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Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is a
foral 200px, Foral of Castro Verde - Portugal The word ''foral'' ({{IPA-pt, fuˈɾaɫ, eu, plural: ''forais'') is a noun derived from the Portuguese language, Portuguese word ''foro'', ultimately from Latin ''forum'', equivalent to Spanish language, ...

foral
autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name = , map = , category = Autonomous administrative d ...

autonomous community
and
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...

province
in northern
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
, bordering the
Basque Autonomous Community The Basque Country (; eu, Euskadi ; es, País Vasco ; french: Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community ( eu, Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; es, Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community eu, autonomia erkid ...
, La Rioja, and
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_n ...

Aragon
in Spain and
Nouvelle-Aquitaine Nouvelle-Aquitaine (; oc, Nòva Aquitània or ; eu, Akitania Berria; Poitevin-Saintongeais: ''Novéle-Aguiéne''; ) is the largest Regions of France, administrative region in France, spanning the west and southwest of the Metropolitan France ...
in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the and from the to the and the ; overseas territories include in , in the N ...

France
. The capital city is
Pamplona Pamplona (; eu, Iruña or ; oc, Pampalona), historically known as Pampeluna in English, is the capital city of the Chartered Community of Navarre, in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Ba ...

Pamplona
(or ''Iruña'' in
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and shared genetic ancestry to th ...
). The present-day province makes up the majority of the territory of the medieval
Kingdom of Navarre ) , religion = , common_languages = , title_leader = List of Navarrese monarchs, Monarch , leader1 = Íñigo Arista of Pamplona, Íñigo Arista (first) , year_leader1 ...
, a long-standing
PyreneanThe term Pyrenean refers to things of or from the Pyrenees mountain range dividing France and Spain, being Andorra in the middle. It may also refer to: *Pyrenean Shepherd, a medium-small breed of dog native to the Pyrenees mountains in southern Fran ...

Pyrenean
kingdom that occupied lands on both sides of the western
Pyrenees The Pyrenees (; es, Pirineos ; french: Pyrénées ; ca, Pirineus ; eu, Pirinioak ; oc, Pirenèus ; an, Pirineus) is a mountain range straddling the border of and . It extends nearly from its union with the to on the coast. It reaches a ma ...

Pyrenees
, with its northernmost part,
Lower Navarre Lower Navarre ( eu, Nafarroa Beherea/Baxenabarre; : ''Navarra Baisha''; french: Basse-Navarre ; es, Baja Navarra) is a traditional region of the present-day French ' of . It corresponds to the northernmost ' of the during the . After the (1512 ...
, located in the southwest corner of France. Navarre is in the transition zone between
Green Spain Green Spain (direct translation into English of the Spanish ''España Verde'', even if in Spanish that expression is not that common and ''cornisa cantábrica'' is preferred) is the name given to a lush natural region A natural region (landscape ...
and
semi-arid A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and variability of meteorological variables ove ...
interior areas, and thus its landscapes vary widely across the region. Being in a transition zone also produces a highly variable climate, with summers that are a mix of cooler spells and heat waves, and winters that are mild for the latitude. Navarre is one of the historic Basque districts: its Basque features are conspicuous in the north, but virtually absent on the southern fringes. The best-known event in Navarre is the annual San Fermín festival held in Pamplona in July.


Toponymy

The first documented use of a name resembling ''Navarra'', ''Nafarroa'', or ''Naparroa'' is a reference to ''navarros'', in
Eginhard Einhard (also Eginhard or Einhart; la, E(g)inhardus; 775 – March 14, 840) was a Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Ger ...
's early-9th-century chronicle of the feats of the
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (fro ...

Charlemagne
. Bernardo Estornés Lasa's Spanish article on
Navarra
in the Auñamendi Entziklopedia (click on "NAVARRA – NAFARROA (NOMBRE Y EMBLEMAS)")
Other
Royal Frankish Annals The ''Royal Frankish Annals'' (Latin: ''Annales regni Francorum''), also called the ''Annales Laurissenses maiores'' ('Greater Lorsch Annals'), are a series of annals composed in Latin in the Carolingian dynasty, Carolingian Francia, recording y ...
feature . There are two proposed etymologies for the name. * Basque ''nabar'' (declined
absoluteAbsolute may refer to: Companies * Absolute Entertainment, a video game publisher * Absolute Radio, (formerly Virgin Radio), independent national radio station in the UK * Absolute Software Corporation, specializes in security and data risk managem ...
singular Singular may refer to: * Singular, the grammatical number In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and verb agreement (linguistics), agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", ...
''nabarra''): "brownish", "multicolour" (i. e. in contrast to the green mountainous lands north of the original County of Navarre). * Basque ''naba'' (or Spanish ''nava''): "valley", "plain" + Basque ''herri'' ("people", "land"). The linguist
Joan Coromines Joan Coromines i Vigneaux (; also frequently spelled ''Joan Corominas''; Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico, by Joan Corominas icand José A. Pascual, Editorial Gredos, 1989, Madrid, . Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) i ...
considers ''naba'' to be linguistically part of a wider Vasconic or
Aquitanian language The Aquitanian language was the language of the ancient Aquitani, spoken on both sides of the western Pyrenees in ancient Novempopulania, Aquitaine (approximately between the Pyrenees and the Garonne, in the region later known as Gascony) and in th ...
substrate, rather than Basque ''per se''. The official name in Basque is ', but the form '' "Upper Navarre"'' is also often seen, to distinguish the province from neighboring
Lower Navarre Lower Navarre ( eu, Nafarroa Beherea/Baxenabarre; : ''Navarra Baisha''; french: Basse-Navarre ; es, Baja Navarra) is a traditional region of the present-day French ' of . It corresponds to the northernmost ' of the during the . After the (1512 ...
.


History


Antiquity

Before and during the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post- period of . As a it included large territorial holdings around the in , , and ruled by . From the t ...

Roman Empire
, the
Vascones A coin with BARSCUNES in Iberian script. It has been proposed that the word is related to Vascones. The Vascones were a pre-Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th ...

