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National Research Council of Canada (NRC, french: Conseil national de recherches Canada) is the primary national research and technology organization (RTO) of the Government of Canada, in science and technology research and development. The Minister of Innovation, Science, and Economic Development (currently, François-Philippe Champagne) is responsible for the National Research Council.


Mandate


NRC is a Government of Canada organization. Its mandate is set out in the ''National Research Council Act''. Close to 4,000 people across Canada are employed by the NRC. In addition, NRC also employs guest workers from universities, companies, and public and private-sector organisations. Under the Act, NRC is responsible for: * Undertaking, assisting or promoting scientific and industrial research in fields of importance to Canada; * Providing vital scientific and technological services to the research and industrial communities; * Investigating standards and methods of measurement; * Working on the standardization and certification of scientific and technical apparatus, instruments and materials used or usable by Canadian industry; * Operating and administering any astronomical observatories established or maintained by the Government of Canada; * Establishing, operating and maintaining a national science library; and * Publishing and selling or otherwise distributing such scientific and technical information as the Council deems necessary.


Programs


and fire code development in Canada. Image:Radiant heat panel nrc ottawa.jpg|200px|A [[Thermal radiation|radiant heat panel for precision testing of quantified energy exposures at th
Institute for Research in Construction
of the NRC, near [[Ottawa. In 2011, President [[John R. McDougall (Petroleum Engineer)|John McDougall began to oversee a change in research focus away from basic research and towards industry-relevant research. This included the development of multiple programs which shifted the research budget out of existing projects and into a number of focused programs. The transformation of the NRC into an RTO that focuses on "business-led research" was part of the federal government's Economic Action Plan. On 7 May 2013, the NRC launched its new "business approach" in which it offered four business lines: strategic research and development, technical services, management of science and technology infrastructure and NRC-Industrial Research Assistance Program (IRAP). With these services, NRC intended to shorten the gap between early stage research and development and commercialization. At one point, NRC had over 30 approved programs, including the following.


Algal Carbon Conversion Flagship Program


The goal of the Algal Carbon Conversion Pilot Program was to develop of an algae system to recycle carbon emissions from the oil sands. It contained plans for a $19 million facility to be constructed in Alberta, in partnership between the NRC, Canadian Natural Resources, and Pond Biofuels. In 2008, researchers from five I-CAN organizations were developing a Carbon Algae Recycling System (CARS) to "feed waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 from industrial exhaust stacks to micro-algae growing in artificial ponds". The "Algal Carbon Conversion", is related to prior interests of McDougall, as he previously headed Innoventures, a company involved in lobbying for the development of an algae system to recycle carbon emissions. The Algal Carbon Conversion Pilot Project, with plans for a $19 million facility to be constructed in Alberta, is a partnership between the NRC and industry partners, Canadian Natural Resources Limited (Canadian Natural) and Pond Biofuels. The NRC was not involved in this area of research prior to the arrival of McDougall.


The Canadian Wheat Improvement Flagship


The Canadian Wheat Improvement Program is a "strategic collaboration with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), the University of Saskatchewan’s Crop Development Centre and the province of Saskatchewan". With a budget of approximately $97 million (2013–2018), the Canadian Wheat Alliance will be conducting research on improving the yield of Canadian wheat crops and on the most efficient use of chemical fertilizers. Working with breeders and scientists at the Crop Development Centre and at AAFC, they will be integrating long term research with genetic improvement of wheat.


Gallium Nitride (GaN) Electronics Program


Gallium nitride is a semiconductor commonly used in light-emitting diodes. The GaN Electronics program supports partner research and development activities with a goal of ensuring that GaN technology will create wealth and a greener future for Canadians. NRC is the only Canadian foundry for GaN electronics, and offers both normally-on and normally-off devices. The GaN500v2 Foundry Design Kit was released on June 28, 2014.


