit in 2020 it was represented within the European Parliament as South West England (European Parliament constituency), South West England. In the 2017 United Kingdom general election, 2017 general election the city two returned Conservative Party (UK), Conservative MPs, who were Gary Streeter (for South West Devon) and Johnny Mercer (politician), Johnny Mercer (for Moor View), and one Labour Party (UK), Labour MP, Luke Pollard (for Sutton and Devonport), .


City Council

The City of Plymouth is divided into 20 Ward (politics), wards, 17 of which elect three councillors and the other three electing two councillors, making up a total council of 57. Each year a third of the council is up for election for three consecutive years – there are no elections on the following "fourth" year, which is when Devon County Council elections, County Council elections take place. The total Wiktionary:electorate, electorate for Plymouth's Parliamentary constituencies was 190,006 in April 2019. Since May 2021 Plymouth has had a Conservative majority Council. Plymouth City Council is formally twin towns and sister cities, twinned with: Brest, France, Brest, France (1963), Gdynia, Poland (1976), Novorossiysk, Russia (1990) San Sebastián, Spain (1990) and Plymouth, Massachusetts, Plymouth, United States (2001). Plymouth was granted the dignity of Lord Mayor by King George V in 1935. The position is elected each year by a group of six councillors. It is traditional that the position of the Lord Mayor alternates between the Conservative Party and the Labour Party annually and that the Lord Mayor chooses the Deputy Lord Mayor. Conservative councillor Dr John Mahony is the incumbent for 2015–16. The Lord Mayor's official residence is 3 Elliot Terrace, located on Plymouth Hoe, the Hoe. Once a home of Waldorf Astor, 2nd Viscount Astor, Waldorf and Nancy Astor, Viscountess Astor, Nancy Astor, it was given by Lady Astor to the City of Plymouth as an official residence for future Lord Mayors and is also used today for civic hospitality, as lodgings for visiting dignitaries and High Court judges and it is also available to hire for private events. The Civic Centre municipal office building in Armada Way became a listed building in June 2007 because of its quality and period features, but has become the centre of a controversy as the council planned for its demolition estimating that it could cost £40m to refurbish it, resulting in possible job losses.


Geography

Plymouth lies between the
River Plym The River Plym is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reachin ...
to the east and the
River Tamar The Tamar (; kw, Dowr Tamar) is a river in south west England, that forms most of the border between Devon (to the east) and Cornwall (to the west). A part of the Tamar valley is a World Heritage Site due to its historic mining activities. Th ...
to the west; both rivers flow into the natural harbour of
Plymouth Sound Plymouth Sound, or locally just The Sound, is a deep Inlet An inlet is an indentation of a shoreline, usually long and narrow, such as a small bay or arm, that often leads to an enclosed body of salt water, such as a sound In physics ...

Plymouth Sound
. Since 1967, the
unitary authority A unitary authority is a local authority Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of public policy, government policy and also an academic discipline that s ...
of Plymouth has included the, once independent, towns of
Plympton Plympton now forms a suburb of the city of Plymouth Plymouth () is a port city status in the United Kingdom, city in England on the south coast of Devon, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London. Enclosing the city ...
and
Plymstock Plymstock is a commuter suburb of Plymouth and former civil parishes in England, civil parish in the English county of Devon. Geography Situated on the east bank of the River Plym, Plymstock is geographically and historically part of the South ...
which lie along the east of the River Plym. The River Tamar forms the county boundary between
Devon Devon (, archaically known as Devonshire) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Ch ...

Devon
and
Cornwall Cornwall (; kw, Kernow ) is a Historic counties of England, historic county and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in South West England. It is recognised as one of the Celtic nations, and is the homeland of the Cornish people ...

Cornwall
and its estuary forms the Hamoaze on which is sited HMNB Devonport, Devonport Dockyard. The River Plym, which flows off Dartmoor to the north-east, forms a smaller estuary to the east of the city called Cattewater.
Plymouth Sound Plymouth Sound, or locally just The Sound, is a deep Inlet An inlet is an indentation of a shoreline, usually long and narrow, such as a small bay or arm, that often leads to an enclosed body of salt water, such as a sound In physics ...

Plymouth Sound
is protected from the sea by the Plymouth Breakwater, in use since 1814. In the Sound is
Drake's Island Image:Drake's Island 2.jpg, 250px, Drake's Island as seen from Mount Edgecumbe Drake's Island is a island lying in Plymouth Sound, the stretch of water south of the city of Plymouth, Devon. The rocks which make up the island are volcanic tuff ...

Drake's Island
which is seen from Plymouth Hoe, a flat public area on top of limestone cliffs. The Unitary Authority of Plymouth is . The topography rises from sea level to a height, at Roborough, South Hams, Roborough, of about above Ordnance Datum (AOD). Geologically, Plymouth has a mixture of limestone, Devonian slate, granite and Middle Devonian limestone. Plymouth Sound, Shores and Cliffs is a Site of Special Scientific Interest, because of its geology. The bulk of the city is built upon Upper Devonian slates and shales and the headlands at the entrance to Plymouth Sound are formed of Lower Devonian slates, which can withstand the power of the sea. A band of Middle Devonian limestone runs west to east from Cremyll to
Plymstock Plymstock is a commuter suburb of Plymouth and former civil parishes in England, civil parish in the English county of Devon. Geography Situated on the east bank of the River Plym, Plymstock is geographically and historically part of the South ...
including the Hoe. Local limestone may be seen in numerous buildings, walls and pavements throughout Plymouth. To the north and northeast of the city is the granite mass of Dartmoor; the granite was mined and exported via Plymouth. Rocks brought down the Tamar from Dartmoor include ores containing tin, copper, tungsten, lead and other minerals. There is evidence that the middle Devonian limestone belt at the south edge of Plymouth and in Plymstock was quarried at West Hoe, Cattedown and Radford.


