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The nipple is a raised region of tissue on the surface of the
breast The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the of s, including s. Terms used generally derive from or roots and used to describe something in its . Th ...

breast
from which, in females,
milk Milk is a nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, any ...
leaves the breast through the
lactiferous duct Lactiferous ducts are ducts that converge and form a branched system connecting the nipple to the lobules In anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism ...
s to feed an infant. The milk can flow through the nipple passively or it can be ejected by
smooth Smooth may refer to: Mathematics * Smooth function, a function that is infinitely differentiable; used in calculus and topology * Smooth manifold, a differentiable manifold for which all the transition maps are smooth functions * Smooth algebraic ...
muscle contractions Muscle contraction is the activation of Tension (physics), tension-generating sites within muscle fibers. In physiology, muscle contraction does not necessarily mean muscle shortening because muscle tension can be produced without changes in muscl ...
that occur along with the ductal system. The nipple is surrounded by the
areola The human areola (''areola mammae'', Entry "areola"
in
teat A teat is the projection from the mammary gland A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in humans and other mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring. Mammals get their name from the Latin word ''mamma'', "breast". The mammary glands a ...
when referring to non-humans. Nipple or teat can also be used to describe the flexible mouthpiece of a
baby bottle A baby bottle, or nursing bottle, or feeding bottle, is a bottle with a teat (also called a nipple in the US) to drink directly from. It is typically used by infant 222x222px, Eight-month-old sororal twin sisters An infant (from the La ...

baby bottle
. In humans, the nipples of both males and females can be stimulated as part of sexual arousal. In many cultures, human female nipples are sexualized, or "regarded as sex objects and evaluated in terms of their physical characteristics and sexiness."


Anatomy

In
mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be i ...
s, a nipple (also called mammary papilla or
teat A teat is the projection from the mammary gland A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in humans and other mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring. Mammals get their name from the Latin word ''mamma'', "breast". The mammary glands a ...
) is a small projection of
skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal, with three main functions: protection, regulation, and sensation. Other cuticle, animal coverings, such as the arthropod exoskeleton, have differ ...

skin
containing the outlets for 15–20
lactiferous duct Lactiferous ducts are ducts that converge and form a branched system connecting the nipple to the lobules In anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism ...
s arranged cylindrically around the tip.
Marsupial Marsupials are any members of the mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ' ...
s and
eutherian mammals
eutherian mammals
typically have an even number of nipples arranged bilaterally, from as few as 2 to as many as 19. The skin of the nipple is rich in a supply of special
nerve A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of fibers (called axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axis), or nerve fiber (or nerve fibre: see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects Dialect The term diale ...

nerve
s that are sensitive to certain stimuli: these are slowly-adapting and rapidly-adapting
cutaneous Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism ...
mechanoreceptor A mechanoreceptor, also called mechanoceptor, is a sensory receptor Sensory neurons, also known as afferent neurons, are neuron A neuron or nerve cell is an electrically excitable cell Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the fu ...
s. Mechanoreceptors are identified respectively by Type I slowly-adapting with multiple
Merkel corpuscle end-organ Merkel nerve endings are mechanoreceptor A mechanoreceptor, also called mechanoceptor, is a sensory receptor Sensory neurons, also known as afferent neurons, are neuron A neuron or nerve cell is an electrically excitable cell Cell most ...
s and Type II slowly-adapting with single Ruffini corpuscle end-organs, as well as Type I rapidly-adapting with multiple Meissner corpuscle end-organs and Type II rapidly-adapting with single
Pacinian corpuscle end-organs Pacinian corpuscle or lamellar corpuscle or Vater-Pacini corpuscle; is one of the four major types of mechanoreceptors A mechanoreceptor, also called mechanoceptor, is a sensory receptor Sensory neurons, also known as afferent neurons, are n ...
. The dominant nerve supply to the nipple comes from the lateral cutaneous branches of fourth
intercostal nerve The intercostal nerves are part of the somatic nervous system, and arise from the anterior rami of the thoracic spinal nerves from T1 to T11. The intercostal nerves are distributed chiefly to the thoracic pleura The pulmonary pleurae (''sing.' ...
. The nipple is also used as an anatomical landmark. It marks the T4 (fourth thoracic vertebra) dermatome and rests over the approximate level of the diaphragm. The arterial supply to the nipple and breast originates from the anterior intercostal branches of the internal thoracic (mammary) arteries; lateral thoracic artery; and thoracodorsal arteries. The venous vessels parallel the arteries. The lymphatic ducts that drain the nipple are the same for the breast. The axillary nodes are the apical axillary nodes, the lateral group and the anterior group. 75% of the lymph is drained through the axillary lymph nodes located near the armpit. The rest of the drainage leaves the nipple and breast through infroclavicular, pectoral, or parasternal nodes. Since nipples change throughout the life span in men and women, the anatomy of the nipple can change and this change may be expected and considered normal.


