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The North Caucasus ( ady, Темыр Къафкъас, Temır Qafqas; kbd, Ишхъэрэ Къаукъаз, İṩxhərə Qauqaz; ce, Къилбаседа Кавказ, Q̇ilbaseda Kavkaz; rus, Северный Кавказ, r=Severnyy Kavkaz, p=ˈsʲevʲɪrnɨj kɐfˈkas, os, Цӕгат Кавказ, Cægat Kavkaz, inh, Даькъасте, Däq̇aste, krc, Шимал Кавказ, Şimal Kavkaz), or Ciscaucasia ( rus, Предкавказье, r=Predkavkazye, p=), is the northern part of the
Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region spanning Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the contin ...
region between the
Sea of Azov The Sea of Azov ( la, Palus Maeotis ; gr, Μαιῶτις λίμνη or Propontis or now la, mare Asoviense; russian: Азовское море, Azovskoye more; uk, Азовське море, Озівське море, Azovske more, Ozivske ...

Sea of Azov
and
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
on the west and the
Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea (also known as Mazandaran Sea, Hyrcanian Ocean, or Khazar Sea), tk, Hazar deňzi, az, Xəzər Dənizi, russian: Каспийское море, script=Latn, fa, دریای مازندران، دریای خزر, script=Latn, tly, ...

Caspian Sea
on the east, in
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
. Geographically, the Northern Caucasus (territory north of the
Greater Caucasus The Greater Caucasus ( az, Böyük Qafqaz, Бөјүк Гафгаз, بيوک قافقاز; ka, დიდი კავკასიონი, ''Didi K’avk’asioni''; russian: Большой Кавказ, ''Bolshoy Kavkaz'', sometimes translate ...
Range) includes the Russian republics and
krai A krai or kray (; russian: край, , ''kraya'') is one of the types of federal subjects of modern Russia, and was a type of geographical administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivisio ...

krai
s of the North Caucasus. As part of the Russian Federation, the Northern Caucasus region is included in the North Caucasian and
Southern Federal District The Southern Federal District ( rus, Ю́жный федера́льный о́круг, Yuzhny federalny okrug, ˈjuʐnɨj fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnɨj ˈokrʊk) is one of the federal districts of Russia, eight federal districts of Russia. Its territor ...

Southern Federal District
s and consists of
Krasnodar Krai Krasnodar Krai (russian: Краснода́рский край, r=Krasnodarsky kray, p=krəsnɐˈdarskʲɪj kraj) is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the North Caucasus region in Southern Russia and ad ...
,
Stavropol Krai Stavropol Krai (russian: Ставропо́льский край, r=Stavropolsky kray, p=stəvrɐˈpolʲskʲɪj kraj) is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subject (a krai) of Russia. It is geographically located in the North Caucasus region in ...
, and the constituent republics, approximately from west to east: the
Republic of Adygea The Republic of Adygea (; rus, Респу́блика Адыге́я, p=ɐdɨˈɡʲejə, r=Respublika Adygeya; ady, Адыгэ Республик, ''Adygæ Respublik''), also known as the Adyghe Republic, is a republic A republic ( la, res ...
,
Karachay–Cherkessia The Karachay-Cherkess Republic (russian: Карача́ево-Черке́сская Респу́блика, ''Karachayevo-Cherkesskaya Respublika''; Karachay-Balkar language, Karachay-Balkar: Къарачай-Черкес Республика, ...
,
Kabardino-Balkaria The Kabardino-Balkarian Republic (russian: Кабарди́но-Балка́рская Респу́блика, ''Kabardino-Balkarskaya Respublika''; Kabardian language, Kabardian: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ, ''Ķêbêr ...
,
North Ossetia–Alania North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydros ...
,
Ingushetia Ingushetia (; russian: Ингуше́тия), officially the Republic of Ingushetia (russian: Респу́блика Ингуше́тия; Ingush: Гӏалгӏай Мохк), is a republic A republic () is a form of government A go ...

Ingushetia
,
Chechnya Chechnya (russian: Чечня́; ce, Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), officially the Chechen Republic; ce, Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika , is a constituent republic A constituent state is a state entity that co ...

Chechnya
,
Republic of Dagestan village of Grar File:Сулакский каньон.jpg, Kara-Koysu River Canyon Dagestan (; russian: Дагестан, Dagestan), officially the Republic of Dagestan (russian: Республика Дагестан, Respublika Dagestan) is a ...
, and to the north:
Kalmykia Kalmykia (russian: Калмыкия, r=Kalmykiya, p=kɐlˈmɨkʲɪjə; xal-RU, Хальмг, ''Haľmg'' ), officially the Republic of Kalmykia,; xal-RU, Хальмг Таңһч, ''Haľmg Tañğç'' is a republic A republic () is a form o ...