Urban form

On 27 April 1944 Patrick Abercrombie, Sir Patrick Abercrombie's ''Plan for Plymouth'' to rebuild the bomb-damaged city was published; it called for demolition of the few remaining pre-War buildings in the city centre to make way for their replacement with wide, parallel, modern boulevards aligned east–west linked by a north–south Avenue (landscape), avenue (Armada Way) linking the railway station with the vista of Plymouth Hoe. A peripheral road system connecting the historic Barbican on the east and Union Street to the west determines the principal form of the city centre, even following pedestrianisation of the shopping centre in the late 1980s, and continues to inform the present 'Vision for Plymouth' developed by a team led by Barcelona-based architect David Mackay (architect), David MacKay in 2003 which calls for revivification of the city centre with mixed-use and residential. In suburban areas, post-War Prefabricated home, prefabs had already begun to appear by 1946, and over 1,000 permanent council houses were built each year from 1951 to 1957 according to the Urban planning#Modern urban planning, Modernist zoning, zoned low-density garden city movement, garden city model advocated by Abercrombie. By 1964 over 20,000 new homes had been built, more than 13,500 of them permanent council homes and 853 built by the British Admiralty, Admiralty. Plymouth is home to 28 parks with an average size of . Its largest park is Central Park, Plymouth, Central Park, with other sizeable green spaces including Victoria Park, Millbridge, Plymouth, Victoria Park, Lipson, Freedom Fields Park, Alexandra Park, Devonport Park and the Hoe. Central Park is the home of Plymouth Argyle Football Club and a number of other leisure facilities. The Plymouth Plan 2019–2034 was published May 2019 and sets the direction for future development with a new spatial strategy which reinforces links with the wider region in west Devon and east Cornwall in its Joint Local Plan and identifies three development areas within the city: the City centre and waterfront; a 'northern corridor' including Derriford and the vacant airfield site at Roborough, South Hams, Roborough; and an 'eastern corridor' including major new settlements at Sherford (new town), Sherford and Langage, Devon, Langage.


Climate

Plymouth has a moderated temperate oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen ''Cfb'') which is wetter and milder than the rest of England. This means a wide range of exotic plants, palm trees, and yuccas can be cultivated. The annual mean high temperature is approximately . Due to the moderating effect of the sea and the south-westerly location, the climate is among the mildest of British cities, and one of the warmest UK cities in winter. The coldest month of February is similarly moderate, having mild mean minimum temperatures between . Snow usually falls in small amounts but a noteworthy recent exception was the period of the European winter storms of 2009-10 which, in early January 2010, covered Plymouth in at least of snow; more on higher ground. Another notable event was the of snowfall between 17 and 19 December 2010 – though only would lie at any one time due to melting. Over the 1961–1990 period, annual snowfall accumulation averaged less than per year. South West England has a favoured location when the Azores High pressure area extends north-eastwards towards the UK, particularly in summer. Coastal areas have average annual sunshine totals over 1,600 hours. Owing to its geographic location, rainfall tends to be associated with Atlantic Low pressure area, depressions or with convection and is more frequent and heavier than in London and southeast England. The Atlantic depressions are more vigorous in autumn and winter and most of the rain which falls in those seasons in the south-west is from this source. Average annual rainfall is around . November to March have the highest mean wind speeds, with June to August having the lightest winds. The predominant wind direction is from the south-west. Typically, the warmest day of the year (1971–2000) will achieve a temperature of , although in June 1976 the temperature reached , the site record. On average, 4.25 days of the year will report a maximum temperature of or above. During the winter half of the year, the coldest night will typically fall to although in January 1979 the temperature fell to . Typically, 18.6 nights of the year will register an air frost.


