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Pannonia (, ) was a
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
bounded on the north and east by the
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central Europe, Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. It ...

Danube
, coterminous westward with
Noricum Noricum () is the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...
and upper
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
, and southward with
Dalmatia Dalmatia (; hr, Dalmacija ; it, Dalmazia; see #Name, names in other languages) is a region on the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, a narrow belt stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south. The Dalmatian Hin ...
and upper
Moesia Moesia (; Latin: ''Moesia''; el, Μοισία, Moisía) was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans south of the Danube River. It included most of the territory of modern-day Central Serbia, Kosovo and the northern ...
. Pannonia was located in the territory of present-day western
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
, eastern
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...

Austria
, northern
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
, north-western Serbia, northern Slovenia and northern Bosnia and Herzegovina.


Name

Julius Pokorny believed the name ''Pannonia'' is derived from Illyrian languages, Illyrian, from the Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-European root ''*pen-'', "swamp, water, wet" (cf. English ''fen'', "marsh"; Hindi ''pani'', "water"). Pliny the Elder, in ''Natural History (Pliny), Natural History'', places the eastern regions of the Hercynian Forest, Hercynium jugum, the "Hercynian mountain chain", in Pannonia (present-day
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
) and Dacia (present-day Romania). He also gives us some dramaticised description of its composition, in which the proximity of the forest trees causes competitive struggle among them (''inter se rixantes''). He mentions its gigantic Quercus, oaks. But even he—if the passage in question is not an interpolated marginal gloss—is subject to the legends of the gloomy forest. He mentions unusual birds, which have feathers that "shine like fires at night". Medieval bestiaries named these birds the ''Ercinee''. The impenetrable nature of the ''Hercynia Silva'' hindered the last concerted Roman foray into the forest, by Nero Claudius Drusus, Drusus, during 12–9 BC: Florus asserts that ''Drusus invisum atque inaccessum in id tempus Hercynium saltum'' (Hercynia saltus, the "Hercynian ravine-land")'' patefecit''.


History


Prior to Roman conquest

The first inhabitants of this area known to history were the List of ancient tribes in Illyria, Pannonii (Pannonians), a group of Proto-Indo-Europeans, Indo-European tribes akin to Illyrians. From the 4th century BC, it was invaded by various Celts, Celtic tribes. Little is known of Pannonia until 35 BC, when its inhabitants, allies of the Dalmatae, Dalmatians, were attacked by Augustus, who conquered and occupied Sisak, Siscia (Sisak). The country was not, however, definitively subdued by the Romans until 9 BC, when it was incorporated into Illyricum (Roman province), Illyricum, the frontier of which was thus extended as far as the
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central Europe, Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. It ...

Danube
.


