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Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...
of
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. It is the sixth-most-populous city in the United States and the most populous city in the state of Pennsylvania, with a 2020 population of 1,603,797. It is also the in the Northeastern United States, behind
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
. Since 1854, the city has had the same geographic boundaries as
Philadelphia County Philadelphia County is the most populous county in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( ) ( pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic ...
, the most-populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U.S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents . Philadelphia is also the economic and cultural center of the greater
Delaware Valley The Delaware Valley is the valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, which will typically contain a river or stream running from one end to the other. Most valleys are formed by erosion of the la ...
along the lower
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...

Delaware
and Schuylkill rivers within the Northeast megalopolis. The Delaware Valley's 2019 estimated population of 7.21 million makes it the ninth-largest
combined statistical area Combined statistical area (CSA) is a United States Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). OMB's most prominent ...
in the United States. Philadelphia is one of the oldest municipalities in the United States.
William Penn William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was an English writer and religious thinker belonging to the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, a North American colony of English overseas poss ...

William Penn
, an
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...
Quaker Quakers are people who belong to a historically Protestant Christian Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholi ...

Quaker
, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the
Pennsylvania Colony The Province of Pennsylvania, also known as the Pennsylvania Colony, was a British North American colony founded by William Penn William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was an English writer A writer is a person who uses writ ...
. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
as a meeting place for the
Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fathers of the United States, or simply the Founding Fathers or Founders, were a group of American revolutionary Patriots (also known as Revolutionaries, Continentals, Rebels, or American Whigs) were those colonists of the Thi ...
, who signed the
Declaration of Independence#REDIRECT Declaration of independence {{Redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation ...

Declaration of Independence
in 1776 at the
Second Continental Congress The Second Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British c ...
, and the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

Constitution
at the
Philadelphia Convention The Constitutional Convention took place in Philadelphia from May 25 to September 17, 1787. Although the convention was intended to revise the league of states and first system of government under the Articles of Confederation The Articles ...
of 1787. Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the
Revolutionary WarRevolutionary War(s) may refer to: * American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), the armed conflict between Great Britain and 13 of its North American colonies, which had declared themselves the independent United States of America * French Revolution ...
including the
First Continental Congress The First Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from 12 of the 13 British colonies that became the United States. It met from September 5 to October 26, 1774, at Carpenters' Hall Carpenters' Hall is the official birthplace of the C ...
, the preservation of the
Liberty Bell The Liberty Bell, previously called the State House Bell or Old State House Bell, is an iconic symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that c ...
, the
Battle of Germantown The Battle of Germantown was a major engagement in the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War. It was fought on October 4, 1777, at Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Germantown, Pennsylvania, between the British Army during ...
, and the
Siege of Fort Mifflin The siege of Fort Mifflin or siege of Mud Island Fort from September 26 to November 16, 1777 saw British land batteries commanded by Captain (land), Captain John Montresor and a British naval squadron under Vice Admiral Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, ...
. Philadelphia remained the nation's largest city until being overtaken by New York City in 1790; the city was also one of the nation's
capitals Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter, an upper-case letter in any type of writing * Capital city, the area of a country, province, region, or state, regarded as enjoying primary status, usually but not always the seat of the governm ...
during the revolution, serving as temporary U.S. capital while
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
was under construction. In the 19th and 20th centuries, Philadelphia became a major industrial center and a railroad hub. The city grew due to an influx of European immigrants, most of whom initially came from Ireland and Germany—the two largest reported ancestry groups in the city . Later immigrant groups in the 20th century came from Italy (Italian being the third largest European ethnic ancestry currently reported in Philadelphia) and other Southern European and Eastern European countries. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same Sovereign state, state (or country). The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independen ...
.
Puerto Ricans Puerto Ricans ( es, Puertorriqueños; or boricuas) are the people of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Ric ...
began moving to the city in large numbers in the period between
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
and II, and in even greater numbers in the
post-war In Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, co ...
period.The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives, by Carmen Whalen and Víctor Vázquez-Hernández, Temple University Press, 2008, p
90–91
The city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. , the Philadelphia metropolitan area is estimated to produce a
gross metropolitan productGross metropolitan product (GMP) is a monetary measure of the value of all final goods and services produced within a metropolitan statistical area In the United States, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is a geographical region with a relativ ...
( GMP) of $490 billion. Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five
Fortune 1000 The Fortune 1000 are the 1,000 largest American companies ranked by revenue In accounting, revenue is the income or increase in net assets that an entity has from its normal activities (in the case of a business, usually from the sale of product ( ...
companies. The
Philadelphia skyline Philadelphia, the largest city in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, is home to more than 300 completed high-rise buildings up to , and 56 completed skyscrapers of or taller,
is expanding, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and
mural 350px, Prehistoric Egyptian mural painted on a Nekhen tomb wall c. 3,500 B.C. with aspects in the Gerzeh culture style">Gerzeh_culture.html" ;"title="Nekhen tomb wall c. 3,500 B.C. with aspects in the Gerzeh culture">Nekhen tomb wall c. 3,500 ...

mural
s than any other American city.
Fairmount Park Fairmount Park is the largest municipal park in Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous city ...

Fairmount Park
, when combined with the adjacent
Wissahickon Valley Park Wissahickon Valley Park contains of parkland in Northwest Philadelphia Northwest Philadelphia is a section of the city of Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is t ...

Wissahickon Valley Park
in the same
watershed Watershed is a hydrological term, which has been adopted in other fields in a more or less figurative sense. It may refer to: Hydrology * Drainage divide, the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins ** European watershed * Drainage basin, ...

watershed
, is one of the largest contiguous
urban park An urban park or metropolitan park, also known as a municipal park (North America) or a public park, public open space, or municipal gardens (United Kingdom, UK), is a park in cities and other Municipal corporation, incorporated places that offe ...

urban park
areas in the United States. The city is known for its arts,
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals i ...
,
cuisine A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, List of cooking techniques, techniques and dish (food), dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture or geographic region. Regional food preparation traditions ...
, and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent $6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia is also a
biotechnology Biotechnology is a broad area of biology, involving the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products. Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with related scientific fields. In the late 20th and early 21st c ...

biotechnology
hub. Philadelphia is the home of many U.S. firsts, including the nation's first
library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's needs on a daily basis. A library provi ...

library
(1731),
hospital A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized Medical Science, health science and Allied Healthcare, auxiliary healthcare staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospit ...

hospital
(1751),
medical school A medical school is a tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowled ...
(1765),
national capital A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of the government. A capital ...
(1774), university (by some accounts) (1779),
stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an exchange Exchange may refer to: Places United States * Exchange, Indiana Exchange is an Unincorporated area, unincorporated community in Green Township, Morgan County, Indiana, Green To ...
(1790),
zoo A zoo (short for zoological garden; also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () i ...
(1874), and
business school A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration Business administration (also known as business management) is the administration of a commercial enterprise. It includes all aspects of overse ...
(1881). Philadelphia contains 67
National Historic Landmarks A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the Federal government of the United States, United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Only some ...
and the
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
of
Independence Hall Independence Hall is a historic civic building in Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous ...

Independence Hall
. The city became a member of the
Organization of World Heritage Cities The Organization of World Heritage Cities (OWHC) is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization of 250 cities in which sites of the UNESCO World Heritage A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an int ...
in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States.


History

Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape (Delaware)
Indians Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...
in the village of
Shackamaxon The Treaty of Shackamaxon, also called the Great Treaty and Penn's Treaty, was a legendary treaty between William Penn and Tamanend of the Lenape signed in 1682. Penn and Tamanend agreed that their people would live in a state of perpetual peace. ...
. The Lenape are a Native American tribe and
First Nations The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are groups of Canadian indigenous peoples, who are classified as distinct from the Inuit Inuit (; iu, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, , dual: Inuuk, ) are a group of culturally s ...
band government In Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into th ...
.Pritzker 422 They are also called Delaware Indians,Josephy 188–189 and their historical territory was along the
Delaware River The Delaware River is a major on the coast of the . It drains an area of in four s: , , and . Rising in two branches in New York state's , the river flows into where its waters enter the Atlantic Ocean near in New Jersey and in Delawar ...

Delaware River
watershed Watershed is a hydrological term, which has been adopted in other fields in a more or less figurative sense. It may refer to: Hydrology * Drainage divide, the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins ** European watershed * Drainage basin, ...

watershed
, western
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic ...
, and the
Lower Hudson Valley The Hudson Valley (also known as the Hudson River Valley) comprises the valley of the Hudson River The Hudson River is a that flows from north to south primarily through eastern in the United States. It originates in the of and flows ...

Lower Hudson Valley
. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly
smallpox Smallpox was an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), host tissues to the infectious ...

smallpox
, and violent conflict with Europeans.
Iroquois The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous pe ...

Iroquois
people occasionally fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper
Ohio River The Ohio River is a long river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course wi ...

Ohio River
basin. The
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from Thirteen Colonies, thirteen American colonies of British America in Continental Congress ...
and United States' independence pushed them further west. In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the
Indian Territory The Indian Territory and the Indian Territories are terms that generally described an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. governmen ...
(present-day Oklahoma and surrounding territory) under the
Indian removal #REDIRECT Indian removal#REDIRECT Indian removal Indian removal is the former United States government policy of forced displacement of self-governing tribes of Native Americans from their ancestral homelands in the eastern United States to l ...
policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in
Oklahoma Oklahoma () is a U.S. state, state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States, bordered by the state of Texas on the south and west, Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, New ...
, with some communities living also in
Wisconsin Wisconsin () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Wisconsin
, Ontario (Canada), and in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the
Delaware Valley The Delaware Valley is the valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, which will typically contain a river or stream running from one end to the other. Most valleys are formed by erosion of the la ...
in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built
Fort Nassau The name Fort Nassau was used by the Dutch in the 17th century for several fortifications, mostly trading stations, named for the House of Orange-Nassau. It was also the name of a British fort, which was formerly a Dutch fort. Forts of this name i ...
on the Delaware River opposite the
Schuylkill River The Schuylkill River ( , ) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course w ...
in what is now
Brooklawn, New Jersey Brooklawn is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term v ...
. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their
New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonl ...
colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of
New Sweden New Sweden ( sv, Nya Sverige; fi, Uusi Ruotsi; la, Nova Svecia) was a Swedish colony along the lower reaches of the Delaware River The Delaware River is a major on the coast of the . It drains an area of in four s: , , and . Rising i ...
at
Fort Christina Fort Christina (also called Fort Altena) was the first Swedish settlement in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as th ...
(present-day
Wilmington, Delaware Wilmington (Lenape The Lenape (, , or Lenape ), also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands include Native America ...
) and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the
Susquehannock The Susquehannock people, also called the Conestoga by English settlers, are Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South Am ...

Susquehannock
s in their war against
Maryland Maryland ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware ...
colonists. In 1648, the Dutch built
Fort Beversreede in the 1600s. Short-lived Beversreede was supplanted by Fort Nya Korsholm (upper right) Image:League Island 1891 Map.jpg, 1891 USGS 1891 map showing the confluence of the Schuylkill River, Schuylkill and Delaware River, Delaware Rivers, site of mo ...
on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area. The Swedes responded by building , or New
Korsholm Korsholm (; fi, Mustasaari) is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to ...
, named after a town in
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a Dutch military campaign led by New Netherland Director-General
Peter Stuyvesant Peter Stuyvesant (; in Dutch language, Dutch also ''Pieter'' and ''Petrus'' Stuyvesant; c. 1592-1610 – August 1672)Mooney, James E. "Stuyvesant, Peter" in p.1256 was a Dutch colonial officer who served as the last Dutch Director of New Neth ...

Peter Stuyvesant
took control of the Swedish colony, ending its claim to independence. The Swedish and Finnish settlers continued to have their own militia, religion, and court, and to enjoy substantial autonomy under the Dutch. An English fleet captured the New Netherland colony in 1664, though the situation did not change substantially until 1682 when the area was included in
William Penn William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was an English writer and religious thinker belonging to the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, a North American colony of English overseas poss ...

William Penn
's charter for Pennsylvania. In 1681, in partial repayment of a debt,
Charles II of England Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of government by which a hereditary m ...

