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North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
. The dominant geographical features of North India are the
Indus-Gangetic Plain#REDIRECT Indo-Gangetic Plain#REDIRECT Indo-Gangetic Plain Image:India-Pakistan Borderlands at Night.JPG, 250px, Clusters of yellow lights on the Indo-Gangetic Plain reveal numerous cities large and small in this astronaut photograph of northern ...
and the
Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Ind ...

Himalayas
, which demarcate the region from the
Tibetan Plateau The Tibetan Plateau (, also known as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau () or as the Himalayan Plateau in India, is a vast elevated plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λ ...
and
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area ...

Central Asia
. The term North India has varying definitions. The
Ministry of Home Affairs A ministry of home affairs is a common type of government department Ministry or department, also less commonly used secretariat, office, or directorate are designations used by a first-level executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or func ...
in its
Northern Zonal Council Northern Zonal Council is a zonal council that comprises the states and union territories of Chandigarh Chandigarh () is a city, district and union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Punjab a ...
Administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for geographical areas into which a particular ...
included the states of
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
,
Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a States and union territories of India, state in the northern part of India. Situated in the Western Himalayas, it is one of the eleven Indian Himalayan Region, mountain states ...

Himachal Pradesh
,
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...
and
Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a in . It covers or 10.4 percent of India's total geographical area. It is the and the . It is on India's northwestern side, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable (also known as the G ...

Rajasthan
and Union Territories of
Chandigarh Chandigarh () is a city, district and union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Punjab and Haryana. Chandigarh is bordered by the state of Punjab to the north, the west and the south, and by the s ...

Chandigarh
,
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
,
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
and
Ladakh Ladakh () is a region administered by India as a union territory, and constitutes a part of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947. (subscription required) Quote: "Jammu ...

Ladakh
. The
Ministry of Culture A culture minister or a heritage minister is a common cabinet position in government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associat ...
in its ''North Culture Zone'' includes the state of
Uttarakhand Uttarakhand ( , or ; , lit. 'Northern Land'), formerly known as Uttaranchal ( ), is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the "Devbhumi" (literally "Land of the Gods") due to its religious significance and numerous ...

Uttarakhand
but excludes
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
whereas the
Geological Survey of India The Geological Survey of India (GSI) is a scientific agency of India. It was founded in 1851, is a Government of India Ministry of Mines organisation, one of the oldest of such organisations in the world and the second oldest survey in India af ...
includes
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; , 'Northern Province') is a States and union territories of India, state in North India, northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the List of states and union territories of India by population, most popu ...

Uttar Pradesh
and
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
but excludes
Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a in . It covers or 10.4 percent of India's total geographical area. It is the and the . It is on India's northwestern side, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable (also known as the G ...

Rajasthan
and
Chandigarh Chandigarh () is a city, district and union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Punjab and Haryana. Chandigarh is bordered by the state of Punjab to the north, the west and the south, and by the s ...

Chandigarh
. Other states sometimes included are
Bihar Bihar (; ) is a states and union territories of India, state in eastern India. It is the list of states and union territories of India by population, third-largest state by population and list of states and union territories of India by area ...

Bihar
,
Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Gujarat
,
Jharkhand Jharkhand (; ; meaning 'the land of forests') is a States and union territories of India, state in East India, eastern India. The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Chhattisgarh to the ...

Jharkhand
,
Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh (, ; meaning ''Central Province'') is a state in central India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most ...

Madhya Pradesh
and
West Bengal West Bengal (, Bengali Bengali or Bengalee, or Bengalese may refer to: *something of, from, or related to Bengal, a large region in South Asia * Bengalis, an ethnic and linguistic group of the region * Bengali language, the language they sp ...

West Bengal
. North India has been the historical centre of the
Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, ge ...
, the
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
and the
British Indian Empire The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, ...

British Indian Empire
. It has a diverse culture, and includes the
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.Jeffery D. Long (2007), A Vision for Hinduism, IB Tauris, , pages 35–37 Historically, the term has also been used as ...

Hindu
pilgrimage centres of
Char Dham The Char Dham (meaning: ''four abodes'') is a set of four pilgrimage sites in India. It is believed that visiting these sites helps achieve moksha (salvation). The four Dhams are, Badrinath, Dwarka, Puri and Rameswaram. It is believed that ever ...
,
Haridwar Haridwar (; ) is a city and municipal corporation in the Haridwar district of Uttarakhand, India. With a population of 228,832 in 2011, it is the second-largest city in the state and the largest in the district. The city is situated on the righ ...

Haridwar
,
Varanasi Varanasi (; ), officially so revived after 1947, but still widely known as Banaras or Benares (; ), and in ancient times as Kashi, is a city on the Ganges river in North India, northern India that has a central place in pilgrimage, death ...

Varanasi
,
Ayodhya Ayodhya (; IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages. It is ...

Ayodhya
,
Mathura Mathura () is a city and the administrative headquarters of Mathura district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located approximately north of Agra Agra (, ) is a city on the banks of the Yamuna river in the Indian state of Utta ...

Mathura
,
Allahabad Allahabad (), officially known as Prayagraj, also known as Ilahabad, is a metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or r ...

Allahabad
,
Vaishno Devi Vaishno Devi (also known as Mata Rani, Trikuta, Ambe and Vaishnavi) is a manifestation of the Hindu Mother Goddess, Devi Devī (Sanskrit: देवी) is the Sanskrit word for 'goddess'; the masculine form is Deva (Hinduism), ''deva'' ...
and
Pushkar Pushkar is a city in the Ajmer district in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the L ...

Pushkar
, the
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitu ...

Buddhist
pilgrimage centres of
Sarnath Sarnath (Hindustani pronunciation: aːɾnaːtʰ is a place located 10 kilometres north-east of Varanasi Varanasi (; ), officially so revived after 1947, but still widely known as Banaras or Benares (; ), and in ancient times as ...

Sarnath
and
Kushinagar ''Kushinagar'' is a town in the Kushinagar district Kushinagar is a Districts of Uttar Pradesh, district of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India situated in the easternmost part of the state. It has the administrative headquarters at Ravin ...

Kushinagar
, the
Sikh Sikhs ( or ; pa, ਸਿੱਖ, ', ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, a Monotheism, monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak. The te ...

Sikh
Golden Temple The Golden Temple (also known as the Harmandir Sahib, , , or the Darbār Sahib, 'exalted court', ) is a gurdwara A gurdwara (; meaning "door to the Sikh gurus, guru") is a place of assembly and place of worship, worship for Sikhs. Sikhs also r ...

