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Open-source software (OSS) is
computer software Software is a collection of instructions Instruction or instructions may refer to: Computing * Instruction, one operation of a processor within a computer architecture instruction set * Computer program, a collection of instructions Music * I ...

computer software
that is released under a
license A license (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English ...
in which the
copyright Copyright is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. ...

copyright
holder grants users the rights to use, study, change, and distribute the software and its
source code In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and ...

source code
to anyone and for any purpose. Open-source
software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, hardware, from which the system is built and actually performs the work. At the low level lang ...

software
may be developed in a collaborative public manner. Open-source software is a prominent example of
open collaborationOpen collaboration is "any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants who interact to create a product (or service) of economic value, which they make available to contributors and noncontrib ...
, meaning any capable user is able to participate online in development, making the number of possible contributors indefinite. The ability to examine the code facilitates public trust in the software.
Open-source software developmentOpen-source software development is the process by which open-source software Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright Copyright is a type of in ...
can bring in diverse perspectives beyond those of a single company. A 2008 report by the
Standish Group The Standish Group International, Inc. or Standish Group is an independent international IT research advisory firm founded in 1985, known from their reports about information systems An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical, organiza ...
stated that adoption of open-source software models has resulted in savings of about $60 billion per year for consumers. Open source code can be used for
studying Study skills, ''academic skill'', or ''study strategies'' are approaches applied to learning. Study skills are an array of skills which tackle the process of organizing and taking in new information, retaining information, or dealing with exam, ass ...

studying
and allows capable end users to adapt software to their personal needs in a similar way
user script A userscript (or user script) is a program, usually written in JavaScript JavaScript (), often abbreviated JS, is a programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set architecture, set of instruc ...
s and custom style sheets allow for web sites, and eventually publish the modification as a
fork In cutlery or kitchenware, a fork (from la, furca 'pitchfork') is a utensil, now usually made of metal, whose long handle terminates in a head that branches into several narrow and often slightly curved tine (structural), tines with which one c ...
for users with similar preferences, and directly submit possible improvements as
pull requestIn software development Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing involved in creating and maintaining applications, frameworks, or other software components. ...
s.


History


End of 1990s: Foundation of the Open Source Initiative

In the early days of computing, programmers and developers shared software in order to learn from each other and evolve the field of computing. Eventually, the open-source notion moved to the wayside of commercialization of software in the years 1970–1980. However, academics still often developed software collaboratively. Examples are
Donald Knuth Donald Ervin Knuth ( ; born January 10, 1938) is an American computer scientist A computer scientist is a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousnes ...
in 1979 with the
TeX TeX (, see below), stylized within the system as TeX, is a typesetting system which was designed and mostly written by Donald Knuth and released in 1978. TeX is a popular means of typesetting complex mathematical formulae; it has been noted ...
typesetting system and
Richard Stallman Richard Matthew Stallman (; born March 16, 1953), also known by his initials, rms, is an American free software movement The free software movement is a social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting popul ...

Richard Stallman
in 1983 with the
GNU GNU () is an extensive collection of free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any ...

GNU
operating system. In 1997, Eric Raymond published ''
The Cathedral and the Bazaar ''The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary'' (abbreviated ''CatB'') is an essay, and later a book, by Eric S. Raymond on software engineering methods, based on his observations of the Linux ke ...
'', a reflective analysis of the hacker community and free-software principles. The paper received significant attention in early 1998, and was one factor in motivating
Netscape Communications Corporation Netscape Communications Corporation (originally Mosaic Communications Corporation) was an American independent computer services company with headquarters in Mountain View, California Mountain View is a city in Santa Clara County, California ...
to release their popular
Netscape Communicator Netscape Communicator (or ''Netscape 4'') is a discontinued Internet suite produced by Netscape Communications Corporation Netscape Communications Corporation (originally Mosaic Communications Corporation) was an independent American computer ...
Internet suite as
free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions. Free software is a matter of liberty ...
. This
source code In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and ...

source code
subsequently became the basis behind
SeaMonkey SeaMonkey is a free and open-source Internet suite. It is the continuation of the former Mozilla Application Suite, based on the same source code In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or cre ...

SeaMonkey
,
Mozilla Firefox Mozilla Firefox or simply Firefox is a free and open-source Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how ...

Mozilla Firefox
,
Thunderbird Thunderbird or Thunderbirds may refer to: * Thunderbird (mythology), a legendary creature in certain North American indigenous peoples' history and culture Arts, entertainment and media Fictional characters * Thunderbird (John Proudstar), a Marvel ...
and
KompoZer KompoZer is a discontinued Open-source software, open source WYSIWYG HTML editor based on the Nvu editor, which was itself derived from the Mozilla Composer, Composer component of the Mozilla Application Suite. KompoZer was Fork (software develo ...
. Netscape's act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the
Free Software Foundation The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on October 4, 1985, to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify compu ...
's free software ideas and perceived benefits to the commercial software industry. They concluded that FSF's social activism was not appealing to companies like Netscape, and looked for a way to rebrand the
free software movement The free software movement is a social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting popu ...
to emphasize the business potential of sharing and collaborating on software source code. The new term they chose was "open source", which was soon adopted by
Bruce Perens Bruce Perens (born around 1958) is an American computer programmer A computer programmer, sometimes called a software developer, a programmer or more recently a coder (especially in more informal contexts), is a person who creates computer s ...
, publisher
Tim O'Reilly Tim O'Reilly (born 6 June 1954) is the founder of O'Reilly Media O'Reilly Media (formerly O'Reilly & Associates) is an American learning company established by Tim O'Reilly that publishes books, produces tech conferences, and provides an o ...