Charles II of England
granted Penn a
charter A charter is the grant of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social scie ...
for what would become the
Pennsylvania colony The Province of Pennsylvania, also known as the Pennsylvania Colony, was a British North American colony founded by William Penn William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was an English writer A writer is a person who uses writ ...
. Despite the royal charter, Penn bought the land from the local Lenape to be on good terms with the Native Americans and ensure peace for his colony. Penn made a treaty of friendship with Lenape chief
Tammany Tamanend or Tammany or Saint Tammany or King Tammany, the "''affable''", (c. 1625–c. 1701) was the Chief of Chiefs and Chief of the Turtle Clan of the Lenape, Lenni-Lenape nation in the Delaware Valley signing the Peace Treaty with William Pe ...
under an elm tree at
Shackamaxon The Treaty of Shackamaxon, also called the Great Treaty and Penn's Treaty, was a legendary treaty between William Penn and Tamanend of the Lenape signed in 1682. Penn and Tamanend agreed that their people would live in a state of perpetual peace. ...
, in what is now the city's
FishtownFishtown may refer to: ;Places * Fishtown, Indiana, unincorporated community in Harrison County, Indiana * Fishtown, Philadelphia, neighborhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania * Leland Historic District (Leland, Michigan), historic district in Leland, ...
neighborhood. Penn named the city ''Philadelphia'', which is
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
for "brotherly love," derived from the
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
terms φίλος ''phílos'' (beloved, dear) and ἀδελφός ''adelphós'' (brother, brotherly). There were a number of cities named ''
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...
'' in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Greek and Roman periods, including one (modern
Alaşehir Alaşehir (), in Antiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects or artifacts surviving from ancient cultures Eras Any period before the European Middle Ages In the histor ...
) mentioned as the site of an early Christian congregation in the
Book of Revelation The Book of Revelation (also called the Apocalypse of John, Revelation to John or Revelation from Jesus Christ) is the final book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; ...
. As a
Quaker Quakers are people who belong to a historically Protestant Christian Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholi ...

Quaker
, Penn had experienced religious persecution and wanted his colony to be a place where anyone could worship freely. This tolerance, far more than afforded by most other colonies, led to better relations with the local native tribes and fostered Philadelphia's rapid growth into America's most important city. Penn planned a city on the Delaware River to serve as a port and place for government. Hoping that Philadelphia would become more like an English rural town instead of a city, Penn laid out roads on a
grid plan In urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design of land use and the built environment, ...
to keep houses and businesses spread far apart, with areas for gardens and
orchard An orchard is an intentional plantation of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree ...

orchard
s. The city's inhabitants did not follow Penn's plans, however, as they crowded by the Delaware River port, and subdivided and resold their lots. Before Penn left Philadelphia for the last time, he issued the Charter of 1701 establishing it as a city. Though poor at first, the city became an important trading center with tolerable living conditions by the 1750s.
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin ( April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fathers of the United States, or simply the Founding Fathers or Founders, were a group of American revolutionary Patriots (also ...

Benjamin Franklin
, a leading citizen, helped improve city services and founded new ones, such as fire protection, a library, and one of the American colonies' first hospitals. A number of philosophical societies were formed, which were centers of the city's intellectual life: the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture (1785), the Pennsylvania Society for the Encouragement of Manufactures and the Useful Arts (1787), the
Academy of Natural Sciences The Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, formerly the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, is the oldest natural science research institution and museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is an institut ...
(1812), and the
Franklin Institute The Franklin Institute is a science museum and the center of science education and research in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealt ...
(1824). These societies developed and financed new industries, attracting skilled and knowledgeable immigrants from Europe. Philadelphia's importance and central location in the colonies made it a natural center for America's revolutionaries. By the 1750s, Philadelphia had surpassed
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
to become the largest city and busiest port in
British America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, terri ...

British America
, and second in the British Empire after London. The city hosted the
First Continental Congress The First Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from 12 of the 13 British colonies that became the United States. It met from September 5 to October 26, 1774, at Carpenters' Hall Carpenters' Hall is the official birthplace of the C ...
(1774) before the Revolutionary War; the
Second Continental Congress The Second Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British c ...
(1775–76), which signed the
United States Declaration of Independence The United States Declaration of Independence is the pronouncement adopted by the Second Continental Congress The Second Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies in America which united in the American Re ...

United States Declaration of Independence
, during the war; and the Constitutional Convention (1787) after the war. Several battles were fought in and near Philadelphia as well. Philadelphia served as the temporary capital of the United States while the new capital was under construction in the
District of Columbia ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscape ...
from 1790 to 1800. In 1793, the largest yellow fever epidemic in U.S. history killed approximately 4,000 to 5,000 people in Philadelphia, or about 10% of the city's population. The state capital was moved to
LancasterLancaster may refer to: Lands and titles *The County Palatine of Lancaster, a synonym for Lancashire *Duchy of Lancaster, one of only two British royal duchies *Duke of Lancaster *Earl of Lancaster *House of Lancaster, a British royal dynasty ...
in 1799, then
Harrisburg Harrisburg ( ; Pennsylvania German language, Pennsylvania German: ''Harrisbarrig'') is the capital city of the Pennsylvania, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and the county seat of Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, Dauphin Count ...
in 1812, while the federal government was moved to Washington, D.C. in 1800 upon completion of the
White House The White House is the official residence and workplace of the president of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue Northwest, Washington, D.C., NW in Washington, D.C., and has been the residence of every U.S. preside ...

White House
and building. The city remained the young nation's largest until the late 18th century, being both a financial and a cultural center for America. In 1816, the city's free black community founded the
African Methodist Episcopal Church The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church or AME, is a predominantly African-American Methodist Methodism, also called the Methodist movement, is a group of historically related denominations Denomination ma ...
(AME), the first independent black denomination in the country, and the first black Episcopal Church. The free black community also established many schools for its children, with the help of Quakers. New York City surpassed Philadelphia in population by 1790. Large-scale construction projects for new roads,
canal Canals are waterways channels Channel, channels, channeling, etc., may refer to: Geography * Channel (geography), in physical geography, a landform consisting of the outline (banks) of the path of a narrow body of water. Australia * ...

canal
s, and railroads made Philadelphia the first major
industrial Industrial may also refer to: Industry * Industrial archaeology, the study of the history of the industry * Industrial engineering, engineering dealing with the optimization of complex industrial processes or systems * Industrial loan company, a f ...
city in the United States. Throughout the 19th century, Philadelphia hosted a variety of industries and businesses, the largest being
textiles A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, ...
. Major corporations in the 19th and early 20th centuries included the
Baldwin Locomotive Works The Baldwin Locomotive Works (BLW) was an American manufacturer of railroad locomotives from 1825 to 1956. Originally located in Philadelphia, it moved to nearby Eddystone, Pennsylvania, in the early 20th century. The company was for decades th ...
, William Cramp & Sons Shipbuilding Company, and the
Pennsylvania Railroad The Pennsylvania Railroad (reporting mark Image:Reporting marks.jpg, Reporting marks on two Canadian Pacific Railway, Canadian Pacific covered hopper cars; with the left car marked as CP 388686 and the right car marked as Soo Line Railroad, SOO ...

Pennsylvania Railroad
. Established in 1870, the Philadelphia Conveyancers' Association was chartered by the state in 1871. Industry, along with the U.S. Centennial, was celebrated in 1876 with the
Centennial Exposition The Centennial International Exhibition of 1876, the first official World's Fair to be held in the United States, was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from May 10 to November 10, 1876, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Un ...
, the first official
World's fair A world's fair is a large international exhibition designed to showcase achievements of nations. These exhibitions vary in character and are held in different parts of the world at a specific site for a period of time, ranging usually from ...
in the United States. Immigrants, mostly from Ireland and Germany, settled in Philadelphia and the surrounding districts. These immigrants were largely responsible for the first general strike in North America in 1835, in which workers in the city won the ten-hour workday. The city was a destination for thousands of Irish immigrants fleeing the Great Famine in the 1840s; housing for them was developed south of South Street and later occupied by succeeding immigrants. They established a network of
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
churches and schools and dominated the Catholic clergy for decades. Anti-Irish, anti-Catholic nativist
riots A riot () is a form of civil disorder Civil disorder, also known as civil disturbance, civil unrest, or social unrest is an activity arising from a mass act of civil disobedience (such as a demonstration, riot, strike, or ignoring laws) in wh ...
erupted in Philadelphia in 1844. The rise in population of the surrounding districts helped lead to the Act of Consolidation of 1854, which extended the city limits from the of
Center CityCenter City or Centre City may refer to: Places * Center City, Minnesota, U.S. **Center City Historic District * Center City, Allentown, Pennsylvania, U.S. * Center City, Erie, Pennsylvania U.S. * Center City, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, U.S. * Center ...
to the roughly of
Philadelphia County Philadelphia County is the most populous county in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( ) ( pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic ...
. In the latter half of the century, immigrants from Russia, Eastern Europe and Italy, and African Americans from the southern U.S. settled in the city. Philadelphia was represented by the Washington Grays in the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon nove ...
. The African-American population of Philadelphia increased from 31,699 to 219,559 between 1880 and 1930. Twentieth-century black newcomers were part of the Great Migration out of the rural south to northern and midwestern industrial cities. File:The Birth of Pennsylvania 1680 cph.3g07157.jpg, ''The Birth of Pennsylvania'', 1680, by
Jean Leon Gerome Ferris Jean Leon Gerome Ferris (August 8, 1863 – March 18, 1930) was an United States, American Painting, painter best known for his series of 78 scenes from American history, entitled ''The Pageant of a Nation'', the largest series of American historic ...
William Penn William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was an English writer and religious thinker belonging to the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, a North American colony of English overseas poss ...

William Penn
, holding paper, and File:Treaty of Penn with Indians by Benjamin West.jpg, '' Penn's Treaty with the Indians'' by Benjamin West File:Declaration of Independence (1819), by John Trumbull.jpg, John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence (Trumbull), ''Declaration of Independence'' – the Committee of Five presents their draft in
Independence Hall Independence Hall is a historic civic building in Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous ...

Independence Hall
, June 28, 1776. File:Philadelphia Presidents house.jpg, President's House (Philadelphia), President's House – the presidential mansion of George Washington and John Adams, 1790–1800 File:Centennial Exhibition, Opening Day.jpg, Opening day ceremonies at the
Centennial Exposition The Centennial International Exhibition of 1876, the first official World's Fair to be held in the United States, was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from May 10 to November 10, 1876, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Un ...
at Memorial Hall (Philadelphia), Memorial Hall, 1876 – first official
World's fair A world's fair is a large international exhibition designed to showcase achievements of nations. These exhibitions vary in character and are held in different parts of the world at a specific site for a period of time, ranging usually from ...
in the United States
By the 20th century, Philadelphia had an entrenched Republican Party (United States), Republican political machine and a complacent population. The first major reform came in 1917 when outrage over the election-year murder of a police officer led to the shrinking of the Philadelphia City Council, City Council from two houses to just one. In July 1919, Philadelphia was one of more than 36 industrial cities nationally to suffer a Race riots in Philadelphia during the 1919 Red Summer, race riot of ethnic whites against blacks during Red Summer, in post-World War I unrest, as recent immigrants competed with blacks for jobs. In the 1920s, the public flouting of Prohibition in the United States, Prohibition laws, organized crime, mob violence, and police involvement in illegal activities led to the appointment of Brigadier general, Brig. Gen. Smedley Butler of the United States Marine Corps, U.S. Marine Corps as director of public safety, but political pressure prevented any long-term success in fighting crime and corruption. In 1940, non-Hispanic whites constituted 86.8% of the city's population. The population peaked at more than two million residents in 1950, then began to decline with the restructuring of industry, which led to the loss of many middle-class union jobs. In addition, suburbanization had enticed many of the more affluent residents to outlying railroad commuting towns and newer housing. The resulting reduction in Philadelphia's tax base and the resources of local government caused the city to struggle through a long period of adjustment, with it approaching bankruptcy by the late 1980s. Revitalization and gentrification of neighborhoods began in the late 1970s and continues into the 21st century, with much of the development occurring in the
Center CityCenter City or Centre City may refer to: Places * Center City, Minnesota, U.S. **Center City Historic District * Center City, Allentown, Pennsylvania, U.S. * Center City, Erie, Pennsylvania U.S. * Center City, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, U.S. * Center ...
and University City, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, University City neighborhoods. After many of the old manufacturers and businesses left Philadelphia or shut down, the city started attracting service businesses and began to market itself more aggressively as a tourist destination. Contemporary glass-and-granite skyscrapers were built in Center City beginning in the 1980s. Historic areas such as Old City, Philadelphia, Old City and Society Hill were renovated during the reformist mayoral era of the 1950s through the 1980s, making those areas among the most desirable neighborhoods in Center City. These developments have begun a reversal of the city's population decline between 1950 and 2000 during which it lost about one-quarter of its residents. The city eventually began experiencing a growth in its population in 2007, which has continued with gradual yearly increases to the present. Although Philadelphia is rapidly undergoing gentrification, the city actively maintains strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods.


Geography


Topography

The geographic center of Philadelphia is about 40° 0′ 34″ north latitude and 75° 8′ 0″ west longitude. The 40th parallel north passes through neighborhoods in Northeast Philadelphia, North Philadelphia, and West Philadelphia including
Fairmount Park Fairmount Park is the largest municipal park in Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous city ...

Fairmount Park
. The city encompasses , of which is land and , or 6%, is water. Natural bodies of water include the
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...