In male mammals

Almost all
mammals Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...
have nipples. Why males have nipples has been the subject of scientific research. Differences among the sexes (called
sexual dimorphism Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the sex Sex is either of two divisions, typically male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in ...
) within a given species are considered by
evolutionary biologist Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolution, evolutionary processes (natural selection, common descent, speciation) that produced the Biodiversity, diversity of life on Earth. Simply, it is also defined as the st ...
s to be mostly the result of
sexual selection Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype right , Here the relation between genotype and phenotype is illustrat ...
, directly or indirectly. There is a consensus that the male nipple exists because there is no particular advantage to males losing the trait (this is called a
spandrel A spandrel is a roughly triangular space, usually found in pairs, between the top of an arch and a rectangular frame; between the tops of two adjacent arches or one of the four spaces between a circle within a square. They are frequently fill ...
).


Function

The physiological purpose of nipples is to deliver
milk Milk is a nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, any ...

milk
, produced in the female
mammary gland A mammary gland is an exocrine gland Exocrine glands are gland In animals, a gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormone A hormone (from the Greek participle , "setting in motion") is any m ...
s during
lactation Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young. The process naturally occurs with all post-pregnancy female mammals, although it may predate mammals. The process ...

lactation
, to an
infant An infant (from the Latin word ''infans'', meaning 'unable to speak' or 'speechless') is the more formal or specialised synonym for the common term ''baby'', meaning the very young offspring of human beings Humans (''Homo sapiens'' ...

infant
. During breastfeeding, nipple stimulation by an infant will stimulate the release of
oxytocin Oxytocin (Oxt or OT) is a peptide hormonePeptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively. The latter have longer amino acid chain lengths than the former. These hormones have an effect o ...

oxytocin
from the
hypothalamus The hypothalamus (from Ancient Greek wikt:ὑπό, ὑπό, "under", and wikt:θάλαμος, θάλαμος, "chamber") is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small Nucleus (neuroanatomy), nuclei with a variety of functions. One of ...

hypothalamus
. Oxytocin is a
hormone A hormone (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appr ...

hormone
that increases during pregnancy and acts on the breast to help produce the milk-ejection reflex. Oxytocin release from the nipple stimulation of the infant causes the uterus to contract even after childbirth. The strong uterine contractions that are caused by the stimulation of the mother's nipples help the uterus contract to clamp down the uterine arteries. These contractions are necessary to prevent post-partum haemorrhage. When the infant suckles or stimulates the nipple, oxytocin levels rise and small muscles in the breast contract, moving the milk through the milk ducts. The result of nipple stimulation by the infant helps to move breast milk out through the ducts and to the nipple. This contraction of milk is called the "let-down reflex". Latching on refers to the infant fastening onto the nipple to breastfeed. A good attachment is when the bottom of the areola (the area around the nipple) is in the infant's mouth and the nipple is drawn back inside his or her mouth. A poor latch results in insufficient nipple stimulation to create the let down reflex. The nipple is poorly stimulated when the baby latches on too close to the tip of the nipple. This poor attachment can cause sore and
cracked nipple Cracked may refer to: Television * Cracked (British TV series), ''Cracked'' (British TV series), a 2008 British comedy-drama television series that aired on STV * Cracked (Canadian TV series), ''Cracked'' (Canadian TV series), a 2013 Canadian crime ...
s and a reluctance of the mother to continue to breastfeed. After birth, the milk supply increases based upon the continuous and increasing stimulation of the nipple by the infant. If the baby increases nursing time at the nipple, the mammary glands respond to this stimulation by increasing milk production.