Tim O'Reilly
,
Linus Torvalds Linus Benedict Torvalds ( , ; born 28 December 1969) is a Finnish-American software engineer who is the creator and, historically, the main developer of the Linux kernel, used by Linux distributions and other operating systems such as Android (o ...
, and others. The
Open Source Initiative The Open Source Initiative (OSI) is the steward of the Open Source definition, Open Source Definition, the set of rules that define Open Source Software, open source software. It is a California public-benefit nonprofit corporation, with 501(c)(3 ...
was founded in February 1998 to encourage use of the new term and evangelize open-source principles. While the Open Source Initiative sought to encourage the use of the new term and evangelize the principles it adhered to, commercial software vendors found themselves increasingly threatened by the concept of freely distributed software and universal access to an application's
source code In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and ...

source code
.
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multination ...

Microsoft
executive
Jim Allchin James Edward Allchin (born 1951, Grand Rapids Grand Rapids is the second-largest city in Michigan Michigan () is a U.S. state, state in the Great Lakes region, Great Lakes and Upper Midwest regions of the United States. Its name com ...
publicly stated in 2001 that "open source is an intellectual property destroyer. I can't imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business and the intellectual-property business." However, while
Free and open-source software Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software Software is a collection of instructions that tell a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. ...
has historically played a role outside of the mainstream of private software development, companies as large as
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multination ...

Microsoft
have begun to develop official open-source presences on the Internet. IBM, Oracle, Google, and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in today's competitive open-source market. There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of
FOSS Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, physical hardwa ...
. The
free-software movement The free software movement is a social movement with the goal of obtaining and guaranteeing certain freedoms for software users, namely the freedoms to run the software, to study the software, to modify the software, and to share copies of the so ...
was launched in 1983. In 1998, a group of individuals advocated that the term free software should be replaced by open-source software (OSS) as an expression which is less ambiguous and more comfortable for the corporate world. Software developers may want to publish their software with an
open-source license An open-source license is a type of License compatibility, license for computer software and other products that allows the source code, blueprint or design to be used, modified and/or shared under defined terms and conditions. This allows end user ...
, so that anybody may also develop the same software or understand its internal functioning. With open-source software, generally, anyone is allowed to create modifications of it, port it to new operating systems and
instruction set architectures In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of Algo ...
, share it with others or, in some cases, market it. Scholars Casson and Ryan have pointed out several policy-based reasons for adoption of open source – in particular, the heightened value proposition from open source (when compared to most proprietary formats) in the following categories: * Security * Affordability * Transparency * Perpetuity * Interoperability * Flexibility * Localization – particularly in the context of local governments (who make software decisions). Casson and Ryan argue that "governments have an inherent responsibility and fiduciary duty to taxpayers" which includes the careful analysis of these factors when deciding to purchase proprietary software or implement an open-source option. The ''
Open Source Definition ''The Open Source Definition'' is a document published by the Open Source Initiative, to determine whether a software license can be labeled with the Open-source software, open-source certification mark. The definition was taken from the exact te ...
'' presents an open-source philosophy and further defines the terms of use, modification and redistribution of open-source software. Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be reserved by copyright law to the copyright holder. Several open-source software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the ''Open Source Definition''. The most prominent and popular example is the
GNU General Public License The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a series of widely used free software license A free-software license is a notice that grants the recipient of a piece of software extensive rights to modify and redistribute that ...
(GPL), which "allows free distribution under the condition that further developments and applications are put under the same licence", thus also free. The ''open source'' label came out of a strategy session held on April 7, 1998, in
Palo Alto Palo Alto (; for "tall stick") is a located in the northwestern corner of , United States, in the . The city is named after a known as . The city was established by when he founded , following the death of his son, Palo Alto includes port ...

Palo Alto
in reaction to Netscape's January 1998 announcement of a source code release for
Navigator A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.Bowditch ...
(as
Mozilla Mozilla (stylized as moz://a) is a free software community founded in 1998 by members of Netscape. The Mozilla community uses, develops, spreads and supports Mozilla products, thereby promoting exclusively free software and open standards, wit ...

Mozilla
). A group of individuals at the session included
Tim O'Reilly Tim O'Reilly (born 6 June 1954) is the founder of O'Reilly Media O'Reilly Media (formerly O'Reilly & Associates) is an American learning company established by Tim O'Reilly that publishes books, produces tech conferences, and provides an o ...

Tim O'Reilly
,
Linus Torvalds Linus Benedict Torvalds ( , ; born 28 December 1969) is a Finnish-American software engineer who is the creator and, historically, the main developer of the Linux kernel, used by Linux distributions and other operating systems such as Android (o ...
, Tom Paquin,
Jamie Zawinski Jamie Zawinski (born November 3, 1968), commonly known as jwz, is an American impresario An impresario (from the Italian ''impresa'', "an enterprise or undertaking") is a person who organizes and often finances concerts, plays, or opera O ...
,
Larry Wall Larry Arnold Wall (born September 27, 1954) is an American computer programmer and author. He created the Perl programming language. Personal life Wall grew up in Los Angeles and then Bremerton, Washington, before starting higher education at Sea ...
,
Brian Behlendorf Brian Behlendorf (born March 30, 1973) is an American technologist, executive, computer programmer and leading figure in the open-source software Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software in which source code is released u ...
,
Sameer ParekhSameer Parekh is the founder of C2Net Software, Inc. While in high school in Libertyville, Illinois, he published an underground newspaper called ''The Free Journal'', promoting libertarian ideas. In 1993 Parekh moved to Berkeley, California B ...
,
Eric Allman Eric Paul Allman (born September 2, 1955) is an American computer programmer who developed sendmail and its precursor delivermail in the late 1970s and early 1980s at UC Berkeley. In 1998, Allman and Greg Olson co-founded the company Sendmail, I ...