Kalmykia
. Geographically, the term North Caucasus also refers to the northern slope and western extremity of the
Caucasus Major The Greater Caucasus ( az, Böyük Qafqaz, Бөјүк Гафгаз, بيوک قافقاز; ka, დიდი კავკასიონი, ''Didi K’avk’asioni''; russian: Большой Кавказ, ''Bolshoy Kavkaz'', sometimes translate ...
mountain range, as well as a part of its southern slope to the West. North Caucasus is considered part of
Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of , geographical, ethnic, cultural, and connotations. , located in Eastern Europe, is both the ...

Eastern Europe
. The Forecaucasus steppe area is often also encompassed under the notion of "Ciscaucasus", thus the northern boundary of the Forecaucasus steppe is generally considered to be the
Manych River The Manych (russian: Маныч) is a river in the Black Sea–Caspian Steppe of Southern Russia. It flows through the western and central part of the Kuma–Manych Depression. In ancient times, it was known as the Lik. A tributary of the Don, it ...
.


History

Ancient cultures of the Northern Caucasus are known as
Klin-Yar Klin-Yar (or Klin-Jar) is a prehistoric and early medieval site in the North Caucasus, outside of Kislovodsk. It was first discovered in the 1980s. Archaeological excavations had uncovered settlement traces and extensive cemetery areas starting in t ...
community, with the most notable culture being the ancient
Koban culture The Koban culture (c. 1100 to 400 BC) is a late Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bro ...
. Other haplogroups were
Haplogroup J1 In genetic genealogy Genetic genealogy is the use of genealogical DNA tests, i.e., DNA profiling and DNA testing in combination with traditional genealogical methods, to infer biological relationships between individuals. Genetic genealogy inv ...
and Haplogroup G-M285. Ciscaucasus was historically covered by the Pontic-Caspian steppe, mostly on fertile calcareous chernozyom soils, which has been almost completely tilled and grazed. It is bounded by the
Sea of Azov The Sea of Azov ( la, Palus Maeotis ; gr, Μαιῶτις λίμνη or Propontis or now la, mare Asoviense; russian: Азовское море, Azovskoye more; uk, Азовське море, Озівське море, Azovske more, Ozivske ...

Sea of Azov
on the west, and the Caspian Sea on the east. According to the ''Concise Atlas of the World, Second Edition'' (2008), the Ciscaucasus region lies on the European side of the "commonly-accepted division" that separates Europe from Asia. The Northern Caucasus was conquered by Russia after the
Russo-Circassian War The Russo-Circassian War ( ady, Урыс-адыгэ зауэ, translit=Wurıs-adığə zawə; ; 1763–1864; also known as the Russian Invasion of Circassia) was the military conflict between Circassia Circassia (; also known in some sources w ...
. Much of the Northern Caucasus seceded from Russia in March 1917 as the
Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus (MRNC; also known as the United Republics of the North Caucasus, Mountain Republic or the Republic of the Mountaineers) was a country in the North Caucasus North is one of the four compass po ...
, taking advantage of the instability caused by the
February Revolution The February Revolution ( rus, Февра́льская револю́ция, p=fʲɪvˈralʲskəjə rʲɪvɐˈlʲutsɨjə, tr. ), known in Soviet historiography Soviet historiography is the methodology of history History (from Greek , ...
and becoming a minor participant in the
Russian Civil War , date = October Revolution, 7 November 1917 – Yakut revolt, 16 June 1923{{Efn, The main phase ended on 25 October 1922. Revolt against the Bolsheviks continued Basmachi movement, in Central Asia and Tungus Republic, the Far East th ...
. Mountainous Republic troops engaged in fierce clashes against the invading
White White is the lightest color Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the Unite ...
General
Anton Denikin Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Russian: Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин, IPA: nˈton ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ dʲɪˈnʲikʲɪn 16 December Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates">O.S._4_December.html" ;"title="Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates.html" ...

Anton Denikin
's
Volunteer Army The Volunteer Army (russian: Добровольческая армия, ''Dobrovolcheskaya armiya'') was a White_movement#Structure, White Army active in South Russia (Russian Civil War), South Russia during the Russian Civil War from 1917 to 19 ...
, before the latter's defeat at the hands of the
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
. The region was informally occupied by the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
shortly afterwards, and the republic was forced into accepting a nonviolent annexation in January 1921. It was reformed into the Mountainous ASSR, which was later dissolved in October 1924, replaced by a series of autonomous Okrugs and Oblasts. The outer border of the Soviet Union's North Caucasus Krai was the same as that of present-day North Caucasus Economic Region (Raion) which includes an oblast (
Rostov Oblast Rostov Oblast ( rus, Росто́вская о́бласть, r=Rostovskaya oblast, p=rɐˈstofskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ) is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in the Southern Federal District. The oblast has ...
), two krais (
Krasnodar Krai Krasnodar Krai (russian: Краснода́рский край, r=Krasnodarsky kray, p=krəsnɐˈdarskʲɪj kraj) is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the North Caucasus region in Southern Russia and ad ...
and
Stavropol Krai Stavropol Krai (russian: Ставропо́льский край, r=Stavropolsky kray, p=stəvrɐˈpolʲskʲɪj kraj) is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subject (a krai) of Russia. It is geographically located in the North Caucasus region in ...
), and seven republics. The former North Caucasus Military District (Okrug) also included
Astrakhan Oblast Astrakhan Oblast (russian: Астраха́нская о́бласть, ''Astrakhanskaya oblast''; is a federal subject of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe ...

