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O'Reilly Media (formerly O'Reilly & Associates) is an American learning company established by
Tim O'Reilly Tim O'Reilly (born 6 June 1954) is the founder of O'Reilly Media O'Reilly Media (formerly O'Reilly & Associates) is an American learning company established by Tim O'Reilly Tim O'Reilly (born 6 June 1954) is the founder of O'Reilly Med ...

Tim O'Reilly
that publishes books, produces tech conferences, and provides an online learning platform. Its distinctive brand features a
woodcut Woodcut is a relief printing Image:Principle of Relief Printing.svg, The basic concept of relief printing. ''A'' is the block or matrix; ''B'' is the paper; the thick black lines are the inked areas. (The thickness of the ink is greatly exagg ...
of an animal on many of its book covers.


Company


Early days

The company began in 1978 as a private consulting firm doing
technical writing Technical writing is writing or drafting technical communication Technical communication is used to convey scientific, engineering, or other technical information. Individuals in a variety of contexts and with varied professional credentials engage ...
, based in the
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...
, Massachusetts area. In 1984, it began to retain publishing rights on manuals created for
Unix Unix (; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser Multi-user software is computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast t ...

Unix
vendors. A few 70-page "Nutshell Handbooks" were well-received, but the focus remained on the consulting business until 1988. After a conference displaying O'Reilly's preliminary
Xlib Xlib (also known as libX11) is an X Window System protocol client library (computer science), library written in the C (programming language), C programming language. It contains subroutine, functions for interacting with an X Server (computin ...
manuals attracted significant attention, the company began increasing production of manuals and books. The original cover art consisted of animal designs developed by Edie Freedman because she thought that Unix program names sounded like "weird animals".


Global Network Navigator

In 1993 O'Reilly Media created the first
web portal A web portal is a specially designed website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext File:Douglas Engelbart in 2008.jpg, Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th annivers ...
, when they launched one of the first Web-based resources,
Global Network Navigator The Global Network Navigator (GNN) was the first commercial web publication and the first web site A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext File:Douglas Engelbart in 200 ...
. GNN was sold to
AOL AOL (stylized as Aol., formerly a company known as AOL Inc. and originally known as America Online) is an American web portal A web portal is a specially designed website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page ...

AOL
in 1995, in one of the first large transactions of the
dot-com bubble The dot-com bubble, also known as the dot-com boom, the tech bubble, and the Internet bubble, was a stock market bubble Stock (also capital stock) is all of the Share (finance), shares into which ownership of a corporation is divided.Long ...
. GNN was the first site on the World Wide Web to feature paid advertising.


Conferences

In March 2020, O'Reilly announced they would be closing the live conferences arm of their business. Although O'Reilly Media got its start in publishing, roughly two decades after its genesis the company expanded into event production. In 1997, O'Reilly launched The Perl Conference to cross-promote its books on the
Perl Perl is a family of two high-level High-level and low-level, as technical terms, are used to classify, describe and point to specific Objective (goal), goals of a systematic operation; and are applied in a wide range of contexts, such as, for ...
programming language. Many of the company's other software bestsellers were also on topics that did not attract much attention of the commercial software industry. In 1998, O'Reilly invited many of the leaders of software projects to a meeting. Originally called the
freeware Freeware is software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, hardware, from which the system is built and actually performs the work ...

freeware
summit, the meeting became known as the Open Source Summit. The
O'Reilly Open Source Convention The O'Reilly Open Source Convention (OSCON) was an American annual Convention (meeting), convention for the discussion of free and open-source software. It was organized by publisher O'Reilly Media and was held each summer, mostly in Portland, ...
(which includes the Perl conference) is now one of O'Reilly's flagship events. Other key events include the Strata Conference on big data, the Velocity Conference on Web Performance and Operations, and FOO Camp. Past events of note include the
O'Reilly Emerging Technology Conference O'Reilly ( ga, Ó Raghallaigh) is a group of families, ultimately all of Irish Gaelic origin, who were historically the kings of East Bréifne in what is today County Cavan County Cavan (; gle, Contae an Chabháin) is a county A cou ...
and the
Web 2.0 Summit The Web 2.0 Summit (originally known as the Web 2.0 Conference) was an annual event, held in San Francisco, California from 2004 to 2011, that featured discussions about the World Wide Web. The event was started by Tim O'Reilly, who is also widely ...
. Overall, O'Reilly describes its business not as publishing or conferences, but as "changing the world by spreading the knowledge of innovators." Today, the company offers a variety o
conferences
including: * Strata Data Conference * OSCON (O'Reilly Open Source Convention) * Velocity Conference * Artificial Intelligence Conference *TensorFlow World * The O'Reilly Software Architecture Conference