Education

The
University of Plymouth The University of Plymouth is a public research university A public university or public college is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiar ...
enrolls 23,155 total students as of 2018/2019 (List of universities in the United Kingdom by enrollment, largest in the UK out of ). It also employs 2,900 staff with an annual income of around £160 million. It was founded in 1992 from Polytechnic South West (formerly Plymouth Polytechnic) following the Further and Higher Education Act 1992. It has a wide range of courses including those in marine focused business, marine engineering, marine biology and Earth, ocean and environmental sciences, surf science, shipping and logistics. The university formed a joint venture with the fellow Devonian University of Exeter in 2000, establishing the Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry. The college is ranked 8th out of 30 universities in the UK in 2011 for medicine. Its dental school was established in 2006, which also provides free dental care in an attempt to improve access to dental care in the South West of England, South West. The University of St Mark & St John (known as "Marjon" or "Marjons") specialises in Teacher education, teacher training, and offers training across the country and abroad. The city is also home to two large colleges. The City College Plymouth provides courses from the most basic to Foundation degrees for approximately 26,000 students. Plymouth College of Art offers a selection of courses including media. It was started 153 years ago and is now one of only four independent colleges of art and design in the UK. Plymouth also has 71 state primary phase schools, 13 state secondary schools, eight special schools and three selective state grammar schools, Devonport High School for Girls, Devonport High School for Boys and Plymouth High School for Girls. There is also an independent school Plymouth College. The city was also home to the Royal Naval Engineering College; opened in 1880 in Keyham, Devon, Keyham, it trained engineering students for five years before they completed the remaining two years of the course at Greenwich. The college closed in 1910, but in 1940 a new college opened at Manadon. This was renamed ''Dockyard Technical College'' in 1959 before finally closing in 1994; training was transferred to the University of Southampton. Plymouth is home to the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (MBA; founded 1884) which conducts research in all areas of the marine sciences. The Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML; founded 1988) was formed in part from components of the MBA. Together with the National Marine Aquarium, Plymouth, National Marine Aquarium, the Continuous Plankton Recorder, Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Sciences, Plymouth University's Marine Institute and the Diving Diseases Research Centre, these marine-related organisations form the Plymouth Marine Sciences Partnership. The Plymouth Marine Laboratory, which focuses on global issues of climate change and sustainability. It monitors the effects of ocean acidity on corals and shellfish and reports the results to the UK government. It also cultivates algae that could be used to make biofuels or in the treatment of wastewater by using technology such as biochemical engineering, photo-bioreactors. It works alongside the Boots Group to investigate the use of algae in skincare protects, taking advantage of the chemicals they contain that adapt to protect themselves from the sun. A scheme is in operation over summer 2018 to provide meals during the summer holidays for children with parents on a low income, the parents cannot afford to provide their children with healthy meals. University of Plymouth Students' Union, UPSU also known as the University of Plymouth Student Union is based underground near the library. Every student at the University of Plymouth is a member of UPSU. The Union employs students across the University, from bar staff to events technicians. Every year the students at the University have an opportunity to vote which sabbatical officers represent them. In 2019 over 4000 students voted in the UPSU elections.


Demography

From the 2011 Census, the Office for National Statistics published that Plymouth's unitary authority area population was 256,384; 15,664 more people than that of the United Kingdom Census 2001, last census from 2001, which indicated that Plymouth had a population of 240,720. The Plymouth List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, urban area had a population of 260,203 in 2011 (the urban sprawl which extends outside the authority's boundaries). The city's average household size was 2.3 persons. At the time of the 2011 UK census, the ethnic composition of Plymouth's population was 96.2% White people, White (of 92.9% was White British), with the largest minority ethnic group being British Chinese, Chinese at 0.5%. The white Irish ethnic group saw the largest decline in its share of the population since the 2001 Census (−24%), while the ''Other Asian'' and Black African had the largest increases (360% and 351% respectively). This excludes the two new ethnic groups added to the 2011 census of Gypsy or Irish Traveller and Arab. The population rose rapidly during the second half of the 19th century, but declined by over 1.6% from 1931 to 1951. Plymouth's gross value added (a measure of the size of its economy) was 5,169 million Pound sterling, GBP in 2013 making up 25% of
Devon Devon (, archaically known as Devonshire) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Ch ...

Devon
's GVA. Its GVA per person was £19,943 and compared to the national average of £23,755, was £3,812 lower. Plymouth's unemployment rate was 7.0% in 2014 which was 2.0 points higher than the South West average and 0.8 points higher than the average for Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland). A 2014 profile by the National Health Service showed Plymouth had higher than average levels of poverty and deprivation (26.2% of the population among the poorest 20.4% nationally). Life expectancy, at 78.3 years for men and 82.1 for women, was the lowest of any region in the South West of England.


Economy

Because of its coastal location, the economy of Plymouth has traditionally been Wiktionary:maritime, maritime, in particular the defence sector with over 12,000 people employed and approximately 7,500 in the armed forces. The Plymouth Gin Distillery has been producing Plymouth Gin since 1793, which was exported around the world by the Royal Navy. During the 1930s, it was the most widely distributed gin and had a Appellation d'origine contrôlée, controlled term of origin until 2015. Since the 1980s, employment in the defence sector has decreased substantially and the public sector is now prominent particularly in administration, health, education, medicine and engineering. HMNB Devonport, Devonport Dockyard is the UK's only naval base that refits nuclear submarines and the Navy estimates that the Dockyard generates about 10% of Plymouth's income. Plymouth has the largest cluster of marine and maritime businesses in the south west with 270 firms operating within the sector. Other substantial employers include University of Plymouth, the university with almost 3,000 staff, the national retail chain The Range (retailer), The Range at their Estover, Plymouth, Estover headquarters, as well as the Plymouth Science Park employing 500 people in 50 companies. Plymouth has a post-war shopping area in the city centre with substantial pedestrianisation. At the west end of the zone inside a grade II listed building is the Pannier Market that was completed in 1959 – ''pannier'' meaning "basket" from French, so it translates as "basket market". In terms of retail floorspace, Plymouth is ranked in the top five in the South West England, South West, and 29th nationally. Plymouth was one of the first ten British cities to trial the new Business improvement district initiative. The Tinside Pool is situated at the foot of the Hoe and became a grade II listed building in 1998 before being restored to its 1930s look for £3.4 million.