Eric Allman
, Greg Olson,
Paul Vixie Paul Vixie is an American computer scientist A computer scientist is a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a ...
,
John Ousterhout John Kenneth Ousterhout (, born October 15, 1954) is a professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, ...
,
Guido van Rossum
Guido van Rossum
,
Philip Zimmermann Philip R. Zimmermann (born 1954) is an American computer scientist and cryptographer. He is the creator of Pretty Good Privacy Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is an encryption software, encryption program that provides cryptographic privacy and a ...
, John Gilmore and
Eric S. Raymond Eric Steven Raymond (born December 4, 1957), often referred to as ESR, is an American software developer, open-source software advocate, and author of the 1997 essay and 1999 book ''The Cathedral and the Bazaar''. He wrote a guidebook for the R ...
. They used the opportunity before the release of Navigator's source code to clarify a potential confusion caused by the ambiguity of the word "free" in
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
. Many people claimed that the birth of the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
, since 1969, started the open-source movement, while others do not distinguish between open-source and free software movements. The
Free Software Foundation The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on October 4, 1985, to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify compu ...
(FSF), started in 1985, intended the word "free" to mean ''freedom to distribute'' (or "free as in free speech") and not ''freedom from cost'' (or "free as in free beer"). Since a great deal of free software already was (and still is) free of charge, such free software became associated with zero cost, which seemed anti-commercial. The
Open Source Initiative The Open Source Initiative (OSI) is the steward of the Open Source definition, Open Source Definition, the set of rules that define Open Source Software, open source software. It is a California public-benefit nonprofit corporation, with 501(c)(3 ...
(OSI) was formed in February 1998 by Eric Raymond and Bruce Perens. With at least 20 years of evidence from case histories of closed software development versus open development already provided by the Internet developer community, the OSI presented the "open source" case to commercial businesses, like Netscape. The OSI hoped that the use of the label "open source", a term suggested by
Christine Peterson Christine Peterson is an American forecaster, and the co-founder of Foresight Institute. She is credited with suggesting the term " open source" when used in connection with software. Peterson holds a bachelor's degree in chemistry from MIT.
of the
Foresight Institute The Foresight Institute is a Palo Alto, California Palo Alto () is a charter city located in the northwestern corner of Santa Clara County, California Santa Clara County, officially the County of Santa Clara, is California's List of counties ...
at the strategy session, would eliminate ambiguity, particularly for individuals who perceive "free software" as anti-commercial. They sought to bring a higher profile to the practical benefits of freely available source code, and they wanted to bring major software businesses and other high-tech industries into open source. Perens attempted to register "open source" as a
service mark A service mark or servicemark is a trademark A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-mark) is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human ...

service mark
for the OSI, but that attempt was impractical by
trademark A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-mark) is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect. There are many types of intellectual pr ...

trademark
standards. Meanwhile, due to the presentation of Raymond's paper to the upper management at Netscape—Raymond only discovered when he read the
press release A press release is an official statement delivered to members of the news media for the purpose of providing information, an official statement, or making an announcement. A press release is traditionally composed of nine structural elements, inc ...

press release
, and was called by
Netscape Netscape Communications Corporation (originally Mosaic Communications Corporation) was an American independent computer services company with headquarters in Mountain View, California Mountain View is a city in Santa Clara County, California ...

Netscape
CEO
Jim Barksdale James Love Barksdale (born January 24, 1943) is an American executive who served as the president and CEO of Netscape Netscape Communications Corporation (originally Mosaic Communications Corporation) was an independent American computer servic ...

Jim Barksdale
's PA later in the day—Netscape released its Navigator source code as open source, with favorable results.


Definitions

The
Open Source Initiative The Open Source Initiative (OSI) is the steward of the Open Source definition, Open Source Definition, the set of rules that define Open Source Software, open source software. It is a California public-benefit nonprofit corporation, with 501(c)(3 ...
's (OSI) definition is recognized by several governments internationally as the standard or ''de facto'' definition. In addition, many of the world's largest open-source-software projects and contributors, including Debian, Drupal Association, FreeBSD Foundation, Linux Foundation, OpenSUSE Foundation, Mozilla Foundation, Wikimedia Foundation, Wordpress Foundation have committed to upholding the OSI's mission and Open Source Definition through the OSI Affiliate Agreement. OSI uses ''
The Open Source Definition ''The Open Source Definition'' is a document published by the Open Source Initiative The Open Source Initiative (OSI) is the steward of the Open Source Definition ''The Open Source Definition'' is a document published by the Open Source Initiati ...
'' to determine whether it considers a software license open source. The definition was based on the
Debian Free Software GuidelinesThe Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG) is a set of guidelines that the Debian Debian (), also known as Debian GNU/Linux, is a Linux distribution A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system An operating syst ...
, written and adapted primarily by Perens. Perens did not base his writing on the "four freedoms" from the
Free Software Foundation The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on October 4, 1985, to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify compu ...
(FSF), which were only widely available later. Under Perens' definition, ''open source'' is a broad software license that makes source code available to the general public with relaxed or non-existent restrictions on the use and modification of the code. It is an explicit "feature" of open source that it puts very few restrictions on the use or distribution by any organization or user, in order to enable the rapid evolution of the software. Despite initially accepting it,
Richard Stallman Richard Matthew Stallman (; born March 16, 1953), also known by his initials, rms, is an American free software movement The free software movement is a social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting popul ...