Industrial Research Assistance Program (NRC IRAP)


The NRC Industrial Research Assistance Program (NRC-IRAP) was introduced in the 1950s to support product developments in small to medium-sized businesses. The NRC provides grants and financial support to business' looking to bring new and innovative technologies to the market. Some of the many innovations by NRC personnel included the artificial pacemaker, development of canola (rapeseed) in the 1940s, the Crash Position Indicator in the 1950s, and the Cesium Beam atomic clock in the 1960s. Since 1974, Paul Barton of PSB Speakers used the NRC's world-class measurement facilities, their anechoic chamber. By the 1980s, more companies began to use this resource, develop it further, and tested their loudspeakers at the NRC. Electrical engineer, Floyd E. Toole, who worked at the NRC was at the centre of this research. By the year 2000, most companies had their own sound chambers, but Barton continued to use the NRC's facilities. In about 1990, PSB and other Canadian companies worked with the NRC on Athena to evaluate digital signal processing (DSP) for loudspeaker design. From 2002 to 2006, John R. McDougall, who was appointed President of NRC in 2010, was a member of the NRC-Industrial Research Assistance Program (NRC-IRAP) Advisory Board. In 2011, Bev Oda, the Minister of International Cooperation, and Gary Goodyear, Minister of State (Science and Technology), announced the grant recipients. These included small to medium-sized businesses, such as, Nortek Solutions a privately owned Canadian software company. They received a $30,000 grant from NRC to hire a young graphics design graduate to work on their "CUROS" people management software. Oasys Healthcare, a company that provides "innovative audio and video solutions for the medical marketplace" received a $13,000 NRC grant for its new technology for operating rooms. Jeffrey Ross Jewellery's product called Dimples, imprints fingerprints in silver using an innovative process and material, developed through a NRC $35,750 grant.


Nobel Prizes


Several Nobel Laureates have been associated with the NRC at various points of their careers, including: * Sir Geoffrey Wilkinson, who spent his time at the NRC in the Montreal and the Chalk River laboratories (1942-1946) * Dudley R. Herschbach, formerly a NRC visiting student * John Polanyi, formerly a NRC postdoctoral Fellow, Nobel Prize in Chemistry * Rudolph A. Marcus, formerly a NRC postdoctoral Fellow, Nobel Prize in Chemistry * Harry Kroto, formerly a NRC postdoctoral Fellow, Nobel Prize in Chemistry * Bertram Brockhouse, who conducted atomic research at Chalk River from 1950 to 1952, and worked at NRC laboratories in Ottawa (1944-1947) * John Pople * John Cockcroft * Gerhard Herzberg, formerly a Director of the Division of Pure Physics, Nobel Prize in Chemistry * Donna Strickland, formerly a Research Associate, Nobel Prize in Physics


History





Between World War I and II


The NRC was established in 1916, under the pressure of World War I, to advise the government on matters of science and industrial research. In 1932, laboratories were built on Sussex Drive in Ottawa. With the impetus of World War II, the NRC grew rapidly and for all practical purposes, became a military science and weapons research organization. It undertook a number of important projects, which included participation with the United States and United Kingdom, in the development of chemical and germ warfare agents, the explosive RDX, the proximity fuse, radar, and submarine detection techniques. A special branch, known as the Examination Unit, was involved with cryptology and the interception of enemy radio communications. According to the Canadian Security Intelligence Service website, the NRC headquarters in Ottawa "was a prime espionage target" during the Cold War. The NRC was also engaged in atomic fission research at the Montreal Laboratory, then the Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario.


Post-World War II


Post-WWII, the NRC reverted to its pre-war civilian role, and a number of wartime activities were spun off to newly formed organizations. Military research continued under a new organization, the Defence Research Board, while inventions with commercial potential were transferred to the newly formed Canadian Patents and Development Limited. Atomic research went to the newly created Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Foreign signals intelligence gathering officially remained with the agency when, by Order in Council, the Examination Unit became the Communications Branch of the NRC in 1946. The CBNRC was transferred to the Department of National Defence in 1975, and renamed the Communications Security Establishment. During the 1950s, the medical research funding activities of the NRC were handed over to the newly formed Medical Research Council of Canada. Finally, on May 1, 1978, with the rapid post-war growth of Canadian universities, the NRC's role in university research funding in the natural sciences was passed to the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. Under financial pressure in the 1980s, the federal government produced what popularly became known as the Neilson Report, which recommended across-the-board financial cuts to all federal government organizations, including the NRC. This led to staff and program cutbacks.