Delaware
and Schuylkill rivers, the lakes in Franklin Delano Roosevelt Park, and Cobbs Creek, Cobbs, Wissahickon Creek, Wissahickon, and Pennypack Creek, Pennypack creeks. The largest artificial body of water is the East Park Reservoir in Fairmount Park. The lowest point is sea level, while the highest point is in Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Chestnut Hill, about above sea level on Summit Street near the intersection of Germantown, Philadelphia, Germantown Avenue and Bethlehem Pike (example coordinates near high point: 40.07815 N, 75.20747 W). Philadelphia is situated on the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, Fall Line that separates the Atlantic coastal plain from the Piedmont (United States), Piedmont. The rapids on the Schuylkill River at East Falls, Philadelphia, East Falls were inundated by the completion of the dam at the Fairmount Water Works. The city is the seat of Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, its own county. The adjacent counties are Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, Montgomery to the northwest; Bucks County, Pennsylvania, Bucks to the north and northeast; Burlington County, New Jersey, to the east; Camden County, New Jersey, to the southeast; Gloucester County, New Jersey, to the south; and Delaware County, Pennsylvania, Delaware County to the southwest.


Cityscape


City planning

Philadelphia's central city was created in the 17th century following the plan by
William Penn William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was an English writer and religious thinker belonging to the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, a North American colony of English overseas poss ...

William Penn
's surveyor Thomas Holme.
Center CityCenter City or Centre City may refer to: Places * Center City, Minnesota, U.S. **Center City Historic District * Center City, Allentown, Pennsylvania, U.S. * Center City, Erie, Pennsylvania U.S. * Center City, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, U.S. * Center ...
is structured with long, straight streets running nearly due east–west and north–south, forming a grid pattern between the
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...

Delaware
and Schuylkill rivers that is aligned with their courses. The original city plan was designed to allow for easy travel and to keep residences separated by open space that would help prevent the spread of fire. In keeping with the idea of a "Greene Countrie Towne", and inspired by the many types of trees that grew in the region, Penn named many of the east–west streets for local trees. Penn planned the creation of five public parks in the city which were renamed in 1824 (new names in parentheses): Centre Square (Penn Square), Northeast Square (Franklin Square (Philadelphia), Franklin Square), Southeast Square (Washington Square (Philadelphia), Washington Square), Southwest Square (Rittenhouse Square), and Northwest Square (Logan Circle (Philadelphia), Logan Circle/Square). Center City had an estimated 183,240 residents , making it the second-most populated downtown area in the United States, after Midtown Manhattan in New York City. Philadelphia's neighborhoods are divided into large sections—North Philadelphia, North, Northeast Philadelphia, Northeast, South Philadelphia, South, Southwest Philadelphia, Southwest, West Philadelphia, West, and Northwest Philadelphia, Northwest—surrounding Center City, which correspond closely with the city's limits before consolidation in 1854. Each of these large areas contains numerous neighborhoods, some of whose boundaries derive from the boroughs, townships, and other communities that constituted Philadelphia County before their inclusion within the city. The City Planning Commission (Philadelphia), City Planning Commission, tasked with guiding growth and development of the city, has divided the city into 18 planning districts as part of the ''Philadelphia2035'' physical development plan. Much of the city's 1980 zoning code was overhauled from 2007 to 2012 as part of a joint effort between former mayors John F. Street and Michael Nutter. The zoning changes were intended to rectify incorrect zoning maps to facilitate future community development, as the city forecasts an additional 100,000 residents and 40,000 jobs will be added by 2035. The Philadelphia Housing Authority (PHA) is the largest landlord in Pennsylvania. Established in 1937, the PHA is the nation's fourth-largest housing authority, serving about 81,000 people with affordable housing, while employing 1,400 on a budget of $371 million. The Philadelphia Parking Authority works to ensure adequate parking for city residents, businesses and visitors.


Architecture

Philadelphia's architectural history dates back to Colonial history of the United States, colonial times and includes a wide range of styles. The earliest structures were constructed with Log house, logs, but brick structures were common by 1700. During the 18th century, the cityscape was dominated by Georgian architecture, including
Independence Hall Independence Hall is a historic civic building in Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous ...

Independence Hall
and Christ Church, Philadelphia, Christ Church. In the first decades of the 19th century, Federal architecture, Federal and Greek Revival architecture were the dominant styles produced by Philadelphia architects such as Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Benjamin Latrobe, William Strickland (architect), William Strickland, John Haviland, John Notman, Thomas Ustick Walter, Thomas Walter, and Samuel Sloan (architect), Samuel Sloan. Frank Furness is considered Philadelphia's greatest architect of the second half of the 19th century. His contemporaries included John McArthur Jr., Addison Hutton, Wilson Eyre, the Wilson Brothers & Company, Wilson Brothers, and Horace Trumbauer. In 1871, construction began on the Second Empire architecture, Second Empire-style Philadelphia City Hall. The Philadelphia Historical Commission was created in 1955 to preserve the cultural and architectural history of the city. The commission maintains the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, adding historic buildings, structures, sites, objects and districts as it sees fit. In 1932, Philadelphia became home to the first modern International Style (architecture), International Style skyscraper in the United States, the PSFS Building, designed by George Howe (architect), George Howe and William Lescaze. The City Hall remained the tallest building in the city until 1987 when Liberty Place#One Liberty Place, One Liberty Place was completed. Numerous glass and granite skyscrapers were built in Center City beginning in the late 1980s. In 2007, the Comcast Center surpassed One Liberty Place to become the city's tallest building. The Comcast Technology Center was completed in 2018, reaching a height of , as the List of tallest buildings in the United States, tallest building in the United States outside of Manhattan and Chicago. For much of Philadelphia's history, the typical home has been the Terraced house, row house. The row house was introduced to the United States via Philadelphia in the early 19th century and, for a time, row houses built elsewhere in the United States were known as "Philadelphia rows". A variety of row houses are found throughout the city, from Federal-style continuous blocks in Old City, Philadelphia, Old City and Society Hill to Victorian-style homes in North Philadelphia to twin row houses in West Philadelphia. While newer homes have been built recently, much of the housing dates to the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries, which has created problems such as urban decay and vacant lots. Some neighborhoods, including Northern Liberties, Philadelphia, Northern Liberties and Society Hill, have been rehabilitated through gentrification. File:Elfreth's Alley, Philadelphia, 2008.jpg, Elfreth's Alley, "Our nation's oldest residential street", 1702–1836Historical marker on Elfreth's Alley File:Carpenters' Hall, Philadelphia, USA, May 2015.jpg, Carpenters' Hall exhibiting Georgian architecture, 1770–1774 File:Second Bank of the United States with Robert Morris, Jr. statue, Philadelphia.jpg, Second Bank of the United States exhibiting Greek Revival architecture, 1818–1824 File:City hall Philadelphia.jpg, Second Empire (architecture), Second Empire-style Philadelphia City Hall, 1871–1901, from South Broad Street (Philadelphia), Broad Street File:Thirty St Station.jpg, The concourse, grand concourse of the 30th Street Station, in Art Deco style, 1927–1933


Parks

, the total city parkland, including municipal, state and federal parks within the city limits, amounts to . Philadelphia's largest park is
Fairmount Park Fairmount Park is the largest municipal park in Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous city ...

Fairmount Park
which includes the Philadelphia Zoo and encompasses of the total parkland, while the adjacent
Wissahickon Valley Park Wissahickon Valley Park contains of parkland in Northwest Philadelphia Northwest Philadelphia is a section of the city of Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is t ...

Wissahickon Valley Park
contains . Fairmount Park, when combined with Wissahickon Valley Park, is one of the largest contiguous
urban park An urban park or metropolitan park, also known as a municipal park (North America) or a public park, public open space, or municipal gardens (United Kingdom, UK), is a park in cities and other Municipal corporation, incorporated places that offe ...

urban park
areas in the United States. The two parks, along with the Colonial Revival architecture, Colonial Revival, Georgian architecture, Georgian and Federal architecture, Federal-style List of houses in Fairmount Park, mansions contained in them, have been listed as one entity on the National Register of Historic Places since 1972.


Climate

According to the Köppen climate classification, Philadelphia falls under the northern periphery of the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen ''Cfa''), whereas according to the Trewartha climate classification, the city has a temperate maritime climate (''Do'') limited to the north by the continental climate (''Dc''). Summers are typically hot and muggy, fall and spring are generally mild, and winter is moderately cold. The plant life hardiness zone#U.S. cities, hardiness zones are 7a and 7b, representing an average annual extreme minimum temperature between . Snowfall is highly variable with some winters having only light snow while others include major snowstorms. The normal seasonal snowfall averages , with rare snowfalls in November or April, and rarely any sustained snow cover. Seasonal snowfall accumulation has ranged from trace amounts in 1972–73 to in the winter of 2009–10. The city's North American blizzard of 1996#Philadelphia and Pennsylvania, heaviest single-storm snowfall was which occurred in January 1996. Precipitation is generally spread throughout the year, with eight to eleven wet days per month, at an average annual rate of , but historically ranging from in 1922 to in 2011. The most rain recorded in one day occurred on July 28, 2013, when fell at Philadelphia International Airport. Philadelphia has a moderately sunny climate with an average of 2,498 Sunshine duration, hours of sunshine annually, and a percentage of sunshine ranging from 47% in December to 61% in June, July, and August. The January daily average temperature is , though the temperature frequently rises to during thaws and dips to for 2 or 3 nights in a normal winter. July averages , although heat waves accompanied by high humidity and heat index, heat indices are frequent, with highs reaching or exceeding on 30 days of the year. The average window for freezing temperatures is November 6 thru April 2, allowing a growing season of 217 days. Early fall and late winter are generally dry with February having the lowest average precipitation at . The dewpoint in the summer averages between . The highest recorded temperature was on August 7, 1918, but temperatures at or above are not common, with the last occurrence of such a temperature was July 21, 2019. The lowest officially recorded temperature was on February 9, 1934. Temperatures at or below are rare with the last such occurrence being 1994 North American cold wave, January 19, 1994. The record low maximum is on February 10, 1899, and December 30, 1880, while the record high minimum is on July 23, 2011, and July 24, 2010.


Air quality

Philadelphia County received an ozone grade of F and a 24-hour Particulates, particle pollution rating of D in the American Lung Association's 2017 State of the Air report, which analyzed data from 2013 to 2015. The city was ranked 22nd for ozone, 20th for short-term particle pollution, and 11th for year-round particle pollution. According to the same report, the city experienced a significant reduction in high ozone days since 2001—from nearly 50 days per year to fewer than 10—along with fewer days of high particle pollution since 2000—from about 19 days per year to about 3—and an approximate 30% reduction in annual levels of particle pollution since 2000. Five of the ten largest Combined statistical area#List of combined statistical areas, combined statistical areas (CSAs) were ranked higher for ozone: Los Angeles (1st), New York City (9th), Houston (12th), Dallas (13th), and San Jose, California, San Jose (18th). Many smaller CSAs were also ranked higher for ozone including Sacramento, California, Sacramento (8th), Las Vegas (10th), Denver (11th), El Paso, Texas, El Paso (16th), and Salt Lake City (20th); however, only two of those same ten CSAs—San Jose and Los Angeles—were ranked higher than Philadelphia for both year-round and short-term particle pollution.