Under Roman rule

In AD 6, the Pannonians, with the Dalmatians and other Illyrian tribes, engaged in the so-called Great Illyrian Revolt, and were overcome by Tiberius and Germanicus, after a hard-fought campaign, which lasted for three years. After the rebellion was crushed in AD 9, the province of Illyricum was dissolved, and its lands were divided between the new provinces of Pannonia in the north and
Dalmatia Dalmatia (; hr, Dalmacija ; it, Dalmazia; see #Name, names in other languages) is a region on the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, a narrow belt stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south. The Dalmatian Hin ...
in the south. The date of the division is unknown, most certainly after AD 20 but before AD 50. The proximity of dangerous Barbarian kingdoms, barbarian tribes (Quadi, Marcomanni) necessitated the presence of a large number of troops (seven Roman legion, legions in later times), and numerous fortresses were built on the bank of the Danube. Some time between the years 102 and 107, between the first and second Dacian wars, Trajan divided the
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
into Pannonia Superior (western part with the capital Carnuntum), and Pannonia Inferior (eastern part with the capitals in Aquincum and Sirmium). According to Ptolemy, these divisions were separated by a line drawn from Arrabona in the north to Servitium in the south; later, the boundary was placed further east. The whole country was sometimes called the Pannonias (Pannoniae). Pannonia Superior was under the consular legate, who had formerly administered the single province, and had three legions under his control. Pannonia Inferior was at first under a praetorian legate with a single legion as the garrison; after Marcus Aurelius, it was under a consular legate, but still with only one legion. The frontier on the Danube was protected by the establishment of the two colonies Aelia Mursia and Aelia Aquincum by Hadrian. Under Diocletian, a fourfold division of the country was made: * Pannonia Prima in the northwest, with its capital in Sabaria, Savaria / Sabaria, it included Pannonia Superior, Upper Pannonia and the major part of Central Pannonia between the Raba and Drava, * Pannonia Valeria in the northeast, with its capital in Sopianae, it comprised the remainder of Central Pannonia between the Raba, Drava and Danube, * Pannonia Savia in the southwest, with its capital in Siscia, * Pannonia Secunda in the southeast, with its capital in Sirmium Diocletian also moved parts of today's Slovenia out of Pannonia and incorporated them in
Noricum Noricum () is the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...
. In 324 AD, Constantine I enlarged the borders of Roman Pannonia to the east, annexing the plains of what is now eastern Hungary, northern Serbia and western Romania up to the Limes (Roman Empire), limes that he created: the Devil's Dykes. In the 4th-5th century, one of the dioceses of the Roman Empire was known as the Diocese of Pannonia. It had its capital in Sirmium and included all four provinces that were formed from historical Pannonia, as well as the provinces of
Dalmatia Dalmatia (; hr, Dalmacija ; it, Dalmazia; see #Name, names in other languages) is a region on the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, a narrow belt stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south. The Dalmatian Hin ...
,
Noricum Noricum () is the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...
Mediterraneum and Noricum Ripense. File:Pannonia01.png, Pannonia in the 1st century File:Pannonia02.png, Pannonia in the 2nd century File:Pannonia03 en.png, Pannonia in the 4th century File:Limes4-en.png, Pannonia with Constantine I "limes" in 330 AD


Post-Roman

During the Migrations Period in the 5th century, some parts of Pannonia were ceded to the Huns in 433 by Flavius Aetius, the magister militum of the Western Roman Empire. After the collapse of the Hunnic empire in 454, large numbers of Ostrogoths were settled by Emperor Emperor Marcian, Marcian in the province as foederati. The Eastern Roman Empire controlled southern parts of Pannonia in the 6th century, during the reign of Justinian I. The Byzantine province of Pannonia (Byzantine province), Pannonia with its capital at Sirmium was temporarily restored, but it included only a small southeastern part of historical Pannonia. Afterwards, it was again invaded by the Pannonian Avars, Avars in the 560s, and the Slavs, who first may settled c. 480s but became independent only from the 7th century. In 790s, it was invaded by the Franks, who used the name "Pannonia" to designate the newly formed frontier province, the March of Pannonia. The term Pannonia was also used for Slavic polity like Pannonian Slavs#Principality, Lower Pannonia that was vassal to the Frankish Empire. Between the 5th and the 10th centuries, the romanized population of Pannonia developed the Pannonian Romance, Romance Pannonian language, mainly around Lake Balaton in present-day western Hungary, where there was the keszthely culture. This language and the related culture became extinct with the Magyar invasion of Pannonia, arrival of the Magyars.