Plymouth 2020

Since 2003, Plymouth Council has been undertaking a project of urban redevelopment called the "Vision for Plymouth" launched by the architect David Mackay (architect), David Mackay and backed by both Plymouth City Council and the Plymouth Chamber of Commerce (PCC). Its projects range from shopping centres, a cruise terminal, a boulevard and to increase the population to 300,000 and build 33,000 dwellings. In 2004 the old Drake Circus shopping centre and Charles Cross car park were demolished and replaced by the latest Drake Circus Shopping Centre, which opened in October 2006. It received negative feedback before opening when David Mackay said it was already "ten years out of date". It was awarded the first ever Carbuncle Cup, awarded for Britain's ugliest building, in 2006. In contrast, the 's production and education centre, TR2, which was built on wasteland at Cattedown, was a runner-up for the RIBA Stirling Prize for Architecture in 2003. There is a project involving the future relocation of Plymouth City Council's headquarters, the civic centre, to the current location of the Bretonside bus station; it would involve both the bus station and civic centre being demolished and a rebuilt together at the location with the land from the civic centre being sold off. Other suggestions include the demolition of the Plymouth Pavilions Arena, entertainment arena to create a canal "boulevard" linking Millbay to the city centre. Millbay is being regenerated with mixed residential, retail and office space alongside the ferry port.


Transport

The A38 road, A38 dual-carriageway runs from east to west across the north of the city. Within the city it is known as 'The Parkway' and represents the boundary between the older parts of the city and more recently developed suburban areas. Heading east, it connects Plymouth to the M5 motorway about away near
Exeter Exeter () is a city in Devon Devon (, archaically known as Devonshire) is a Counties of England, county in South West England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is bounded by Cornwall ...
; and heading west it connects Devon with Cornwall via the Tamar Bridge. Bus services are mainly provided by Plymouth Citybus and Stagecoach South West, but a few routes are served by smaller local operators. Long distance intercity bus services terminate at Plymouth coach station. There are three Park and ride services at Milehouse, Coypool (
Plympton Plympton now forms a suburb of the city of Plymouth Plymouth () is a port city status in the United Kingdom, city in England on the south coast of Devon, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London. Enclosing the city ...
) and George Junction (Plymouth City Airport), which are operated by Stagecoach South West. A regular international ferry service provided by Brittany Ferries operates from Millbay taking cars and foot passengers directly to France (
Roscoff Roscoff (; br, Rosko) is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what ...
) and Spain (Santander, Cantabria, Santander) on the three ferries, ''MV Armorique (2008), MV Armorique'', ''MV Bretagne'' and ''MV Pont-Aven''. The Cremyll Ferry is a passenger ferry between Stonehouse and the Cornish hamlet of Cremyll, which is believed to have operated continuously since 1204. There is also a pedestrian ferry from the Mayflower Steps to
Mount Batten Mount Batten is a 24-metre (80-ft) tall outcrop of rock on a 600-metre (2000-ft) peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a main ...
, and an alternative to using the Tamar Bridge via the Torpoint Ferry (vehicle and pedestrian) across the
River Tamar The Tamar (; kw, Dowr Tamar) is a river in south west England, that forms most of the border between Devon (to the east) and Cornwall (to the west). A part of the Tamar valley is a World Heritage Site due to its historic mining activities. Th ...
. The city's airport was Plymouth City Airport about north of the city centre. The airport was home to the local airline Air Southwest, which operated flights across the United Kingdom and Ireland. In June 2003, a report by the South West of England Regional Development Agency, South West RDA was published looking at the future of aviation in the south-west and the possible closure of airports. It concluded that the best option for the south-west was to close Plymouth City Airport and expand Exeter International Airport and Newquay Cornwall Airport, although it did conclude that this was not the best option for Plymouth. In April 2011, it was announced that the airport would close, which it did on 23 December. A local company, FlyPlymouth, put forward plans in 2015 to reopen the airport by 2018, providing daily services to various destinations including London, but as of now, these projects have stalled. Plymouth railway station, which opened on its present site in 1877, is managed by Great Western Railway (train operating company), Great Western Railway and is also served by trains on the CrossCountry network. The station was previously named Plymouth North Road, when there were other main line stations in the city at Millbay and Friary. These have now closed. Smaller stations in the suburban area west of the city centre are served by trains on the Tamar Valley Line to Gunnislake and local services on the Cornish Main Line, which crosses the Tamar on the Royal Albert Bridge. This was designed by Brunel and opened in 1859. The parallel road bridge was completed in 1961. There have been proposals to reopen the Exeter to Plymouth railway of the LSWR which would connect
Cornwall Cornwall (; kw, Kernow ) is a Historic counties of England, historic county and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in South West England. It is recognised as one of the Celtic nations, and is the homeland of the Cornish people ...

Cornwall
and Plymouth to Exeter using the former Southern Railway main line from Plymouth to Exeter via Okehampton, because the main line through South Devon is vulnerable to damage from rough seas at Dawlish, where some of the cliffs are also fragile. There are related proposals to reopen part of the old main line from Bere Alston on the Plymouth-Gunnislake line as far as Tavistock to serve a new housing development, but although the idea has been discussed since 2008 at least progress has been slow. Plymouth is at the southern end of the long Devon Coast to Coast Cycle Route (National Cycle Route 27). The route runs mostly traffic-free on off-road sections between Ilfracombe and Plymouth. The route uses former railway lines, though there are some stretches on public roads.