Vascones
populated the southern slopes of the
Pyrenees The Pyrenees (; es, Pirineos ; french: Pyrénées ; ca, Pirineus ; eu, Pirinioak ; oc, Pirenèus ; an, Pirineus) is a mountain range straddling the border of and . It extends nearly from its union with the to on the coast. It reaches a ma ...

Pyrenees
, including the area which would ultimately become Navarre. In the mountainous north, the Vascones escaped large-scale Roman settlement, except for some coastal areas—for example
Oiasso Oiasso,Ptolemy, 2, 6, 10 OiasonaStrabo, Geographia III, 4, 10. The Casaubonus editions of 1587 and 1620 write ''Oídasoûna'', corrected by Adolf Schulten to ''Oíasoûna''. or OiarsoPliny the Elder, Pliny, 3, 29 was a Vascones, Basque Hispania Ta ...
(in what is now
Gipuzkoa Gipuzkoa (, , ; es, Guipúzcoa ; french: Guipuscoa) is a Provinces of Spain, province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country (autonomous community), autonomous community of the Basque Country. Its capital city is San Sebasti ...

Gipuzkoa
)—and the flatter areas to the south, (in what is now La Rioja), which were amenable to large-scale Roman farming—vineyards, olives, and wheat crops. There is no evidence of battles fought or general hostility between Romans and Basques, as they had the same enemies.


Kingdom of Navarre

Neither the
Visigoths The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe a ...
nor the
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the and the , on the edge of the . Later the term was associated with Germanic dynasties within the ...

Franks
ever completely subjugated the area. The Vascones (to become the Basques) assimilated neighbouring tribes as of the 7th century AD. In the year 778, the Basques defeated a Frankish army at the
Battle of Roncevaux Pass The Battle of Roncevaux Pass ( French and English spelling, '' Roncesvalles'' in Spanish, ''Orreaga'' in Basque) in 778 saw a large force of Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern Europea ...

Battle of Roncevaux Pass
. Following the
Battle of Roncevaux Pass (824) The Battle of Roncevaux Pass was a battle in which a combined Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque lang ...
, the Basque chieftain Iñigo Arista was elected
King of Pamplona The Kingdom of Navarre (; eu, Nafarroako Erresuma, es, Reino de Navarra, french: Royaume de Navarre, la, Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona ( eu, Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basques, Basque kingdom that occupied lands on both si ...
supported by the
muwalladThe ''Muladi'' ( es, muladí, , pl. ; pt, muladi, , pl. ; ca, muladita, or , , pl. or ; ar, مولد, trans. ''muwallad'', pl. , ''muwalladūn'' or , ''muwalladīn'') were Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Mo ...
Banu Qasi The Banu Qasi, Banu Kasi, Beni Casi ( ar, بني قسي or بنو قسي, meaning "sons" or "heirs of Cassius") or Banu Musa were a Muwallad dynasty that in the 9th century ruled the Upper March, a frontier territory of the Umayyads, Um ...
of
TudelaTudela may refer to: *Tudela, Navarre, a town and municipality in northern Spain ** Benjamin of Tudela Medieval Jewish traveller ** William of Tudela, Medieval troubadour who wrote the first part of the ''Song of the Albigensian Crusade'' ** Battle ...
, establishing a Basque kingdom that was later called Navarre., p. 140-141. That kingdom reached its zenith during the reign of Sancho III, comprising most of the Christian realms to the south of the Pyrenees, and even a short overlordship of
Gascony Gascony (; french: Gascogne ; oc, Gasconha ; eu, Gaskoinia) was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region ...
(in the early 11th century). When Sancho III died in 1035, the kingdom was divided between his sons. It never fully recovered its political power, while its commercial importance increased as traders and pilgrims ( the ''Francs'') poured into the kingdom via the
Way of Saint James The Camino de Santiago ( la, Peregrinatio Compostellana, "Pilgrimage of Compostela"; gl, O Camiño de Santiago), known in English as the Way of St. James, is a network of pilgrims' ways or pilgrimages leading to the shrine of the Twelve Apostle ...
. In 1200, Navarre lost the key western Basque districts to Alphonse VIII of Castile, leaving the kingdom landlocked. Navarre then contributed with a small but symbolic force of 200 knights to the decisive
Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, known in Arab history as the Battle of Al-Uqab ( ar, معركة العقاب), took place on 16 July 1212 and was an important turning point in the Reconquista The ' (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * an ...

Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
in 1212 against the
Almohads The Almohad Caliphate (International Phonetic Alphabet, IPA: ; from ar, المُوَحِّدون, translit=al-Muwaḥḥidūn, lit=those who profess the unity of God) was a North African Berbers, Berber Muslim empire founded in the 12th century. ...

Almohads
. The native line of kings came to an end in 1234; their heirs intermarried with French dynasties. However, the Navarrese kept most of their strong laws and institutions. The death of Queen Blanche I (1441) inaugurated a civil war period between the Beaumont and Agramont confederacies with the intervention of the Castilian-Aragonese
House of Trastámara The House of Trastámara ( es, Casa de Trastámara) was a dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) ...
in Navarre's internal affairs. In 1512, Navarre was invaded by
Ferdinand the Catholic Ferdinand II of Aragon ( an, Ferrando; ca, Ferran; eu, Errando; es, Fernando; 10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), also called ''Ferdinand the Catholic'', was King of Aragon This is a list of the kings and queens of Aragon. The Kingdom ...
's troops, with and withdrawing to the north of the Pyrenees, and establishing a Kingdom of Navarre-
Béarn Béarn (; ; oc, Bearn or ''Biarn''; eu, Bearno or ''Biarno''; or ''Bearnia'') is one of the traditional provinces of France The Kingdom of France was organised into provinces until the National Constituent Assembly (France), National Const ...

Béarn
, led by as of 1555. To the south of the Pyrenees, Navarre was annexed to the
Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Kingdom of Castile, Castile and Kin ...