Cities and auxiliary forts

The native settlements consisted of (cantons) containing a number of (villages), the majority of the large towns being of Roman Empire, Roman origin. The cities and towns in Pannonia were: Now in Austria: * Carnuntum (Petronell, Bad Deutsch-Altenburg) * Vindobona (Vienna) Now in Bosnia and Herzegovina: * Saldae (Pannonia), Saldae (Brčko (city), Brčko) * Serbinum or Servitium (Gradiška, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Gradiška) * Castrum and Canabea (Doboj (city), Doboj) Now in Croatia: * Ad Novas (Pannonia), Ad Novas (Zmajevac) * Andautonia (Ščitarjevo) * Aqua Viva (Petrijanec) * Aquae Balisae (Daruvar) * Certissa (Đakovo) * Cibalae (Vinkovci) * Cornacum (Sotin) * Cuccium (Ilok) * Iovia or Iovia Botivo (Ludbreg) * Marsonia (Slavonski Brod) * Mursa (Osijek) * Siscia (Sisak) * Teutoburgium (Dalj) Now in Hungary: * Mosonmagyaróvár, Ad Flexum (Mosonmagyaróvár) * Ad Mures (Ács) * Vaspuszta, Ad Statuas (Vaspuszta) * Várdomb, Ad Statuas (Várdomb) * Alisca (Szekszárd) * Alta Ripa (Tolna, Hungary, Tolna) * Aquincum (Óbuda, Budapest) * Arrabona (Győr) * Brigetio (Szőny) * Caesariana (Pannonia), Caesariana (Baláca) * Campona (Nagytétény) * Cirpi (Dunabogdány) * Contra-Aquincum (Budapest) * Contra Constantiam (Dunakeszi) * Gorsium-Herculia (Tác) * Intercisa (Dunaújváros) * Iovia (Szakcs) * Lugio (Dunaszekcső) * Lussonium (Dunakömlőd) * Matrica (Százhalombatta) * Morgentianae (Tüskevár (?)) * Mursella (Mórichida) * Quadrata (Pannonia), Quadrata (Lébény) * Zalalövő, Sala (Zalalövő) * Szombathely, Savaria or Sabaria (Szombathely) * Scarbantia (Sopron) * Solva (Hungary), Solva (Esztergom) * Sopianae (Pécs) * Ulcisia Castra (Szentendre) * Valcum (Fenékpuszta) Now in Serbia: * Acumincum (Stari Slankamen) * Ad Herculae (Čortanovci) * Bassianae (Donji Petrovci) * Banoštor, Bononia (Banoštor) * Burgenae (Novi Banovci) * Cusum (Pannonia), Cusum (Petrovaradin) * Graio (Sremska Rača) * Onagrinum (Begeč) * Rittium (Surduk) * Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica) * Taurunum (Zemun) Now in Slovakia: * Gerulata (Rusovce) Now in Slovenia: * Celeia (Celje) * Neviodunum (Drnovo) * Poetovio (Ptuj)


Economy and country features

The country was fairly productive, especially after the great forests had been cleared by Marcus Aurelius Probus, Probus and Galerius. Before that time, timber had been one of its most important exports. Its chief agricultural products were oats and barley, from which the inhabitants brewed a kind of beer named sabaea. Vines and olive trees were little cultivated. Pannonia was also famous for its breed of hunting dogs. Although no mention is made of its mineral wealth by the ancients, it is probable that it contained iron and silver mines. Its chief rivers were the Drava, Dravus, Sava, Savus, and Rába, Arrabo, in addition to the Danube, Danuvius (less correctly, Danubius), into which the first three rivers flow.


Legacy

The ancient name Pannonia is retained in the modern term ''Pannonian Basin, Pannonian plain''.


See also

* Pannonian Basin, Pannonian plain * Roman provinces * Diocese of Pannonia


References


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

*Parat, Josip. "Izbori i pregledi antičkih literarnih izvora za povijest južne Panonije" [Selections and Surveys of Ancient Literary Sources for the History of Southern Pannonia]. In: ''Scrinia Slavonica'' 15, br. 1 (2015): 9-33. https://hrcak.srce.hr/164529


External links

* * *
Pannonia map

Pannonia map

Aerial photography: Gorsium - Tác - Hungary

Aerial photography: Aquincum - Budapest - Hungary
{{Authority control Pannonia, Provinces of the Roman Empire Provinces of Pannonia, . Austria in the Roman era Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Roman era Croatia in the Roman era Hungary in the Roman era Illyricum (Roman province) Serbia in the Roman era Slovakia in the Roman era Slovenia in the Roman era Ancient history of Vojvodina States and territories established in the 1st century States and territories disestablished in the 2nd century 20 establishments 20s establishments in the Roman Empire 100s disestablishments in the Roman Empire 107 disestablishments