Golden Temple
as well as world heritage sites such as the
Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve The Nanda Devi National Park or Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, established in 1982 is a national park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it i ...

Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve
, ,
Hill Forts of Rajasthan The North Western Indian State of Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state in northern India. The state covers an area of or 10.4 percent of the total geographical area of India. I ...

Hill Forts of Rajasthan
,
Jantar Mantar (Jaipur) The Jantar Mantar is a collection of 19 astronomical instruments built by the Rajput Rajput (from Sanskrit ''raja-putra'', "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status ...

Jantar Mantar (Jaipur)
,
Qutb Minar The Qutub Minar, also spelled as Qutb Minar and Qutab Minar, is a minaret Minaret (; fa, گل‌دسته ', az, minarə, tr, minare,
,
Red Fort The Red Fort is a historic fort in the city of Delhi (in Old Delhi) in India that served as the main residence of the Mughal Emperors. Emperor Shah Jahan commissioned construction of the Red Fort on 12 May 1638, when he decided to shift his ...

Red Fort
,
Agra Fort Agra Fort is a historical fort A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict ...

Agra Fort
,
Fatehpur Sikri Fatehpur Sikri is a town in the Agra District of Uttar Pradesh, India. The city itself was founded as the capital of Mughal Empire in 1571 by Mughal Emperor, Emperor Akbar, serving this role from 1571 to 1585, when Akbar abandoned it due to a ca ...

Fatehpur Sikri
and the
Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal (; , ), is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the right bank of the river Yamuna in the Indian city of Agra. It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal Empire, Mughal emperor Shah Jahan () to house the tomb of his favourite wi ...

Taj Mahal
. North India's culture, Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb, developed as a result of interaction between these Hindu and Muslim religious traditions. The languages that have official status in one or more of the states and union territories located in North India are
Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, North India. Hindi has been described as a Standard la ...

Hindi
,
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...

Urdu
,
Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a ge ...
, ,
Dogri Dogri (Dogra The Dogras or Dogra people, are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group in India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by pop ...
, and
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...
.


Definitions

Different authorities and sources define North India differently.


Government of India definitions

The
Northern Zonal Council Northern Zonal Council is a zonal council that comprises the states and union territories of Chandigarh Chandigarh () is a city, district and union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Punjab a ...
is one of the advisory councils, created in 1956 by the
States Reorganisation Act The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries of India's states and territories, organising them along linguistic lines. Although additional changes to India's state boundaries have been made since 1956, the States R ...
to foster interstate co-operation under the
Ministry of Home Affairs A ministry of home affairs is a common type of government department Ministry or department, also less commonly used secretariat, office, or directorate are designations used by a first-level executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or func ...
, which included the states of
Chandigarh Chandigarh () is a city, district and union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Punjab and Haryana. Chandigarh is bordered by the state of Punjab to the north, the west and the south, and by the s ...

Chandigarh
,
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
,
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
,
Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a States and union territories of India, state in the northern part of India. Situated in the Western Himalayas, it is one of the eleven Indian Himalayan Region, mountain states ...

Himachal Pradesh
,
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
,
Ladakh Ladakh () is a region administered by India as a union territory, and constitutes a part of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947. (subscription required) Quote: "Jammu ...

Ladakh
,
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...
and
Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a in . It covers or 10.4 percent of India's total geographical area. It is the and the . It is on India's northwestern side, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable (also known as the G ...

Rajasthan
. The
Ministry of Culture A culture minister or a heritage minister is a common cabinet position in government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associat ...
established the ''North Culture Zone'' in
Patiala Patiala () is a city in southeastern , northwestern . It is the fourth largest city in the state and is the administrative capital of . Patiala is located around the ' (the 'Fortunate Castle') constructed by the chieftain , who founded the roy ...
,
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...
on 23 March 1985. It differs from the North Zonal Council in its inclusion of
Uttarakhand Uttarakhand ( , or ; , lit. 'Northern Land'), formerly known as Uttaranchal ( ), is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the "Devbhumi" (literally "Land of the Gods") due to its religious significance and numerous ...

Uttarakhand
and the omission of
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
. In contrast, the
Geological Survey of India The Geological Survey of India (GSI) is a scientific agency of India. It was founded in 1851, is a Government of India Ministry of Mines organisation, one of the oldest of such organisations in the world and the second oldest survey in India af ...
(part of the Ministry of Mines) included
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; , 'Northern Province') is a States and union territories of India, state in North India, northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the List of states and union territories of India by population, most popu ...

Uttar Pradesh
and
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
in its ''Northern Region'', but excluded
Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a in . It covers or 10.4 percent of India's total geographical area. It is the and the . It is on India's northwestern side, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable (also known as the G ...

Rajasthan
and
Chandigarh Chandigarh () is a city, district and union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Punjab and Haryana. Chandigarh is bordered by the state of Punjab to the north, the west and the south, and by the s ...

Chandigarh
, with a regional headquarters in
Lucknow Lucknow (, ) is the List of state and union territory capitals in India, capital city of the List of state and union territory capitals in India, Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous Lu ...

Lucknow
.


Wider definition


Indian press definition

The Hindu ''The Hindu'' is an English-language, India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and ...

The Hindu
newspaper puts Bihar, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh related articles on its ''North'' pages. Articles in the Indian press have included the states of Bihar, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, and West Bengal in North India as well.


Latitude-based definition

The
Tropic of Cancer The Tropic of Cancer, which is also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted ...

Tropic of Cancer
, which divides the
temperate zone In geography, the temperate climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes (40° to 60° N/S of Equator), which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth. These zones generally have wider temperature ranges throughout the yea ...

temperate zone
from the
tropical zone The tropics are the region of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent A continent is one of several larg ...
in the
Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remain ...

Northern Hemisphere
, runs through India, and could theoretically be regarded as a geographical dividing line in the country.Ram Nath Dubey, "Economic Geography of India", Kitab Mahal, 1961. ''... The Tropic of Cancer divides India roughly into two equal parts: the Warm Temperate and Tropical ... '' Indian states that are entirely above the
Tropic of Cancer The Tropic of Cancer, which is also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted ...

Tropic of Cancer
are
Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a States and union territories of India, state in the northern part of India. Situated in the Western Himalayas, it is one of the eleven Indian Himalayan Region, mountain states ...

Himachal Pradesh
,
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...
,
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
,
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
,
Uttarakhand Uttarakhand ( , or ; , lit. 'Northern Land'), formerly known as Uttaranchal ( ), is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the "Devbhumi" (literally "Land of the Gods") due to its religious significance and numerous ...