Discontinued conferences

* O'Reilly Emerging Technology Conference (2001 as O'Reilly P2P Conference; 2002–2009) *Fluent * Tools of Change (TOC) Conference (2007–2013) *The Next:Economy Summit *The Next:Money Summit *The Solid Conference *The O'Reilly Design Conference *
Web 2.0 Summit The Web 2.0 Summit (originally known as the Web 2.0 Conference) was an annual event, held in San Francisco, California from 2004 to 2011, that featured discussions about the World Wide Web. The event was started by Tim O'Reilly, who is also widely ...
(co-produced with TechWeb) * Web 2.0 Expo (co-produced with TechWeb) * MySQL Conference and Expo (co-presented by
MySQL AB MySQL AB was a Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland * Swedish alphabet, the official alphabet u ...
, until 2008, then by
Sun Microsystems Sun Microsystems, Inc. (Sun for short) was an American technology company that sold computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. M ...
since 2009, now by
Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational ...
since 2010.) * RailsConf (co-presented by
Ruby Central Ruby Central, Inc., is a non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or so ...
) * Where 2.0 * Money:Tech * Gov 2.0 Expo and
Gov 2.0 Summit A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...
(co-produced with TechWeb)
O'Reilly school of technology
discontinued as of January 6, 2016


O'Reilly Network

In the late 1990s, O'Reilly founded the O'Reilly Network, which grew to include sites such as: * LinuxDevCenter.com * MacDevCenter.com * WindowsDevCenter.com * ONLamp.com * O'Reilly Radar In 2008 the company revised its online model and stopped publishing on several of its sites (including Codezoo and O'Reilly Connection). The company also produced dev2dev (a WebLogic-oriented site) in association with BEA and java.net (an open-source community for Java programmers) in association with
Sun Microsystems Sun Microsystems, Inc. (Sun for short) was an American technology company that sold computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. M ...
and
CollabNet CollabNet VersionOne is a software firm headquartered in Alpharetta, Georgia, United States. CollabNet VersionOne products and services belong to the industry categories of Value stream mapping, value stream management, DevOps, devops, Agile so ...
.


O'Reilly Online Learning (formerly Safari Books Online)

In 2001, O'Reilly launched
Safari Books Online A safari (; ) is an overland journey to hunting, hunt or (in more recent times) observe wildlife, wild animals, especially in East Africa, eastern or southern Africa. The so-called big five game, "Big Five" game animals of Africa – lion, Afric ...
, a subscription-based service providing access to ebooks and videos as a joint venture with the Pearson Technology Group. The platform includes content from O'Reilly and over 200 publishers including
Adobe Press Peachpit is a publisher of books focused on graphic design, web design, and web development, development. Peachpit's parent company is Pearson Education, which owns additional educational media brands including Addison-Wesley, Prentice Hall, and ...
,
Alpha Books Alpha Books, a member of Penguin Random House, is an American publisher best known for its Complete Idiot's Guides series. It began as a division of Macmillan Publishers (United States), Macmillan. Pearson Education acquired Macmillan General Re ...
,
Cisco Press Cisco Press is a publishing alliance between Cisco Systems Cisco Systems, Inc. (Cisco) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multina ...
,
FT Press Financial Times Press in the United States and Financial Times Publishing in the United Kingdom are the book publishing imprints related to the ''Financial Times The ''Financial Times'' (''FT'') is a daily newspaper printed in broadsheet and ...
,
Microsoft Press Microsoft Press is the publishing arm of Microsoft, usually releasing books dealing with various current Microsoft technologies. Microsoft Press' first introduced books were ''The Apple Macintosh Book'' by Cary Lu and ''Exploring the IBM PCjr Home ...
,
New Riders Publishing Peachpit is a publisher of books focused on graphic design, web design, and web development, development. Peachpit's parent company is Pearson Education, which owns additional educational media brands including Addison-Wesley, Prentice Hall, and ...
,
Packt Packt is a publishing company founded in 2003 headquartered in Birmingham, UK, with offices in Mumbai, India Mumbai (, ; also known as Bombay — the official name until 1995) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the mun ...
,
Peachpit Press Peachpit is a publisher of books focused on graphic design, web design, and web development, development. Peachpit's parent company is Pearson Education, which owns additional educational media brands including Addison-Wesley, Prentice Hall, and ...
,
Prentice Hall Prentice Hall is an American major educational publisher owned by Savvas Learning Company. Prentice Hall publishes print and digital content for the 6–12 and higher-education market. Prentice Hall distributes its technical titles through th ...
,
Prentice Hall PTR Prentice Hall is an American major educational publisher owned by Pearson Education, Savvas Learning Company. Prentice Hall publishes print and digital content for the 6–12 and higher-education market. Prentice Hall distributes its technical ...
, Que and
Sams Publishing #REDIRECT Sams Publishing Sams Publishing is dedicated to the publishing of technical training manuals and is an imprint of Pearson plc, the global publishing and education company. Sams Publishing was founded in 1946 by Howard W. Sams, originally ...
. In 2014, O'Reilly Media acquired Pearson's stake, making Safari Books Online a wholly owned subsidiary of O'Reilly Media. O'Reilly did a redesign of the site and had success in expanding beyond Safari's core B2C market into the B2B Enterprise market. In 2017, O'Reilly Media announced they were no longer selling books online, including eBooks. Instead, everyone was encouraged to sign up for Safari or purchase books through online retailers such as Amazon. In 2018, O’Reilly Media rebranded Safari to what is now O’Reilly online learning. The platform includes books, videos, live online training, O’Reilly conference videos, and more. In 2019, O'Reilly acquired Katacoda so users can experiment with code in the website itself.