Crown of Castile
in 1515, but kept a separate ambiguous status, and a shaky balance up to 1610— ready to march over Spanish Navarre. A Chartered Government was established (the ''Diputación''), and the kingdom managed to keep home rule. Tensions with the Spanish government came to a head as of 1794, when Spanish premier
Manuel Godoy Manuel Godoy y Álvarez de Faria, Prince of the Peace, 1st Duke of Alcudia, 1st Duke of Sueca, 1st Baron of Mascalbó (May 12, 1767October 4, 1851) was List of Prime Ministers of Spain, First Secretary of State of Spain from 1792 to 1797 and fr ...

Manuel Godoy
attempted to suppress Navarrese and Basque self-government altogether, with the end of the
First Carlist War The First Carlist War was a civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political ...
(1839 – 1841) definitely bringing the kingdom and its home rule (''fueros'') to an end.


Province of Spain


Loss of home rule

After the 1839 Convention of Bergara
a reduced version of home rule (''fueros'')
was passed in 1839. However, the 184
Act for the Modification of Fueros
(later called the "Compromise Act", ''Ley Paccionada'') definitely made the kingdom into a province after a compromise was reached by the Spanish government with officials of the Provincial Council of Navarre. The relocation of customs from the Ebro river to the Pyrenees in 1841 prompted the collapse of Navarre's customary cross-Pyrenean trade and the rise of smuggling. Amid instability in Spain, Carlists took over in Navarre and the rest of the Basque provinces. An actual Basque state was established during the
Third Carlist War The Third Carlist War ( es, Tercera Guerra Carlista) (1872–1876) was the last Carlist War The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century. The contenders fought to establish their claim to the thron ...
with Estella as its capital (1872 – 1876), but King
Alfonso XII Alfonso XII of Spain (Alfonso Francisco de Asís Fernando Pío Juan María de la Concepción Gregorio Pelayo; 28 November 185725 November 1885), also known as El Pacificador or the Peacemaker, was King of Spain , coatofarms = Coat of ...

Alfonso XII
's restoration in the throne of Spain and a counter-attack prompted the Carlist defeat. The end of the
Third Carlist War The Third Carlist War ( es, Tercera Guerra Carlista) (1872–1876) was the last Carlist War The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century. The contenders fought to establish their claim to the thron ...
saw a renewed wave of Spanish centralisation directly affecting Navarre. In 1893 – 1894 the '' Gamazada'' popular uprising took place centred in Pamplona against Madrid's governmental decisions breaching the 1841 chartered provisions. Except for a small faction (the so-called ''Alfonsinos''), all parties in Navarre agreed on the need for a new political framework based on home rule within the ''
Laurak Bat The current Basque coat of arms ( es, Escudo del País Vasco, eu, Euskal autonomi erkidegoaren armarria)) is the official coat of arms of the Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque Country, Autonomous communities of Spain, Autonomous communi ...

Laurak Bat
'', the Basque districts in Spain. Among these, the Carlists stood out, who politically dominated the province, and resented an increased string of rulings and laws passed by Madrid, as well as left leaning influences. Unlike Biscay or Gipuzkoa, Navarre did not develop manufacturing during this period, remaining a basically rural economy.


Republic and military uprising

In 1932, a
Basque Country Image:Euskal Herriaren terminologia.png, Map showing the geographical and political divisions of the Basque Country Basque Country may refer to: *Basque Country (autonomous community) (''Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa'' in Basque; ''Comunidad Autónoma ...
'
separate statute
failed to take off over disagreements on the centrality of Catholicism, a scene of political radicalisation ensued dividing the leftist and rightist forces during the
2nd Spanish Republic The Spanish Republic ( es, link=no, República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic ( es, link=no, Segunda República Española), was the form of government in Spain from 1931 to 1939. The Republic was proclaimed on 14 April ...
(1931 – 1939). Thousands of landless labourers occupied properties of wealthy landowners in October 1933, leaving the latter eager for revenge. The most reactionary and clerical Carlists came to prominence, ideologues such as Víctor Pradera, and an understanding with General Mola paved the way to the Spanish Nationalist uprising in Pamplona (18 July 1936). The triumphant military revolt was followed by a terror campaign in the rearguard against blacklisted individuals considered to be progressive ("reds"), mildly republican, or just inconvenient. The purge especially affected southern Navarre along the Ebro banks, and counted on the active complicity of the clergy, who adopted the fascist salute and even involved in murderous tasks.
The killing Killing or Killings may refer to: Types of killing *-cide, a suffix that refers to types of killing (see List of types of killing), such as: ** Homicide, one human killing another *** Murder, unlawful killing of another human without justification ...
took a death toll of at least 2,857, plus a further 305 dying in prisons (ill-treatment, malnutrition). The dead were buried in mass graves or discarded into chasms abounding on the central hilly areas (Urbasa, etc.). Basque nationalists were also chased to a lesser extent, e.g. Fortunato Aguirre, a
Basque nationalist Basque nationalism ( eu, eusko abertzaletasuna, es, nacionalismo vasco, french: nationalisme basque) is a form of nationalism that asserts that Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern E ...
and mayor of Estella (and co-founder of Osasuna Football Club), was executed in September 1936. Humiliation and silence ensued for the survivors. Pamplona became the rebel launching point against the Republic during the
War in the North The War in the North was the campaign of the Spanish Civil War in which the Spanish Nationalists, Nationalist forces defeated and occupied the parts of northern Spain that had remained loyal to the Second Spanish Republic, Republican government. ...
.


Post-war scene

As a reward for its support in the
Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War ( es, Guerra Civil Española)) or The Revolution ( es, La Revolución) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War ( es, Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlism, Carlists, and The Rebellion ( es, La Rebelión) or Uprising ( ...

Spanish Civil War
(Navarre sided for the most part with the military uprising), Franco allowed Navarre, as it happened with
Álava Álava ( in Spanish language, Spanish) or Araba ( in Basque language, Basque, dialectal: ), officially Araba/Álava, is a Provinces of Spain, province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque Cou ...