Uttarakhand
,
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; , 'Northern Province') is a States and union territories of India, state in North India, northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the List of states and union territories of India by population, most popu ...

Uttar Pradesh
and
Bihar Bihar (; ) is a states and union territories of India, state in eastern India. It is the list of states and union territories of India by population, third-largest state by population and list of states and union territories of India by area ...

Bihar
and most of
North East India Northeast India (officially North Eastern Region, NER) is the easternmost region of India representing both a geographic and political Administrative divisions of India, administrative division of the country. It comprises eight States and union ...

North East India
n states. However that definition would also include major parts of
Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a in . It covers or 10.4 percent of India's total geographical area. It is the and the . It is on India's northwestern side, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable (also known as the G ...

Rajasthan
,
Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh (, ; meaning ''Central Province'') is a state in central India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most ...

Madhya Pradesh
,
Jharkhand Jharkhand (; ; meaning 'the land of forests') is a States and union territories of India, state in East India, eastern India. The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Chhattisgarh to the ...

Jharkhand
and
West Bengal West Bengal (, Bengali Bengali or Bengalee, or Bengalese may refer to: *something of, from, or related to Bengal, a large region in South Asia * Bengalis, an ethnic and linguistic group of the region * Bengali language, the language they sp ...

West Bengal
and minor regions of
Chhattisgarh Chhattisgarh (lit. thirty-six forts) is a landlocked and heavily forested States and union territories of India, state located in the region of Central India. Formerly part of Madhya Pradesh it was granted statehood on Chhattisgarh Rajyotsava, 1 ...

Chhattisgarh
and
Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Gujarat
.


Anecdotal usage

In
Mumbai Mumbai (, ; also known as Bombay — List of renamed Indian cities and states#Maharashtra, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian States and union territories of India, state of Maharashtra. According to the United ...

Mumbai
, the term "North Indian" is sometimes used to describe migrants from eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, often using the term ''bhaiya'' (which literally means 'elder brother') along with it in a derogatory sense, however these very people are not considered North Indian by the inhabitants of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Haryana and Rajasthan. In Punjab, they are often referred to as ''Purabias'', meaning Easterners. The
Government of Bihar The Government of Bihar, known locally as the State Government, is the supreme governing authority of the Indian state India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of ...
official site places the state in the eastern part of India. Within Uttar Pradesh itself, "the cultural divide between the east and the west is considerable, with the ''purabiyas'' (easterners) often being clubbed with Biharis in the perception of the westerners."Susheela Raghavan, "Handbook of Spices, Seasonings, and Flavorings", CRC Press, 2007, . ''... Maharashtra, in North India, has kala masala in many versions ... ''


History

The empires and dynasties that have ruled parts or all of North India include: *
Maurya Empire The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human h ...
, 326 – 187 BCE *
Indo-Greek Kingdom The Indo-Greek Kingdom, or Graeco-Indian Kingdom, also known historically as the Yavana Kingdom (Yavanarajya), was a Hellenistic period, Hellenistic-era Ancient Greece, Greek kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwest regio ...
, c.150 BCE – 10 CE (
Menander I Menander I Soter ( grc, Μένανδρος Σωτήρ, ''Ménandros Sōtḗr'', ''Menandrauou Sotiros'', ‘Menander the Saviour’) (Pali Pali () is a Middle Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate ...
conquered Punjab) *
Northern Satraps The Northern Satraps (Brahmi Brahmi (; ISO 15919 ISO 15919 "Transliteration of Devanagari and related Indic scripts into Latin characters" is one of a series of international standards for romanization Romanization or romanisation, in l ...
, 1st century BCE to 1st century CE *
Gupta Empire The Gupta Empire was an Outline of ancient India, ancient Indian empire which existed from the early 4th century CE to late 6th century CE. At its zenith, from approximately 319 to 467 CE, it covered much of the Indian subcontinent. This period ...

Gupta Empire
, during the reign of Samudragupta, c.335 – c.550 CE *
Empire of Harsha Harshavardhana (c. 590–647 CE) was an Indian emperor who ruled North India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a countr ...
, 606 to 647 CE *
Pala Empire The Pala Empire (r. 750-1161 CE) was an imperial power during the Post-classical history, post-classical period in the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal. It is named after its ruling dynasty, whose rulers bore names ...
, 770 to 810 CE *
Pratihara Empire The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled much of Northern India from the mid-8th to the 11th century. They ruled first at Ujjain and later at Kannauj. The ...
, mid-7th to the 11th century *
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
, 1206–1526 *
Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, ge ...
, 1526–1540, then 1555–1857, interrupted briefly by the Sur Empire, *
Sur Empire The Sur Empire was an Afghan Afghan (Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic lang ...
1540–1556 *
Sikh Empire The Sikh Empire ( fa, , Sarkār-ē-Khālsā, lit=Government of the Khalsa; pa, , ਸਿੱਖ ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ ਰਾਜ , Sikkh Khālsā Rāj, lit=Sikh Khalsa rule), also known as the Punjab Empire, was a state originating in the Indian ...

Sikh Empire
1799–1849 *
Maratha Empire The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was a power that dominated a large portion of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century. The empire formally existed from 1674 with the coronation of Shivaji Shivaji Bhonsale I (; 19 ...

Maratha Empire
1761–1818 *
British Indian Empire The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, ...
1858–1947 The Delhi Sultanate, Mughal and British Indian Empires had Delhi as their capital from time to time.


"North of the Vindhyas"

One demarcation between northern and southern nations has been the
Vindhya The Vindhya Range (also known as Vindhyachal) () is a complex, discontinuous Mountain chain, chain of mountain ridges, hill ranges, highlands and plateau escarpments in west-central India. Technically, the Vindhyas do not form a single mountain ...

Vindhya
mountain range. In centuries past this sometimes formed a border during periods of imperial expansion, such as the one ruled by the
Gupta Gupta () is a common surname In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name that indicates their family, tribe or community. Practices vary by culture. The family name may be placed at either ...

Gupta
emperor
Samudragupta Samudragupta (Gupta script: ''Sa-mu-dra-gu-pta'', r. c. (350-375 CE) was a ruler of the Gupta Empire of Ancient India. As a son of the Gupta emperor Chandragupta I and the Licchavi (clan), Lichchhavi princess Kumaradevi, he greatly expanded h ...
. The Vindhyas also find mention in the narrative of
Rishi ''Rishi'' () is a term for an accomplished and enlightened person. They find mentions in various Hindu Vedic texts. Rishis are believed to have composed hymns of the Vedas upright=1.2, The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. A ...

Rishi
Agastya Agastya (Sanskrit: अगस्त्य) was a revered Indian Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South As ...