Clinical significance


Pain

Nipple pain can be a disincentive for breastfeeding. Sore nipples that progress to cracked nipples is of concern since many women cease breastfeeding due to the pain. In some instances, an ulcer will form on the nipple. One reason for the development of cracked and sore nipples is the incorrect latching-on of the infant to the nipple. If a nipple appears to be wedge-shaped, white and flattened, this may indicate that the attachment of the infant is not good and there is a potential of developing cracked nipples. Herpes infection of the nipple is painful. Nipple pain can also be caused by excessive
friction Friction is the force In physics, a force is an influence that can change the motion (physics), motion of an Physical object, object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (e.g. moving from a Newton's first law, st ...

friction
of clothing against the nipple that causes a
fissure A fissure is a long, narrow crack opening along the surface of the Earth. It is derived from the Latin word , which means 'cleft' or 'crack'. Fissures emerge in the Earth's crust, on ice sheet In , an ice sheet, also known as a continental gl ...
.


Discharge

Nipple discharge refers to any fluid that seeps out of the nipple of the breast. Discharge from the nipple does not occur in lactating women. And discharge in non-pregnant women or women who are not breastfeeding may not cause concern. Men that have discharge from their nipples are not typical. Discharge from the nipples of men or boys may indicate a problem. Discharge from the nipples can appear without squeezing or may only be noticeable if the nipples are squeezed. One nipple can have discharge while the other does not. The discharge can be clear, green, bloody, brown or straw-coloured. The consistency can be thick, thin, sticky or watery. Some cases of nipple discharge will clear on their own without treatment. Nipple discharge is most often not cancer (benign), but rarely, it can be a sign of breast cancer. It is important to determine what is causing the discharge and to get treatment. Reasons for nipple discharge include: * Pregnancy * Recent breastfeeding *
Rubbing A rubbing ('' frottage'') is a reproduction of the texture Texture may refer to: Science and technology * Surface texture, the texture means smoothness, roughness, or bumpiness of the surface of an object * Texture (roads), road surface char ...
on the area from a bra or T-shirt * Injury to the breast *
Infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host A host is a person responsible for guests at an event or for providing hospitality during it. Host may ...

Infection
* Inflammation and
clogging Clogging is a type of folk dance A folk dance is a dance Dance is a performing art art form, form consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has aesthetic and often symbolism (arts ...
of the breast ducts * Noncancerous
pituitary tumor Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland. Pituitary adenomas are generally divided into three categories dependent upon their biological functioning: benign adenoma, invasive adenoma, and carcinomas. Most adenomas are benign ...
s * Small
growth Growth may refer to: Biology * Auxology, the study of all aspects of human physical growth * Bacterial growth * Cell growth * Growth hormone, a peptide hormone that stimulates growth * Human development (biology) * Plant growth * Secondary growth ...
in the breast (usually not cancer) * Severe underactive thyroid gland (
hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism (also called ''underactive thyroid'', ''low thyroid'' or ''hypothyreosis'') is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland The thyroid, or thyroid gland, is an endocrine gland in the neck consisting of two ...

hypothyroidism
) * Fibrocystic breast (normal lumpiness in the breast) * Use of certain medicines * Use of certain herbs, such as anise and fennel * Widening of the milk ducts Sometimes, babies can have nipple discharge. This is caused by hormones from the mother before birth. It usually goes away in two weeks. Cancers such as
Paget's diseasePaget's disease may refer to several conditions described by Sir James Paget Sir James Paget, 1st Baronet FRS HFRSE (11 January 1814 – 30 December 1899) (, rhymes with "gadget") was an English surgeon and pathologist who is best remembered ...
(a rare type of cancer involving the skin of the nipple) can also cause nipple discharge. Nipple discharge that is not normal is bloody, comes from only one nipple, or comes out on its own without squeezing or touching the nipple. Nipple discharge is more likely to be normal if it comes out of both nipples or happens when the nipples are squeezed. Squeezing the nipple to check for discharge can make it worse. Leaving the nipple alone may make the discharge stop. Nipple discharge in a male is usually of more concern. Most of the time a mammogram and an examination of the fluid is done. A biopsy is often performed. A fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy can be fast and least painful. A very thin, hollow needle and slight suction will be used to remove a small sample from under the nipple. Using a local anesthetic to numb the skin may not be necessary since a thin needle is used for the biopsy. Receiving an injection to prevent pain from the biopsy may be more painful than the biopsy itself. Some men develop a condition known as
gynecomastia Gynecomastia (also spelled gynaecomastia) is the abnormal non-cancerous enlargement of one or both breasts in males due to the growth of breast tissue The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral Standard anatomica ...