Álava
, to maintain during his dictatorship a number of prerogatives reminiscent of the ancient Navarrese liberties. The bleak post-war years were shaken by shortage, famine, and smuggling, with the economy relying on agriculture (wheat, vineyards, olive, barley), and a negative migration balance. The victors came to cluster around two main factions,
Carlists Carlism ( eu, Karlismo; ca, Carlisme; ; ) is a Traditionalism (Spain), Traditionalist and Legitimists (disambiguation), Legitimist political movement in Spain aimed at establishing an alternative branch of the House of Bourbon, Bourbon dynasty ...
and Falangists, while the totalitarian ultra-Catholic environment provided fertile grounds for another religious group, the
Opus Dei Opus Dei, formally known as the Prelature of the Holy Cross and Opus Dei ( la, Praelatura Sanctae Crucis et Operis Dei), is an institution of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the ...
, to found their
University of Navarre , image = UNAV.svg , latin_name = Universitas Studiorum Navarrensis , established = 17 October 1952 , type = Private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row ...
(1952), ever more influential in Pamplona. The coming of the society of consumption and incipient economic liberalisation saw also the establishment of factories and workshops during the early 1960s (automobile manufacturing and accessories, etc.), especially around the overgrown capital. It was followed by labour and political unrest. In the run-up to Spanish democracy ( Constitution ratified in 1978), Navarre plunged into a climate of violence practised by
ETA Eta (uppercase , lowercase ; grc, ἦτα ''ē̂ta'' or ell, ήτα ''ita'' ) is the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is ...
, state-sponsored paramilitary groups and police forces, extending through the 1980s and beyond.


Tension during the Spanish transition

Officials and figures with good connections to the Navarrese regional government went on to join
Adolfo Suárez Adolfo Suárez González, 1st Duke of Suárez (; 25 September 1932 – 23 March 2014) was a Spanish lawyer and politician. Suárez was Spain's first democratically elected Prime Minister of Spain, Prime Minister since the Second Spanish Republic ...
’s UCD, later splitting into the party
UPN The United Paramount Network (UPN) was an American broadcast Broadcasting is the distributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics) Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or generalized func ...
led by Jesús Aizpún Tuero (1979), refusing to join a democratic constitutional process on the grounds that Navarre’s charters (or ''fueros'') remained in place. They also refused to join the Basque process to become an autonomous community, where recently legalised Basque nationalist and leftist parties held a majority. A continuation of the institutional framework inherited from the dictatorship and its accommodation into the Spanish democracy was guaranteed by the Betterment (“Amejoramiento”), a Navarre-only solution considered ‘an upgrade’ of its former status issued from the (remains of the) charters. In a three-year span, the Spanish Socialists in Navarre veered in their position, quit the Basque process, and joined the arrangement adopted for Navarre (Chartered Community of Navarre, 1982). The reform was not ratified by referendum, as demanded by Basque nationalist and minority leftist forces.


Politics


Institutions and status

After the end of
Franco's dictatorship Francoist Spain ( es, España franquista), known in Spain as the Francoist dictatorship ( es, dictadura franquista), was the period of history of Spain, Spanish history between 1936 and 1975, when Francisco Franco ruled Spain with the title ''Ca ...
, Navarre became one of the 17
Autonomous Communities In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish Constitution of 1978, Spanish constitution of 1978, with the ...

Autonomous Communities
in Spain. The community ceremonies, education, and social services, together with housing, urban development, and environment protection policies are under the responsibility of Navarre's political institutions. As in the rest of communities, Navarre has a
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
elected every four years, and the majority in this Parliament determines the president of the Community, who is in charge of Navarre's government. Unlike most other autonomous communities of Spain (but like the
Basque Autonomous Community The Basque Country (; eu, Euskadi ; es, País Vasco ; french: Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community ( eu, Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; es, Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community eu, autonomia erkid ...
), Navarre has almost full responsibility for collecting and administering taxes which must follow the overall guidelines established by the Spanish government but may have some minor differences. The first 3 presidents of the community belonged to the extinct Union of the Democratic Centre (Spain), Union of the Democratic Centre (UCD) party. After 1984 the government was ruled by either the Socialist Party of Navarre (PSN – PSOE, one of the federative components of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, main centre-left wing party in Spain) or the Navarrese People's Union (UPN) (a Navarrese party that had a long alliance with the People's Party (Spain), People's Party (PP), main right-wing party in Spain). However, in 2015 Uxue Barkos (Geroa Bai) became president with the support of EH Bildu, Podemos (Spanish political party), Podemos and Izquierda-Ezkerra. She is the first Basque nationalism, Basque nationalist president in Navarre. Basque nationalism, Basque nationalist parties also represent a sizeable part of the vote (around 31% in the Navarrese regional election, 2015, 2015 elections), and a majority in most of the northern areas. Basque nationalist parties have as a key point in their agendas to Southern Basque Country, merge Navarre into the Basque Autonomous Community by referendum (as predicted in the Spanish constitution). All Spain-based parties, as well as UPN and PSN, oppose this move.


