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Northeast China () is a geographical
region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The ...
of
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
. It usually corresponds specifically to the three
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
s east of the
Greater Khingan Range The Greater Khingan Range or Da Hinggan Range (; IPA IPA commonly refers to: * India pale ale, a style of beer * International Phonetic Alphabet The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation base ...
, namely
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivisi ...
,
Jilin Jilin (; alternately romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrat ...

Jilin
, and
Heilongjiang Heilongjiang, Postal romanization, formerly romanized as Heilungkiang, is a Provinces of China, province in northeast China. It is the northernmost and easternmost province of the country. The province is bordered by Jilin to the south and Inne ...

Heilongjiang
, but historically is meant to also encompass the four easternmost
prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power ...
s of
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnati ...

Inner Mongolia
west of the Greater Khingan. The heartland of the region is the Northeast China Plain, the largest
plain In geography, a plain is a flat expanse of land that generally does not change much in elevation, and is primarily treeless. Plains occur as lowlands along valleys or at the base of mountains, as coastal plains, and as plateaus or Highland, up ...

plain
in China, with an area over . It is separated from
Russian Far East The Russian Far East ( rus, Дальний Восток России, r=Dal'niy Vostok Rossii, p=ˈdalʲnʲɪj vɐˈstok rɐˈsʲiɪ) is a region in Northeast Asia Northeast Asia or Northeastern Asia is a geographical subregion of Asia ...

Russian Far East
to the north by the
Amur The Amur (russian: река́ Аму́р, ), or Heilong Jiang (, "Black Dragon A dragon is a large, snake, serpentine, legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures worldwide. Beliefs about dragons vary considerably t ...

Amur
, Argun, and
Ussuri The Ussuri or Wusuli (russian: Уссури; ) runs through Khabarovsk Khabarovsk ( rus, Хаба́ровск, a=Хабаровск.ogg, r=Khabarovsk, p=xɐˈbarəfsk) is the largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987 ...

Ussuri
rivers; from
Korea Korea is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental ...

Korea
to the south by the Yalu and
Tumen River The Tumen River, also known as the Tuman River or Dooman River (), is a long river that serves as part of the boundary between China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of co ...
s; and from Inner Mongolian to the west by the Greater Khingan and parts of the
Xiliao River The Xiliao or West Liao River () is a river in Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked of the . Its border includes most of the length of China's with the country of . Inner Mongolia al ...
. Due to the shrinking of its once-powerful industrial sector and decline of its
economic growth Economic growth can be defined as the increase or improvement in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economics, economy over time. Statisticians conventionally measure such growth as the percent rate of i ...

economic growth
, the region is often referred to as the
Rust Belt The Rust Belt is a region of the Northeastern The points of the compass are the Euclidean vector, vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A compass rose is primarily composed of four cardinal directions—north, e ...
in China. As the result, a campaign named Northeast Area Revitalization Plan has been launched by the
State Council of the People's Republic of China The State Council, Constitution of the People's Republic of China, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954 (particularly in relation to local governments), is the Cabinet (government), chief administrative ...
, in which five prefectures of eastern Inner Mongolia, namely
Hulunbuir Hulunbuir or Hulun Buir ( mn, , ''Kölün buyir'', Mongolian Cyrillic: Хөлөнбуйр, ''Khölönbuir''; zh, s=呼伦贝尔, ''Hūlúnbèi'ěr'') is a region that is governed as a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.j ...

Hulunbuir
, Hinggan,
Tongliao Tongliao (; mn, ''Tüŋliyou qota'', Mongolian Cyrillic.Байшинт хот) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). Th ...

Tongliao
,
Chifeng Chifeng ( zh, s=赤峰市), also known as Ulankhad ( mn, (Улаанхад хот), ''Ulaɣanqada qota'', , "red cliff"), is a prefecture-level city A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectural city is an a ...

Chifeng
and
Xilin Gol Xilingol, Xilin Gol, Shiliin Gol or Xilinguole Aimag/League (; mn, ''Shiliyin gool ayimag'', Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, Mongolian cyrillic.Шилийн Гол аймаг) is one of 12 Leagues of China, leagues of Inner Mongolia. The seat is X ...
, are also formally defined as regions of the Northeast.