gynecomastia
, in which the breast tissue under the nipple develops and grows. Discharge from the nipple can occur. The nipple may swell in some men possibly due to increased levels of estrogen.


Appearance

Changes in appearance may be normal or related to disease. *
Inverted nipple An inverted nipple (occasionally invaginated nipple) is a condition where the nipple, instead of pointing outward, is retracted into the breast. In some cases, the nipple will be temporarily protruded if stimulated. Both women and men can have inve ...

Inverted nipple
s – This is normal if the nipples have always been indented inward and can easily point out when touched. If the nipples are pointing in and this is new, this is an unexpected change. * Skin puckering of the nipple – This can be caused by scar tissue from surgery or an infection. Often, scar tissue forms for no reason. Most of the time this issue does not need treatment. This is an unexpected change. This change can be of concern since puckering or retraction of the nipple can indicate an underlying change in breast tissue that may be cancerous. * The nipple is warm to the touch, red or painful – This can be an infection. It is rarely due to breast cancer. * Scaly, flaking, or itchy nipple – This is most often due to
eczema Dermatitis is inflammation of the Human skin, skin, typically characterized by itchiness, erythema, redness and a rash. In cases of short duration, there may be small blisters, while in long-term cases the skin may become lichenification, thick ...

eczema
or a bacterial or fungal infection. This change is not expected. Flaking, scaly, or itchy nipples can be a sign of Paget's disease. * Thickened skin with large pores – This is called
peau d'orange Peau d'orange (French language, French for "orange peel skin" or, more literally, "skin of an orange") describes anatomy with the appearance and hair follicles get buried in the oedema and resemble an Orange (fruit), orange peel. Peau d'orange is c ...
because the skin looks like an orange peel. An infection in the breast or inflammatory breast cancer can cause this problem. This is not an expected change. * Retracted nipples – The nipple was raised above the surface but changes, begins to pull inward, and does not come out when stimulated. The average projection and size of human female nipples is slightly more than .


Breast cancer

Symptoms of
breast cancer Breast cancer is cancer Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumor A benign tumor is a mass of cells Cell most o ...

breast cancer
can often be seen first by changes of the nipple and areola, although not all women have the same symptoms, and some people do not have any signs or symptoms at all. A person may find out they have breast cancer after a routine
mammogram Mammography (also called mastography) is the process of using low-energy X-ray An X-ray, or, much less commonly, X-radiation, is a penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science ...

mammogram
. Warning signs can include: * New lump in the nipple, or breast or armpit * Thickening or swelling of part of the breast, areola, or nipple * Irritation or dimpling of breast skin * Redness or flaky skin in the nipple area or the breast * Pulling in of the nipple or pain in the nipple area * Nipple discharge other than breast milk, including blood * Any change in the size or the shape of the breast or nipple * Pain in any area of the breast Changes in the nipple are not necessarily symptoms or signs of breast cancer. Other conditions of the nipple can mimic the signs and symptoms of breast cancer.


Vertical transmission

Some infections are transmitted through the nipple, especially if irritation or injury to the nipple has occurred. In these circumstances, the nipple itself can become infected with that is present in the mouth of the breastfeeding infant. The infant will transmit the infection to the mother. Most of the time, this infection is localized to the area of the nipple. In some cases, the infection can progress to become a full-blown case of
mastitis Mastitis is inflammation Inflammation (from la, inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogen In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organ ...

mastitis
or breast infection. In some cases, if the mother has an infection with no nipple cracks or ulcerations, it is still safe to breastfeed the infant.
Herpes infection Herpes simplex is a viral disease, viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. Infections are categorized based on the part of the body infected. Herpes labialis, Oral herpes involves the face or mouth. It may result in small blisters ...