Richard Stallman
of the FSF now flatly opposes the term "Open Source" being applied to what they refer to as "free software". Although he agrees that the two terms describe "almost the same category of software", Stallman considers equating the terms incorrect and misleading. Stallman also opposes the professed pragmatism of the
Open Source Initiative The Open Source Initiative (OSI) is the steward of the Open Source definition, Open Source Definition, the set of rules that define Open Source Software, open source software. It is a California public-benefit nonprofit corporation, with 501(c)(3 ...
, as he fears that the free software ideals of freedom and community are threatened by compromising on the FSF's idealistic standards for software freedom. The FSF considers free software to be a
subset In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). ...

subset
of open-source software, and Richard Stallman explained that
DRM DRM may refer to: Government, military and politics * Defense reform movement, U.S. campaign inspired by Col. John Boyd * Democratic Republic of Madagascar, a former socialist state (1975–1992) on Madagascar * Direction du renseignement militaire ...
software, for example, can be developed as open source, despite that it does not give its users freedom (it restricts them), and thus doesn't qualify as free software.


Open-source software licensing

When an author contributes code to an open-source project (e.g., Apache.org) they do so under an explicit license (e.g., the Apache Contributor License Agreement) or an implicit license (e.g. the open-source license under which the project is already licensing code). Some open-source projects do not take contributed code under a license, but actually require joint assignment of the author's copyright in order to accept code contributions into the project. Examples of
free software license A free-software license is a notice that grants the recipient of a piece of software extensive rights to modify and software distribution, redistribute that software. These actions are usually prohibited by copyright law, but the rights-holde ...
/ open-source licenses include Apache License,
BSD license BSD licenses are a family of permissive free software licenses, imposing minimal restrictions on the use and distribution of covered software. This is in contrast to copyleft Copyleft is the practice of granting the right to freely distrib ...
,
GNU General Public License The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a series of widely used free software license A free-software license is a notice that grants the recipient of a piece of software extensive rights to modify and redistribute that ...
,
GNU Lesser General Public License The GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) is a free-software license published by the Free Software Foundation (FSF). The license allows developers and companies to use and integrate a software component released under the LGPL into their own ...
, MIT License,
Eclipse Public License The Eclipse Public License (EPL) is a free Free may refer to: Concept * Freedom, having the ability to act or change without constraint * Emancipate, to procure political rights, as for a disenfranchised group * Free will, control exercised b ...
and
Mozilla Public License The Mozilla Public License (MPL) is a free and open-source software license developed and maintained by the Mozilla Foundation. It is a weak copyleft license, characterized as a middle ground between permissive software licenses and the GNU Gen ...
. The proliferation of open-source licenses is a negative aspect of the open-source movement because it is often difficult to understand the legal implications of the differences between licenses. With more than 180,000 open-source projects available and more than 1400 unique licenses, the complexity of deciding how to manage open-source use within "closed-source" commercial enterprises has dramatically increased. Some are home-grown, while others are modeled after mainstream
FOSS Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, physical hardwa ...
licenses such as Berkeley Software Distribution ("BSD"), Apache, MIT-style (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), or GNU General Public License ("GPL"). In view of this, open-source practitioners are starting to use classification schemes in which
FOSS Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, physical hardwa ...
licenses are grouped (typically based on the existence and obligations imposed by the
copyleft Copyleft is the practice of granting the right to freely distribute and modify with the requirement that the same rights be preserved in derivative works created from that property. Copyleft in the form of s can be used to maintain conditions ...

copyleft
provision; the strength of the copyleft provision). An important legal milestone for the open source / free software movement was passed in 2008, when the US federal appeals court ruled that
free software license A free-software license is a notice that grants the recipient of a piece of software extensive rights to modify and software distribution, redistribute that software. These actions are usually prohibited by copyright law, but the rights-holde ...
s definitely do set legally binding conditions on the use of copyrighted work, and they are therefore enforceable under existing copyright law. As a result, if end-users violate the licensing conditions, their license disappears, meaning they are infringing copyright. Despite this licensing risk, most commercial software vendors are using open-source software in commercial products while fulfilling the license terms, e.g. leveraging the Apache license.


Certifications

Certification can help to build user confidence. Certification could be applied to the simplest component, to a whole software system. The United Nations University International Institute for Software Technology, initiated a project known as "The Global Desktop Project". This project aims to build a desktop interface that every end-user is able to understand and interact with, thus crossing the language and cultural barriers. The project would improve developing nations' access to information systems. UNU/IIST hopes to achieve this without any compromise in the quality of the software by introducing certifications.


Open-source software development


Development model

In his 1997 essay ''
The Cathedral and the Bazaar ''The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary'' (abbreviated ''CatB'') is an essay, and later a book, by Eric S. Raymond on software engineering methods, based on his observations of the Linux ke ...
'',
open-source evangelistOpen-source software advocacy is the practice of attempting to increase the awareness and improve the perception of open-source software. In some cases, this may be in opposition to proprietary software or intellectual property concepts (e.g. patents ...
Eric S. Raymond Eric Steven Raymond (born December 4, 1957), often referred to as ESR, is an American software developer, open-source software advocate, and author of the 1997 essay and 1999 book ''The Cathedral and the Bazaar''. He wrote a guidebook for the R ...
suggests a model for developing OSS known as the ''bazaar'' model. Raymond likens the development of software by traditional methodologies to building a cathedral, "carefully crafted by individual wizards or small bands of mages working in splendid isolation". He suggests that all software should be developed using the bazaar style, which he described as "a great babbling bazaar of differing agendas and approaches." In the traditional model of development, which he called the ''cathedral'' model, development takes place in a centralized way. Roles are clearly defined. Roles include people dedicated to designing (the architects), people responsible for managing the project, and people responsible for implementation. Traditional software engineering follows the cathedral model. The bazaar model, however, is different. In this model, roles are not clearly defined. Gregorio Robles suggests that software developed using the bazaar model should exhibit the following patterns: ; Users should be treated as co-developers: The users are treated like co-developers and so they should have access to the source code of the software. Furthermore, users are encouraged to submit additions to the software, code fixes for the software, bug reports, documentation, etc. Having more co-developers increases the rate at which the software evolves. Linus's law states, "Given enough eyeballs all bugs are shallow." This means that if many users view the source code, they will eventually find all bugs and suggest how to fix them. Note that some users have advanced programming skills, and furthermore, each user's machine provides an additional testing environment. This new testing environment offers the ability to find and fix a new bug. ; Early releases: The first version of the software should be released as early as possible so as to increase one's chances of finding co-developers early. ; Frequent integration: Code changes should be integrated (merged into a shared code base) as often as possible so as to avoid the overhead of fixing a large number of bugs at the end of the project life cycle. Some open-source projects have nightly builds where integration is done automatically on a daily basis. ; Several versions: There should be at least two versions of the software. There should be a buggier version with more features and a more stable version with fewer features. The buggy version (also called the development version) is for users who want the immediate use of the latest features, and are willing to accept the risk of using code that is not yet thoroughly tested. The users can then act as co-developers, reporting bugs and providing bug fixes. ; High modularization: The general structure of the software should be modular allowing for parallel development on independent components. ; Dynamic decision-making structure: There is a need for a decision-making structure, whether formal or informal, that makes strategic decisions depending on changing user requirements and other factors. Compare with
extreme programming Planning and feedback loops in extreme programming Extreme programming (XP) is a software development methodology which is intended to improve software quality In the context of software engineering, software quality refers to two related but d ...