Agastya
as a dividing feature between North and South India. Varadaraja V. Raman, "Glimpses of Indian Heritage", Popular Prakasan, 1989. The
Manusmṛti The ''Manusmṛiti'' ( sa, मनुस्मृति), also known as the ''Mānava-Dharmaśāstra'' or Laws of Manu, is believed to be the first ancient legal text and constitution among the many ' of Hinduism. In ancient India, the Rishi, sa ...
also describes the southern limit of Aryavarta (i.e. the abode of the Aryans) as being defined by the Vindhya range.


Foreign influences

Several sources consider sizeable Muslim populations and deep-seated Islamic, Central Asian and Afghan influences to be defining characteristics of North Indian culture, both linguistically and culturally.
Christopher Alan Bayly Sir Christopher Alan Bayly, FBA, FRSL The Royal Society of Literature (RSL) is a learned society founded in 1820, by George IV of the United Kingdom, King George IV, to "reward literary merit and excite literary talent". The society is a cult ...
, "Rulers, Townsmen, and Bazaars: North Indian Society in the Age of British Expansion, 1770-1870", CUP Archive, 1983, .
Some of these influences are pre-Islamic, such as the
Bactria Bactria (BactrianBactrian may refer to *Bactria Bactria ( Bactrian: , ), or Bactriana, was an ancient region in Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the ...
n-originated
Kushan Empire The Kushan Empire ( grc, Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; xbc, Κυϸανο, kus, khasano, ; Brahmi script, Late Brahmi Sanskrit: , ', '; Devanagari sa, कुषाण राजवंश, ; Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, BHS: ; xpr, 𐭊 ...

Kushan Empire
(modern day
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
) that maintained twin capitals in
Mathura Mathura () is a city and the administrative headquarters of Mathura district Mathura district situated along the banks of the river Yamuna The Yamuna (Hindustani Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindus ...
(now in Uttar Pradesh) and
Peshawar Peshawar (; ps, پېښور ; hnd, ; ; ur, ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and its List of cities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa by population, largest city. It is the List of most populous cities in Pakistan, six ...

Peshawar
(in the present-day Pakistani
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (; ps, خیبر پښتونخوا; ), often abbreviated as KP or KPK and formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province, is one of the Administrative units of Pakistan, four provinces of Pakistan. It is located in the Geo ...

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
province), as well as the
Hun The Huns were a nomadic people A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, pastoral ...
confederacies that periodically asserted their rule over large parts of North India.
Romila Thapar Romila Thapar (born 30 November 1931) is an Indian historian. Her principal area of study is ancient India According to consensus in modern genetics, anatomically modern humans first arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa between ...

Romila Thapar
, "Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300", University of California Press, 2003, .


Geography

North India lies mainly on continental India, north of peninsular India. Towards its north are the Himalayas which define the boundary between the Indian subcontinent and the
Tibetan plateau The Tibetan Plateau (, also known as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau () or as the Himalayan Plateau in India, is a vast elevated plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λ ...
. To its west is the
Thar desert The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large arid region A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Development ...

Thar desert
, shared between North India and
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
and the
Aravalli Range The Aravalli Range (also spelled ''Aravali'') is a mountain range in Northwestern India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), i ...

Aravalli Range
, beyond which lies the state of
Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Gujarat
. The
Vindhya The Vindhya Range (also known as Vindhyachal) () is a complex, discontinuous Mountain chain, chain of mountain ridges, hill ranges, highlands and plateau escarpments in west-central India. Technically, the Vindhyas do not form a single mountain ...

Vindhya
mountains are, in some interpretations, taken to be the southern boundary of North India. The predominant geographical features of North India are: *the Indo-Gangetic plain, which spans the states and union territories of Chandigarh, Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh *the Himalayas, which lie in the states of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, and Jammu and Kashmir; *the Thar desert, which lies mainly in the state of Rajasthan. The states of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Jammu and Kashmir also have a large forest coverage.


General climate

North India lies mainly in the north
temperate zone In geography, the temperate climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes (40° to 60° N/S of Equator), which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth. These zones generally have wider temperature ranges throughout the yea ...

temperate zone
of the
Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is Water distribution on Earth, covered wi ...

Earth
. Though cool or cold winters, hot summers and moderate monsoons are the general pattern. North India is one of the most climatically diverse regions on Earth. During summer, the temperature often rises above 35 °C across much of the Indo-Gangetic plain, reaching as high as 50 °C in the Thar desert, Rajasthan and up to 49 in Delhi. During winter, the lowest temperature on the plains dips to below 5 °C, and below the freezing point in some states. Heavy to moderate snowfall occurs in Himachal Pradesh, J&K and Uttarakhand. Much of North India is notorious for heavy fog during winters. Extreme temperatures among inhabited regions have ranged from in
Dras Dras (also spelt Drass, ISO 15919, ISO transliteration: ') is a hill station in the Kargil district of the union territory of Ladakh in India. It is on the National Highway 1 (India), NH 1 (former name National Highway 1D (India, old numbering) ...
, Jammu and Kashmir to 50.6 °C (123 °F) in
Alwar Alwar located 150 km south of Delhi and 150 km north of Jaipur, is a city in India's National Capital Region (India), National Capital Region and the administrative headquarters of Alwar District in the States and territories of Indi ...

Alwar
, Rajasthan.
Dras Dras (also spelt Drass, ISO 15919, ISO transliteration: ') is a hill station in the Kargil district of the union territory of Ladakh in India. It is on the National Highway 1 (India), NH 1 (former name National Highway 1D (India, old numbering) ...
is claimed to be the second-coldest inhabited place on the planet (after
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...

Siberia
), with a recorded low of -60 °C.Sarina Singh, "India: Lonely Planet Guide", Lonely Planet, 2003, .


Precipitation

The region receives heavy rain in plains and light snow on Himalayas precipitation through two primary weather patterns: the Indian
Monsoon A monsoon () is traditionally a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology ...

Monsoon
and the Western Disturbances. The Monsoon carries moisture northwards from the
Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of and contains 97% of . Another definition is "any of the large ...

Indian Ocean
, occurs in late summer and is important to the Kharif or autumn harvest.Vidya Sagar Katiyar, "Indian Monsoon and Its Frontiers", Inter-India Publications, 1990, .Ajit Prasad Jain and Shiba Prasad Chatterjee, "Report of the Irrigation Commission, 1972", Ministry of Irrigation and Power, Government of India, 1972. Western Disturbances, on the other hand, are an extratropical weather phenomenon that carry moisture eastwards from the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
, the
Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea (also known as Mazandaran Sea, Hyrcanian Ocean, or Khazar Sea), tk, Hazar deňzi, az, Xəzər Dənizi, russian: Каспийское море, script=Latn, fa, دریای مازندران، دریای خزر, script=Latn, tly, ...