The 21st Century


In 2000, there were about 1000 NRC researchers with Ph.D.s conducting research in many areas. Recovery was slow, but the NRC has managed to regain its status as Canada's single most important scientific and engineering research institution among many other Canadian government scientific research organizations. As President of the National Research Council of Canada, chemist Arthur Carty revitalised the organisation. In 2004, he left the NRC when then prime minister Paul Martin appointed him as independent, non-partisan advisor on science and technology. Around June 2014, the NRC was reportedly penetrated by Chinese state-sponsored hackers. The tenure of John McDougall as President of the NRC (2010–2016) was marked by a number of controversies. His presidency was characterised by a dramatic drop in publications and patents, by significant cuts in scientific staff, and by a 23-month period during which NRC management was aware that the organization was contaminating the water table in a small Ontario community but did not inform that community's inhabitants. John McDougall's departure – signalled by a sudden, three-line email to employees in March 2016 announced that he was going on personal leave. During this time Maria Aubrey, Vice President of NRC, filled the role as Acting President. Effective August 24, 2016, Iain Stewart became the new President of the NRC. The details regarding McDougall's personal leave were not publicly disclosed. Today, much of the NRC's focus is on developing partnerships with private and public-sector technology companies, both nationally and internationally. Under the federal Minister of State for Science and Technology, Gary Goodyear, the NRC became a "toolbox for industry" and dented basic-research infrastructure. "Goodyear, the minister of state for science and technology, has presided over the most retrograde federal Science and Technology policy in memory. During his tenure, the government shuttered the office of the National Science Advisor, blocked asbestos from a UN hazardous chemicals list on which it clearly belongs, gutted the ''Fisheries Act'', gutted the ''Navigable Waters Protection Act'', set out to weaken the ''Species at Risk Act'', killed the long-form census, eroded Environment Canada’s ability to monitor climate change, earned an international reputation for muzzling scientists and, at a great potential cost, defunded the world’s leading freshwater research centre... At the same time, changes to our science-funding regime and a makeover of the National Research Council, Canada’s science agency, into a tool box for industry have dented our basic-research infrastructure and damaged our prospects for innovation (Himelfarb 2014)." In August 2020, the NRC announced it was building the Biologics Manufacturing Centre, a facility that can produce vaccines and other biologics. The construction of the facility was started as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and Canada's inability to produce COVID-19 Vaccines. The facility is expected to open in July 2021, and will have a vaccine manufacturing capacity of 2 million does per month. In February 2021, the Canadian government has signed a memorandum of understanding with Novavax to pursue manufacturing its NVX-CoV2373 vaccine at the Biologics Manufacturing Centre.


Controversies





Restriction on government scientists to communicate with media


Under the tenure of Prime Minister Stephen Harper, Canadian Government research organizations began to restrict the ability of government scientists to communicate with the public. This includes restricting scientists within the NRC to communicate with the public through non-scientist communications personnel. Harper's focus as an economist was on his action plan: creating jobs and building the economy. There were widespread concerns that the progress in development was at the cost of the environment. In 2012, the federal government moved "to defund government research centres in the High Arctic." In the same year National Research Council environmental scientists "were barred from discussing their work on snowfall with the media.


John McDougall's tenure as NRC President (2010-2016)


The appointment of John McDougall, who promoted the partnering of science and technology research and development with industry partners, as President of NRC was followed by several controversies. During his tenure as president, there was a drop in research publications and new patents from NRC as the scientific staff was cut significantly. An article published in April 2016 and based on information from the office of the Minister of Science gave the following figures for the period 2011-2015:
"In the five years from 2011 through 2015, the number of studies in academic journals were 1,889, 1,650, 1,204, 1,017 and 549, respectively. (Figures from 2010 and earlier are generally in the 1,200 to 1,300 range.) The number of patents over the period 2011 to 2014 (with no figure available for 2015) are: 205, 251, 128 and 112, respectively. The years before 2011 averaged 250 to 300 patents per year".
In September 2016, the office of the Minister of Science released figures showing that from 2010 to 2015, the number of research officers at NRC fell by 26 per cent, and the number of scientists and engineers of all kinds fell by 22 per cent. McDougall's tenure as president included the period during which the NRC contaminated the water table in the Eastern Ontario community of Mississippi Mills, without informing its inhabitants. In January 2014, NRC employees at the fire-safety testing facility in Mississippi Mills were told to start drinking bottled water. In December 2015, 23 months later, residents of Mississippi Mills with homes near the facility were warned by NRC that their well-water was contaminated with toxic chemicals called perfluorinated alkyl substances, often found in firefighting foam. In July 2016, Acting President Maria Aubrey formally acknowledged that the NRC's National Fire Laboratory was the source of the groundwater contamination in Mississippi Mills. In December 2016, it was reported that owners of homes near the lab in Mississippi Mills were launching a multi-million dollar lawsuit against NRC over water contamination. In March 2016, John McDougall sent a three-sentence email to NRC employees, announcing that he was going on personal leave. Subsequently, NRC management announced that two major projects he had led would be abandoned: re-branding the NRC as "CNRCSolutions" – though colourful "CNRCSolutions" T-shirts and "branding books" had already been distributed, and re-organizing its three research divisions into five research divisions. Effective August 24, 2016, Iain Stewart became the new President of the NRC. The details regarding McDougall's personal leave were not publicly disclosed.