Names

Northeastern China is known in Chinese contexts as simply the Northeast or, from the Mandarin pronunciation of its
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
name, as Dōngběi. The area was known in European languages as
Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populatio ...

Manchuria
, as it was the homeland of the
Manchu people The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...
who ruled China as its
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
from the 17th to early 20th century. The name was not used by the Qing themselves, who called the area their "Three East" or "Eastern Provinces",. and its use is discouraged by the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
, which associates the
exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 milli ...
with the Manchu puppet-state installed by the
Imperial Japan The was a historical nation-state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of Sta ...
ese in 1932. It is known more specifically as when it needs to be distinguished from
Outer Manchuria Outer Manchuria (russian: Приаму́рье, translit=Priamurye; zh, t=外東北, p=Wài Dōngběi, l=Outer Northeast) or Russian Manchuria is a term for a territory in Northeast Asia that is part of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, ...
, which was ceded to the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
through the
Amur Annexation The Amur Annexation was the annexation upCivilians and coalition military forces wave Kuwaiti and Saudi Arabian flags as they celebrate the reversal of the annexation of Kuwait by Iraq (28 February 1991). Annexation (Latin Latin (, or ...
in the 1850s. Historically, the area was also known as
Liaoyang Liaoyang () is a prefecture-level city A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectural city is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of C ...
(from its capital at
Liaoyang Liaoyang () is a prefecture-level city A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectural city is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of C ...

Liaoyang
) under the Yuan; as
Nurgan The Nurgan Regional Military Commission () was a Chinese administrative seat established in Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ε ...
(from its capital at Tyr) under the
Ming The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an eth ...
; and as Guanwai () or Guandong (), meaning "Lands beyond" or "Lands East of the Pass" in reference to the strategic
Shanhai Pass Shanhai Pass or Shanhaiguan () is one of the major pass Pass, PASS, The Pass or Passed may refer to: Places *Pass, County Meath, a townland in Ireland *Pass, Poland, a village in Poland *Pass (strait), Pass, an alternate term for a numbe ...
between
Hebei Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, f ...
and Liaoning. Under Japanese occupation, the name Guandong was more specifically associated with the
Kwantung Leased Territory The Kwantung Leased Territory ( ja, 關東州, ''Kantō-shū''), () was a leased territory In international relations, a concession is a ":wikt:synallagmatic, synallagmatic act by which a State transfers the exercise of rights or functions ...
around
Dalian Dalian is a major in , , and is Liaoning's second largest city (after the ) and the fourth-most populous city of . Located on the southern tip of , it is the southernmost city in both Liaoning and the entire Northeast. Dalian borders t ...

Dalian
, "Kwan-tung" being the same name in Wade-Giles romanization. Other historical names include


Administrative divisions


Cities with urban area over one million in population

: Provincial capitals in bold.


History

Northeast China was the homeland of several ethnic groups, including the
Koreans Koreans ( South Korean: , , North Korean: , , ; see names of Korea There are various names of Korea in use today, all derived from ancient kingdoms and dynasties. The modern English name "Korea Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") ...
,
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in ...