extreme programming
. Data suggests, however, that OSS is not quite as democratic as the bazaar model suggests. An analysis of five billion bytes of free/open-source code by 31,999 developers shows that 74% of the code was written by the most active 10% of authors. The average number of authors involved in a project was 5.1, with the median at 2.


Advantages and disadvantages

Open-source software is usually easier to obtain than proprietary software, often resulting in increased use. Additionally, the availability of an open-source implementation of a standard can increase adoption of that standard. It has also helped to build developer loyalty as developers feel empowered and have a sense of ownership of the end product. Moreover, lower costs of marketing and logistical services are needed for OSS. It is a good tool to promote a company's image, including its commercial products. The OSS development approach has helped produce reliable, high quality software quickly and inexpensively. Open-source development offers the potential for a more flexible technology and quicker innovation. It is said to be more reliable since it typically has thousands of independent programmers testing and fixing bugs of the software. Open source is not dependent on the company or author that originally created it. Even if the company fails, the code continues to exist and be developed by its users. Also, it uses open standards accessible to everyone; thus, it does not have the problem of incompatible formats that may exist in proprietary software. It is flexible because modular systems allow programmers to build custom interfaces, or add new abilities to it and it is innovative since open-source programs are the product of collaboration among a large number of different programmers. The mix of divergent perspectives, corporate objectives, and personal goals speeds up innovation. Moreover, free software can be developed in accordance with purely technical requirements. It does not require thinking about commercial pressure that often degrades the quality of the software. Commercial pressures make traditional software developers pay more attention to customers' requirements than to security requirements, since such features are somewhat invisible to the customer. It is sometimes said that the open-source development process may not be well defined and the stages in the development process, such as system testing and documentation may be ignored. However this is only true for small (mostly single programmer) projects. Larger, successful projects do define and enforce at least some rules as they need them to make the teamwork possible. In the most complex projects these rules may be as strict as reviewing even minor change by two independent developers. Not all OSS initiatives have been successful; for example, SourceXchange and
Eazel Eazel was an American software Software is a collection of instructions that tell a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can ...

Eazel
. Software experts and researchers who are not convinced by open source's ability to produce quality systems identify the unclear process, the late defect discovery and the lack of any empirical evidence as the most important problems (collected data concerning productivity and quality). It is also difficult to design a commercially sound business model around the open-source paradigm. Consequently, only technical requirements may be satisfied and not the ones of the market. In terms of security, open source may allow hackers to know about the weaknesses or loopholes of the software more easily than closed-source software. It depends on control mechanisms in order to create effective performance of autonomous agents who participate in virtual organizations.


Development tools

In OSS development, tools are used to support the development of the product and the development process itself.
Revision control In software engineering, version control (also known as revision control, source control, or source code management) is a class of systems responsible for managing changes to computer program A computer program is a collection of instructio ...
systems such as
Concurrent Versions System Concurrent Versions System (CVS, also known as the Concurrent Versioning System) is a revision control system originally developed by Dick Grune in July 1986. CVS operates as a front end and back end, front end to Revision Control System, RCS, a ...
(CVS) and later
Subversion Subversion (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...
(SVN) and
Git Git () is software for tracking changes in any set of , usually used for coordinating work among s collaboratively developing during . Its goals include speed, , and support for distributed, non-linear workflows (thousands of parallel branche ...
are examples of tools, often themselves open source, help manage the source code files and the changes to those files for a software project. The projects are frequently stored in "
repositories Repository may refer to: * ''The Repository'', a newspaper in Ohio * ''Ackermann's Repository'', a British periodical published 1809–1829 * Repository (version control), a data structure which stores metadata for a set of files or directory stru ...
" that are hosted and published on source-code-hosting facilities such as Launchpad,
GitHub __FORCETOC__ GitHub, Inc. is a provider of Internet hosting service, Internet hosting for software development and version control using Git. It offers the distributed version control and source code management (SCM) functionality of Git, plus ...