Herpes infection
of the nipple can go unnoticed because the lesions are small but usually are quite painful. Herpes in the newborn is a serious and sometimes fatal infection. Transmission of Hepatitis C and B to the infant can occur if the nipples are cracked. Other infections can be transmitted through a break of the skin of the nipple and can infect the infant.


Other disorders

* Nipple bleb *
Candida infection Candidiasis is a Fungal infection in animals, fungal infection due to any type of ''Candida (genus), Candida'' (a type of yeast). When it Oral candidiasis, affects the mouth, in some countries it is commonly called thrush. Signs and symptoms inc ...
of the nipple *Eczema of the nipple *
Inverted nipple An inverted nipple (occasionally invaginated nipple) is a condition where the nipple, instead of pointing outward, is retracted into the breast. In some cases, the nipple will be temporarily protruded if stimulated. Both women and men can have inve ...

Inverted nipple
*
Staphylococcus ''Staphylococcus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy) ...
infection of the nipple * Edematous areola *
Herpes infection Herpes simplex is a viral disease, viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. Infections are categorized based on the part of the body infected. Herpes labialis, Oral herpes involves the face or mouth. It may result in small blisters ...

Herpes infection
of the nipple * Reynaud phenomenon of the nipple * Flat nipple


Surgery

A nipple-sparing/ subcutaneous mastectomy is a surgical procedure where breast tissue is removed, but the nipple and areola are preserved. This procedure was historically done only prophylactically or with mastectomy for the benign disease over the fear of increased cancer development in retained areolar ductal tissue. Recent series suggest that it may be an oncologically sound procedure for tumours not in the subareolar position.


Society and culture


Exposure

The culture tendency to hide the female nipple under clothing has existed in Western culture since the 1800s. As female nipples are often perceived an
intimate part An intimate part, personal part or private part is a place on the human body which is customarily kept covered by clothing A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are it ...
, covering them might have originated under
Victorian morality Victorian morality is a distillation of the moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around ...
as with riding side saddle. Exposing the entire breast and nipple is a form of protest for some and a crime for others. The exposure of nipples is usually considered immodest and in some instances is viewed as
lewd Lascivious behavior is sexual behavior or conduct that is considered crude and offensive, or contrary to local moral or other standards of appropriate behavior. In this sense "lascivious" is similar in meaning to "lewd", "indecent", "lecherous", " ...
or
indecent Inappropriateness refers to standards or ethics that are typically viewed as being negative in society. It differs from things that are illicit in that inappropriate behavior does not necessarily have any accompanying legal ramifications. Compe ...
behavior. A case in Erie, Pennsylvania, concerning the exposure of breasts and nipple proceeded to the US Supreme Court. The Erie ordinance was regulating the nipple in public as an act that is committed when a person "knowingly or intentionally, ... appears in a state of nudity commits Public Indecency." Later in the statute, nudity is further described as an uncovered female nipple. But nipple exposure of a man was not regulated. An opinion column credited to
Cecil Adams Cecil Adams is the pseudonym A pseudonym () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) or alias () is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which differs from their original or true name (orthonym). This a ...
noted: "Ponder the significance of that. A man walks around bare-chested and the worst that happens is he won't get served in restaurants. But a woman who goes topless is legally in the same boat as if she'd had sex in public. That may seem crazy, but in the US it's a permissible law." The legality around the exposure of nipples is inconsistently regulated throughout the US. Some states do not allow the visualization of any part of the breast. Other jurisdictions prohibit any female chest anatomy by banning anatomical structures that lie below the top of the areola or nipple. Such is the case in West Virginia and Massachusetts. West Virginia's regulation is very specific and is not likely to be misinterpreted, stating: "display of 'any portion of the cleavage of the human female breast exhibited by a dress, blouse, skirt, leotard, bathing suit, or other wearing apparel
s permitted S, or s, is the nineteenth Letter (alphabet), letter in the English alphabet, Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is English alphabet#Letter names, ''ess'' (pronounced ), plural ''esses''. History O ...
provided the areola is not exposed, in whole or in part.
Instagram Instagram is an American photo 396x396px, '' View from the Window at Le Gras'' (1826 or 1827), by Nicéphore Niépce, the earliest known surviving photograph of a real-world scene, made with a camera obscura. Original (left) & Film coloriz ...