Demographics

According to the 2020 United States Census Bureau estimate, there were 1,603,797 people residing in Philadelphia, representing a 1.2% increase from the 2019 census. After the 1950 United States Census, 1950 Census, when a record high of 2,071,605 was recorded, the city's population began a long decline. The population dropped to a low of 1,488,710 residents in 2006 before beginning to rise again. Between 2006 and 2017, Philadelphia added 92,153 residents. In 2017, the Census Bureau estimated that the racial composition of the city was 41.3% Black (non-Hispanic), 34.9% White (non-Hispanic), 14.1% Hispanic or Latino, 7.1% Asian, 0.4% Native American, 0.05% Pacific Islander, and 2.8% multiracial. * 2019 figures are estimates The 2010 United States Census, 2010 Census redistricting data indicated that the racial makeup of the city was 644,287 (42.2%) African Americans, Black (non-Hispanic), 562,585 (36.9%) White Americans, White (non-Hispanic), 96,405 (6.3%) Asian Americans, Asian (2.0% Chinese Americans, Chinese, 1.2% Indian Americans, Indian, 0.9% Vietnamese Americans, Vietnamese, 0.4% Korean Americans, Korean, 0.3% Filipino Americans, Filipino, 0.1% Japanese Americans, Japanese, and 1.4% other), 6,996 (0.5%) Native Americans, 744 (0.05%) Pacific Islands Americans, Pacific Islanders, and 43,070 (2.8%) from two or more races. Hispanic (U.S. Census), Hispanics or Latino (U.S. Census), Latinos of any race were 187,611 persons (12.3%); 8.0% Puerto Ricans in the United States, Puerto Rican, 1.0% Mexican Americans, Mexican, 0.3% Cuban Americans, Cuban, and 3.0% other. The racial breakdown of Philadelphia's Hispanic/Latino population was 63,636 (33.9%) White, 17,552 (9.4%) Black, 3,498 (1.9%) Native American, 884 (0.47%) Asian, 287 (0.15%) Pacific Islander, 86,626 (46.2%) from other races, and 15,128 (8.1%) from two or more races. The five largest European ancestries reported in the 2010 Census included Irish Americans, Irish (13.0%), Italian Americans, Italian (8.3%), German Americans, German (8.2%), Polish Americans, Polish (3.9%), and English Americans, English (3.1%). The estimated average population density was 11,782 people per square mile (4,549/km) in 2017. In 2010, the Census Bureau reported that 1,468,623 people (96.2% of the population) lived in households, 38,007 (2.5%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 19,376 (1.3%) were institutionalized. In 2013, the city reported having 668,247 total housing units, down slightly from 670,171 housing units in 2010. , 87 percent of housing units were occupied, while 13 percent were vacant, a slight change from 2010 where 89.5 percent of units were occupied, or 599,736 and 10.5 percent were vacant, or 70,435. Of the city's residents, 32 percent reported having no vehicles available while 23 percent had two or more vehicles available, . In 2010, 24.9 percent of households reported having children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.3 percent were married couples living together and 22.5 percent had a female householder with no husband present, 6.0 percent had a male householder with no wife present, and 43.2 percent were non-families. The city reported 34.1 percent of all households were individuals living alone, while 10.5 percent had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.20. In 2013, the percentage of women who gave birth in the previous 12 months who were unmarried was 56 percent. Of Philadelphia's adults, 31 percent were married or lived as a couple, 55 percent were not married, 11 percent were divorced or separated, and 3 percent were widowed. According to the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau, the median household income in 2013 was $36,836, down 7.9 percent from 2008 when the inflation-adjusted median household income was $40,008 (in 2013 dollars). For comparison, on an inflation-adjusted basis, the median household income among metropolitan areas was $60,482, down 8.2 percent in the same period, and the national median household income was $55,250, down 7.0 percent from 2008. The city's wealth disparity is evident when neighborhoods are compared. Residents in Society Hill had a 2013 median household income of $93,720, while residents in one of North Philadelphia's districts reported the lowest median household income, $14,185. More recently, Philadelphia has experienced a large shift toward a younger age profile. In 2000, the city's population pyramid had a largely stationary shape. In 2013, the city took on an expansive pyramid shape, with an increase in the three millennials, millennial age groups, 20 to 24, 25 to 29, and 30 to 34. The city's 25- to 29-year-old age group was the city's largest age cohort. According to the 2010 Census, 343,837 (22.5%) were under the age of 18; 203,697 (13.3%) from 18 to 24; 434,385 (28.5%) from 25 to 44; 358,778 (23.5%) from 45 to 64; and 185,309 (12.1%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.4 males; while among individuals age 18 and over, for every 100 females, there were 85.7 males. The city had 22,018 births in 2013, down from a peak 23,689 births in 2008. Philadelphia's death rate was at its lowest in at least a half-century, 13,691 deaths in 2013.


Immigration and cultural diversity

Apart from economic growth, another factor contributing to the population increase is Philadelphia's rising immigration rate. Like the millennial population, Philadelphia's immigrant population is also growing rapidly. According to research by The Pew Charitable Trusts, the city's foreign born, foreign-born population had increased by 69% between 2000 and 2016 to constitute nearly 20% of Philadelphia's work force, and had doubled between 1990 and 2017 to constitute 13.8% of the city's total population, with the top five countries of origin being China by a significant margin, followed by the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, India, and Vietnam. Irish, Italian, German, Poles, Polish, English, Russian, Ukrainians, Ukrainian, and French constitute the largest European emigration, European ethnic groups in the city. Philadelphia has the second-largest Irish and Italian populations in the United States, after New York City. South Philadelphia remains one of the largest Italian-American, Italian neighborhoods in the country and is home to the Italian Market, Philadelphia, Italian Market. The Pennsport, Philadelphia, Pennsport neighborhood and Grays Ferry, Philadelphia, Gray's Ferry section of South Philadelphia, home to many Mummers Parade, Mummer clubs, are well known as Irish-American, Irish neighborhoods. The Kensington, Philadelphia, Kensington, Port Richmond, Philadelphia, Port Richmond, and
FishtownFishtown may refer to: ;Places * Fishtown, Indiana, unincorporated community in Harrison County, Indiana * Fishtown, Philadelphia, neighborhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania * Leland Historic District (Leland, Michigan), historic district in Leland, ...
neighborhoods have historically been heavily Irish and Polish. Port Richmond is well known in particular as the center of the Polish immigrant and Polish-American community in Philadelphia, and it remains a common destination for Polish immigrants. Northeast Philadelphia, although known for its Irish and Irish-American population, is also home to a large Jewish-American, Jewish and Russian population. Mount Airy, Philadelphia, Mount Airy in Northwest Philadelphia also contains a large Jewish community, while nearby Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Chestnut Hill is historically known as an White Anglo-Saxon Protestant, Anglo-Saxon Protestant community. Philadelphia has a significant gay and lesbian population. Philadelphia's Gay village, Gayborhood, which is near Washington Square (Philadelphia), Washington Square, is home to a large concentration of gay and lesbian friendly businesses, restaurants, and bars. The African Americans, Black American population in Philadelphia is the third-largest in the country, after New York City and Chicago. West Philadelphia and North Philadelphia are largely African-American neighborhoods, but many are leaving those areas in favor of the Northeast and Southwest sections of Philadelphia. A higher proportion of African-American Muslims reside in Philadelphia than in most other cities in America. West Philadelphia and Southwest Philadelphia are also home to various significant West Indian Americans, Afro-Caribbean and African immigration to the United States, African immigrant communities. The Puerto Ricans in Philadelphia, Puerto Rican population in Philadelphia is the second-largest after New York City, and the second-fastest growing after Orlando. Eastern North Philadelphia, particularly Fairhill, Philadelphia, Fairhill and surrounding areas to the north and east, has one of the highest concentrations of Puerto Ricans outside Puerto Rico, with many large swaths of blocks being close to 100% Puerto Rican. Large Puerto Rican and Dominican Americans, Dominican populations reside in North Philadelphia and the Northeast. In regard to other Latin American populations in Philadelphia, there are significant Mexican American, Mexican and Central American populations in South Philadelphia. Philadelphia's Asian Americans, Asian American population originates mainly from China, India, Vietnam, South Korea, and the Philippines. Over 35,000 Chinese Americans lived in the city in 2015, including a large Fuzhounese Americans, Fuzhounese population. Center City hosts a growing Chinatown, Philadelphia, Chinatown accommodating heavily traveled Chinatown bus lines, Chinese-owned bus lines to and from Chinatown, Manhattan in Chinese in New York City, New York City, 95 miles to the north, as Philadelphia is experiencing significant Chinese emigration, Chinese immigration from New York City. A large Korean community initially settled in the North Philadelphia neighborhood of Olney, Philadelphia, Olney; however, the primary Koreatown, Philadelphia, Koreatown has subsequently shifted northward, straddling the border with the adjacent suburb of Cheltenham, Pennsylvania, Cheltenham in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, Montgomery County, while also growing in nearby Cherry Hill, New Jersey. South Philadelphia is also home to large Cambodian Americans, Cambodian, Vietnamese-American, Vietnamese, Thai Americans, Thai, and Chinese communities. Philadelphia has the fifth largest Muslim population among American cities.


Religion

According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, 68% of the population of the city identified themselves as Christians, Christian. Approximately 41% of Christians in the city and area professed attendance at a variety of churches that could be considered Protestant, while 26% professed Catholic Church, Catholic beliefs. The Protestant Christian community in Philadelphia is dominated by Mainline Protestant, mainline Protestant denominations including the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, United Church of Christ, the Episcopal Church (United States), Episcopal Church in the United States, Presbyterian Church (USA) and American Baptist Churches USA. One of the most prominent mainline Protestant jurisdictions is the Episcopal Diocese of Pennsylvania. The
African Methodist Episcopal Church The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church or AME, is a predominantly African-American Methodist Methodism, also called the Methodist movement, is a group of historically related denominations Denomination ma ...
was established in Philadelphia. Historically, the city has strong connections to the Quakers, Unitarian Universalism, and the Ethical movement, Ethical Culture movement, all of which continue to be represented in the city. The Quaker Friends General Conference is based in Philadelphia. Evangelical Protestants making up less than 15% of the population were also prevalent. Evangelical Protestant bodies included the Anglican Church in North America, Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, Presbyterian Church in America, and National Baptist Convention of America International, Inc., National Baptist Convention of America. The Catholic community is primarily served by the Latin Church, Latin Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Philadelphia, Catholic Archdiocese of Philadelphia, the Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Philadelphia, and the Syro-Malankara Catholic Eparchy of the United States of America and Canada, though some Independent Catholicism, independent Catholic churches exist throughout Philadelphia and its suburbs. The Latin Church-based jurisdiction is headquartered in the city, and its see is the Cathedral Basilica of Saints Peter and Paul (Philadelphia), Cathedral Basilica of Saints Peter and Paul. The Ukrainian Catholic jurisdiction is also headquartered in Philadelphia, and is seated at the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Philadelphia), Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception. Less than 1% of Philadelphia's Christians were Mormons. The remainder of the Christian demographic is spread among smaller Protestant denominations and the Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Churches, Oriental Orthodox among others. The Orthodox Church in America Diocese of Eastern Pennsylvania, Diocese of Eastern Pennsylvania (Orthodox Church in America) and Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Ecumenical Patriarchate) divide the Eastern Orthodox in Philadelphia. The Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox St. Andrew's Cathedral, Philadelphia, St. Andrew's Cathedral is in the city. The same study says that other religions collectively compose about 8% of the population, including Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, Sikhism, and Hinduism. The remaining 24% claimed Irreligion, no religious affiliation. The Philadelphia List of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, metropolitan area's History of the Jews in Philadelphia, Jewish population was estimated at 206,000 in 2001, which was the sixth largest in the United States at that time. Jewish traders were operating in southeastern Pennsylvania long before
William Penn William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was an English writer and religious thinker belonging to the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, a North American colony of English overseas poss ...

William Penn
. Furthermore, Jews in Philadelphia took a prominent part in the American Revolutionary War, War of Independence. Although the majority of the early Jewish residents were of Portuguese or Spanish descent, some among them had emigrated from Germany and Poland. About the beginning of the 19th century, a number of Jews from the latter countries, finding the services of the Congregation Mikveh Israel, Congregation Mickvé Israel unfamiliar to them, resolved to form a new congregation which would use the ritual to which they had been accustomed. Afro-American religion, African diasporic religions are practiced in some Latino and Hispanic and Caribbean communities in North and West Philadelphia.


Languages

, 79.12% (1,112,441) of Philadelphia residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 9.72% (136,688) spoke Spanish, 1.64% (23,075) Chinese, 0.89% (12,499) Vietnamese language, Vietnamese, 0.77% (10,885) Russian, 0.66% (9,240) French, 0.61% (8,639) Languages of Asia, other Asian languages, 0.58% (8,217) Languages of Africa, African languages, 0.56% (7,933) Cambodian language, Cambodian (Austroasiatic languages, Mon-Khmer), and Italian was spoken as a main language by 0.55% (7,773) of the population over the age of five. In total, 20.88% (293,544) of Philadelphia's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.


Economy

Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
with the headquarters of five
Fortune 1000 The Fortune 1000 are the 1,000 largest American companies ranked by revenue In accounting, revenue is the income or increase in net assets that an entity has from its normal activities (in the case of a business, usually from the sale of product ( ...
companies within city limits. , the Philadelphia metropolitan area is estimated to produce a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of $490 billion, an increase from the $445 billion calculated by the Bureau of Economic Analysis for 2017, representing the List of U.S. metropolitan areas by GDP, eighth largest U.S. metropolitan economy. Philadelphia's economic sectors include financial services, health care,
biotechnology Biotechnology is a broad area of biology, involving the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products. Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with related scientific fields. In the late 20th and early 21st c ...

biotechnology
, information technology, trade and transportation, manufacturing, Oil refinery, oil refining, food processing, and tourism. Financial activities account for the largest economic sector of the metropolitan area, which is also one of the largest health education and research centers in the United States. Philadelphia's annualized unemployment rate was 7.8% in 2014, down from 10% the previous year. This is higher than the national average of 6.2%. Similarly, the rate of new jobs added to the city's economy lagged behind the national job growth. In 2014, about 8,800 jobs were added to the city's economy. Sectors with the largest number of jobs added were in education and health care, leisure and hospitality, and professional and business services. Declines were seen in the city's manufacturing and government sectors. About 31.9% of the city's population was not in the labor force in 2015, the second highest percentage after Detroit. The city's two largest employers are the federal and city governments. Philadelphia's largest private employer is the University of Pennsylvania followed by the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. A study commissioned by the city's government in 2011 projected 40,000 jobs would be added to the city within 25 years, raising the number of jobs from 675,000 in 2010 to an estimated 715,000 by 2035.