GitHub
,
GitLab GitLab is a web-based DevOps lifecycle tool that provides a Git- repository manager providing wiki A wiki ( ) is a hypertext publication Collaborative editing, collaboratively edited and managed by its own audience directly using a ...
, and
SourceForge SourceForge is a web service The term Web service (WS) is either: * a service offered by an electronic device to another electronic device, communicating with each other via the World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly k ...
. Open-source projects are often loosely organized with "little formalised process modelling or support", but utilities such as issue trackers are often used to organize open-source software development. Commonly used
bugtracker A bug tracking system or defect tracking system is a software application that keeps track of reported software bugs in software development projects. It may be regarded as a type of issue tracking system. Many bug tracking systems, such as those u ...
s include
Bugzilla Bugzilla is a web Web most often refers to: * Spider web A spider web, spiderweb, spider's web, or cobweb (from the archaic word '' coppe'', meaning "spider") is a structure created by a spider Spiders ( order Araneae) are air-breathin ...

Bugzilla
and
Redmine Redmine is a free and open source, web-based project management and issue tracking tool. It allows users to manage multiple projects and associated subprojects. It features per project wiki A wiki ( ) is a hypertext publication Collaborati ...

Redmine
. Tools such as
mailing lists A mailing list is a collection of names and addresses used by an individual or an organization to send material to multiple recipients. The term is often extended to include the people subscribed to such a list, so the group of subscribers is refe ...

mailing lists
and
IRC Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a text-based chat (instant messaging Instant messaging (IM) technology is a type of online chat Online chat may refer to any kind of communication over the Internet that offers a real-time text, real-time t ...
provide means of coordination among developers. Centralized code hosting sites also have social features that allow developers to communicate.


Organizations

Some of the "more prominent organizations" involved in OSS development include the
Apache Software Foundation The Apache Software Foundation (ASF) is an American (classified as a in the United States) to support a number of open source software projects. The ASF was formed from a group of developers of the , and incorporated on March 25, 1999. As of ...
, creators of the Apache web server; the
Linux Foundation The Linux Foundation (LF) is a non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or so ...
, a nonprofit which employed Linus Torvalds, the creator of the
Linux operating system Linux ( or ) is a family of open-source Unix-like A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to a ...

Linux operating system
kernel Kernel may refer to: Computing * Kernel (operating system) In an operating system with a Abstraction layer, layered architecture, the kernel is the lowest level, has complete control of the hardware and is always in memory. In some systems it ...
; the
Eclipse Foundation The Eclipse Foundation AISBL is an independent, Canada-based not-for-profit corporation that acts as a steward of the Eclipse open source software development community, with legal jurisdiction in the European Union The European Union (EU ...
, home of the
Eclipse ECLiPSe is a software system for the development and deployment of Constraint Programming Constraint programming (CP) is a paradigm for solving combinatorial problems that draws on a wide range of techniques from artificial intelligence ...

Eclipse
software development platform; the Debian Project, creators of the influential
Debian Debian (), also known as Debian GNU/Linux, is a composed of , developed by the community-supported Debian Project, which was established by on August 16, 1993. The first version of Debian (0.01) was released on September 15, 1993, and its fir ...

Debian
GNU/Linux distribution; the
Mozilla Foundation The Mozilla Foundation (stylized as moz://a) is an American non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized an ...
, home of the Firefox web browser; and OW2, European-born community developing open-source middleware. New organizations tend to have a more sophisticated governance model and their membership is often formed by legal entity members. Open Source Software Institute is a membership-based, non-profit (501 (c)(6)) organization established in 2001 that promotes the development and implementation of open source software solutions within US Federal, state and local government agencies. OSSI's efforts have focused on promoting adoption of open-source software programs and policies within Federal Government and Defense and Homeland Security communities.
Open Source for America Open Source for America consortium of various organizations established to advocate for and support the use of free and open-source software in the U.S. Federal government. It consists of various open source foundations, and companies, including GNO ...
is a group created to raise awareness in the United States Federal Government about the benefits of open-source software. Their stated goals are to encourage the government's use of open source software, participation in open-source software projects, and incorporation of open-source community dynamics to increase government transparency. Mil-OSS is a group dedicated to the advancement of OSS use and creation in the military.


Funding


Comparisons with other software licensing/development models


Closed source / proprietary software

The debate over ''open source'' vs. ''
closed source Proprietary software, also known as non-free software or closed-source software, is computer software for which the software's publisher or another person reserves some rights from licenses to use, modify, share modifications, or share the softwa ...
'' (alternatively called
proprietary software Proprietary software, also known as non-free software or closed-source software, is computer software for which the software's publisher or another person reserves some rights from licenses to use, modify, share modifications, or share the softwa ...
) is sometimes heated. The top four reasons (as provided by Open Source Business Conference survey) individuals or organizations choose open-source software are: # lower cost # security # no vendor 'lock in' # better quality Since innovative companies no longer rely heavily on software sales, proprietary software has become less of a necessity. As such, things like open-source
content management system A content management system (CMS) is a computer software used to manage the creation and modification of digital content (content management).''Managing Enterprise Content: A Unified Content Strategy''. Ann Rockley, Pamela Kostur, Steve Manning. Ne ...
—or CMS—deployments are becoming more commonplace. In 2009, the US White House switched its CMS system from a proprietary system to
Drupal Drupal () is a free and open-source Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that is both free software and open-source software where anyone is free software license, freely licensed to use, copy, study, and change the software in an ...

Drupal
open source CMS. Further, companies like
Novell Novell, Inc. was an American software and services company headquartered in Provo, Utah Provo is the third-largest city in Utah, United States. It is south of Salt Lake City along the Wasatch Front. Provo is the largest city and county se ...