Present-day political dynamics

Politics in Navarre has been marked by fierce rivalry between two blocks representing different national identities that are part of Navarre society: Basque nationalist EH Bildu and pro-Basque Geroa Bai parties, on the one side, and the institutional pro-Spanish parties, UPN, PP and PSN on the other. Parties on the pro-Basque spectrum demand further sovereignty in internal affairs of Navarre and closer relationship with the districts of the Basque Autonomous Community. In the past, pro-Basque parties were excluded from key political posts and institutions. Another 2013-2014 controversy refers to the alleged ideological profiling of public school Basque language teachers, billed as "
ETA Eta (uppercase , lowercase ; grc, ἦτα ''ē̂ta'' or ell, ήτα ''ita'' ) is the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is ...
supporting teachers". Since the establishment of Navarre's present status (the ''Amejoramiento'', the 'Betterment') in 1982, the successive regional governments ruled by UPN and PSN have been shaken by frequent political instability and Corruption in Navarre, corruption scandals, with UPN's Miguel Sanz's term being the most stable and longest, extending from 2001 to 2011. Between 2012 and 2014, a series of corruption scandals broke out involving regional president Yolanda Barcina and other regional government officials that included influence peddling, embezzlement, misappropriation of funds and mismanagement leading to the Caja Navarra scandal, bankruptcy of Caja Navarra. By November 2012, the PSN—UPN's standing ally in Navarre up to that point—backed down on its support of UPN, but refused to impeach Yolanda Barcina or search new political alliances, leaving a deadlocked government. The regional president, widely questioned in Navarre as of 2012 and relying only on the PP central government's backup, went on to urge the Constitutional Court of Spain, Constitutional Court to challenge several decisions made by the Parliament of Navarre. After the latest scandal and corruption allegations affecting a secretary of her cabinet (Lourdes Goicoechea, regional public finance secretary) in February 2014, the Spanish home office secretary Jorge Fernández Díaz stepped in warning leading members of PSN that "Navarre is strategic for Spain", and asserting that any other political alliance means "supporting ETA". The Justice secretary in Madrid Alberto Ruiz Gallardón in turn stated that "the worst political error is not corruption" but getting along with Bildu (a Basque pro-independence coalition). In May 2015, the elections for Navarre Parliament left a better result for pro-Basque parties, which managed to establish an alliance, Uxue Barkos from Geroa Bai being elected president of Navarre for the period 2015 – 2019. June 2019 elections, however, turned the tide, when rightist forces reunited in the platform Navarra Suma, made up of UPN, PP and Citizens (Spanish political party), Ciudadanos, and garnered 20 MPs, 40% of the seats in the Parliament of Navarre, although both Geroa Bai and EH Bildu increased their vote share. Following the election results, PSN's María Chivite was elected president with the support provided by progressive forces, handing over Pamplona's council to Navarra Suma and explicitly excluding EH Bildu from any talks or alliances, but relying on its abstention for her inauguration. In December 2017, the Navarrese parliament passed a law splitting teachers aspiring to work in the state-run education network into two different professional categories, one for those qualified in
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and shared genetic ancestry to th ...
and Spanish language, Spanish, and another for Spanish monolinguals, so thwarting with the vote of Izquierda-Ezkerra (integrated in the regional government) the new progressive government's plan to have just one; the latter echoes a long-running demand of education unions. In July 2018, the Constitutional Court of Spain suspended the Far Right's and Civil Servants' Victims Act passed by the Parliament of Navarre in 2015. Three months later, the Chief Executive Officer of the National Police Corps, National Police in Navarre stepped down for the disclosure of a fake Twitter account he owned that praised Antonio Tejero, as well as Vox leader Santiago Abascal as a new José Antonio Primo de Rivera, Jose Antonio, also insulting a number of Catalan and Basque nationalist and leftist figures. In October 2019, the High Court of Navarre ruled against the public use of bilingual signalling and institutional announcements in Mixed-Speaking and Non-Basque Speaking areas, also proscribing the consideration of Basque as a merit in job positions, unless strictly needed; the judgement sparked an uproar among some parties in the coalition government of Navarre, as well as EH Bildu, but was saluted by the PSN and Navarra Suma.


Geography and climate

Navarre consists of 272 List of municipalities in Navarre, municipalities and has a total population of 601,874 (2006), of whom approximately one-third live in the capital,
Pamplona Pamplona (; eu, Iruña or ; oc, Pampalona), historically known as Pampeluna in English, is the capital city of the Chartered Community of Navarre, in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Ba ...

Pamplona
(195,769 pop.), and one-half in the capital's metropolitan area (315,988 pop.). There are no other large municipalities in the region. The next largest are
TudelaTudela may refer to: *Tudela, Navarre, a town and municipality in northern Spain ** Benjamin of Tudela Medieval Jewish traveller ** William of Tudela, Medieval troubadour who wrote the first part of the ''Song of the Albigensian Crusade'' ** Battle ...
(32,802), Barañain (22,401), Burlada – Burlata, Burlada/Burlata (18,388), Estella-Lizarra (13,892), Zizur Mayor (13,197), Tafalla (11,040), Villava – Atarrabia, Villava/Atarrabia (10,295), and Ansoáin – Antsoain, Ansoáin/Antsoain (9,952). Despite its relatively small size, Navarre features stark contrasts in geography, from the
Pyrenees The Pyrenees (; es, Pirineos ; french: Pyrénées ; ca, Pirineus ; eu, Pirinioak ; oc, Pirenèus ; an, Pirineus) is a mountain range straddling the border of and . It extends nearly from its union with the to on the coast. It reaches a ma ...

Pyrenees
mountain range that dominates the territory to the plains of the Ebro river valley in the south. The highest point in Navarre is Mesa de los Tres Reyes, with an elevation of 2,428 metres (7,965 feet). Other important mountains are Txamantxoia, Kartxela, the Larra-Belagua Massif, Sierra de Alaiz, Untzueko Harria, Sierra de Leyre, Sierra del Perdón, Montejurra, Fort San Cristóbal (Spain), Ezkaba, Monte Ori, Sierra de Codés, Urbasa, Andia, and the Aralar Range. In the north, climate is affected by the Atlantic Ocean leading an Oceanic west coast climate (Köppen: Cfb). Since the northernmost part of Navarre is less than from the Bay of Biscay, the northern fringes resemble San Sebastián#Climate, San Sebastián. At central Navarre the summer precipitations start to lower, leading to a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa and Csb) At the southernmost part of Navarre the climate is cool semi-arid (Köppen: Bsk). This is also at a comparatively low elevation compared to most of the north, further pontentiating the hot summers in comparison to Pamplona and even more so the northern hilly and mountainous region. The sole official weather station of Navarre is located in Pamplona in its north-western corner and has summer highs of and lows of , while winter highs are and lows with moderate precipitation year-round.


Cultural heritage

Navarre is a mixture of its Basque people, Basque tradition, the Trans-Pyrenean influx of people and ideas and Mediterranean influences coming from the Ebro. The Ebro valley is amenable to wheat, vegetables, wine, and even olive trees as in
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_n ...

Aragon
and La Rioja. It was a part of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post- period of . As a it included large territorial holdings around the in , , and ruled by . From the t ...