Caspian Sea
and the .Bin Wang, "The Asian Monsoon", Springer, 2006, .R.K. Datta (Meteorological Office, Dum Dum) and M.G. Gupta (Meteorological Office, Delhi), "Synoptic study of the formation and movements of Western Depressions", Indian Journal of Meteorology & Geophysics, India Meteorological Department, 1968.A.P. Dimri, "Models to improve winter minimum surface temperature forecasts, Delhi, India", ''
Meteorological Applications ''Meteorological Applications'' is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of meteorology published four times per year since 1994. It is published by John Wiley & Sons on behalf of the Royal Meteorological Society. Abstracting and indexing The journa ...
'', 11, pp 129-139, Royal Meteorological Society, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
They primarily occur during the winter season and are critically important for the Rabi crop, Rabi or spring harvest, which includes the main staple over much of North India, wheat. The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand receive some snowfall in winter months.


Traditional seasons

Northern Indian tradition recognises six distinct seasons in the region: summer (''grishma'' or ''garmi'', May–June), rainy (''varsha'', July–August), cool (''sharad'', September–October, sometimes thought of as 'early autumn'), autumn (''hemant'', November–December, also called ''patjhar'', lit. ''leaf-fall''), winter (''shishir'' or ''sardi'', January–February) and spring (''vasant'', March–April). The literature, poetry and folklore of the region uses references to these six seasons quite extensively and has done so since ancient times when Sanskrit was prevalent.Geography
Yash Pal Singh, pp. 420, FK Publications, , ''... The sequence of the six traditional seasons is correct only for northern and central parts of India ...''
The Life of a Text: Performing the Rāmcaritmānas of Tulsidas
Philip Lutgendorf, pp. 22, University of California Press, 1991, , ''... likening the major episodes of the narrative to various features of the river and its banks, and to the appearance of the river in each of the six seasons of the North Indian year ...''
Essays on North Indian Folk Traditions
Susan Snow Wadley, pp. 226, Orient Blackswan, 2005, , ''... Yet another cultural division of the year views it as six seasons ... This cycle of six seasons, while known and referred to today, is more widely recognised in Sanskrit literature ...''
In the mountainous areas, sometimes the winter is further divided into "big winter" (e.g. ''chillai kalaan'') and "little winter" (''chillai khurd'').Systematic Geography Of Jammu And Kashmir
S.A. Qazi, pp. 25, APH Publishing, 2005,


Demographics

The people of North India mostly belong to the Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-Aryan ethno linguistic branch, and include various social groups such as Brahmins, Rajputs, Vanika, Banias, Jat people, Jats, Yadavs, Gurjars, Koli people, Kolis, Khatris, Kambojs and Dalits.Sarat Chandra Roy and Ral Bahadur, "Man in India", A.K. Bose, 1996.Kumool Abbi, "Discourse of Zindaginama: A semio-anthropological critique", Harman Publishing House, 2002.Kiran Prem, Haryana Gazetteers Organization, "Haryana District Gazetteers", Government of Haryana, 1970. Other minority ethno-linguistic communities such as Dravidian languages, Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman languages, Tibeto-Burman and Austroasiatic languages, Austroasiatic exist throughout the region.


Religion

Hinduism is the dominant religion in North India. Other religions practiced by various ethnic communities include Islam, Sikhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Baháʼí Faith, Baháʼí, Christianity, and Buddhism. The states of
Uttarakhand Uttarakhand ( , or ; , lit. 'Northern Land'), formerly known as Uttaranchal ( ), is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the "Devbhumi" (literally "Land of the Gods") due to its religious significance and numerous ...

Uttarakhand
,
Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a in . It covers or 10.4 percent of India's total geographical area. It is the and the . It is on India's northwestern side, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable (also known as the G ...

Rajasthan
,
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
, and
Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a States and union territories of India, state in the northern part of India. Situated in the Western Himalayas, it is one of the eleven Indian Himalayan Region, mountain states ...

Himachal Pradesh
are overwhelmingly Hindu.
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; , 'Northern Province') is a States and union territories of India, state in North India, northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the List of states and union territories of India by population, most popu ...

Uttar Pradesh
is also majority Hindu, but it boasts a large Muslim minority as well. The union territories of
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
and
Ladakh Ladakh () is a region administered by India as a union territory, and constitutes a part of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947. (subscription required) Quote: "Jammu ...

Ladakh
have slight Muslim plurality, Jammu and Kashmir with 35% Hindu population and with Ladakh having a significant Buddhist minority of around 40%. The state of
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...
has a Sikhs, Sikh plurality 55% and is considered to be the homeland of Sikhism.


Languages

Linguistically, North India is dominated by Indo-Aryan languages. It is in this region, or its proximity, that Sanskrit and the various Prakrits are thought to have evolved. The most widely spoken language in this region is
Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, North India. Hindi has been described as a Standard la ...

Hindi
. It has official status in the states of
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
,
Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a States and union territories of India, state in the northern part of India. Situated in the Western Himalayas, it is one of the eleven Indian Himalayan Region, mountain states ...

Himachal Pradesh
,
Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a in . It covers or 10.4 percent of India's total geographical area. It is the and the . It is on India's northwestern side, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable (also known as the G ...

Rajasthan
,
Uttarakhand Uttarakhand ( , or ; , lit. 'Northern Land'), formerly known as Uttaranchal ( ), is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the "Devbhumi" (literally "Land of the Gods") due to its religious significance and numerous ...

Uttarakhand
and
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; , 'Northern Province') is a States and union territories of India, state in North India, northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the List of states and union territories of India by population, most popu ...

Uttar Pradesh
as well as in the union territory of
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
.
Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a ge ...
has predominance in the state of
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...
where it is the official language. It also has significant presence in the nearby regions.
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...

Urdu
enjoys official status in
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
,
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
and
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; , 'Northern Province') is a States and union territories of India, state in North India, northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the List of states and union territories of India by population, most popu ...

Uttar Pradesh
. Further north in Jammu and Kashmir, major languages are Dogri and . Languages like Bhili and Nepali language, Nepali are also spoken in notable numbers throughout the region. A large part of North India is taken up by the so-called Hindi Belt, which here subsumes most of the Rajasthani languages, dialects of Western Hindi, Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Garhwali language, Garhwali and Kumaoni language, Kumaoni. Several Sino-Tibetan languages are spoken in the Himalayan region like Kinnauri language, Kinnauri, Ladakhi language, Ladakhi, Balti language, Balti, and Lahuli–Spiti languages. Austro-Asiatic languages like Korwa language, Korwa/Kodaku is also spoken in some parts of this region.