Religion

Plymouth has about 150 churches and its Roman Catholic cathedral (1858) is in Stonehouse. The city's oldest church is Plymouth Minster, also known as St Andrew's Church, (Anglican) located at the top of Royal Parade—it is the largest parish church in
Devon Devon (, archaically known as Devonshire) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Ch ...

Devon
and has been a site of gathering since AD 800. The city also includes five Baptists, Baptist churches, over twenty Methodist Church of Great Britain, Methodist chapels, and thirteen Catholic Church, Roman Catholic churches. In 1831 the first Plymouth Brethren, Brethren assembly in England, a movement of conservative non-denominational Evangelical Christians, was established in the city, so that Brethren are often called Plymouth Brethren, although the movement did not begin locally. Plymouth has the first known reference to Jews in the South West England, South West from Sir
Francis Drake Sir Francis Drake ( – 28 January 1596) was an English Exploration, explorer, sea captain, Privateering, privateer, Atlantic slave trade, slave trader, Officer (armed forces), naval officer, and politician. Drake is best known for Franc ...

Francis Drake
's voyages in 1577 to 1580, as his log mentioned "Moses the Jew" – a man from Plymouth. The Plymouth Synagogue is a Listed building, Listed Grade II* building, built in 1762 and is the Oldest synagogues in the world, oldest Ashkenazi Jews, Ashkenazi Synagogue in the English speaking world. There are also places of worship for Islam, Baháʼí Faith, Baháʼí, Buddhism, Unitarianism, Chinese beliefs and Humanism. 58.1% of the population described themselves in the 2011 census return as being at least nominally Christian and 0.8% as Muslim with all other religions represented by less than 0.5% each. The portion of people without a religion is 32.9%; above the national average of 24.7%. 7.1% did not state their religious belief. Since the 2001 Census, the number of Christians and Jews has decreased (−16% and −7% respectively), while all other religions have increased and non-religious people have almost doubled in number.


Culture

Built in 1815, Union Street was at the heart of Plymouth's historical culture. It became known as ''the servicemen's playground'', as it was where sailors from the Royal Navy would seek entertainment of all kinds. During the 1930s, there were 30 pubs and it attracted such performers as Charlie Chaplin to the New Palace Theatre. It was described in 2008 as the late-night hub of Plymouth's entertainment strip. Outdoor events and festivals are held including the annual British Firework Championships in August, which attracts tens of thousands of people across the waterfront. In August 2006 the world record for the most simultaneous fireworks was surpassed, by Roy Lowry of the
University of Plymouth The University of Plymouth is a public research university A public university or public college is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiar ...
, over
Plymouth Sound Plymouth Sound, or locally just The Sound, is a deep Inlet An inlet is an indentation of a shoreline, usually long and narrow, such as a small bay or arm, that often leads to an enclosed body of salt water, such as a sound In physics ...

Plymouth Sound
. From 2014 MTV Crashes Plymouth has taken place every July on Plymouth Hoe, hosting big-name acts such as The 1975, Little Mix, Tinie Tempah and Busted. Between 1992 and 2012 the Music of the Night celebration was performed in the by the 29th Commando Regiment Royal Artillery, 29 Commando Regiment and local performers to raise money for local and military charities. A number of other smaller cultural events taken place annually, including Plymouth Art Weekender, Plymouth Fringe Festival and Illuminate Festival. The city's main theatre is Theatre Royal, Plymouth, Theatre Royal Plymouth, presenting large-scale West End shows and smaller works as well as an extensive education and outreach programme. The main building is located in the city centre and contains three performance spaces – The Lyric (1,315 capacity), Drum Theatre (200 capacity), and The Lab (60 capacity) – and they also run their own specialised production and creative learning centre called TR2, based in Cattedown. Plymouth Pavilions has multiple uses for the city staging music concerts, basketball matches and stand-up comedy. There are also three cinemas: Reel Cinema at Derrys Cross, Plymouth Arts Centre at Looe Street and a Vue (cinema), Vue cinema at the Barbican Leisure Park. Barbican Theatre, Plymouth delivers a theatre and dance programme of performances and workshops focused on young people and emerging artists contains a main auditorium (110 – 140 capacity) and rehearsal studio; they also host the B-Bar (80 capacity), which offers a programme of music, comedy and spoken word performance. The Plymouth Athenaeum, which includes a local interest library, is a society dedicated to the promotion of learning in the fields of science, technology, literature and art. In 2017 its auditorium (340 capacity) returned to use as a theatre, having been out of service since 2009. The Plymouth City Museum and Art Gallery is operated by Plymouth City Council allowing free admission – it has six galleries. Plymouth is the regional television centre of BBC South West. A team of journalists are headquartered at Plymouth for the ITV West Country regional station, after a merger with ITV West forced ITV Westcountry to close on 16 February 2009. The main local newspapers serving Plymouth are ''The Herald (Plymouth), The Herald'' and ''Western Morning News'' with Radio Plymouth, BBC Radio Devon, Heart South West, and Pirate FM being the local radio stations with the most listeners.