Manchu
s (or
Jurchens Jurchen (Manchu language, Manchu: ''Jušen'', ; zh, 女真, ''Nǚzhēn'', ) is a term used to collectively describe a number of East Asian people, East Asian Tungusic languages, Tungusic-speaking peoples, descended from the Donghu people. They ...
),
Ulchs The Ulch people, also known as Ulch or Ulchi, (russian: ульчи, obsolete ольчи; Ulch: , nani) are an indigenous people of the Russian Far East, who speak a Tungusic languages, Tungusic language known as Ulch. Over 90% of Ulchis live in ...
,
Hezhen The Nanai people are a of who have traditionally lived along (Amur), (Sunggari) and on the Middle Amur . The ancestors of the Nanai were the of northernmost (). The belongs to the . According to the 2010 there were 12,003 Nanai in Russia ...
(also known as the Goldi and Nanai). Various ethnic groups and their respective kingdoms, including the
Sushen Sushen is the modern Chinese name for an ancient ethnic group of people who lived in the northeastern part of China proper, China (in the area of modern Jilin and Heilongjiang) and what is in modern times the Primorsky Krai, Russian Maritime Pr ...
,
Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were a Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the Middle Mongol language, the language spoken at the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empir ...
, and Mohe have risen to power in the Northeast. Various states and dynasties such as the
State of Yan Yan (; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese. The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle ...
,
Han Dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han Dynasty
,
Gongsun Yuan Gongsun Yuan () (died 238), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the Sinosphere, including China, Japan, Korea, ...
,
Cao Wei Wei (220–266), also known as Cao Wei or Former Wei, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280). With its capital initially located at Xuchang, and thereafter Luoyang, the ...
,
Western Jin Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...
,
Former Yan The Former Yan (; 337–370) was a Dynasties in Chinese history, dynastic state ruled by the Xianbei during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. Initially, Murong Huang and his son Murong Jun claimed the Jin dynasty (266–420), Jin dynasty-crea ...
,
Former Qin The Former Qin, also called Fu Qin (苻秦) (351–394) was a dynastic state of the Sixteen Kingdoms The Sixteen Kingdoms (), less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history The earliest known written r ...
,
Later Yan The Later Yan (; 384 – 407 or 409) was a dynastic state ruled by the Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were a Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the Middle Mon ...
,
Tang Dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
,
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succ ...
,
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
and
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
ruled parts of the region. Many Korean kingdoms have also incorporated parts of modern-day Northeast China, including
Gojoseon Gojoseon () was the first Korean kingdom that lasted until 108 BCE. According to the legend of the kingdom, the kingdom was established by the founder named Dangun Dangun (; ) or Dangun Wanggeom (; ) was the legendary * :"The continuing p ...
,
Buyeo Buyeo, Puyŏ or Fuyu/Fuyo (Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, worl ...
,
Goguryeo Goguryeo (; , 37 BC–668 AD), also called Goryeo (; ), was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula Korea is a region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally ...
, and
Balhae Balhae ( ko, 발해) or Bohai ( zh, c=渤海, p=Bóhǎi, russian: Бохай, ) (698–926) was a multi-ethnic kingdom in Manchuria, the Korean Peninsula and the Russian Far East. The history of the founding of the state, its ethnic compositi ...

Balhae
. During the Song dynasty, the Khitan set up the
Liao Dynasty The Liao dynasty (; Khitan language, Khitan: ''Mos Jælud''; ), also known as the Khitan Empire (Khitan: ''Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur''), officially the Great Liao (), was an Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China that ex ...
in Northeast China. Later, the
JurchenJurchen may refer to: * Jurchen people, Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th century ** Haixi Jurchens, a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty ** Jianzhou Jurchens, a grouping of t ...
overthrew the Liao and formed the Jin dynasty, which went on to conquer northern China. In AD 1234, the Jin dynasty fell to the
Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian people, East Asian ethnic group indigenous peoples, native to the Inner Mongolia, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, Mongolia an ...
, whose
Yuan Dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succ ...
was later replaced by the
Ming Dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming Dynasty
in 1368. In 1644, the Han Bannermen established the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
(1644–1912) and unified the entirety of China. Northeast China came under influence of the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
with the building of the
Chinese Eastern Railway The Chinese Eastern Railway or CER (, russian: Китайско-Восточная железная дорога, or , ''Kitaysko-Vostochnaya Zheleznaya Doroga'' or ''KVZhD''), is the historical name for a railway system in Northeast China North ...

Chinese Eastern Railway
through
Harbin Harbin (; ) is a sub-provincial city A sub-provincial division () in China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most ...
to
Vladivostok Vladivostok ( rus, Владивосто́к, , a=Владивосток.ogg) is the largest city and the administrative centreAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term f ...

Vladivostok
. The
Empire of Japan The was a historical nation-state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of Sta ...