Culture

The composite culture of North India is known as Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb, a result of the amicable interaction of Hindus and Muslims there.


Dance

Dance of North India too has diverse ''folk'' and ''classical'' forms. Among the well-known Indian folk dance, folk dances are the ''Bhangra (dance), bhangra'' of the Punjab region, Punjab, Ghoomar of Rajasthan, Nati (dance), Nati of
Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a States and union territories of India, state in the northern part of India. Situated in the Western Himalayas, it is one of the eleven Indian Himalayan Region, mountain states ...

Himachal Pradesh
and ''rouf'' and ''bhand pather'' of Kashmir. Main dance forms, many with narrative forms and Hindu mythology, mythological elements, have been accorded Indian classical dance, classical dance status by India's ''Sangeet Natak Academi, National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama'' such as Kathak''.


Clothing

Each state of North India has its own regional forms of clothing: #
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; , 'Northern Province') is a States and union territories of India, state in North India, northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the List of states and union territories of India by population, most popu ...

Uttar Pradesh
: Chikan Suit, Pathani Salwar, Kurta Paijama, Sari . # Jammu: Kurta/Jammu dress, Dogri suthan and kurta/churidar pajama and kurta. # Kashmir: Phiran, Phiran and poots. #
Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a States and union territories of India, state in the northern part of India. Situated in the Western Himalayas, it is one of the eleven Indian Himalayan Region, mountain states ...

Himachal Pradesh
: Shalwar kameez, Kurta, Churidar, Dhoti, Himachali cap and angarkha. #
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...
/
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
: Salwar (Punjabi) Suit, Patiala salwar, Punjabi Tamba and Kurta, Dastar, Sikh Dastar, Phulkari, Punjabi Ghagra #
Uttarakhand Uttarakhand ( , or ; , lit. 'Northern Land'), formerly known as Uttaranchal ( ), is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the "Devbhumi" (literally "Land of the Gods") due to its religious significance and numerous ...

Uttarakhand
: Rangwali Phichora


Flora and fauna

North Indian vegetation is predominantly Tropical evergreen and Montane . Of the evergreen trees Hollong Gurjan, Shorea robusta, sal, teak, Mahogany, Sheesham delbergia, sheesham (Indian rosewood) and Populus, poplar are some which are important commercially.N.C. Saxena, "The Saga of Participatory Forest Management in India", Center for International Forestry Research, 1997, . The Western Himalayan region abounds in chir pine, chir, pine, Cedrus deodara, deodar (Himalayan cedar), blue pine, spruce, various firs, birch and junipers.R.L. Singh, "India: A Regional Geography", National Geographical Society of India, 1971.Bansi Lal Kaul, "Ecodegradation of Himalayas", Vinod Publishers & Distributors, 1995.S.S. Negi, "Himalayan Forests and Forestry", Indus Publishing, 2002, . Snippet:''... Important Himalayan trees are sal, chir pine, deodar, oaks, fir, spruce, rhododendrons, and the giant evergreen trees of the Eastern Himalayas ...''R.P. Sharma, "The Indian Forester", v.72:6-12 (Jan-June 1946). The birch, especially, has historical significance in Indian culture due to the extensive use of birch paper ( sa, bhurja patra) as parchment for many ancient Indian texts.Sanjukta Gupta, "Lakṣmī Tantra: A Pāñcarātra Text", Brill Archive, 1972, . Snippet:''... the text recommends that the bark of the Himalayan birch tree (bhurja-patra) should be used for scribbling mantras ...''Amalananda Ghosh, "An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology", BRILL, 1990, . Snippet:''... Bhurja-patra, the inner bark on the birch tree grown in the Himalayan region, was a very common writing material ...'' The Eastern Himalayan region consists of oaks, laurels, maples, rhododendrons, alder, birch and dwarf willows. Reflecting the diverse climatic zones and terrain contained in the region, the floral variety is extensive and ranges from Alpine to Cloud forests, coniferous to evergreen, and thick tropical rainforests to cool temperate woods.Casey A. Wood, "Through Forest and Jungle in Kashmir and Other Parts of North India: The Annual Smithsonian Institution Report, 1932", Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1933. There are around 500 varieties of mammals, 2000 species of birds, 30,000 types of insects and a wide variety of fish, amphibians and reptiles in the region. Animal species in North India include elephant, bengal tiger, indian leopard, snow leopard, Sambar (deer), sambar (Asiatic stag), Chital, chital (spotted deer), Kashmir stag, hangul (red deer), hog deer, Chinkara, chinkara (Indian gazelle), blackbuck, Nilgai, nilgai (blue bull antelope), porcupine, wild boar, Indian fox, Tibetan sand fox, rhesus monkey, langur, jungle cat, striped hyena, golden jackal, Himalayan bear, black bear, Himalayan brown bear, sloth bear, and the endangered caracal. Reptiles are represented by a large number of snake and lizard species, as well as the ghariyal and crocodiles. Venomous snakes found in the region include king cobra and krait. Various scorpion, spider and insect species include the commercially useful honeybees, silkworms and lac insects. The strikingly coloured Trombidiidae, bir bahuti is also found in this region. The region has a wide variety of birds, including peafowl, parrots, and thousands of immigrant birds, such as the Siberian crane. Other birds include pheasants, goose, geese, ducks, mynahs, parakeets, pigeons, crane (bird), cranes (including the celebrated sarus crane), and hornbills. Great hornbill, great pied hornbill, Pallas's fish-eagle, Pallas's fishing eagle, Grey-headed fish eagle, grey-headed fishing eagle, red-thighed Microhierax, falconet are found in the Himalayan areas. Other birds found here are Tawny fish-owl, tawny fish owl, scale-bellied woodpecker, red-breasted parakeet, Himalayan swiftlet, stork-billed kingfisher and White-tailed rubythroat, Himalayan or white-tailed rubythroat.