Sport

Plymouth is home to Plymouth Argyle F.C., who play in the third tier of English football league known as Football League One. The team's home ground is called Home Park and is located in Central Park, Plymouth, Central Park. It links itself with the group of English non-conformists that left Plymouth for the
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The re ...
in 1620: its nickname is "The Pilgrims". The city also has three Non-League football clubs; Plymouth Parkway F.C., Plymouth Parkway who play at Bolitho Park, Elburton Villa F.C., Elburton Villa who play at Haye Road and Plymstock United who play at Dean Cross. Plymouth Parkway were recently promoted to the Western Football League, Western League from the South West Peninsula League, whilst Elburton Villa and Plymstock United continue to compete in the South West Peninsula League. Other sports clubs include Plymouth Albion R.F.C., Plymouth Albion, Plymouth Raiders and Plymouth Gladiators. Plymouth Albion Rugby Football Club is a rugby union club that was founded in 1875 and are currently competing in the third tier of Professional English Rugby the National League 1. They play at the Brickfields. Plymouth Raiders play in the British Basketball League – the top tier of British basketball. They play at the Plymouth Pavilions entertainment arena and were founded in 1983. Plymouth Gladiators are a Motorcycle speedway, speedway team, currently competing in the British National League (speedway), National League, with home meetings taking place at the St Boniface Arena, Plymouth Coliseum. Plymouth cricket club was formed in 1843, the current 1st XI play in the Devon Premier League. Plymouth is also home to Plymouth Marjons Hockey Club, with their 1st XI playing in the National League last season. Plymouth Mariners Baseball club play in the South West Baseball League, they play their home games at Wilson Field in Central Park. Plymouth was home to an American football club, the Plymouth Admirals until 2010. Plymouth Leander is the most successful swimming club in Great Britain along with Plymouth Diving Club. Plymouth is an important centre for watersports, especially scuba diving and sailing. The Port of Plymouth Regatta is one of the oldest regattas in the world, and has been held regularly since 1823. In September 2011, Plymouth hosted the America's Cup World Series for nine days.


Public services

Since 1973 Plymouth has been supplied water by South West Water. Prior to the 1973 take over it was supplied by Plymouth County Borough Corporation. Before the 19th century two leats were built to provide drinking water for the town. They carried water from Dartmoor to Plymouth. A watercourse, known as Plymouth or Drake's Leat, was opened on 24 April 1591 to tap the River Meavy. The Devonport Leat was constructed to carry fresh drinking water to the expanding town of
DevonportDevonport may refer to: * Devonport, Plymouth, Devon, England ** HMNB Devonport, naval base/dockyard ** Plymouth Devonport (UK Parliament constituency), parliamentary constituency formerly known as Devonport * Devonport, New Zealand, a suburb of Auc ...
and its ever-growing dockyard. It was fed by three Dartmoor rivers: The West Dart River, West Dart, Cowsic and Blackabrook. It seems to have been carrying water since 1797, but it was officially completed in 1801. It was originally designed to carry water to Devonport town but has since been shortened and now carries water to Burrator Reservoir, which feeds most of the water supply of Plymouth. Burrator Reservoir is located about north of the city and was constructed in 1898 and expanded in 1928. Plymouth City Council is responsible for waste management throughout the city and South West Water is responsible for sewerage. Plymouth's electricity is supplied from the National Grid (UK), National Grid and distributed to Plymouth via Western Power Distribution. On the outskirts of
Plympton Plympton now forms a suburb of the city of Plymouth Plymouth () is a port city status in the United Kingdom, city in England on the south coast of Devon, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London. Enclosing the city ...
a combined cycle gas-powered station, the Langage Power Station, which started to produce electricity for Plymouth at the end of 2009. Her Majesty's Courts Service provide a Magistrates' court (England and Wales), magistrates' court and a Combined Crown Court, Crown and County Court (England and Wales), County Court centre in the city. The Plymouth Borough Police, formed in 1836, eventually became part of Devon and Cornwall Constabulary. There are police stations at Charles Cross and Crownhill (the Divisional HQ) and smaller stations at Plympton and Plymstock. The city has one of the Devon and Cornwall Area Crown Prosecution Service Divisional offices. Plymouth has five fire stations located in Camel's Head, Crownhill, Greenbank, Plymouth, Greenbank,
Plympton Plympton now forms a suburb of the city of Plymouth Plymouth () is a port city status in the United Kingdom, city in England on the south coast of Devon, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London. Enclosing the city ...
and
Plymstock Plymstock is a commuter suburb of Plymouth and former civil parishes in England, civil parish in the English county of Devon. Geography Situated on the east bank of the River Plym, Plymstock is geographically and historically part of the South ...
which is part of Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service. The Royal National Lifeboat Institution have an Atlantic 85 class lifeboat and Severn class lifeboat stationed at Millbay Docks. Plymouth is served by Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust and the city's National Health Service (England), NHS hospital is Derriford Hospital north of the city centre. The Royal Eye Infirmary is located at Derriford Hospital. South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust operates in Plymouth and the rest of the south west; its headquarters are in
Exeter Exeter () is a city in Devon Devon (, archaically known as Devonshire) is a Counties of England, county in South West England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is bounded by Cornwall ...
. The mid-19th-century burial ground at Ford Park Cemetery was reopened in 2007 by a successful trust and the City council operate two large early 20th century cemeteries at Weston Mill and Efford both with crematoria and chapels. There is also a privately owned cemetery on the outskirts of the city, Drake Memorial Park which does not allow headstones to mark graves, but a brass plaque set into the ground.