Roman Empire
, inhabited by the
Vascones A coin with BARSCUNES in Iberian script. It has been proposed that the word is related to Vascones. The Vascones were a pre-Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th ...

Vascones
, later controlled on its southern fringes by the Muslims
Banu Qasi The Banu Qasi, Banu Kasi, Beni Casi ( ar, بني قسي or بنو قسي, meaning "sons" or "heirs of Cassius") or Banu Musa were a Muwallad dynasty that in the 9th century ruled the Upper March, a frontier territory of the Umayyads, Um ...
, whose authority was taken over by the taifa kingdom of
TudelaTudela may refer to: *Tudela, Navarre, a town and municipality in northern Spain ** Benjamin of Tudela Medieval Jewish traveller ** William of Tudela, Medieval troubadour who wrote the first part of the ''Song of the Albigensian Crusade'' ** Battle ...
in the 11th century. During the Reconquista, Navarre gained little ground at the expense of the Muslims, since its southern boundary had already been established by the time of the
Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, known in Arab history as the Battle of Al-Uqab ( ar, معركة العقاب), took place on 16 July 1212 and was an important turning point in the Reconquista The ' (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * an ...

Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
in 1212. Starting in the 11th century, the
Way of Saint James The Camino de Santiago ( la, Peregrinatio Compostellana, "Pilgrimage of Compostela"; gl, O Camiño de Santiago), known in English as the Way of St. James, is a network of pilgrims' ways or pilgrimages leading to the shrine of the Twelve Apostle ...
grew in importance. It brought pilgrims, traders and Christian soldiers from the North. Occitan language#Occitan in Spain, Gascons and Occitanians from beyond the
Pyrenees The Pyrenees (; es, Pirineos ; french: Pyrénées ; ca, Pirineus ; eu, Pirinioak ; oc, Pirenèus ; an, Pirineus) is a mountain range straddling the border of and . It extends nearly from its union with the to on the coast. It reaches a ma ...

Pyrenees
(called ''Franks'') received self-government and other privileges to foster settlement in Navarrese towns, and they brought their crafts, culture and Romance languages. Jews and Muslims were persecuted both north and south of Navarre, expelled for the most part during the late 15th century to the early 16th century. The kingdom struggled to maintain its separate identity in 14th and 15th centuries, and after Ferdinand II of Aragon, King Ferdinand V forcibly conquered Navarre after the death of his wife Queen Isabella, he extended the Castilian expulsion and forcible integration orders applicable to and of 1492 to the former kingdom. Therefore,
TudelaTudela may refer to: *Tudela, Navarre, a town and municipality in northern Spain ** Benjamin of Tudela Medieval Jewish traveller ** William of Tudela, Medieval troubadour who wrote the first part of the ''Song of the Albigensian Crusade'' ** Battle ...
in particular could no longer serve as a refuge after the Inquisitors were allowed.


Economy

Navarre is one of the wealthiest regions in Spain per capita, with a diversified economy primarily focused on the energy sector, healthcare services and manufacturing. The gross domestic product (GDP) of the autonomous community was 20.3 billion euros in 2018, accounting for 1.7% of Spanish economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 33,700 euros or 112% of the EU27 average in the same year. The GDP per employee was 109% of the EU average. The unemployment rate stood at 10.2% in 2017 and was the lowest in the country.


Energy policy

Navarre leads Europe in its use of renewable energy technology and was planning to reach 100% renewable electricity generation by 2010. By 2004, 61% of the region's electricity was generated by renewable sources consisting of 43.6% from 28 wind farms, 12% from over 100 small-scale water turbines, and 5.3% from 2 biomass and 2 biogas plants. In addition, the region had what was then Spain's largest photovoltaic power plant at Montes de Cierzo de
TudelaTudela may refer to: *Tudela, Navarre, a town and municipality in northern Spain ** Benjamin of Tudela Medieval Jewish traveller ** William of Tudela, Medieval troubadour who wrote the first part of the ''Song of the Albigensian Crusade'' ** Battle ...
(1.2 MWp capacity) plus several hundred smaller photovoltaic installations. Developments since 2004 have included further photovoltaic plants at Larrión (0.25 MWp) and another at Castejón, Navarre, Castejón (2.44 MWp), also once the largest in Spain.


Demography


Languages

Presently, Spanish is predominantly spoken in most of the autonomous community, except for north-eastern areas, where Basque continues to be the prevailing language. According to official statistics, Spanish is the mother tongue of 81.9% of the population, Basque is 5.7% of the population's mother tongue, and 3.8% of the population has both languages as their mother tongue while 6.1% of the population have another language as their Mother-tongue, mother tongue.


Language shift

The number of people that can speak Basque has increased in Navarre lately, after a steady historic retreat. In 2011, 13.6% of the population in Navarre considered themselves to be speakers of Basque and another 14.5% considered themselves semi-speakers of Basque. Historically, Basque is the ''lingua navarrorum'', as it appears in documents of the Middle Ages, such as a document by the king Sancho the Wise. The kingdom cemented its roots in the predominantly Basque-speaking domain of Pamplona and surrounding areas. In the midst of contemporary scholarly debates on the existence of Navarre and its laws prior to the king's authority, the Navarrese author Garcia de Gongora states as follows in 1626: José Moret, chronicler of the kingdom, called Navarre and its bordering provinces "the lands of Basque", claiming also that Tubal founded the Kingdom of Navarre. However, Basque underwent a gradual erosion, accelerated following the conquest of the kingdom in the early 16th century due to the homogenizing push of the new Castilian authorities and the neglect of its own elites, among other reasons. By 1778, 121,000 inhabitants out of 227,000 were Basque speakers, 53% of its population, still the largest amount of Basque speakers across Basque Country (greater region), all Basque territories. However, the number of speakers dropped sharply in the 19th century. In 1936, Basque speakers accounted for a 17% of the total Navarrese population. Other languages have been spoken, but have disappeared, such as Navarro-Aragonese, a Romance language that was spoken in the Middle Ages around the central part of the Ebro basin. Starting in the late 11th century, the influx of pilgrims and colonizers from Toulouse and surrounding areas (''Francs'') who settled in separate boroughs along the Way of Saint James rendered Occitan language, Occitan the status language of the kingdom up to early-14th century. Navarro-Aragonese became the written language in court and royal administration by 1329, when it reached official status. However, from the 15th century onwards the language grew closer to Castilian (Spanish language, Spanish) and eventually merged with it. Other languages which at some point held a status or were spoken in certain communities and periods are Erromintxela language, Erromintxela, French language, French, Hebrew language, Hebrew, and Arabic.