Bill C-38


Bill C-38 angered many people who opposed unregulated industrial growth. They argued that science was being gutted and silenced to open the way for development in ecologically sensitive areas in the north. In June 2012, the federal opposition made a motion in parliament,

Thirty Meter Telescope

Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) is a proposed extremely large telescope (ELT) that has become controversial due to its planned location on Mauna Kea, which is considered sacred land according to the native Hawaiians, on the island of Hawaii in the United States. On April 6, 2015, Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced that Canada would commit $243.5 million over a period of 10 years. The telescope's enclosure was designed by Dynamic Structures Ltd. in British Columbia. In an online petition, a group of Canadian academics have called on Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, together with Navdeep Bains (then Minister of Innovation, Science and Economic Development) and Kirsty Duncan (then Minister Of Science) to divest Canadian funding from the project. On July 20, 2019, an online petition titled "A Call to Divest Canada's Research Funding for the Thirty Meter Telescope on Mauna Kea" has been posted on Change.org.


Agencies with special relationships with the NRC


Specialized agencies and services which have branched out of the NRC include: * Canadian Space Agency * Defence Research and Development Canada * Atomic Energy of Canada Limited * Canadian Institutes of Health Research * Communications Security Establishment * Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council


Divisions and porfolios





Emerging technologies


* Information and Communications Technologies * Measurement Science and Standards * NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics * Security and Disruptive Technologies


Life sciences


* Aquatic and Crop Resource Development * Human Health Therapeutics * Medical Devices


Engineering


* Aerospace * Automotive and Surface Transportation * Construction * Energy, Mining and Environment * Ocean, Coastal and River Engineering

Aircraft fleet




NRC's fleet of research and test aircraft


The NRC has a fleet of nine aircraft for their research purposes: * Bell 412 – Advanced Systems Research Aircraft and 4-DOF simulator * Bell 205 (205A-1) – 4-DOF simulator * Bell 206 (206B) – Rotary trainer and advanced vision studies * Canadair CT-133 Silver Star (Mk 3) – Vintage fighter jet * Convair 580 – Multi-purpose flying laboratory * Falcon 20 (Mystère 20) – Aerospace, geoscience testing and micro gravity testing * Twin Otter (Series 200) – Atmospheric and biospheric studies, and for flight mechanics and flight systems development * Extra 300 (300L) – studying pilot perception in a dynamic environment and trainer * Harvard (4) – Trainer and experimental platform for avionics research


NRC's past fleet of research and test aircraft


Former aircraft include other models of the nine listed aboveCanadian Civil Aircraft Register: History Search Result
/ref> and the following: * C-45 – Atmospheric studies (retired in 1992) * Bell 47 – Fly by wire and icing studies (last of 3 retired in the mid 1990s) * Canadair North Star – Similar work as the Convair 580. (Retired 1974) * de Havilland Canada DHC-5 Buffalo – High wing super STOL aircraft joint project with United States Air Force * de Havilland Canada DHC-1 Chipmunk * Beechcraft Queen Air – Retired from fleet pre 1980

Research aircraft

*NRC tailless glider

See also

*National Research Council Time Signal *Canadian government scientific research organizations *Canadian university scientific research organizations *Canadian industrial research and development organizations *List of presidents of the National Research Council of Canada *Science and technology in Canada * Herbert Yardley - American cryptologist who help establish the Examination Unit in 1941 * William Arthur Steel - headed radio laboratory at NRC in 1930s * List of aerospace flight test centres *NRC Research Press


Notes





References




External links

*
Archival papers held at University of Toronto Archives and Records Management Services
{{Authority control Category:Government agencies established in 1916 Category:Federal departments and agencies of Canada Category:Education in Canada Category:Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada Category:Scientific organizations based in Canada Category:Science and technology in Canada Category:1916 establishments in Canada Category:Research councils Category:Members of the International Council for Science Category:Members of the International Science Council Category:Sussex Drive