Empire of Japan
replaced Russian influence in the region as a result of the
Russo-Japanese War The Russo-Japanese War (russian: Ру́сско-япóнская войнá, Rússko-yapónskaya voyná; ja, 日露戦争, Nichiro sensō, Japanese-Russian War) was fought between the Empire of Japan The was a historical natio ...
in 1904–1905, and Japan laid the
South Manchurian Railway The South Manchuria Railway (: Japanese ; Chinese ), officially , or () for short ( in Chinese), was a large of the Empire of Japan The was a historical nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until the enact ...
in 1906 to Port Arthur. During the
Warlord Era The Warlord Era was a period in the history of the Republic of China The history of the Republic of China begins after the Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dy ...
in China,
Zhang Zuolin Zhang Zuolin (; March 19, 1875 June 4, 1928) was an influential Chinese bandit, soldier, and warlord A warlord is a person who exercises military, economic, and political control over a region in a country without a strong national government ...

Zhang Zuolin
established himself in Northeast China, but was murdered by the Japanese for being too independent. The last
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
emperor,
Puyi Puyi (; February 7, 1906 – October 17, 1967), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cult ...
, was then placed on the throne to lead a Japanese
puppet state A puppet state, puppet régime or puppet government or dummy government is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State ( ...
of
Manchukuo Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of (Great) Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded as a republic in 19 ...
. After the atomic bombing of Japan in 1945, the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
invaded the region as part of its declaration of war against Japan. From 1945 to 1948, Northeast China was a base area for the
Communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

Communist
People's Liberation Army The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between St ...
in the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
. With the encouragement of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
, the area was used as a
staging ground
staging ground
during the Civil War for the
Chinese Communists The Communist Party of China (CPC), commonly known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and sole governing political party of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a ...

Chinese Communists
, who were victorious in 1949 and have been controlling this region since.


Demographics

Northeast China has a total population of about 107,400,000 people, accounting for 8% of China's total population. The overwhelming majority of the population in the Northeast is
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
, many of whose ancestors came in the 19th and 20th centuries during a migration movement called "
Chuang Guandong ''Chuang Guandong'' (; IPA: ; literally "Crashing into Guandong" with ''Guandong'' being an older name for Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A ...
" (). Northeast China historically had a significant Han Chinese population, reaching over 3 million by the end of
Ming Dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming Dynasty
, but they were subjected to
eviction 250px, Two men with children, being evicted, stand with their possessions on the sidewalk, circa 1910, on the New_York_City.html"_;"title="Lower_East_Side_of_New_York_City">Lower_East_Side_of_New_York_City. Eviction_is_the_removal_of_a_ Lower_ ...
and assimilation by the conquest of the
Qing Dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
, who then set up
Willow Palisade Willow Palisade (; mnc, m=, v=Biregen Jase, ᠠ=Biregen Jase) was a system of ditches and embankments planted with willows intended to restrict movement into Manchuria, built by the Qing dynasty during the later 17th century. It is often convenien ...
s during the reign of
Shunzhi Emperor The Shunzhi Emperor (Fulin; 15 March 1638 – 5 February 1661) was List of emperors of the Qing dynasty, Emperor of the Qing dynasty from 1644 to 1661, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper. A Deliberative Council of Princes an ...
and prohibited any settlement of Han Chinese into the region. Despite officially prohibiting Han Chinese settlement, by the 18th century the Qing decided to settle Han into the Northeast so that Han Chinese farmed 500,000 hectares in the region by the 1780s. Besides moving into the Liao area in southern Manchuria, the path linking Jinzhou, Fengtian, Tieling, Changchun, Hulun, and Ningguta was settled by Han Chinese during the Qianlong Emperor's reign, and Han Chinese were the majority in urban areas of Manchuria by 1800. This resulted in the local Han Chinese population growing to over 20 million before the
Second Sino-Japanese War The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. The war made up the Chinese theater of the wider Pacific War, Pac ...
. After the establishment of the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
at the end of the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
, further immigrations were organized by the Central Government to "develop the Great Northern Wilderness" (), eventually peaking the population over 100 million people. Because most people in Northeast China trace their ancestries back to the migrants from the Chuang Guandong era, Northeastern Chinese were more culturally uniform compared to other geographical regions of China. People from the Northeast would first identify themselves as "Northeasterners" () before affiliating to individual provinces and cities/towns. Ethnic
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in ...