Landmarks and tourist attractions

After the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers"), mainly over the manner of Kingdom of England, England's governance and issues of re ...
the was erected in 1666 towards the eastern section of Plymouth Hoe, to defend the port from naval attacks, suppress Plymothian Parliamentary leanings and to train the armed forces. Currently, guided tours are available in the summer months. Further west is Smeaton's Tower, which is a standard lighthouse that was constructed in 1759. Furthermore, Smeaton's Tower was dismantled in 1877 and the top two-thirds were reassembled on Plymouth Hoe. It is open to the public and has views over the Plymouth Sound and the city from the lantern room. Plymouth has 20 war memorials of which nine are on Plymouth Hoe, The Hoe including: Plymouth Naval Memorial, to remember those killed in World Wars I and II, and the Armada Memorial, to commemorate the defeat of the
Spanish Armada The Spanish Armada ( es, Grande y Felicísima Armada, links=no, lit=Great and Most Fortunate Navy) was a Habsburg Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal ...

Spanish Armada
. The early port settlement of Plymouth, called "Sutton", approximates to the area now referred to as the
Barbican A barbican (from fro, barbacane) is a fortified outpost or fortified gateway, such as at an outer defense perimeter of a city or castle, or any tower situated over a gate or bridge which was used for defensive purposes. In the Middle Ages, ba ...
and has 100 listed buildings and the largest concentration of cobblestone, cobbled streets in Britain. The
Pilgrim Fathers The Pilgrims were the English settlers who came to North America on the ''Mayflower ''Mayflower'' was an English ship that transported a group of English families known today as the Pilgrims from England to the New World in 1620. After a g ...
left for the
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The re ...
in 1620 near the commemorative Mayflower Steps in Sutton Pool. Also on Sutton Pool is the National Marine Aquarium, Plymouth, National Marine Aquarium which displays 400 marine species and includes Britain's deepest aquarium tank. upstream on the opposite side of the
River Plym The River Plym is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reachin ...
is the Saltram House, Saltram estate, which has a Jacobean architecture, Jacobean and Georgian architecture, Georgian mansion. On the northern outskirts of the city, Crownhill Fort is a well-restored example of a "Palmerston forts, Palmerston's Folly". It is owned by the Landmark Trust and is open to the public. To the west of the city is
DevonportDevonport may refer to: * Devonport, Plymouth, Devon, England ** HMNB Devonport, naval base/dockyard ** Plymouth Devonport (UK Parliament constituency), parliamentary constituency formerly known as Devonport * Devonport, New Zealand, a suburb of Auc ...
, one of Plymouth's historic quarters. As part of Devonport's millennium regeneration project, the ''Devonport Heritage Trail'' has been introduced, complete with over 70 waymarkers outlining the route. Plymouth is often used as a base by visitors to Dartmoor, the River Tamar, Tamar Valley and the beaches of south-east
Cornwall Cornwall (; kw, Kernow ) is a Historic counties of England, historic county and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in South West England. It is recognised as one of the Celtic nations, and is the homeland of the Cornish people ...

Cornwall
. Kingsand, Cawsand and Whitsand Bay are popular. The Roland Levinsky building, the landmark building of the
University of Plymouth The University of Plymouth is a public research university A public university or public college is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiar ...
, is located in the city's central quarter. Designed by leading architect Henning Larsen, the building was opened in 2008 and houses the University's Arts faculty. Beckley Point, at 78m / 20 floors, is Plymouth's tallest building and was completed on 8 February 2018. It was designed by Boyes Rees Architects and built by contractors Kier Group, Kier. File:SmeatonsTower2006.JPG, Smeaton's Tower File:Plymouth Sound and Breakwater.jpg,
Plymouth Sound Plymouth Sound, or locally just The Sound, is a deep Inlet An inlet is an indentation of a shoreline, usually long and narrow, such as a small bay or arm, that often leads to an enclosed body of salt water, such as a sound In physics ...

Plymouth Sound
and Plymouth Breakwater, Breakwater File:Britannia-Statue.jpg, National Armada memorial (Britannia) File:War memorial, Plymouth.jpg, Naval War Memorial File:Plymouth Barbican and harbour.jpg, The Parade,
Barbican A barbican (from fro, barbacane) is a fortified outpost or fortified gateway, such as at an outer defense perimeter of a city or castle, or any tower situated over a gate or bridge which was used for defensive purposes. In the Middle Ages, ba ...
File:MayflowerSteps.jpg, The Mayflower Steps Memorial File:Saltram House 2008.jpg, Saltram House remodelled by the architect Robert Adam File:Beckley Point, Plymouth (geograph 5778842).jpg, Beckley Point


Notable people

People from Plymouth are known as Plymothians or less formally as Janners. Its meaning is described as a person from
Devon Devon (, archaically known as Devonshire) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Ch ...

Devon
, deriving from Cousin Jan (the
Devon Devon (, archaically known as Devonshire) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Ch ...

Devon
form of John (first name), John), but more particularly in Royal Navy, naval circles anyone from the Plymouth area. The Elizabethan navigator, Sir
Francis Drake Sir Francis Drake ( – 28 January 1596) was an English Exploration, explorer, sea captain, Privateering, privateer, Atlantic slave trade, slave trader, Officer (armed forces), naval officer, and politician. Drake is best known for Franc ...