Wildlife parks and reserves

Important national parks and tiger reserves of North India include: Corbett National Park: It was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park along the banks of the Ramganga River. It is India's first National Park, and was designated a Project Tiger Reserve in 1973. Situated in Nainital district of Uttarakhand, the park acts as a protected area for the critically endangered Bengal tiger of India. Cradled in the foothills of the Himalayas, it comprises a total area of 500 km2 out of which 350 km2 is core reserve. This park is known not only for its rich and varied wildlife but also for its scenic beauty. Nanda Devi National Park and Valley of Flowers National Park: Located in West Himalaya, in the state of Uttarakhand, these two national parks constitute a biosphere reserve that is in the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves since 2004. The Valley of Flowers is known for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and the variety of flora, this richly diverse area is also home to rare and endangered animals. Dachigam National Park: Dachigam is a higher altitude national reserve in the state of Jammu and Kashmir that ranges from 5,500 to 14,000 feet above sea level. It is home to the Kashmir stag, hangul (a red deer species, also called the Kashmir stag). Great Himalayan National Park: This park is located in Himachal Pradesh and ranges in altitude from 5,000 to 17,500 feet. Wildlife resident here includes the snow leopard, the Himalayan brown bear and the musk deer. Desert National Park: Located in Rajasthan, this national reserve features extensive sand dunes and dry salt lakes. Wildlife unique to the region includes the desert fox and the great Indian bustard. Kanha National Park: The sal and bamboo forests, grassy meadows and ravines of Kanha were the setting for Rudyard Kipling's collection of stories, "The Jungle Book". The Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh came into being in 1955 and forms the core of the Kanha Tiger Reserve, created in 1974 under Project Tiger. Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary: Located in the state of Bihar, it is the only protected zone for the endangered Ganges and Indus river dolphin. Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary: It is one of the finest bird parks in the world, it is a reserve that offers protection to faunal species as well. Nesting indigenous water birds as well as migratory water birds and waterside birds, this sanctuary is also inhabited by sambar, chital, nilgai and boar. Dudhwa National Park: It covers an area of 500 km2 along the Indo-Nepal border in Lakhimpur Kheri District of Uttar Pradesh, is best known for the barasingha or swamp deer. The grasslands and woodlands of this park, consist mainly of sal forests. The barasingha is found in the southwest and southeast regions of the park. Among the big cats, tigers abound at Dudhwa. There are also a few leopards. The other animals found in large numbers, are the Indian rhinoceros, elephant, jungle cats, leopard cats, fishing cats, jackals, civets, sloth bears, sambar, otters, crocodiles and chital. Ranthambhore National Park: It spans an area of 400 km2 with an estimated head count of thirty two tigers is perhaps India's finest example of Project Tiger, a conservation effort started by the government in an attempt to save the dwindling number of tigers in India. Situated near the small town of Sawai Madhopur it boasts of variety of plant and animal species of North India. Kalesar National Park: Kalesar is a Sal tree, sal forest in the Shivalik Hills of eastern Haryana state. Primarily known for birds, it also contains a small number of tigers and panthers.


Places of interest


Nature

The Indian
Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Ind ...

Himalayas
, the Thar desert and the Indo-Gangetic plain dominate the natural scenery of North India. The region encompasses several of the most highly regarded hill destinations of India such as Srinagar, Shimla, Manali, Himachal Pradesh, Manali, Nainital, Mussoorie, Kausani and Mount Abu. Several spots in the states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh provide panoramic views of the snow-clad Himalayan range. The Himalayan region also provides ample opportunity for adventure sports such as mountaineering, trekking, river rafting and skiing. Camel or jeep safaris of the Thar desert are also popular in the state of Rajasthan. North India includes several national parks such as the
Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve The Nanda Devi National Park or Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, established in 1982 is a national park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it i ...

Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve
, Jim Corbett National Park, Keoladeo National Park and Ranthambore National Park.


Pilgrimage

North India encompasses several of the holiest pilgrimage centres of Hinduism (
Varanasi Varanasi (; ), officially so revived after 1947, but still widely known as Banaras or Benares (; ), and in ancient times as Kashi, is a city on the Ganges river in North India, northern India that has a central place in pilgrimage, death ...

Varanasi
,
Haridwar Haridwar (; ) is a city and municipal corporation in the Haridwar district of Uttarakhand, India. With a population of 228,832 in 2011, it is the second-largest city in the state and the largest in the district. The city is situated on the righ ...

Haridwar
,
Allahabad Allahabad (), officially known as Prayagraj, also known as Ilahabad, is a metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or r ...

Allahabad
,
Char Dham The Char Dham (meaning: ''four abodes'') is a set of four pilgrimage sites in India. It is believed that visiting these sites helps achieve moksha (salvation). The four Dhams are, Badrinath, Dwarka, Puri and Rameswaram. It is believed that ever ...
,
Vaishno Devi Vaishno Devi (also known as Mata Rani, Trikuta, Ambe and Vaishnavi) is a manifestation of the Hindu Mother Goddess, Devi Devī (Sanskrit: देवी) is the Sanskrit word for 'goddess'; the masculine form is Deva (Hinduism), ''deva'' ...
, Rishikesh,
Ayodhya Ayodhya (; IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages. It is ...

Ayodhya
,
Mathura Mathura () is a city and the administrative headquarters of Mathura district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located approximately north of Agra Agra (, ) is a city on the banks of the Yamuna river in the Indian state of Utta ...

Mathura
/Vrindavan,
Pushkar Pushkar is a city in the Ajmer district in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the L ...

Pushkar
, Allahabad, Prayag and seven of the twelve Jyotirlinga sites), the most sacred destinations of Buddhism (Bodh Gaya,
Sarnath Sarnath (Hindustani pronunciation: aːɾnaːtʰ is a place located 10 kilometres north-east of Varanasi Varanasi (; ), officially so revived after 1947, but still widely known as Banaras or Benares (; ), and in ancient times as ...

Sarnath
and
Kushinagar ''Kushinagar'' is a town in the Kushinagar district Kushinagar is a Districts of Uttar Pradesh, district of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India situated in the easternmost part of the state. It has the administrative headquarters at Ravin ...

Kushinagar
), the most regarded pilgrimage centres of Sikhism (Amritsar and Hemkund) and some of the highly regarded destinations in Sufi Islam (Ajmer and
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
). The largest Hindu temple, Akshardham (Delhi), Akshardham Temple, the largest Buddhist temple in India, Mahabodhi Temple, Mahabodhi, the largest mosque in India, Jama Masjid, Delhi, Jama Masjid, and the largest Sikh shrine,
Golden Temple The Golden Temple (also known as the Harmandir Sahib, , , or the Darbār Sahib, 'exalted court', ) is a gurdwara A gurdwara (; meaning "door to the Sikh gurus, guru") is a place of assembly and place of worship, worship for Sikhs. Sikhs also r ...

Golden Temple
, are all in this region.


Historical

North India includes some highly regarded historical, architectural and archaeological treasures of India. The
Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal (; , ), is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the right bank of the river Yamuna in the Indian city of Agra. It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal Empire, Mughal emperor Shah Jahan () to house the tomb of his favourite wi ...