Instagram
has a "no nipples" policy with exceptions: material that is not allowed includes "some photos of female nipples, but photos of post-mastectomy scarring and women actively breastfeeding are allowed. Nudity in photos of paintings and sculptures is OK, too". Previously, Instagram had removed images of nursing mothers. Instagram removed images of
Rihanna Robyn Rihanna Fenty (born February 20, 1988) ( ) is a Barbadian singer, actress, fashion designer, and businesswoman. Born in Saint Michael Michael (; he, מִיכָאֵל, lit= Who is like El?, translit=Mīḳā'ēl; el, Μιχαήλ, ...

Rihanna
and had her account cancelled in 2014 when she posted selfies with nipples. This was incentive for the Twitter campaign . In 2016, an Instagram page invited users to post images of nipples from both sexes; @genderless_nipples, which displays close ups of both the nipples of men and women for the purpose of spotlighting what may be inconsistency. Some contributors have circumvented the policy. Facebook has also been struggling to define its nipple policy. Filmmaker
Lina Esco Lina Esco is an American actress, producer, director and activist. She gained recognition in 2007 for portraying Jimmy Smits Jimmy L. Smits (born July 9, 1955) is an American actor best known for playing attorney Victor Sifuentes on the 1980s l ...
made a film entitled '' Free the Nipple'', which is about "laws against female toplessness or restrictions on images of female, but not male, nipples", which Esco states is an example of
sexism Sexism is prejudice Prejudice can be an affective Affect, in psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconscious mind, unconscious phenomena, as ...
in society.


Sexuality

Nipples can be sensitive to touch, and nipple stimulation can incite
sexual arousal Sexual arousal (also sexual excitement) describes the physiological Physiology (; ) is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone ...
. Few women report experiencing
orgasm Orgasm (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxim ...

orgasm
from nipple stimulation. Before Komisaruk et al.'s (fMRI) research on nipple stimulation in 2011, reports of women achieving orgasm from nipple stimulation relied solely on
anecdotal evidence Anecdotal evidence is evidence from anecdotes: evidence collected in a casual or informal manner and relying heavily or entirely on personal testimony. The term is sometimes used in a legal context to describe certain kinds of testimony which a ...
. Komisaruk's study was the first to map the female genitals onto the sensory portion of the brain; it indicates that sensation from the nipples travels to the same part of the brain as sensations from the vagina, clitoris and cervix, and that these reported orgasms are genital orgasms caused by nipple stimulation, and may be directly linked to the genital sensory cortex ("the genital area of the brain").


In business

Some companies and non-profit organisations have used the word ''nipple'' or images of nipples to draw attention to their product or cause.


Etymology

The word "nipple" most likely originates as a
diminutive A diminutive is a root word A root (or root word) is the core of a word that is irreducible into more meaningful elements. In morphology, a root is a morphologically simple unit which can be left bare or to which a prefix A prefix is an aff ...
of ''neb'', an
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
word meaning "beak", "nose", or "face", and which is of Germanic origin. The words "teat" and "tit" share a Germanic ancestor. The second of the two, tit, was inherited directly from Proto-Germanic, while the first entered English via
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular o ...
.


See also

*
Breast milk Breast milk or mother's milk is milk Milk is a nutrient A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The requirement for dietary nutrient intake applies to animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are ...
* Fleischer's syndrome *
Nipple prosthesis Nipple The nipple is a raised region of tissue on the surface of the breast The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper region of the of s. In females, it serves as the , which produces and secretes milk to feed s. Both ...
for breast cancer survivors *
Nipple piercing A nipple piercing is a type of body piercing, centered usually at the base of the nipple. It can be pierced at any angle but is usually done horizontally or, less often, vertically. It is also possible to place multiple piercings on top of one an ...

Nipple piercing
* Supernumerary (third) nipple *
Udder An udder is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tis ...


References


Citations


General bibliography

* * * * * *


External links

* * {{Authority control Breast Breastfeeding Embryology Exocrine system Glands Human sexuality Mammal anatomy Midwifery Milk by animal Secondary sexual characteristics