Corporations

The city is home to the Philadelphia Stock Exchange and the headquarters of cable television and internet provider Comcast, insurance companies Cigna, Colonial Penn, and Independence Blue Cross, food services company Aramark, chemical makers FMC Corporation and Rohm and Haas, pharmaceutical companies GlaxoSmithKline, Amicus Therapeutics, Spark Therapeutics apparel retailers Five Below and Urban Outfitters and its subsidiaries including Anthropologie, automotive parts retailer Pep Boys, and stainless steel producer Carpenter Technology Corporation. Other corporation headquarters include Rite Aid, Crown Holdings, and Brandywine Realty Trust. The headquarters of Boeing Rotorcraft Systems, and its main rotorcraft factory, are in the Philadelphia suburb of Ridley Park, Pennsylvania, Ridley Park, while The Vanguard Group and the US headquarters of Siemens Healthineers are headquartered in suburban Malvern, Pennsylvania, Malvern.


Tech and biotech

Philadelphia is a hub for information technology and biotechnology. Philadelphia and Pennsylvania are attracting new life sciences ventures.
Accessed April 18, 2019.
The Philadelphia metropolitan area, comprising the Delaware Valley, has also become a growing hub for venture capital funding.


Tourism

Philadelphia's history attracts many tourists, with the Independence National Historical Park (which includes the Liberty Bell,
Independence Hall Independence Hall is a historic civic building in Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous ...

Independence Hall
, and other historic sites) receiving over 5 million visitors in 2016. The city welcomed 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent $6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania.


Trade and transportation

Philadelphia International Airport is undergoing a $900 million infrastructural expansion to increase passenger capacity and augment passenger experience; while the Port of Philadelphia, having experienced the highest percentage growth by Twenty-foot equivalent unit, tonnage loaded in 2017 among major U.S. seaports, was in the process of doubling its capacity to accommodate super-sized post-Panamax shipping vessels in 2018. Philadelphia's 30th Street Station is the third-busiest Amtrak rail hub, following Pennsylvania Station (New York), Penn Station in Manhattan and Washington Union Station, Union Station in Washington, D.C., carrying over 4 million inter-city rail passengers annually.
Accessed April 18, 2019.


Education


Primary and secondary education

Education in Philadelphia is provided by many private and public institutions. The School District of Philadelphia runs the city's Public school (government funded), public schools. The Philadelphia School District is the eighth largest school district in the United States with 142,266 students in 218 traditional public schools and 86 charter schools . The city's K-12 enrollment in district–run schools dropped from 156,211 students in 2010 to 130,104 students in 2015. During the same time period, the enrollment in charter schools increased from 33,995 students in 2010 to 62,358 students in 2015. This consistent drop in enrollment led the city to close 24 of its public schools in 2013. During the 2014 school year, the city spent an average of $12,570 per pupil, below the average among comparable urban school districts. Graduation rates among district-run schools, meanwhile, steadily increased in the ten years from 2005. In 2005, Philadelphia had a district graduation rate of 52%. This number increased to 65% in 2014, still below the national and state averages. Scores on the state's standardized test, the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) trended upward from 2005 to 2011 but subsequently decreased. In 2005, the district-run schools scored an average of 37.4% on math and 35.5% on reading. The city's schools reached their peak scores in 2011 with 59.0% on math and 52.3% on reading. In 2014, the scores dropped significantly to 45.2% on math and 42.0% on reading. Of the city's public high schools, including charter schools, only four performed above the national average on the SAT (1497 out of 2400) in 2014: Julia R. Masterman School, Masterman, Central High School (Philadelphia), Central, Girard Academic Music Program, Girard, and MaST Community Charter School. All other district-run schools were below average.


Higher education

Philadelphia has the third-largest student concentration on the East Coast of the United States, East Coast, with more than 120,000 college and university students enrolled within the city and nearly 300,000 in the metropolitan area. More than 80 colleges, universities, trade, and specialty schools are in the Philadelphia region. One of the founding members of the Association of American Universities is in the city, the University of Pennsylvania, an Ivy League institution with claims to be the First university in the United States. The city's largest school by number of students is Temple University, followed by Drexel University. The University of Pennsylvania, Temple University, Drexel University, and Thomas Jefferson University comprise the city's nationally ranked research universities. Philadelphia is also home to five schools of medicine: Drexel University College of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, and Thomas Jefferson University's Thomas Jefferson University, Sidney Kimmel Medical College. Hospitals, universities, and higher education research institutions in Philadelphia's four congressional districts received more than $252 million in National Institutes of Health grants in 2015. Other institutions of higher learning within the city's borders include:


Culture

Philadelphia is home to many National Historic Site (United States), national historical sites that relate to the founding of the United States. Independence National Historical Park is the center of these historical landmarks being one of the country's 22 UNESCO
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
s.
Independence Hall Independence Hall is a historic civic building in Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous ...

Independence Hall
, where the
Declaration of Independence#REDIRECT Declaration of independence {{Redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation ...

Declaration of Independence
was signed, and the Liberty Bell are the city's most famous attractions. Other national historic sites include the homes of Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site, Edgar Allan Poe and Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Thaddeus Kosciuszko, early government buildings like the First Bank of the United States, First and the Second Bank of the United States, Fort Mifflin, and the Gloria Dei (Old Swedes') Church. Philadelphia alone has 67 National Historic Landmarks, the third most of any city in the country. Philadelphia's major science museums include the
Franklin Institute The Franklin Institute is a science museum and the center of science education and research in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealt ...
, which contains the Benjamin Franklin National Memorial; the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, Academy of Natural Sciences; the Mütter Museum; and the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. History museums include the National Constitution Center, the Museum of the American Revolution, the Philadelphia History Museum, the National Museum of American Jewish History, the African American Museum in Philadelphia, the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, the Masonic Library and Museum of Pennsylvania in the Masonic Temple (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), Masonic Temple, and the Eastern State Penitentiary. Philadelphia is home to the United States' first
zoo A zoo (short for zoological garden; also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () i ...
and
hospital A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized Medical Science, health science and Allied Healthcare, auxiliary healthcare staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospit ...

hospital
, as well as
Fairmount Park Fairmount Park is the largest municipal park in Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous city ...

Fairmount Park
, one of America's oldest and largest urban parks, founded in 1855. The city is home to important archival repositories, including the Library Company of Philadelphia, established in 1731 by
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin ( April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fathers of the United States, or simply the Founding Fathers or Founders, were a group of American revolutionary Patriots (also ...

Benjamin Franklin
, and the Athenaeum of Philadelphia, founded in 1814. The Presbyterian Historical Society is the country's oldest denominational historical society, organized in 1852.


Arts

The city contains many art museums, such as the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and the Rodin Museum, which holds the largest collection of work by Auguste Rodin outside France. The city's major art museum, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, is one of the List of largest art museums, largest art museums in the world. The long flight of Rocky Steps, steps to the Art Museum's main entrance became famous after the film ''Rocky'' (1976). Areas such as South Street and Old City have a vibrant night life. The Avenue of the Arts (Philadelphia), Avenue of the Arts in Center City contains many restaurants and theaters, such as the Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts, home of the Philadelphia Orchestra, and the Academy of Music (Philadelphia), Academy of Music, home of Opera Philadelphia and the Pennsylvania Ballet. The Wilma Theater (Philadelphia), Wilma Theatre and the Philadelphia Theatre Company at the Suzanne Roberts Theatre produce a variety of new plays. Several blocks to the east are the Lantern Theater Company at St. Stephen's Episcopal Church (Philadelphia), St. Stephens Episcopal Church; and the Walnut Street Theatre, a National Historic Landmark stated to be the oldest and most subscribed-to theater (structure), theatre in the English-speaking world, founded in 1809."Walnut Street Theatre Historical Marker"
''ExplorePAhistory.com''. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
In May 2019, the Walnut Street Theatre announced a major expansion to begin in 2020. Philadelphia has more public art than any other American city. In 1872, the Association for Public Art (formerly the Fairmount Park Art Association) was created as the first private association in the United States dedicated to integrating public art and urban planning. In 1959, lobbying by the Artists Equity Association helped create the Percent for Art Law, ordinance, the first for a U.S. city. The program, which has funded more than 200 pieces of public art, is administered by the Philadelphia Office of Arts and Culture, the city's art agency. The city also has more murals than any other American city, due to the 1984 creation of the Department of Recreation's Mural Arts Program, which seeks to beautify neighborhoods and provide an outlet for graffiti artists. The program has funded more than 2,800
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mural
s by professional, staff and volunteer artists and educated more than 20,000 youth in underserved neighborhoods throughout Philadelphia. The city is home to a number of art organizations including the regional art advocacy nonprofit Philadelphia Tri-State Artists Equity, the Philadelphia Sketch Club, one of the country's oldest artists' clubs, and The Plastic Club, started by women excluded from the Sketch Club. Many Old City, Philadelphia, Old City art galleries stay open late on the First Friday (public event), First Friday event of each month. Annual events include Philadelphia Film Festival, film festivals and parades, the most famous being the 6abc Dunkin' Donuts Thanksgiving Day Parade, Thanksgiving Day Parade and the Mummers Parade on New Year's Day.


Music

The Philadelphia Orchestra is generally considered one of the Big Five (orchestras), top five orchestras in the United States. The orchestra performs at the Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts, Kimmel Center and has a summer concert series at the Mann Center for the Performing Arts. Opera Philadelphia performs at the nation's oldest continually operating opera house—the Academy of Music (Philadelphia), Academy of Music. The Philadelphia Boys Choir & Chorale has performed its music all over the world. The Philly Pops plays orchestral versions of popular jazz, swing music, swing, Broadway theatre, Broadway, and blues songs at the Kimmel Center and other venues within the Mid-Atlantic (United States), mid-Atlantic region. The Curtis Institute of Music is one of the world's premier music school, conservatories and among the most selective institutes of higher education in the United States. Philadelphia has played a prominent role in the music of the United States. The culture of American popular music has been influenced by significant contributions of Philadelphia area musicians and producers, in both the recording and broadcasting industries. In 1952, the teen dance party program called ''Bandstand'' premiered on local television, hosted by Bob Horn (broadcaster), Bob Horn. The show was renamed ''American Bandstand'' in 1957 when it began national syndication on American Broadcasting Company, ABC, hosted by Dick Clark and produced in Philadelphia until 1964 when it moved to Los Angeles. Promoters marketed youthful musical artists known as teen idols to appeal to the young audience. Philadelphia-born singers such as Frankie Avalon, James Darren, Eddie Fisher (singer), Eddie Fisher, Fabian Forte, and Bobby Rydell, along with South Philadelphia, South Philly-raised Chubby Checker, topped the music charts, establishing a clean-cut rock and roll image. Philadelphia soul, Philly soul music of the late 1960s–1970s is a highly produced version of soul music which led to later forms of popular music such as disco and urban contemporary rhythm and blues. On July 13, 1985, John F. Kennedy Stadium (Philadelphia), John F. Kennedy Stadium was the American venue for the Live Aid concert."Live Aid 1985: A day of magic"
CNN. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
The city also hosted the Live 8 concert, which attracted about 700,000 people to the Benjamin Franklin Parkway on July 2, 2005. Famous rock and pop musicians from Philadelphia or its suburbs include Bill Haley & His Comets, Todd Rundgren and Nazz, Hall & Oates, The Hooters, Ween, Cinderella (band), Cinderella, and Pink (singer), Pink. Local Hip hop music, hip-hop artists include The Roots, DJ Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince, Lil Uzi Vert, Beanie Sigel and his rap collective State Property (band), State Property, Schoolly D, Lisa Lopes, Lisa "Left Eye" Lopes, and Meek Mill.


Cuisine

The city is known for its Submarine sandwich, hoagies, Stromboli (food), stromboli, roast pork sandwich, scrapple, pretzel#Pennsylvania, soft pretzels, Italian ice, water ice, Irish potato candy, tastykakes, and the cheesesteak sandwich which was developed by Italian immigrants. The Philadelphia area has many establishments that serve cheesesteaks, including restaurants, taverns, delicatessens and pizza parlors. The originator of the thinly-sliced steak sandwich in the 1930s, initially without cheese, is Pat's King of Steaks, which faces its rival Geno's Steaks, founded in 1966, across the intersection of 9th Street and Passyunk Avenue in the Italian Market, Philadelphia, Italian Market of South Philadelphia. McGillin's Olde Ale House, opened in 1860 on Drury Street in Center City, is the oldest continuously operated tavern in the city. The City Tavern is a replica of a historic 18th-century building first opened in 1773, demolished in 1854 after a fire, and rebuilt in 1975 on the same site as part of Independence National Historical Park. The tavern offers authentic 18th-century recipes, served in seven period dining rooms, three wine cellar rooms and an outdoor garden. The Reading Terminal Market is a historic Marketplace, food market founded in 1893 in the Reading Terminal building, a designated National Historic Landmark. The enclosed market is one of the oldest and largest markets in the country, hosting over a hundred merchants offering Pennsylvania Dutch specialties, artisan cheese and meat, locally grown groceries, and specialty and ethnic foods.