Astrakhan Oblast
,
Volgograd Oblast Volgograd Oblast (russian: Волгогра́дская о́бласть, ''Volgogradskaya oblast'') is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning ...
, and the
Republic of Kalmykia Kalmykia (russian: Калмыкия, r=Kalmykiya, p=kɐlˈmɨkʲɪjə; xal-RU, Хальмг, ''Haľmg'' ), officially the Republic of Kalmykia,; xal-RU, Хальмг Таңһч, ''Haľmg Tañğç'' is a republic A republic () is a form ...
. Its administrative center was Rostov-on-Don until 10 January 1934, Pyatigorsk until January 1936, then Ordzhonikidze (today Vladikavkaz) and, from 15 December 1936, Voroshilovsk (today Stavropol).


Gallery

File:Map of Russia - North Caucasian Federal District.svg, Location of the North Caucasian Federal District File:Russian Ground Forces - North Caucasus Military District Map.svg, Map of former North Caucasus Military District (okrug) File:Map of Russia - North Caucasus economic region.svg, Map of modern-day North Caucasus Economic Region (raion) File:Карачаево-Черкесия, Западный Кавказ, Софийская долина, горный массив и перевал София, Karachay-Cherkessia, Caucasus Mountains.jpg, Sophia Valley,
Karachay-Cherkessia The Karachay-Cherkess Republic (russian: Карача́ево-Черке́сская Респу́блика, ''Karachayevo-Cherkesskaya Respublika''; Karachay-Balkar Karachay-Balkar (, ), or Mountain Turkic (, ), is a Turkic language spoken b ...


See also

*
Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region spanning Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the contin ...
* Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus * Dolmens of North Caucasus *
Kuban People's Republic The Kuban People's Republic (KPR), or Kuban National Republic (KNR), (russian: Кубанская Народная Республика '; uk, Кубанська Народна Республiка ') was an anti-Bolshevik The Bolsheviks (Ru ...
* List of clashes in the North Caucasus *
Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic The Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic or Mountain ASSR ( rus, Го́рская АССР, r=Gorskaya ASSR; ce, Лаьмнийн Автономин Советийн Социалистийн Республика) was a short-lived autono ...
*
Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus (MRNC; also known as the United Republics of the North Caucasus, Mountain Republic or the Republic of the Mountaineers) was a country in the North Caucasus North is one of the four compass po ...
*
North Caucasian Federal District North Caucasian Federal District (russian: Се́веро-Кавка́зский федера́льный о́круг, ''Severo-Kavkazsky federalny okrug'') is one of the eight federal districts of Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Росси ...
*
North Caucasian Soviet Republic North Caucasian Soviet Republic (, ''Severo-Kavkazskaya Sovetskaya Respublika'') (July 7–December, 1918) was a territory in the North Caucasus established to consolidate Soviet Union, Soviet power during the Russian Civil War. A republic of ...
*
North Caucasus economic region North Caucasus Economic Region (russian: Се́веро-Кавка́зский экономи́ческий райо́н; tr.: ''Severo-Kavkazsky ekonomichesky rayon'') is one of 12 economic regions of Russia Russia Russia ...
*
North Caucasian Federal University
North Caucasian Federal University
*
North Caucasian Krai
North Caucasian Krai
*
North Caucasian Military District The North Caucasus Military District was a military district of the Russian Armed Forces, which became in 2010 the Southern Military District and lately also included the Black Sea Fleet and Caspian Flotilla. It comprised the Republic of Adygeya, t ...
* North Caucasian Railway *
Southern Federal District The Southern Federal District ( rus, Ю́жный федера́льный о́круг, Yuzhny federalny okrug, ˈjuʐnɨj fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnɨj ˈokrʊk) is one of the federal districts of Russia, eight federal districts of Russia. Its territor ...

Southern Federal District


References


Further reading

* ''In Quest for God and Freedom: Sufi Responses to the Russian Advance in the North Caucasus'' by Anna Zelkina * ''Russia in the Modern World: A New Geography'' by Denis J. B. Shaw, Institute of British Geographers


External links

* * * Relations between The North and South Caucasus. Articles in th
Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 27
{{Authority control *
Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region spanning Europe and Asia. It is situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (country), Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia. It is home to ...
Southern Russia Regions of Russia Eurasia