Francis Drake
was born in the nearby town of Tavistock, Devon, Tavistock and was the mayor of Plymouth. He was the first English people, Englishman to circumnavigate the world and was known by the Spanish as ''El Draco'' meaning "The Dragon" after he raided many of their ships. He died of dysentery in 1596 off the coast of Portobelo, Panama. In 2002 a mission to recover his body and bring it to Plymouth was allowed by the Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom), Ministry of Defence. His cousin and contemporary John Hawkins (naval commander), John Hawkins was a Plymouth man. Painter Sir Joshua Reynolds, founder and first president of the Royal Academy was born and educated in nearby
Plympton Plympton now forms a suburb of the city of Plymouth Plymouth () is a port city status in the United Kingdom, city in England on the south coast of Devon, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London. Enclosing the city ...
, now part of Plymouth.
William Cookworthy William Cookworthy (12 April 170517 October 1780) was an English Quaker Quakers, also called Friends, belong to a historically Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movem ...

William Cookworthy
born in Kingsbridge set up his successful porcelain business in the city and was a close friend of
John Smeaton John Smeaton (8 June 1724 – 28 October 1792) was a British civil engineer A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering Civil engineering is a Regulation and licensure in engineering, professional engineering discip ...

John Smeaton
designer of the Eddystone Lighthouse. On 26 January 1786, Benjamin Robert Haydon, an English painter who specialised in grand historical pictures, was born here. The naturalist Dr William Elford Leach FRS, who did much to pave the way in Britain for Charles Darwin, was born at Hoe Gate in 1791. Antarctic explorers Robert Falcon Scott who was born in Plymouth and Frank Bickerton both lived in the city. Artists include Beryl Cook whose paintings depict the culture of Plymouth and Robert Lenkiewicz, whose paintings investigated themes of Vagrancy (people), vagrancy, sexual behaviour and suicide, lived in the city from the 1960s until his death in 2002. Illustrator and creator of children's series Mr Benn and King Rollo, David McKee, was born and brought up in South Devon and trained at Plymouth College of Art. Jazz musician John Surman, born in nearby Tavistock, Devon, Tavistock, has close connections to the area, evidenced by his 2012 album Saltash Bells. The avant garde prepared guitarist Keith Rowe was born in the city before establishing the jazz free improvisation band AMM (group), AMM in London in 1965 and M.I.M.E.O., MIMEO in 1997. The musician and film director Cosmo Jarvis has lived in several towns in South Devon and has filmed videos in and around Plymouth. In addition, actors Sir Donald Sinden and Judi Trott were born in Plymouth. George Passmore of Turner Prize winning duo Gilbert and George was also born in the city, as was Labour politician Michael Foot whose family reside at nearby Trematon Castle. Notable athletes include swimmer Sharron Davies, diver Tom Daley (diver), Tom Daley, dancer Wayne Sleep, and footballer Trevor Francis. Other past residents include composer journalist and newspaper editor William Henry Wills (journalist), William Henry Wills, Ron Goodwin, and journalist Angela Rippon and comedian Dawn French. Canadian politician and legal scholar Chris Axworthy hails from Plymouth. America based actor Donald Moffat, whose roles include American Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson in the film ''The Right Stuff (film), The Right Stuff'', and fictional President Bennett in ''Clear and Present Danger (film), Clear and Present Danger'', was born in Plymouth. Canadian actor Mark Holden (actor), Mark Holden was also born in Plymouth. Kevin Owen is an international TV news anchor who was born in Freedom Fields Hospital, while his father served as a Royal Navy Officer. Cambridge spy Guy Burgess was born at 2 Albemarle Villas, Stoke whilst his father was a serving Royal Navy officer.


Twin city

* Brest, France, Brest, France * Gdynia, Poland * Novorossiysk, Russia * Plymouth, Massachusetts, Plymouth, United States * San Sebastián, Spain


Freedom of the City

The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the City of Plymouth.


Individuals

* Tom Daley, Thomas Robert Daley: 13 September 2021. * Mark Ormrod (Royal Marine), Mark Ormrod : 22 November 2021.


Military Units

* 42 Commando, Royal Marines, RM: 1955. * The Merchant Navy: 22 March 2009. * The Rifles: 25 September 2010. * The Royal Naval Reserve


See also

* Fortifications of Plymouth * Grade I listed buildings in Plymouth * Grade II* listed buildings in Plymouth


Notes


References


Further reading

* Gould, Jeremy (2010).
Plymouth: Vision of a modern city
'. English Heritage * * * * * ''N.B. Carew refers to Plymouth Hoe as "the Hawe at Plymmouth"'' * ''N.B. the publication carries the date 1943, although published on 27 April 27, 194

' * W Best Harris – Plymouth – Plymouth Council of Social Service (undated) * W Best Harris – Stories From Plymouth's History – Self-Published, Plymouth (undated) * W Best Harris – The Book of Plymouth – Guild of Social Service, Plymouth (undated) * W Best Harris – The New Book of Plymouth – Guild of Social Service, Plymouth (undated) * W Best Harris – The Second Book of Plymouth – Guild of Social Service, Plymouth, 1957 * W Best Harris – Place Names of Plymouth, Dartmoor and the Tamar Valley – Self-Published, Plymouth, 1983 * W Best Harris – Welcome to Plymouth – Plymouth City Council (undated)


External links



– at Internet Archive Wayback Machine
The Encyclopaedia of Plymouth History
– at Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Plymouth City Council website

Plymouth City Council's open data website
* {{Authority control Plymouth, Devon, Cities in South West England Towns in Devon Non-metropolitan districts of Devon Populated coastal places in Devon Port cities and towns in South West England Unitary authority districts of England Unparished areas in Devon