Web 2.0 phrase

In 2003, after the
dot com bust The dot-com bubble, also known as the dot-com boom, the tech bubble, and the Internet bubble, was a stock market bubble caused by excessive speculation of Dot-com company, Internet-related companies in the late 1990s, a period of massive growth ...
, O'Reilly's corporate goal was to reignite enthusiasm in the computer industry. To do this,
Dale Dougherty Dale Dougherty (born 1955) is a co-founder of O'Reilly Media O'Reilly Media (formerly O'Reilly & Associates) is an American learning company established by Tim O'Reilly Tim O'Reilly (born 6 June 1954) is the founder of O'Reilly Media O ...

Dale Dougherty
and
Tim O'Reilly Tim O'Reilly (born 6 June 1954) is the founder of O'Reilly Media O'Reilly Media (formerly O'Reilly & Associates) is an American learning company established by Tim O'Reilly Tim O'Reilly (born 6 June 1954) is the founder of O'Reilly Med ...

Tim O'Reilly
decided to use the term "
Web 2.0 Web 2.0 (also known as participative (or participatory) web and social web) refers to website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext Hypertext is text display ...

Web 2.0
" coined in January 1999 by
Darcy DiNucci Darcy DiNucci is an author, web designer and expert in user experience. DiNucci coined the term ''Web 2.0 Web 2.0 (also known as participative (or participatory) web and social web) refers to website A website (also written as web site) ...
. The term was used for the Web 2.0 Summit run by O'Reilly Media and TechWeb (formerly CMP Media). CMP registered Web 2.0 as a Service Mark "for arranging and conducting live events, namely trade shows, expositions, business conferences and educational conferences in various fields of computers and information technology." Web 2.0 framed what distinguished the companies that survived the dot com bust from those that died, and identified key drivers of future success, including what is now called “cloud computing,” big data, and new approaches to iterative, data-driven software development. In May 2006 CMP Media learned of an impending event called the "Web 2.0 Half day conference." Concerned over their obligation to take reasonable means to enforce their trade and service marks CMP sent a
cease and desist A cease and desist letter is a document sent to an individual or business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any acti ...
letter to the non-profit Irish organizers of the event. This attempt to restrict through legal mechanisms the use of the term was criticized by some. The legal issue was resolved by O'Reilly's apologizing for the early and aggressive involvement of attorneys, rather than simply calling the organizers, and allowing them to use the service mark for this single event.


''Make:'' and ''Craft:''

In January 2005 the company launched '' Make:'' magazine and in 2006 it launched
Maker Faire Maker Faire is a convention Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty, an agreement in international law * Convention (meeting), meeting of a (usually large) group of ind ...

Maker Faire
. The flagship Maker Faire in
San Mateo, CA San Mateo ( ; ) is a city in San Mateo County, California, on the San Francisco Peninsula. About 20 miles (32 km) south of San Francisco, the city borders Burlingame, California, Burlingame to the north, Hillsborough, California, Hillsborough to ...
, drew over 130,000 attendees. Other Faires around the world collectively draw millions. In 2012, O'Reilly Media spun out the Make properties into a separate venture-backed company, Maker Media, headed up by former O'Reilly executive and Make founder Dale Dougherty. In the fall of 2006, O'Reilly added a second magazine, '' Craft:'', with the tagline "Transforming Traditional Crafts." ''Craft:'' folded in 2009. In the summer of 2019, Maker Media laid off its entire staff and ceased operations.


Post–Tim O'Reilly era

In 2011, Tim O'Reilly stepped down from his day-to-day duties as O'Reilly Media CEO to focus his energy and attention on the
Gov 2.0 E-government (short for electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses a ...
movement. Since then, the company has been run by Laura Baldwin. Baldwin comes from a finance and consulting background.


Infinite Skills acquisition

In 2014 O'Reilly acquired Infinite Skills, a Canadian publisher of online and DVD video courses.


Licensing

O'Reilly uses
Creative Commons Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a colle ...

Creative Commons
' Founders Copyright, which grants the company exclusive use of content produced by the authors who sign with them for 28 years. Although it is shorter than the current default duration of the monopoly in
copyright law Copyright is a type of intellectual property that gives its owner the exclusive right to copy and distribute a creative work, usually for a limited time. The creative work may be in a literary, artistic, educational, or musical form. Copyrig ...
, it is still quite restrictive compared with other, widely used, licenses offered by Creative Commons.


See also

* :O'Reilly Media books


References


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:O'Reilly Media
Book publishing companies of the United States {{DEFAULTSORT:Book Publishing Companies Of The United States United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in Nort ...
Computer book publishing companies Mass media companies of the United States Entertainment companies based in California Publishing companies based in the San Francisco Bay Area Companies based in Sonoma County, California Sebastopol, California Publishing companies established in 1978 1978 establishments in California