Novell
(who traditionally sold software the old-fashioned way) continually debate the benefits of switching to open-source availability, having already switched part of the product offering to open source code. In this way, open-source software provides solutions to unique or specific problems. As such, it is reported that 98% of enterprise-level companies use open-source software offerings in some capacity. With this market shift, more critical systems are beginning to rely on open-source offerings, allowing greater funding (such as
US Department of Homeland Security The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is the Federal government of the United States, U.S. United States federal executive departments, federal executive department responsible for public security, roughly comparable to the I ...
grants) to help "hunt for security bugs." According to a pilot study of organizations adopting (or not adopting) OSS, the following factors of statistical significance were observed in the manager's beliefs: (a) attitudes toward outcomes, (b) the influences and behaviors of others, and (c) their ability to act. Proprietary source distributors have started to develop and contribute to the open-source community due to the market share shift, doing so by the need to reinvent their models in order to remain competitive. Many advocates argue that open-source software is inherently safer because any person can view, edit, and change code. A study of the Linux source code has 0.17 bugs per 1000 lines of code while proprietary software generally scores 20–30 bugs per 1000 lines.


Free software

According to the
Free software movement The free software movement is a social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting popu ...
's leader,
Richard Stallman Richard Matthew Stallman (; born March 16, 1953), also known by his initials, rms, is an American free software movement The free software movement is a social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting popul ...

Richard Stallman
, the main difference is that by choosing one term over the other (i.e. either "open source" or "
free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions. Free software is a matter of liberty ...
") one lets others know about what one's goals are: "Open source is a development methodology; free software is a social movement." Nevertheless, there is significant overlap between open source software and free software. The FSF said that the term "open source" fosters an ambiguity of a different kind such that it confuses the mere availability of the source with the freedom to use, modify, and redistribute it. On the other hand, the "free software" term was criticized for the ambiguity of the word "free" as "available at no cost", which was seen as discouraging for business adoption, and for the historical ambiguous usage of the term. Developers have used the alternative terms ''Free and Open Source Software'' (
FOSS Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, physical hardwa ...
), or ''Free/Libre and Open Source Software'' (FLOSS), consequently, to describe open-source software that is also
free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions. Free software is a matter of liberty ...
. While the definition of open source software is very similar to the FSF's
free software definition The Free Software Definition written by Richard Stallman Richard Matthew Stallman (; born March 16, 1953), also known by his initials, rms, is an American free software movement activist and programmer A computer programmer, sometimes cal ...
it was based on the
Debian Free Software GuidelinesThe Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG) is a set of guidelines that the Debian Debian (), also known as Debian GNU/Linux, is a Linux distribution A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system An operating syst ...
, written and adapted primarily by
Bruce Perens Bruce Perens (born around 1958) is an American computer programmer A computer programmer, sometimes called a software developer, a programmer or more recently a coder (especially in more informal contexts), is a person who creates computer s ...
with input from
Eric S. Raymond Eric Steven Raymond (born December 4, 1957), often referred to as ESR, is an American software developer, open-source software advocate, and author of the 1997 essay and 1999 book ''The Cathedral and the Bazaar''. He wrote a guidebook for the R ...
and others. The term "open source" was originally intended to be trademarkable; however, the term was deemed too descriptive, so no trademark exists. The OSI would prefer that people treat open source as if it were a trademark, and use it only to describe software licensed under an OSI approved license. OSI Certified is a trademark licensed only to people who are distributing software licensed under a license listed on the Open Source Initiative's list.


Open-source versus source-available

Although the OSI definition of "open-source software" is widely accepted, a small number of people and organizations use the term to refer to software where the source is available for viewing, but which may not legally be modified or redistributed. Such software is more often referred to as ''
source-available Source-available software is software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, physical hardware, from wh ...
'', or as ''shared source'', a term coined by Microsoft in 2001. While in 2007 two of Microsoft's
Shared Source Initiative The Shared Source Initiative (SSI) is a source-available software licensing scheme launched by Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washingto ...
licenses were certified by the OSI, most licenses from the SSI program are still ''source-available only''.


Open-sourcing

Open-sourcing is the act of propagating the
open source movement The open-source-software movement is a movement that supports the use of open-source licenses for some or all software, a part of the broader notion of open collaboration. The open-source movement was started to spread the concept/idea of open ...
, most often referring to releasing previously
proprietary software Proprietary software, also known as non-free software or closed-source software, is computer software for which the software's publisher or another person reserves some rights from licenses to use, modify, share modifications, or share the softwa ...
under an
open source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized model ...
/
free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions. Free software is a matter of liberty ...
license, but it may also refer programming Open Source software or installing Open Source software. Notable software packages, previously proprietary, which have been open sourced include: *
Netscape Navigator Netscape Navigator was a proprietary web browser A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is application software for accessing the World Wide Web upright=1.35, A global map of the web index for countries in 2014 The World ...
, the code of which became the basis of the
Mozilla Mozilla (stylized as moz://a) is a free software community founded in 1998 by members of Netscape. The Mozilla community uses, develops, spreads and supports Mozilla products, thereby promoting exclusively free software and open standards, wit ...

Mozilla
and
Mozilla Firefox Mozilla Firefox or simply Firefox is a free and open-source Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how ...

Mozilla Firefox
web browser A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is application software Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typical ...

web browser
s *
StarOffice StarOffice, known briefly as Oracle Open Office before being discontinued in 2011, is a proprietary office suite. It originated in 1985 as StarWriter by '' Star Division'', which was acquired by Sun Microsystems Sun Microsystems, Inc. (Sun ...
, which became the base of the
office suite Productivity software (also called personal productivity software or office productivity software) is application software used for producing information (such as documents, presentations, worksheets, databases, charts, Information graphics, graphs, ...
and *
Global File System In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of , , ...
, was originally GPL'd, then made proprietary in 2001(?), but in 2004 was re-GPL'd. * SAP DB, which has become
MaxDB MaxDB is an ANSI The American National Standards Institute (ANSI ) is a private non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal ...
, and is now distributed (and owned) by
MySQL AB MySQL AB was a Swedish software company founded in 1995. It was acquired by Sun Microsystems Sun Microsystems, Inc. (Sun for short) is a defunct American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology ...
*
InterBase InterBase is a relational database management system A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970. A software system used to maintain relational databases is a relational ...
database, which was open sourced by
Borland Borland Software Corporation was a computer technology company founded in 1983 by Niels Jensen, Ole Henriksen, Mogens Glad and Philippe Kahn. Its main business was the development and sale of software development and software deployment products. B ...
in 2000 and presently exists as a commercial product and an open-source fork ( Firebird) Before changing the license of software, distributors usually audit the source code for third party licensed code which they would have to remove or obtain permission for its relicense. Backdoors and other
malware Malware (a portmanteau for malicious software) is any software intentionally designed to cause disruption to a computer, server (computing), server, Client (computing), client, or computer network, leak private information, gain unauthorized acc ...