Dialect

The traditional Philadelphia accent is considered by some linguists to be the most distinctive accent in North America.New York Times Sunday Review, Loose Ends
"The Sound of Philadelphia Fades Out" Daniel Nester March 1, 2014
The Philadelphia dialect, which is spread throughout the
Delaware Valley The Delaware Valley is the valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, which will typically contain a river or stream running from one end to the other. Most valleys are formed by erosion of the la ...
and South Jersey, is part of a larger Mid-Atlantic American English family, a designation that also includes the Baltimore dialect. Additionally, it shares many similarities with the New York accent. Owing to over a century of linguistic data collected by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania under sociolinguist William Labov, the Philadelphia dialect has been one of the best-studied forms of American English. The accent is especially found within the Irish American and Italian American working-class neighborhoods. Philadelphia also has its own unique collection of neologisms and slang terms.


Sports

Philadelphia's first professional sports team was baseball's Philadelphia Athletics (1860–76), Athletics, organized in 1860. The Athletics were initially an National Association of Base Ball Players, amateur league team that National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, turned professional in 1871, and then became a founding team of the current National League in 1876. The city is one of 13 U.S. cities to have teams in U.S. cities with teams from four major league sports, all four major league sports: the Philadelphia Phillies in the National League of Major League Baseball, the Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League, the Philadelphia Flyers of the National Hockey League, and the Philadelphia 76ers of the National Basketball Association. The Phillies, formed in 1883 as the Quakers and renamed in 1884, are the oldest team continuously playing under the same name in the same city in the history of American professional sports. The Philadelphia metro area is also home to the Philadelphia Union of Major League Soccer. The Union began playing their home games in 2010 at PPL Corporation, PPL Park, a soccer-specific stadium in Chester, Pennsylvania. The stadium's name was changed to Talen Energy Stadium in 2016, and to Subaru Park in 2020. Philadelphia was the second of eight American cities to have won titles in all four major leagues (MLB, NFL, NHL and NBA), and also has a title in soccer (from the now-defunct North American Soccer League (1968–1984), North American Soccer League in the 1970s). The city's professional teams and their fans endured 25 years without a championship, from the 76ers 1983 NBA Finals win until the Phillies 2008 World Series win. The lack of championships was sometimes attributed in jest to the Curse of Billy Penn after Liberty Place#One Liberty Place, One Liberty Place became the first building to surpass the height of the
William Penn William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was an English writer and religious thinker belonging to the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, a North American colony of English overseas poss ...

William Penn
statue on top of Philadelphia City Hall, City Hall's tower in 1987. After nine years passed without another championship, the Eagles won their first Super Bowl LII, Super Bowl following the 2017 NFL season, 2017 season. In 2004, ESPN placed Philadelphia second on its list of The Fifteen Most Tortured Sports Cities. Fans of the Eagles and Phillies were singled out as the worst fans in the country by ''GQ'' magazine in 2011, which used the subtitle of "Meanest Fans in America" to summarize incidents of drunken behavior and a history of booing. Major professional sports teams that originated in Philadelphia but which later moved to other cities include the Golden State Warriors basketball team—in Philadelphia from 1946 to 1962—and the Oakland Athletics baseball team—originally the History of the Philadelphia Athletics, Philadelphia Athletics from 1901 to 1954 (a different Athletics team than the one mentioned above). Philadelphia is home to professional, semi-professional, and elite amateur teams in cricket, rugby league (Philadelphia Fight), and rugby union. Major running events in the city include the Penn Relays (track and field), the Philadelphia Marathon, and the Broad Street Run. The Philadelphia International Cycling Classic was held annually from 1985 to 2016, but not in 2017 due to insufficient sponsorship. The Collegiate Rugby Championship is played every June at Talen Energy Stadium in Chester, Pennsylvania. Rowing has been popular in Philadelphia since the 18th century. Boathouse Row is a symbol of Philadelphia's rich rowing history, and each Philadelphia Big 5, Big Five member has its own boathouse. Philadelphia hosts numerous local and collegiate rowing clubs and competitions, including the annual Dad Vail Regatta, which is the largest College rowing (United States), intercollegiate rowing event in North America with more than 100 U.S and Canadian colleges and universities participating; the annual Stotesbury Cup, Stotesbury Cup Regatta, which is billed as the world's oldest and largest rowing event for high school students; and the Head of the Schuylkill Regatta. The regattas are held on the
Schuylkill River The Schuylkill River ( , ) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course w ...
and organized by the Schuylkill Navy, an association of area rowing clubs that has produced numerous Rowing at the Summer Olympics, Olympic rowers. The Philadelphia Spinners were a professional Ultimate (sport), ultimate team in Major League Ultimate (MLU) until 2016. The Spinners were one of the original eight teams of the American Ultimate Disc League (AUDL) that began in 2012. They played at Franklin Field and won the inaugural AUDL championship and the final MLU championship in 2016. The MLU was suspended indefinitely by its investors in December 2016. , the Philadelphia Phoenix (AUDL), Philadelphia Phoenix continue to play in the AUDL. Philadelphia is home to the Philadelphia Big 5, a group of five NCAA Division I college basketball programs. The Big 5 are La Salle University, La Salle, University of Pennsylvania, Penn, Saint Joseph's University, Saint Joseph's, Temple University, Temple, and Villanova University, Villanova universities. The sixth NCAA Division I school in Philadelphia is Drexel University. Villanova won the 2016 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament, 2016 and the 2018 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament, 2018 championship of the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament.


Law and government

From a governmental perspective, Philadelphia County is a legal nullity, as all county functions were assumed by the city in 1952. The city has been coterminous with the county since 1854. Philadelphia's 1952 Home Rule Municipal charter, Charter was written by the City Charter Commission, which was created by the Pennsylvania General Assembly in an act of April 21, 1949, and a city ordinance of June 15, 1949. The existing city council received a proposed draft on February 14, 1951, and the electors approved it in an election held April 17, 1951. The first elections under the new Home Rule Charter were held in November 1951, and the newly elected officials took office in January 1952. The city uses the Mayor–council government#Strong-mayor form, strong-mayor version of the mayor–council form of government, which is led by one mayor in whom executive authority is vested. The mayor has the authority to appoint and dismiss members of all boards and commissions without the approval of the city council. Elected at-large, the mayor is limited to two consecutive four-year terms, but can run for the position again after an intervening term.


Courts

Philadelphia County is coterminous with the First Judicial District of Pennsylvania. The Philadelphia County Pennsylvania courts of common pleas, Court of Common Pleas is the trial court of general jurisdiction for the city, hearing felony-level criminal cases and civil suits above the minimum jurisdictional limit of $10,000. The court also has appellate jurisdiction over rulings from the Philadelphia Municipal Court, Municipal and Traffic Courts, and some administrative agencies and boards. The trial division has 70 commissioned judges elected by the voters, along with about one thousand other employees. The court also has a family division with 25 judges and an orphans' court with three judges. , the city's District Attorney of Philadelphia, District Attorney is Larry Krasner, a Democrat. The last Republican to hold the office is Ronald D. Castille, who left in 1991 and later served as the Chief Justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court from 2008 to 2014. The Philadelphia Municipal Court handles traffic cases, misdemeanor and felony criminal cases with maximum incarceration of five years, and civil cases involving $12,000 or less ($15,000 in real estate and school tax cases), and all landlord-tenant disputes. The municipal court has 27 judges elected by the voters. Pennsylvania's three appellate courts also have sittings in Philadelphia. The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, the court of last resort in the state, regularly hears arguments in Philadelphia City Hall. The Superior Court of Pennsylvania and the Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania also sit in Philadelphia several times a year. Judges for these courts are elected at large. The state Supreme Court and Superior Court have deputy prothonotary offices in Philadelphia. Additionally, Philadelphia is home to the federal United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania and the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, both of which are housed in the James A. Byrne United States Courthouse.


Politics

The current mayor is Jim Kenney who won the election in November 2015. Kenney's predecessor was Michael Nutter who had served two terms from 2009 to January 2016. Kenney is a member of the United States Democratic Party, Democratic Party as all List of mayors of Philadelphia#Mayors, Philadelphia mayors have been since 1952. Philadelphia City Council is the legislative branch which consists of ten council members representing individual districts and seven members elected at-large, all of whom are elected to four-year terms. Democrats are currently the majority and hold 14 seats including nine of the ten districts and five at-large seats. Republicans hold two seats, one at-large seats and the Northeast Philadelphia, Northeast-based Tenth District, while Working Families Party holds one at-large seat. The current council president is Darrell L. Clarke. As of December 31, 2016, there were 1,102,620 registered voters in Philadelphia. Registered voters constitute 70.3% of the total population. * Democratic Party (United States), Democratic: 853,140 (77.4%) * Republican Party (United States), Republican: 125,530 (11.4%) * Other parties and unaffiliated: 123,950 (11.2%) Philadelphia was a bastion of the Republican Party (United States), Republican Party from the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon nove ...
until the mid-1930s. The city hosted the first Republican National Convention in 1856 Republican National Convention, 1856. Democratic registrations increased after the Great Depression; however, the city was not carried by Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt in his landslide victory of 1932 United States presidential election, 1932 as Pennsylvania was one of only six states won by Republican Herbert Hoover. Voter turnout surged from 600,000 in 1932 to nearly 900,000 in 1936 United States presidential election, 1936 and Roosevelt carried Philadelphia with over 60% of the vote. The city has voted Democratic in every presidential election since 1936. In 2008 United States presidential election, 2008, Democrat Barack Obama drew 83% of the city's vote. Obama's win was even greater in 2012 United States presidential election, 2012, capturing 85% of the vote. In 2016 United States presidential election, 2016, Democrat Hillary Clinton won 82% of the vote. As a result of the declining population in the city and state, Philadelphia has only three congressional districts of the 18 districts in Pennsylvania, based on the 2010 United States Census, 2010 Census apportionment: Pennsylvania's 2nd congressional district, the 2nd district, represented by Brendan Boyle; Pennsylvania's 3rd congressional district, the 3rd, represented by Dwight Evans (politician), Dwight Evans; and Pennsylvania's 5th congressional district, the 5th, represented by Mary Gay Scanlon. All three representatives are Democrats though Republicans still have some support in the city, primarily in the Northeast Philadelphia, Northeast. Sam Katz (Philadelphia), Sam Katz ran competitive mayoral races as the Republican nominee in Philadelphia mayoral election, 1999, 1999 and Philadelphia mayoral election, 2003, 2003, losing to Democrat John F. Street, John Street both times. Pennsylvania's longest-serving List of United States Senators from Pennsylvania, Senator, Arlen Specter, was an alumnus of the University of Pennsylvania who opened his first law practice in Philadelphia."Specter, Arlen, (1930–2012)"
''bioguide.congress.gov''. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
Specter served as a Republican from 1981 and as a Democrat from 2009, losing that party's primary in United States Senate Democratic primary election in Pennsylvania, 2010, 2010 and leaving office in January 2011. He had also been assistant counsel on the Warren Commission in 1964 and the city's district attorney from 1966 to 1974. Philadelphia has hosted various United States presidential nominating convention, national conventions, including in 1848 Whig National Convention, 1848 (Whig), 1856 Republican National Convention, 1856 (Republican), 1872 Republican National Convention, 1872 (Republican), 1900 Republican National Convention, 1900 (Republican), 1936 Democratic National Convention, 1936 (Democratic), 1940 Republican National Convention, 1940 (Republican), 1948 Republican National Convention, 1948 (Republican), 1948 Progressive National Convention, 1948 (Progressive), 2000 Republican National Convention, 2000 (Republican), and 2016 Democratic National Convention, 2016 (Democratic). Philadelphia has been home to one vice president, George M. Dallas, and one Civil War general, George B. McClellan, who won his party's nomination for president but lost in the general election to Abraham Lincoln in 1864. In May 2019, former U.S. Vice President Joe Biden chose Philadelphia to be his 2020 U.S. presidential campaign headquarters.