Manchu
s form the second significant ethnic group in Northeast China, followed by the
Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian people, East Asian ethnic group indigenous peoples, native to the Inner Mongolia, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, Mongolia an ...
,
Koreans Koreans ( South Korean: , , North Korean: , , ; see names of Korea There are various names of Korea in use today, all derived from ancient kingdoms and dynasties. The modern English name "Korea Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") ...
, and the Huis, as well as 49 other
ethnic minorities A minority group, by its original definition, refers to a group of people whose practices, race, religion, ethnicity, or other characteristics are lesser in numbers than the main groups of those classifications. However, in present-day sociology, ...
such as
Daurs The Daur people (Mongolian language, Khalkha Mongolian: Дагуур, ''Daguur''; ) are a Mongolic peoples, Mongolic people in Northeast China. The Daur form one of the 56 List of ethnic groups in China, ethnic groups officially recognised in the ...
, Sibos, Hezhens, Oroqens,
Evenks The Evenks (also spelled Ewenki or Evenki based on their endonym )Autonym: (); russian: Эвенки (); (); formerly known as Tungus or Tunguz; mn, Хамниган () or Aiwenji () are a Tungusic people Tungusic peoples are an ethno-lingui ...
,
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...

Kyrgyz
, etc.


Religion

Taoism Taoism (), or Daoism (), is a philosophical and spiritual tradition of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of c ...
and
Chinese Buddhism Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings speci ...

Chinese Buddhism
were never well established in this region – instead
Chinese folk religion Chinese folk religion, also known as Chinese popular religion, is a general term covering a range of traditional religious practices of Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the ...
s led by local shamans predominate. The region has also a strong presence of folk religions and Confucian churches.


Economy

The Northeast was one of the earliest regions to industrialize in China during the era of
Manchukuo Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of (Great) Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded as a republic in 19 ...
. After the founding of the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
, Northeast China continued to be a major industrial base of the country, and has been hailed as "the Republic's eldest son" (). Recent years, however, have seen the stagnation of Northeast China's heavy-industry-based economy, as China's economy continues to liberalize and privatize; the government has initialized the Revitalize the Northeast campaign to counter this problem, and established the Northeast Summit to improve policy coordination and integration. The region has experienced difficulty distancing itself from a planned economy, a legacy that began in 1905 with the establishment of the Japanese sphere of influence there. The region's once-abundant raw materials have also depleted and the economy has suffered from bureaucratic inefficiency and protectionist politics. The region is, on the whole, more heavily urbanised than most parts of China, largely because it was the first part of the country to develop heavy industry owing to its abundant coal reserves. Major cities include Shenyang,
Dalian Dalian is a major in , , and is Liaoning's second largest city (after the ) and the fourth-most populous city of . Located on the southern tip of , it is the southernmost city in both Liaoning and the entire Northeast. Dalian borders t ...

Dalian
, Harbin, Changchun and Anshan, all with several million inhabitants. Other cities include the steel making centres of Fushun and Anshan in Liaoning, Jilin City in Jilin, and Qiqihar and Mudanjiang in Heilongjiang. Harbin, more than any other city in China, possesses significant Russian influences: there are many Orthodox churches that have fallen out of use since the Cultural Revolution. Shenyang and Dalian, meanwhile, have sizable populations of Japanese and South Koreans due to their traditional linkages. The rural population of the Northeast is heavily concentrated in the warmer southern part of the area, where very warm to hot summer weather permits crops such as maize and millet to be grown with high yields. Soybeans and flax are also very important, as are wheat and barley. The region possesses large flocks of sheep, and pigs are abundant in the more densely settled southern part. The northern half of Heilongjiang is so cold and poorly drained that agriculture is almost impossible; however, the Amur River provides very rich fishing prospects, and sheep are even more abundant than in southern Heilongjiang. Northeast China is the country's traditional heavy industry, industrial base, focusing mainly on equipment manufacturing. Major industries include the steel, automaker, automobile, shipbuilding, aircraft manufacturing, and oil refinery, petroleum refining industries. The gross regional product of the three northeast provinces totaled Renminbi, ¥1.63 trillion in 2002. In recent years, the Chinese government has initialized the "Revitalize the Northeast campaign" to turn this region into one of China's economic growth engines. As of 2015 the region was losing population and the economy, dominated by state-owned enterprises, was stagnant.