Taj Mahal
, an immense mausoleum of white marble in Agra, is one of the universally admired buildings of world heritage. Besides Agra,
Fatehpur Sikri Fatehpur Sikri is a town in the Agra District of Uttar Pradesh, India. The city itself was founded as the capital of Mughal Empire in 1571 by Mughal Emperor, Emperor Akbar, serving this role from 1571 to 1585, when Akbar abandoned it due to a ca ...

Fatehpur Sikri
and
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
also carry some great exhibits from the Mughal architecture. In Punjab,
Patiala Patiala () is a city in southeastern , northwestern . It is the fourth largest city in the state and is the administrative capital of . Patiala is located around the ' (the 'Fortunate Castle') constructed by the chieftain , who founded the roy ...
is known for being the city of royalty while Amritsar is a city known for its Sikh architecture and the Golden Temple.
Lucknow Lucknow (, ) is the List of state and union territory capitals in India, capital city of the List of state and union territory capitals in India, Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous Lu ...

Lucknow
has the famous Awadhi Nawab culture while Kanpur reflects excellent British architecture with monuments like Kanpur Sangrahalaya, Edward Hall, Police Quarters, Cutchery Cemetery etc. constitute another famous world heritage site. The state of Rajasthan is known for exquisite List of palaces in Rajasthan, palaces and Hill Forts of Rajasthan, forts of the Rajput clans. Historical sites and architecture from the ancient and medieval History of Hinduism, Hindu and History of Buddhism, Buddhist periods of Indian history, such as Jageshwar, Deogarh, Uttar Pradesh, Deogarh and Sanchi, as well as sites from the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilization, such as Manda, Jammu, Manda and Alamgirpur, can be found scattered throughout northern India.
Varanasi Varanasi (; ), officially so revived after 1947, but still widely known as Banaras or Benares (; ), and in ancient times as Kashi, is a city on the Ganges river in North India, northern India that has a central place in pilgrimage, death ...

Varanasi
, on the banks of the River Ganga, is considered one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world and the second oldest in India after Nalanda. Bhimbetka is an archaeological site of the Paleolithic era, exhibiting the earliest traces of human life on the Indian subcontinent.


Universities

North India has several universities, including * Agra University * Alakh Prakash Goyal University * All India Institute of Medical Sciences * Allahabad University * Aligarh Muslim University * Ashoka University * Avadh University * Bahra University * Banaras Hindu University * Bhagat Phool Singh Mahila Vishwavidyalaya * Birla Institute of Technology and Science * Central University of Rajasthan * Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology * Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur University * Delhi University * Delhi Technological University * Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University * Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Law University * Gautam Buddha University * Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology * Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Gurukul Kangri University * Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology * Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University * Haryana Agricultural University * Himachal Pradesh University * Himachal Pradesh National Law University * Jai Narain Vyas University * Jawaharlal Nehru University * Jiwaji University * Kanpur University * Kumaon University * Kurukshetra University * Maharaja Ganga Singh University * Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology * National Law University, Sonipat * O. P. Jindal Global University * Panjab University * Punjabi University * Punjab Agricultural University * Punjab Technical University * South Asian University * Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology * SRM University, Haryana * Thapar University * University of Jammu * University of Kashmir * University of Kota * University of Lucknow * University of Rajasthan * Uttarakhand Technical University * Vardhaman Mahaveer Open University * World University of Design The Indian Institute of Technology, National Institute of Technology and Indian Institute of Management have campuses in several cities of North India such as
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
, Kanpur, Roorkee, Rohtak,
Varanasi Varanasi (; ), officially so revived after 1947, but still widely known as Banaras or Benares (; ), and in ancient times as Kashi, is a city on the Ganges river in North India, northern India that has a central place in pilgrimage, death ...

Varanasi
,
Lucknow Lucknow (, ) is the List of state and union territory capitals in India, capital city of the List of state and union territory capitals in India, Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous Lu ...

Lucknow
and Kashipur, Uttarakhand, Kashipur. One of the first great universities in recorded history, the Nalanda University, is in the state of
Bihar Bihar (; ) is a states and union territories of India, state in eastern India. It is the list of states and union territories of India by population, third-largest state by population and list of states and union territories of India by area ...

Bihar
. There has been Nalanda#Plans for revival, plans for revival of this ancient university, including an effort by a multinational consortium led by Singapore, China, India and Japan.


Economy

The economy of North India is predominantly agrarian, but is changing fast with rapid economic growth that has ranged above 8% annually. Several parts of North India have prospered as a consequence of the Green Revolution in India, Green Revolution, including Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh, and have experienced both economic and social development.Mohamad Riad El Ghonemy, "The Dynamics of Rural Poverty", Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1986. ''... Haryana and West Uttar Pradesh recorded spectacular production increases ...''V. G. Rastyannikov, "Agrarian Evolution in a Multiform Structure Society: Experience of Independent India", Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981, .B. M. Bhatia, "Food Security in South Asia", Oxford & IHB Pub. Co., 1985. The eastern areas of East Uttar Pradesh, however, have laggedRobert E. B. Lucas, Gustav Fritz Papanek, "The Indian Economy: Recent Development and Future Prospects", Westview Press, 1988, .Gilbert Etienne, "Rural Development in Asia: Meetings With Peasants", Sage Publications, 1985, . and the resulting disparity has contributed to a demand for separate statehood in West Uttar Pradesh (the Harit Pradesh movement).Gyanesh Kudaisya, "Region, Nation, Heartland: Uttar Pradesh in India's Body Politic", Sage Publications, 2006, . In 2004, the state with the highest GDP per capita in North India was Punjab followed by Haryana. Chandigarh has the highest per-capita State Domestic Product (SDP) of any Indian union territory. The National Capital Region of Delhi has emerged as an economic power house with rapid industrial growth along with adjoining areas of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan. According to a 2009-10 report, a large number of unskilled and skilled workers have moved to southern India and other nations because of the unavailability of jobs locally. The technology boom that occurred in the past three decades in southern India has helped many Indians from the northern region to find jobs and live prosperous lives in southern cities. An analysis by Multidimensional Poverty Index creators reveals that acute poverty prevails in eight Indian states including the northern states of Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.


Best Food Items

The best-known North-Indian food items are: *Tandoori chicken *Reshmi kabab *Kadhai Paneer *Chole bhature *Aloo paratha


See also

*
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
* Northeast India * East India * South India * West India * Central India


References


External links


North Indian temple architecture

Geographia.com: India

Tourist places in North India
{{Authority control Regions of India North India,