Linguistic division of the territory and legal consequences

According to the 1978 Spanish constitution and the :es:Amejoramiento de Navarra, Amejoramiento del Fuero, a Navarrese law establishing the basic institutional make-up of the chartered community of Navarre, Spanish is the official language of Navarre, while the Basque language is also the official language in Basque-Speaking areas. Unlike any other statutes in the Spanish autonomous communities owning a regional language, the Amejoramiento omits citing Basque as a specific language of its people or its consideration as part of the Navarrese heritage. :es:Ley Foral del Euskera, The Statutory Law of Basque of 1986 defined the above areas, creating the :es:Ley Foral del Euskera#Zona vascófona, ''Basque-speaking zone'', an area north-east of Navarre in which Basque is the co-official language along with Spanish. This law recognizes Spanish and Basque as Navarre's ''lenguas propias'' (a Spanish legal term meaning that a language in an autonomous community in Spain has co-official status along with Spanish), according to the Foral Law 18/1986 of Basque. This law divides Navarre into three linguistically distinct areas, a '':es:Ley Foral del Euskera#Zona vascófona, Basque-speaking zone'', where Basque is the dominant language, a '':es:Ley Foral del Euskera#Zona vascófona, Mixed-speaking zone'', where Basque and Spanish are both dominant, and a '':es:Ley Foral del Euskera#Zona vascófona, Non-Basque speaking zone'', where Spanish is the dominant language. In the latter, the public entities of Navarre are required to use only Spanish, but in the mixed area the use of Basque is also confined to certain position. The area of the municipalities belonging to the Basque-speaking and Mixed Basque and Spanish-speaking zones are the following: * Basque-speaking zone: :es:Abaurrea Alta, Abaurrea Alta, :es:Abaurrea Baja, Abaurrea Baja, Alsasua, :es:Anué, Anué, :es:Araiz, Araiz, :es:Aranaz, Aranaz, Arano, Navarre, Arano, :es:Araquil, Araquil, Arbizu, Areso, :es:Aria (Navarra), Aria, :es:Arive, Arive, Arruazu, :es:Bacáicoa, Bacáicoa, :es:Basaburúa Mayor, Basaburúa Mayor, Baztan, Navarre, Baztán, :es:Beinza-Labayen, Beinza-Labayen, :es:Bértiz-Arana, Bertiz-Arana, Betelu, Burguete, :es:Ciordia, Ciordia, :es:Areso, Donamaría, :es:Echalar, Echalar, :es:Echarri-Aranaz, Echarri Aranaz, Elgorriaga, :es:Erasun, Erasun, :es:Ergoyena, Ergoyena, Erro, Navarre, Erro, Esteríbar, :es:Ezcurra, Ezcurra, :es:Garayoa, Garayoa, Garralda, :es:Goizueta (Navarra), Goizueta, :es:Huarte-Araquil, Huarte-Araquil, :es:Imoz, Imoz, Irañeta, Ituren, Iturmendi, Lacunza, Lantz, Navarre, Lantz, :es:Larráun, Larráun, :es:Leiza, Leiza, Lesaca, :es:Oiz (Navarra), Oiz, :es:Olazagutía, Olazagutía, :es:Orbaiceta, Orbaiceta, Orbara, Roncesvalles, Saldías, Navarre, Saldías, :es:Santesteban, Santesteban, :es:Sumbilla, Sumbilla, Ulzama, Urdax, :es:Urdiáin, Urdiáin, :es:Urroz de Santesteban, Urroz de Santesteban, Valcarlos, Vera de Bidasoa, :es:Villanueva de Aézcoa, Villanueva de Aézcoa, :es:Yanci, Yanci, Zubieta y Zugarramurdi. Later, two more municipalities would be added that came from the Basque-speaking zone: :es:Lecumberri, Lecumberri and :es:Irurzun, Irurzun. * Mixed-speaking zone: Abárzuza, Ansoáin, Aoiz, :es:Arce (Navarra), Arce, Atez, Barañáin, Burgui, Burlada, Ciriza, Cendea de Cizur, Echarri, Echauri, Valle de Egüés, Ezcároz, Esparza de Salazar, Estella, Ezcabarte, Garde, Spain, Garde, Goñi, Navarre, Goñi, :es:Güesa, Güesa, Guesálaz, Huarte, Isaba, :es:Iza (Navarra), Iza, :es:Izalzu, Izalzu, Jaurrieta, Juslapeña, Lezáun, Lezáu, Lizoáin, Ochagavía, Odieta, Oláibar, Olza, Spain, Olza, :es:Ollo (Navarra), Ollo, Oronz, Oroz-Betelu,
Pamplona Pamplona (; eu, Iruña or ; oc, Pampalona), historically known as Pampeluna in English, is the capital city of the Chartered Community of Navarre, in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Ba ...