Environmental policy

“Green Cities, Clean Water" is an environmental policy initiative based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, that has shown promising results in mitigating the effects of climate change. The researchers on the policy have stated that despite such promising plans of green infrastructure building, "the city is forecasted to grow warmer, wetter, and more urbanized over the century, runoff and local temperatures will increase on average throughout the city". Even though landcover predictive models on the effects of the policy initiative have indicated that green infrastructure could be useful at decreasing the amount of runoff in the city over time, the city government would have to expand its current plans and "consider the cobenefit of climate change adaptation when planning new projects'' in limiting the scope of city-wide temperature increase.


Public safety


Police and law enforcement

According to a 2015 report by the Pew Charitable Trusts, the Philadelphia Police Department#Districts, police districts with the highest rates of violent crime were Frankford, Philadelphia, Frankford (15th district) and Kensington, Philadelphia, Kensington (24th district) in the Near Northeast Philadelphia, Near Northeast, and districts to the North Philadelphia, North (22nd, 25th, and 35th districts), West Philadelphia, West (19th district) and Southwest Philadelphia, Southwest (12th district) of
Center CityCenter City or Centre City may refer to: Places * Center City, Minnesota, U.S. **Center City Historic District * Center City, Allentown, Pennsylvania, U.S. * Center City, Erie, Pennsylvania U.S. * Center City, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, U.S. * Center ...
. Each of those seven districts recorded more than a thousand violent crimes in 2014. The lowest rates of violent crime occurred in Center City, South Philadelphia, the Far Northeast Philadelphia, Far Northeast, and Roxborough, Philadelphia, Roxborough districts, the latter of which includes Manayunk, Philadelphia, Manayunk. Philadelphia had 500 (503 according to some sources) murders in 1990, a rate of 31.5 per 100,000. An average of about 400 murders occurred each year for most of the 1990s. The murder count dropped in 2002 to 288, then rose to 406 by 2006, before dropping slightly to 392 in 2007. A few years later, Philadelphia began to see a rapid decline in homicides and violent crime. In 2013, the city had 246 murders, which is a decrease of nearly 40% since 2006. In 2014, 248 homicides were committed. The homicide rate rose to 280 in 2015, then fell slightly to 277 in 2016, before rising again to 317 in 2017. Homicides increased dramatically in the late 2010s/early 2020s, reaching 499 homicides in 2020 and surpassing the 1990 "record" in 2021, with 501st murder on November 27 and 510 by the end of the month. In 2006, Philadelphia's homicide rate of 27.7 per 100,000 people was the highest of the country's 10 most populous cities. In 2012, Philadelphia had the fourth-highest homicide rate among the country's most populous cities. The rate dropped to 16 homicides per 100,000 residents by 2014 placing Philadelphia as the sixth-highest city in the country. The number of shootings in the city has declined significantly since the early years of the 21st century. Shooting incidents peaked at 1,857 in 2006 before declining nearly 44 percent to 1,047 shootings in 2014. Major crimes have decreased gradually since a peak in 2006 when 85,498 major crimes were reported. The number of reported major crimes fell 11 percent in three years to 68,815 occurrences in 2014. Violent crimes, which include homicide, rape, aggravated assault, and robbery, decreased 14 percent in three years to 15,771 occurrences in 2014. Philadelphia was ranked as the 76th most dangerous city in a 2018 report based on Federal Bureau of Investigation, FBI data from 2016 for the rate of violent crimes per 1,000 residents in American cities with 25,000 or more people. The latest four years of reports indicate a steady reduction in violent crime as the city placed 67th in the 2017 report, 65th in 2016, and 54th in 2015. In 2014, Philadelphia enacted an ordinance decriminalizing the possession of less than 30 grams of marijuana or 8 grams of hashish; the ordinance gave police officers the discretion to treat possession of these amounts as a civil infraction punishable by a $25 ticket, rather than a crime. Philadelphia was at the time the largest city to decriminalize the possession of marijuana. From 2013 to 2018, marijuana arrests in the city dropped by more than 85%. The purchase or sale of marijuana remains a criminal offense in Philadelphia.


Firefighting

The Philadelphia Fire Department provides fire protection and emergency medical services (EMS). The department's official mission is to protect public safety by quick and professional response to emergencies and the promotion of sound emergency prevention measures. This mandate encompasses all traditional Firefighting in the United States, firefighting functions, including fire suppression, with 60 engine companies and 30 ladder companies as well as specialty and support units deployed throughout the city; specialized firefighting units for Philadelphia International Airport and the Port of Philadelphia; investigations conducted by the fire marshal's office to determine the origins of fires and develop preventive strategies; Fire prevention, prevention programs to educate the public; and support services including research and planning, management of the fire communications center within the city's 9-1-1, 911 system, and operation of the Philadelphia Fire Academy.


Media


Newspapers

Philadelphia's two major Newspaper, daily newspapers are ''The Philadelphia Inquirer'', first published in 1829—the third-oldest surviving daily newspaper in the country—and the ''Philadelphia Daily News'', first published in 1925. The ''Daily News'' has been published as an edition of the ''Inquirer'' since 2009. Recent owners of the ''Inquirer'' and ''Daily News'' have included Knight Ridder, The McClatchy Company, and Philadelphia Media Holdings, with the latter organization declaring bankruptcy in 2010. After two years of financial struggle, the newspapers were sold to Interstate General Media in 2012. The two newspapers had a combined daily circulation of 306,831 and a Sunday circulation of 477,313 —the eighteenth largest circulation in the country—while the website of the newspapers, Philly.com, was ranked thirteenth in popularity among online U.S. newspapers by Alexa Internet for the same year. Smaller publications include the ''Philadelphia Tribune'' published five days each week for the African Americans, African-American community; ''Philadelphia (magazine), Philadelphia'' magazine, a monthly regional magazine; ''Philadelphia Weekly'', a weekly alternative newspaper; ''Philadelphia Gay News'', a weekly newspaper for the LGBT community; ''The Jewish Exponent'', a weekly newspaper for the Jewish community; ''Al Día (Philadelphia), Al Día'', a weekly newspaper for the Latinos, Latino community; and ''Philadelphia Metro'', a free daily newspaper. Student-run newspapers include the University of Pennsylvania's ''The Daily Pennsylvanian'', Temple University's ''The Temple News'', and Drexel University's ''The Triangle (newspaper), The Triangle''.


Radio

The first experimental radio license was issued in Philadelphia in August 1912 to Saint Joseph's University, St. Joseph's College. The first commercial broadcasting, commercial AM broadcasting, AM radio stations began broadcasting in 1922: first WTEL (AM), WIP, then owned by Gimbels department store, followed by WFIL, then owned by Strawbridge's, Strawbridge & Clothier department store, and WOO (Philadelphia), WOO, a defunct station owned by Wanamaker's department store, as well as WPHT, WCAU and WDAS (AM), WDAS. , the Federal Communications Commission, FCC lists 28 FM broadcasting, FM and 11 am stations for Philadelphia. As of December 2017, the ten highest-rated stations in Philadelphia were Adult contemporary music, adult contemporary WBEB, WBEB-FM (101.1), Sports radio, sports talk WIP-FM (94.1), classic rock WMGK, WMGK-FM (102.9), urban adult contemporary WDAS-FM (105.3), classic hits WOGL, WOGL-FM (98.1), album-oriented rock WMMR, WMMR-FM (93.3), country music WXTU, WXTU-FM (92.5), All-news radio, all-news KYW (AM), KYW-AM (1060), talk radio WHYY-FM (90.9), and urban adult contemporary WRNB, WRNB-FM (100.3). Philadelphia is served by three non-commercial public broadcasting, public radio stations: WHYY-FM (NPR), WRTI, WRTI-FM (classical and jazz), and WXPN, WXPN-FM (adult alternative music).


Television

In the 1930s, the experimental station KYW-TV, W3XE, owned by Philco, became the first television station in Philadelphia. The station became NBC's first affiliate in 1939, and later became KYW-TV (currently a CBS affiliate). WCAU, WCAU-TV, WFIL-TV, and WHYY-TV were all founded by the 1960s. In 1952, WFIL (renamed WPVI-TV, WPVI) premiered the television show ''Bandstand'', which later became the nationally broadcast ''American Bandstand'' hosted by Dick Clark. Each commercial network has an affiliate, and call letters have been replaced by corporate branding for promotional purposes: KYW-TV, CBS3, WPVI-TV, 6ABC, WCAU, NBC10, WPHL-TV, PHL17, WTXF-TV, Fox29, WPSG, The CW Philly 57, WFPA-CD, UniMás Philadelphia, WWSI, Telemundo62, and WUVP-DT, Univision65. The region is served also by public broadcasting stations WPPT (TV), WPPT-TV (Philadelphia), WHYY-TV (Wilmington, Delaware and Philadelphia), WLVT-TV (Lehigh Valley), and NJTV (New Jersey). Philadelphia has owned-and-operated stations for all five major English-language broadcast networks: NBC – WCAU, WCAU-TV, CBS – KYW-TV, American Broadcasting Company, ABC – WPVI-TV, Fox Broadcasting Company, Fox – WTXF-TV, and The CW – WPSG, WPSG-TV. The major Spanish-language networks are Univision – WUVP-DT, UniMás – WFPA-CD, and Telemundo – WWSI, WWSI-TV. , the city is the nation's fourth-largest consumer in media market, as ranked by the Nielsen Media Research firm, with nearly 2.9 million TV households.


Infrastructure


Transportation

Philadelphia is served by the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) which operates buses, trains, rapid transit (subway and Elevated railway, elevated trains), Tram, trolleys, and Trolleybus, trackless trolleys (electric buses) throughout Philadelphia, the four Pennsylvania suburban counties of Bucks County, Pennsylvania, Bucks, Chester County, Pennsylvania, Chester, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, Montgomery, in addition to service to Mercer County, New Jersey (Trenton, New Jersey, Trenton) and New Castle County, Delaware (Wilmington, Delaware, Wilmington and Newark, Delaware). The city's subway system consists of two routes: the subway section of the Market–Frankford Line running east–west under Market Street (Philadelphia), Market Street which opened in 1905 to the west and 1908 to the east of City Hall, and the Broad Street Line running north–south beneath Broad Street (Philadelphia), Broad Street which opened in stages from 1928 to 1938. Beginning in the 1980s, large sections of the SEPTA Regional Rail service to the far suburbs of Philadelphia were discontinued due to a lack of funding for equipment and infrastructure maintenance. Philadelphia's 30th Street Station is a major railroad station on Amtrak's Northeast Corridor with 4.4 million passengers in 2017 making it the List of busiest Amtrak stations, third-busiest station in the country after Pennsylvania Station (New York City), New York City's Pennsylvania Station and Washington Union Station, Washington's Union Station. 30th Street Station offers access to Amtrak, SEPTA, and NJ Transit lines. Over 12 million SEPTA and NJ Transit rail commuters use the station each year, and more than 100,000 people on an average weekday. The PATCO Speedline provides rapid transit service to Camden, New Jersey, Camden, Collingswood, New Jersey, Collingswood, Westmont, New Jersey, Westmont, Haddonfield, New Jersey, Haddonfield, Cherry Hill, New Jersey, Woodcrest (Cherry Hill), Voorhees, New Jersey, Ashland (Voorhees), and Lindenwold, New Jersey, Lindenwold, New Jersey, from stations on Locust Street between 16th and 15th, 13th and 12th, and 10th and 9th Streets, and on Market Street at 8th Street.


Airports

Two airports serve Philadelphia: the Philadelphia International Airport (PHL) is south-southwest of
Center CityCenter City or Centre City may refer to: Places * Center City, Minnesota, U.S. **Center City Historic District * Center City, Allentown, Pennsylvania, U.S. * Center City, Erie, Pennsylvania U.S. * Center City, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, U.S. * Center ...
on the boundary with Delaware County, Pennsylvania, Delaware County, providing scheduled domestic and international air service,"Philadelphia International Airport: About Us"
. ''phl.org''. Philadelphia International Airport. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
while Northeast Philadelphia Airport (PNE) is a general aviation relief airport in Northeast Philadelphia serving general and corporate aviation. Philadelphia International Airport is among the busiest airports in the world World's busiest airports by traffic movements, measured by traffic movements (i.e., takeoffs and landings). More than 30 million passengers pass through the airport annually on 25 airlines, including all major domestic carriers. The airport has nearly 500 daily departures to more than 120 destinations worldwide. SEPTA's Airport Line (SEPTA), Airport Regional Rail Line provides direct service between Center City railroad stations and Philadelphia International Airport.


Roads

William Penn William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was an English writer and religious thinker belonging to the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, a North American colony of English overseas poss ...