Culture

In general, the culture of Northeast China takes its elements from the cultures of North China and Shandong, where most of the
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
migration into Northeast China, known as
Chuang Guandong ''Chuang Guandong'' (; IPA: ; literally "Crashing into Guandong" with ''Guandong'' being an older name for Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A ...
, Tungusic peoples and its own innovations.


Dialects

There are two main dialects of Mandarin Chinese spoken in Northeast China. The dialect spoken in the majority of the Northeast is the Northeastern Mandarin, which is a very slight variant of the Standard Chinese but retains sporadic elements from native Tungusic languages, Korean language, Korean and Russian language, Russian, where there are enough differences to give the dialect its own distinctive characteristics. However, many residents in the southern fringe of the Liaodong region (mostly in
Dalian Dalian is a major in , , and is Liaoning's second largest city (after the ) and the fourth-most populous city of . Located on the southern tip of , it is the southernmost city in both Liaoning and the entire Northeast. Dalian borders t ...

Dalian
and Dandong) speak the Jiaoliao Mandarin, which is actually a Shandong dialect. Ethnic Manchus speak mostly Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin, and the Manchu language is almost extinct due to widespread assimilation to Han culture over the last four centuries. Ethnic
Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian people, East Asian ethnic group indigenous peoples, native to the Inner Mongolia, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, Mongolia an ...
tend to be bilingual in their own Mongolian language, Mongolian tongues as well as Mandarin.


Cuisine

Northeastern Chinese cuisine reflects the region's ethnic diversity. Northern Chinese, Manchu and Korean cooking styles all find their traces in Manchurian cooking. One of the distinguishing characteristics of the cuisine is the use of uncooked fresh vegetables. During the long winter season, pickled Chinese cabbage, which is called "suan cai", is preserved and used for cooking. In almost every other region of China, vegetables are cooked thoroughly before being eaten. Most of the meat dishes are based around pork due to how cold it can get. Often braised pork or dumplings are the main attraction of a meal. This region's often cold climate makes it hard to grow or produce much of anything and growing seasons are correspondingly very short.


Folk dance and sports

Errenzhuan, yangge, Jilin opera and stilts are popular forms of traditional entertainment in Northeast China. ''"Northeastern Cradle Song"'' is an example of the folk songs of this region. Because of its climatic conditions, Northeast China is the base for China's winter sports. Ice hockey and ice skating athletes often come from or were educated in Northeast China.


Major universities

*Jilin University (吉林大学) *Northeast Agricultural University (东北农业大学) *Northeast Normal University (东北师范大学) *Harbin Institute of Technology (哈尔滨工业大学) *Northeastern University (Liaoning), Northeastern University (东北大学) *Liaoning University (辽宁大学) *Shenyang Agricultural University (沈阳农业大学) *Shenyang University of Chemical Technology (沈阳化工大学) *Dalian University of Technology (大连理工大学) *Dalian Maritime University (大连海事大学) *Northeast Forestry University (东北林业大学) *Shenyang Normal University (沈阳师范大学) *Changchun University of Science and Technology (长春理工大学) *Northeast Petroleum University (东北石油大学) *Shenyang Aerospace University (沈阳航空航天大学) *Harbin Engineering University (哈尔滨工程大学) *Heilongjiang University (黑龙江大学) *Dongbei University of Finance and Economics (东北财经大学)


See also

* Outer Northeast China (Outer
Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populatio ...

Manchuria
) * Northeast Area Revitalization Plan


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

* Thomas R. Gottschang and Diana Lary: ''Swallows and Settlers - The Great Migration from North China to
Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populatio ...

Manchuria
'', Centre for Chinese Studies, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 2000. . * Michael Meyer (travel writer), Michael Meyer: ''In Manchuria: A Village Called Wasteland and the Transformation of Rural China'', Bloomsbury Press, 2015, * Lenore Lamont Zissermann: ''Mitya's Harbin; Majesty and Menace'', Book Publishers Network, 2016. .


External links


The Provincial Government of LiaoningThe Provincial Government of HeilongjiangThe Provincial Government of Jilin
{{Coord missing, China Northeast China, Regions of China Manchuria, . Inner Asia Northeast Asia, China Geography of Northeast Asia, China