Pamplona
, Puente la Reina, Roncal – Erronkari, Roncal, :es:Salinas de Oro, Salinas de Oro, :es:Sarriés, Sarriés, Urzainqui, :es:Uztárroz, Uztárroz, Vidángoz, Vidaurreta, Villava, Yerri, Zabalza y Zizur Mayor. As a consequence of the constitution of new municipalities, other municipalities would be added: Berrioplano, Berriozar, Orcoyen y Zizur Mayor. Moreover, in 2010 a legal modification granted four municipalities of Cuenca de Pamplona the power of incorporating into the ''Mixed-speaking zone'' if the absolute majority decided to be incorporated into the ''Mixed-speaking zone''. Aranguren, Belascoáin y Galar decided to be incorporated into the ''Mixed-speaking zone'' while Noáin decided to remain in the ''Basque-speaking zone''. One modification to the law implemented in June 2017 allowed municipalities from the ''Non-Basque speaking zone'' to become a part of the ''mixed zone 44'' (Abáigar, :es:Adiós (Navarra), Adiós, Aibar, Allín, Améscoa Baja, Ancín, Añorbe, Aranarache, Arellano, Artazu, Bargota, Beriáin, Biurrun-Olcoz, Cabredo, Dicastillo, Enériz, Eulate, :es:Gallués, Gallués, Garínoain, Izagaondoa, Larraona, Leoz, Lerga, :es:Lónguida, Lónguida, Mendigorría, Metauten, Mirafuentes, Murieta, :es:Nazar (Navarra), Nazar, Obanos, Olite, Oteiza, Pueyo, Navarre, Pueyo, Sangüesa, Tafalla, :es:Tiebas, Tiebas, Tirapu, Unzué, Ujué, Urraúl Bajo, :es:Urroz-Villa, Urroz-Villa, Villatuerta, Cirauqui y Zúñiga, Navarre, Zúñiga) and for Atez to pass from the ''Mixed-speaking zone'' to the ''Basque-speaking zone.'' * Non-Basque-speaking zone: This zone is composed of the remaining municipalities that are located predominantly towards the Southeast of the foral community where the Basque language is not commonly spoken by the population. However, more people have been speaking Basque in these communities and in present day, there are municipalities in which 10% of their inhabitants are bilingual or semi-bilingual in Basque and Spanish such as in Tafalla, Sangüesa y Lumbier. In comparison, in Tafalla or Sanguesa's population those that speak or understand Basque well are 5% of the population or 10% en Lumbier. In other localities with ikastolas such as in :es:Fontellas (Navarra), Fontellas, Lodosa y Viana, Spain, Viana the bilingual population is around 2% and 8%, while those that speak or understand Basque well are 1% in :es:Fontellas (Navarra), Fontellas, 2% in Lodosa and 5% in Viana, Spain, Viana. Since 2006-2007 the schools that teach Basque in the ''Non-Basque speaking zone'' are assisted by the Department of Education of the government of Navarre.


Denomination of local entities

The official denomination of Navarran municipalities and villages are regulated according to the ''Foral Basque Law.'' It distinguishes three different types of formulas: * Unique denominations: the use of Basque in legal documents is the same when compared with Spanish independently. Examples: Lantz or Beintza-Labaien. * Compounded denominations: They have a unique denomination formula formed from the Spanish and Basque toponyms in Spanish or Basque and are united by the symbol "-" or "/". Its use (the compounded denomination) is the same in Spanish as in Basque. Examples: Doneztebe/Santesteban, Orreaga/Roncesvalles, Estella-Lizarra. * Double denominations: The toponym, in Basque or Spanish is dependent on the language and how it is used in the text. Examples: Pamplona <> Iruña, Villava <> Atarrabia, Aibar <> Oibar.


Basque dialects in Navarre

Basque in Navarre has various dialects (there are nine according to the classification of the General Basque Dictionary or the :es:Real Academia de la Lengua Vasca, Royal Academy of the Basque Language). According to the most recent classification of :es:Koldo Zuazo, Koldo Zuazo, the most widespread dialect is Upper Navarrese dialect, Upper Navarrese, spoken in the northern part of Navarre. In localities such as Basaburua Mayor, Imoz and other border localities with Gipuzkoa, the dialect of Central Basque is spoken and in the central part of the Pyrenees in Navarre a variety of Navarro-Lapurdian dialect, Navarro-Lapurdian is spoken. On the east of the Pyrenees in Navarre, Basque used to be spoken in the valleys of :es:Roncal, Roncal y Salazar Valley, Salazar, but it disappeared near the end of the twentieth century; the last person who spoke it in Roncal died in 1991 and in Salazar the language also disappeared because the last person who spoke it fluently died during the first years of the twenty-first century. Apart from dialects, sub-dialects from Basque also exist and there are also differences in vocabulary in local linguistic communities.


Linguistic traits of the Spanish spoken in Navarre

There are a number of features of Spanish as spoken in Navarre that are either exclusive to the area or shared only with neighbouring areas (mainly Aragón and La Rioja), such as the predominance of the diminutive with ''-ico'' or the use of the conditional verb tense in place of the preterite of the subjunctive (for example, using ''podría'' instead of ''pudiera''). There are also differences in the vocabulary of Spanish speakers from Navarre, including the presence of words of Basque origin, which is in some cases due to a :es:Sustrato vasco en lenguas romances, Basque substrate, or long-standing contact and commercial exchanges with areas of Navarre in which Basque is spoken. File:Chupinazo8.jpg, Sanfermines in Pamplona, Navarre File:Ioaldunak 001.jpg, Joaldun feast in January


See also

* Basque Country (greater region) * Basque language * Basque Country (autonomous community), Euskadi * Caja Navarra *
Kingdom of Navarre ) , religion = , common_languages = , title_leader = List of Navarrese monarchs, Monarch , leader1 = Íñigo Arista of Pamplona, Íñigo Arista (first) , year_leader1 ...
* Kings of Navarre *
Lower Navarre Lower Navarre ( eu, Nafarroa Beherea/Baxenabarre; : ''Navarra Baisha''; french: Basse-Navarre ; es, Baja Navarra) is a traditional region of the present-day French ' of . It corresponds to the northernmost ' of the during the . After the (1512 ...
* Nueva Navarra * Parliament of Navarre * Renewable energy in the European Union


Notes and references


External links


Official website
(in Basque/English/French/Spanish)
History of Navarre

(LAS BARDENAS, CAVERN, GROTTE VALTIERRA, CUEVAS DE VALTIERRA)

Bardenas Reales desert (Navarra)


*  
Euskara Kultur Elkargoa-''Basque Cultural Foundation''


{{Authority control Navarre, NUTS 2 statistical regions of the European Union States and territories established in 1982 Regions of Europe with multiple official languages Autonomous communities of Spain 1982 establishments in Spain