William Penn
planned Philadelphia with Numbered street#Philadelphia, numbered streets traversing north and south, and streets named for trees, such as Chestnut Street (Philadelphia), Chestnut, Walnut Street (Philadelphia), Walnut, and Arch Street (Philadelphia), Mulberry, traversing east and west. The two main streets were named Broad Street (Philadelphia), Broad Street (the north–south Arterial road, artery, since designated Pennsylvania Route 611) and High Street (the east–west artery, since renamed Market Street (Philadelphia), Market Street) converging at Centre Square which later became the site of Philadelphia City Hall, City Hall. Interstate 95 in Pennsylvania, Interstate 95 (the Delaware Expressway) traverses the southern and eastern edges of the city along the
Delaware River The Delaware River is a major on the coast of the . It drains an area of in four s: , , and . Rising in two branches in New York state's , the river flows into where its waters enter the Atlantic Ocean near in New Jersey and in Delawar ...

Delaware River
as the main north–south controlled-access highway, connecting Philadelphia with Newark, New Jersey and New York City to the north and with Baltimore and Washington, D.C. southward. The city is also served by Interstate 76 (Ohio–New Jersey), Interstate 76 (the Schuylkill Expressway), which runs along the
Schuylkill River The Schuylkill River ( , ) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course w ...
, intersecting the Pennsylvania Turnpike at King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, King of Prussia and providing access to
Harrisburg Harrisburg ( ; Pennsylvania German language, Pennsylvania German: ''Harrisbarrig'') is the capital city of the Pennsylvania, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and the county seat of Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, Dauphin Count ...
and points west. Interstate 676 (the Vine Street Expressway) links I-95 and I-76 through Center City by running below street level between the eastbound and westbound lanes of Vine Street (Philadelphia), Vine Street. Entrance and exit ramps for the Benjamin Franklin Bridge are near the eastern end of the expressway, just west of the I-95 interchange."OpenStreetMap"
''openstreetmap.org''. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
The Roosevelt Boulevard (Philadelphia), Roosevelt Boulevard and Expressway (U.S. Route 1 in Pennsylvania, U.S. 1) connect Northeast Philadelphia with Center City via I-76 through
Fairmount Park Fairmount Park is the largest municipal park in Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous city ...

Fairmount Park
. Woodhaven Road (Pennsylvania Route 63, Route 63) and Cottman Avenue (Pennsylvania Route 73, Route 73) serve the neighborhoods of Northeast Philadelphia, running between I-95 and the Roosevelt Boulevard. The Fort Washington Expressway (Pennsylvania Route 309, Route 309) extends north from the city's northern border, serving Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, Montgomery County and Bucks County, Pennsylvania, Bucks County. U.S. Route 30 in Pennsylvania, U.S. Route 30 (Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, Lancaster Avenue) extends westward from West Philadelphia to
LancasterLancaster may refer to: Lands and titles *The County Palatine of Lancaster, a synonym for Lancashire *Duchy of Lancaster, one of only two British royal duchies *Duke of Lancaster *Earl of Lancaster *House of Lancaster, a British royal dynasty ...
. Interstate 476 (locally referred to as the Blue Route) traverses Delaware County, Pennsylvania, Delaware County, bypassing the city to the west and serving the city's western suburbs, as well as providing a link to Allentown, Pennsylvania, Allentown and points north. Interstate 276 (the Pennsylvania Turnpike's Pennsylvania Turnpike#Delaware River extension, Delaware River extension) acts as a bypass and commuter route to the north of the city as well as a link to the New Jersey Turnpike and New York City. The Delaware River Port Authority operates four bridges in the Philadelphia area across the Delaware River to New Jersey: the Walt Whitman Bridge (I-76), the Benjamin Franklin Bridge (I-676 and U.S. 30), the Betsy Ross Bridge (New Jersey Route 90), and the Commodore Barry Bridge (U.S. Route 322, U.S. 322 in Delaware County, south of the city). The Burlington County Bridge Commission maintains two bridges across the Delaware River: the Tacony–Palmyra Bridge which connects Pennsylvania Route 73, PA Route 73 in the Tacony, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Tacony section of Northeast Philadelphia with New Jersey Route 73 in Palmyra, New Jersey, Palmyra, Burlington County, New Jersey, Burlington County, and the Burlington–Bristol Bridge which connects New Jersey Route 413, NJ Route 413/U.S. Route 130 in Burlington, New Jersey with Pennsylvania Route 413, PA Route 413/U.S. Route 13 in Pennsylvania, U.S. 13 in Bristol Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, Bristol Township, north of Philadelphia.


Bus service

Philadelphia is a hub for Greyhound Lines. The Philadelphia Greyhound Terminal, Greyhound terminal is at 1001 Filbert Street (at 10th Street) in Center City, southeast of the Pennsylvania Convention Center and south of Chinatown, Philadelphia, Chinatown. Several other bus operators provide service at the Greyhound terminal including Trailways Transportation System, Fullington Trailways, Martz Group, Martz Trailways, Peter Pan Bus Lines, and NJ Transit Bus Operations, NJ Transit buses. Other intercity bus services include Megabus (North America), Megabus with stops at 30th Street Station and the visitor center for
Independence Hall Independence Hall is a historic civic building in Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous ...

Independence Hall
, BoltBus (operated by Greyhound) at 30th Street Station, OurBus at various stops in the city.


Rail

Since the early days of rail transportation in the United States, Philadelphia has served as a hub for several major rail companies, particularly the
Pennsylvania Railroad The Pennsylvania Railroad (reporting mark Image:Reporting marks.jpg, Reporting marks on two Canadian Pacific Railway, Canadian Pacific covered hopper cars; with the left car marked as CP 388686 and the right car marked as Soo Line Railroad, SOO ...

Pennsylvania Railroad
and the Reading Company, Reading Railroad. The Pennsylvania Railroad first operated Broad Street Station (Philadelphia), Broad Street Station, then 30th Street Station and Suburban Station, and the Reading Railroad operated Reading Terminal, now part of the Pennsylvania Convention Center. The two companies also operated competing commuter rail systems in the area. The two systems now operate as a single system under the control of SEPTA, the regional transit authority. Additionally, the PATCO Speedline subway system and NJ Transit's Atlantic City Line operate successor services to southern New Jersey. In 1911, Philadelphia had nearly 4,000 electric tram, trolleys running on 86 lines. In 2005, SEPTA reintroduced trolley service to the SEPTA Route 15, Girard Avenue Line, Route 15. SEPTA operates six "subway-surface" trolleys that run on street-level tracks in West Philadelphia and subway tunnels in
Center CityCenter City or Centre City may refer to: Places * Center City, Minnesota, U.S. **Center City Historic District * Center City, Allentown, Pennsylvania, U.S. * Center City, Erie, Pennsylvania U.S. * Center City, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, U.S. * Center ...
, along with two surface trolleys in adjacent suburbs. Philadelphia is a regional hub of the State-owned enterprise, federally owned Amtrak system, with 30th Street Station being a primary stop on the Washington-Boston Northeast Corridor and the Keystone Corridor to
Harrisburg Harrisburg ( ; Pennsylvania German language, Pennsylvania German: ''Harrisbarrig'') is the capital city of the Pennsylvania, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and the county seat of Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, Dauphin Count ...
and Pittsburgh. 30th Street also serves as a major station for services via the Pennsylvania Railroad's former Main Line (Pennsylvania Railroad), Pennsylvania Main Line to Chicago. , 30th Street is Amtrak's third-busiest station in the country, after New York City and Washington.


Walk Score ranks

A 2017 study by Walk Score ranked Philadelphia the fifth most walkable major city in the United States with a score of 79 out of 100, in the middle of the "very walkable" range. The city was just edged out by fourth place Miami (79.2), with the top three cities being New York, San Francisco, and Boston. Philadelphia placed fifth in the public transit friendly category, behind Washington, D.C., with the same three cities for walkability topping this category. The city ranked tenth in the bike friendly cities category, with the top three cities being Minneapolis, San Francisco and Portland. The readers of USA Today newspaper voted the Schuylkill River Trail the best urban trail in the nation in 2015.


Utilities


Water purity and availability

In 1815, Philadelphia began sourcing its water via the Fairmount Water Works on the
Schuylkill River The Schuylkill River ( , ) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course w ...
, the nation's first major urban water supply system. In 1909, the Water Works was decommissioned as the city transitioned to modern Sand filter, sand filtration methods. Today, the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD) provides drinking water, wastewater collection, and stormwater services for Philadelphia, as well as surrounding counties. PWD draws about 57 percent of its drinking water from the
Delaware River The Delaware River is a major on the coast of the . It drains an area of in four s: , , and . Rising in two branches in New York state's , the river flows into where its waters enter the Atlantic Ocean near in New Jersey and in Delawar ...

Delaware River
and the balance from the Schuylkill River. The city has two filtration plants on the Schuylkill River and one on the Delaware River. The three plants can treat up to 546 million gallons of water per day, while the total storage capacity of the combined plant and distribution system exceeds one billion gallons. The wastewater system consists of three water pollution control plants, 21 pumping stations, and about of sewers.


Electricity

Exelon subsidiary PECO Energy Company, founded as the Brush Electric Light Company of Philadelphia in 1881 and renamed Philadelphia Electric Company (PECO) in 1902, provides electricity to about 1.6 million customers and more than 500,000 natural gas customers in the southeastern Pennsylvania area including the city of Philadelphia and most of its suburbs. PECO is the largest electric and natural gas utility in the state with 472 power substations and nearly of electric transmission and distribution lines, along with of natural gas transmission, distribution & service lines.


Natural gas

Philadelphia Gas Works (PGW), overseen by the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission, is the nation's largest municipally-owned natural gas utility. PGW serves over 500,000 homes and businesses in the Philadelphia area. Founded in 1836, the company came under city ownership in 1987 and has been providing the majority of gas distributed within city limits. In 2014, the Philadelphia City Council, City Council refused to conduct hearings on a $1.86 billion sale of PGW, part of a two-year effort that was proposed by the mayor. The refusal led to the prospective buyer terminating its offer.


Telecommunications

Southeastern Pennsylvania was assigned the area code 215, 215 area code in 1947 when the North American Numbering Plan of the Bell System went into effect. The geographic area covered by the code was split nearly in half in 1994 when area code 610 was created, with the city and its northern suburbs retaining 215. area code overlay, Overlay area code 267 was added to the 215 service area in 1997, and 484 was added to the 610 area in 1999. A plan in 2001 to introduce a third overlay code to both service areas (area code 445 to 215, area code 835 to 610) was delayed and later rescinded. Area code 445 was implemented as an overlay for area codes 215 and 267 starting on February 3, 2018.


Notable people


Sister cities

Philadelphia also has three partnership cities or regions: Philadelphia has eight official Sister city, sister cities as designated by the Citizen Diplomacy International of Philadelphia: Philadelphia has dedicated landmarks to its sister cities. The Sister Cities Park, a site of at 18th and Benjamin Franklin Parkway within Logan Circle (Philadelphia), Logan Square, was dedicated in June 1976. The park was built to commemorate Philadelphia's first two sister city relationships, with Tel Aviv and Florence. The Toruń Triangle, honoring the sister city relationship with Toruń, Poland, was constructed in 1976, west of the United Way of America, United Way building at 18th Street and the Benjamin Franklin Parkway. Sister Cities Park was redesigned and reopened in 2012, featuring an interactive fountain honoring Philadelphia's sister and partnership cities, a café and visitor's center, children's play area, outdoor garden, and boat pond, as well as a pavilion built to environmentally friendly standards. The Chinatown Gate, erected in 1984 and crafted by artisans of Tianjin, stands astride 10th Street, on the north side of its intersection with Arch Street (Philadelphia), Arch Street, as a symbol of the sister city relationship. The CDI of Philadelphia has participated in the United States Department of State, U.S. Department of State's "Partners for Peace" project with Mosul, Iraq,IVC of Philadelphia Partners with Mosul, Iraq in Groundbreaking Program
Retrieved January 26, 2011.
as well as accepting visiting delegations from dozens of other countries.Inbound delegations visiting Philadelphia
Retrieved January 26, 2011.


See also

* List of metropolitan areas in the Americas, Metropolitan areas in the Americas * National Register of Historic Places listings in Philadelphia * List of Pennsylvania state historical markers in Philadelphia County


Notes


References


Further reading

*


External links


City of Philadelphia government

Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia
– historical encyclopedia
Historic Philadelphia
– over 2 million photographs dating back to the late 1800s
Greater Philadelphia GeoHistory Network
– historical maps and atlases *
philly.com
– ''The Philadelphia Inquirer'' and ''Philadelphia Daily News, Daily News''
Convention & Visitors Bureau

Pennsylvania Convention Center

''10 Towns that Changed America''
– WTTW; segment from 7:23–12:00 of 56-minute video {{Authority control Philadelphia, 1682 establishments in Pennsylvania Cities in Pennsylvania Consolidated city-counties County seats in Pennsylvania Former capitals of the United States Former state capitals in the United States, Pennsylvania Planned cities in the United States Populated places established in 1682 Populated places on the Schuylkill River Port cities and towns of the Pennsylvania Atlantic coast Ukrainian communities in the United States Pennsylvania populated places on the Delaware River