malware
should also be removed as they may easily be discovered after release of the code.


Current applications and adoption


Widely used open-source software

Open-source software projects are built and maintained by a network of volunteer programmers and are widely used in free as well as commercial products. Prime examples of open-source products are the
Apache HTTP Server The Apache HTTP Server, colloquially called Apache ( ), is a free and open-source cross-platform web server software, released under the terms of Apache License 2.0. Apache is developed and maintained by an open community of developers under the ...
, the e-commerce platform
osCommerce OsCommerce (styled "osCommerce" - "open source Commerce") is an e-commerce and online store-management software program. It can be used on any web server that has PHP and MySQL installed. It is available as free software under the GNU General Publi ...
, internet browsers
Mozilla Firefox Mozilla Firefox or simply Firefox is a free and open-source Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how ...

Mozilla Firefox
and
Chromium Chromium is a chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science tha ...

Chromium
(the project where the vast majority of development of the freeware
Google Chrome Google Chrome is a cross-platform In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both ...

Google Chrome
is done) and the full office suite . One of the most successful open-source products is the
GNU/Linux Linux ( or ) is a family of open-source Unix-like A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to a ...

GNU/Linux
operating system, an open-source
Unix-like A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, computer software, software resources, and provides common daemon (computing), services for compu ...
operating system, and its derivative
Android Android may refer to: Science and technology * Android (robot), a humanoid robot or synthetic organism designed to imitate a human * Android (operating system), Google's mobile operating system ** Android (operating system)#Mascot, Unnamed Androi ...

Android
, an operating system for mobile devices. In some industries, open-source software is the norm.


Extensions for non-software use

While the term "open source" applied originally only to the source code of software, it is now being applied to many other areas such as
Open source ecology Open Source Ecology (OSE) is a network of farmers, engineers, architects and supporters, whose main goal is the eventual manufacturing of the Global Village Construction Set (GVCS). As described by Open Source Ecology "the GVCS is an open techno ...

Open source ecology
, a movement to decentralize technologies so that any human can use them. However, it is often misapplied to other areas that have different and competing principles, which overlap only partially. The same principles that underlie open-source software can be found in many other ventures, such as
open-source hardware Open-source hardware (OSH) consists of physical artifactArtifact, or artefact, may refer to: Science and technology *Artifact (error) In natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scien ...
,
Wikipedia Wikipedia ( or ) is a free content, multilingual online encyclopedia An online encyclopedia, also called an Internet encyclopedia, or a digital encyclopedia, is an encyclopedia An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia (British English) ...

Wikipedia
, and
open-access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis o ...

open-access
publishing. Collectively, these principles are known as open source, , and
open collaborationOpen collaboration is "any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants who interact to create a product (or service) of economic value, which they make available to contributors and noncontrib ...
: "any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants, who interact to create a product (or service) of economic value, which they make available to contributors and non-contributors alike." This "culture" or ideology takes the view that the principles apply more generally to facilitate concurrent input of different agendas, approaches, and priorities, in contrast with more centralized models of development such as those typically used in commercial companies.Raymond, Eric S. ''
The Cathedral and the Bazaar ''The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary'' (abbreviated ''CatB'') is an essay, and later a book, by Eric S. Raymond on software engineering methods, based on his observations of the Linux ke ...
''. ed 3.0. 2000.


See also


References


Further reading

* * Coleman, E. Gabriella. ''Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking'' (Princeton UP, 2012) * * * *
Understanding FOSS , editor = Sampathkumar Coimbatore India
'
Benkler, Yochai (2002), "Coase's Penguin, or, Linux and The Nature of the Firm." Yale Law Journal 112.3 (Dec 2002): p367(78)
(in Adobe
pdf Portable Document Format (PDF), standardized as ISO 32000, is a file format ogg-file: 154 kilobytes. A file format is a standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for pe ...
format) * * Lerner, J. & Tirole, J. (2002): 'Some simple economics on open source', Journal of Industrial Economics 50(2), p 197–234 * * * Rossi, M. A. (2006): Decoding the free/open-source software puzzle: A survey of theoretical and empirical contributions, in J. Bitzer P. Schröder, eds, 'The Economics of Open Source Software Development', p 15–55.
Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution
— an online book containing essays from prominent members of the open-source community
Berry, D M (2004). The Contestation of Code: A Preliminary Investigation into the Discourse of the Free Software and Open Software Movement, Critical Discourse Studies, Volume 1(1).
* *
Sustainable Open Source
', a Confluence article providing guidelines for fair participation in the open source ecosystem, by Radovan Semancik


External links

* The
Open Source Initiative The Open Source Initiative (OSI) is the steward of the Open Source definition, Open Source Definition, the set of rules that define Open Source Software, open source software. It is a California public-benefit nonprofit corporation, with 501(c)(3 ...
'
definition of open source

Free / Open Source Research Community
— Many online research papers about Open Source * {{Authority control Free software Software licenses