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Naming rights are a financial transaction and form of
advertising Advertising is a marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize ...

advertising
or memorialization whereby a corporation, person, or other entity purchases the right to name a facility, object, location, program, or event, typically for a defined period of time. For properties such as multi-purpose arenas, performing arts venues, or sports fields, the term ranges from three to 20 years. Longer terms are more common for higher profile venues such as professional sports facilities. The distinctive characteristic for this type of naming rights is that the buyer gets a marketing property to promote products and services, promote
customer retentionCustomer retention refers to the ability of a company or product to retain its customers over some specified period. High customer retention means customers of the product or business tend to return to, continue to buy or in some other way not defect ...
and/or increase market share. There are several forms of corporate sponsored names. For example, a ''presenting sponsor'' attaches the name of the corporation or brand at the end (or, sometimes, beginning) of a generic, usually traditional, name (e.g. Mall of America Field at Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome); or, a ''title sponsor'' replaces the original name of the property with a corporate-sponsored one, with no reference to the previous name.


Stadium naming

Stadium naming may have shifted in recent years to promoting corporate trade names, but in earlier decades is largely traced to the family names of company founders. The record for the highest amount paid for naming rights belongs to
Scotiabank Arena Scotiabank Arena, formerly Air Canada Centre (ACC), is a multi-purpose arena An arena is a large enclosed platform, often circular or oval-shaped, designed to showcase theatre, musical performances, or sporting events. It is comp ...

Scotiabank Arena
. On August 29, 2017, a 20-year/$800 Million (CAD) sponsorship deal was reached between
Maple Leaf Sports and Entertainment Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment Ltd. (MLSE) is a professional sports and commercial real estate company based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. With assets that include franchises in four of the six major professional sports leagues in the United ...
and Canada's
Bank of Nova Scotia The Bank of Nova Scotia (french: link=no, La Banque de Nouvelle-Écosse), operating as Scotiabank (french: link=no, Banque Scotia), is a Canadian multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization ope ...

Bank of Nova Scotia
to rename Toronto's Air Canada Centre. The home of the
NHL The National Hockey League (NHL; french: Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) is a professional ice hockey league in North America, currently comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada. The NHL is considered to be the premier p ...
's
Toronto Maple Leafs The Toronto Maple Leafs (officially the Toronto Maple Leaf Hockey Club and often referred to as the Leafs) are a professional ice hockey team based in Toronto. They compete in the National Hockey League (NHL) as a member of the Atlantic Divis ...
and
NBA The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a professional basketball Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, m ...
's
Toronto Raptors The Toronto Raptors are a Canadian professional basketball team based in Toronto. The Raptors compete in the National Basketball Association (NBA) as a member of the league's Eastern Conference (NBA), Eastern Conference Atlantic Division (NBA), ...
became known as
Scotiabank Arena Scotiabank Arena, formerly Air Canada Centre (ACC), is a multi-purpose arena An arena is a large enclosed platform, often circular or oval-shaped, designed to showcase theatre, musical performances, or sporting events. It is comp ...

Scotiabank Arena
on July 1, 2018. Prior to the Scotiabank Arena deal, the record belonged to
Citi Field Citi Field is a baseball park A baseball park, also known as a ballpark or diamond, is a stadium, venue where baseball is played. A baseball park consists of the baseball field, playing field and the surrounding spectator seating. While the di ...

Citi Field
(opened in 2009) and
Barclays Center Barclays Center is a multi-purpose list of indoor arenas, indoor arena in the New York City Boroughs of New York City, borough of Brooklyn. The arena is home to the Brooklyn Nets of the National Basketball Association and the New York Liberty of ...

Barclays Center
(opened in 2012), both located in New York City, US. Each garnered deals of $20 million (USD) per year for at least 20 years. The New Meadowlands Stadium, shared home of the
New York Giants The New York Giants are a professional American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular American ...

New York Giants
and
New York Jets The New York Jets are a professional American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular American fo ...
in
East Rutherford, New Jersey East Rutherford is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of th ...

East Rutherford, New Jersey
, US, was expected to eclipse both deals, with experts estimating it would value $25–30 million annually. It ultimately fell short of that benchmark, with
MetLife Stadium MetLife Stadium is a stadium A stadium (plural stadiums or stadia) is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a tiered structure des ...
earning $17 million annually from its naming rights deal with
MetLife MetLife, Inc. is the holding corporation for the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (MLIC), better known as MetLife, and its affiliates. MetLife is among the largest global providers of insurance Insurance is a means of protection from ...

MetLife
. Occasionally, the purchaser of a stadium's naming rights may choose to donate those rights to an outside organization, typically one to which it is closely related. Probably the most notable example of this is
Friends Arena Friends Arena, also known as Nationalarenan, is a retractable roof A retractable roof is a roof system designed to roll back the roof of a structure so that the interior of the facility is open to the outdoors. Retractable roofs are sometimes ...

Friends Arena
, a major stadium in
Stockholm Stockholm (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Stockholm
. The facility was originally known as
Swedbank Swedbank AB () is a Nordic-Baltic banking group based in Stockholm Stockholm is the Capital city, capital of Sweden. It has the most populous urban area in Sweden as well as in Scandinavia. 1 million people live in the Stockholm Municipa ...
Arena, but in 2012 that company donated those rights to the Friends Foundation, an organization seeking to combat
school bullying School bullying, like bullying outside the school context, refers to one or more perpetrators who have greater physical or social power than their victim and act aggressively toward their victim by verbal or physical means.This behavior is no ...
that is heavily sponsored by Swedbank. More recently, the
Kentucky Farm Bureau Image:Kfb logo.jpg, Kentucky Farm Bureau logo Kentucky Farm Bureau (KFB) is a voluntary organization of farm families and their allies dedicated to serving as the voice of agriculture by identifying problems, developing solutions and taking action ...
, an organization promoting the interests of Kentucky farmers that is best known to the non-farming public for its insurance business, acquired the naming rights to the
University of Kentucky The University of Kentucky (UK, UKY, or U of K) is a Public University, public Land-grant University, land-grant research university in Lexington, Kentucky. Founded in 1865 by John Bryan Bowman as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Kent ...
's new baseball park in 2018. The Farm Bureau in turn donated those naming rights to the
Kentucky Department of AgricultureKentucky is an agricultural producer in the United States. Value of agricultural products was $5 billion in 2012, of which slightly less than half was crops. Crops grown in the state include corn, soybeans, hay, wheat and tobacco. Historically, hemp ...
, naming the venue
Kentucky Proud Park Kentucky Proud Park is a baseball Baseball park, stadium in Lexington, Kentucky. It is the home field of the University of Kentucky Kentucky Wildcats baseball, Wildcats college baseball team. Opened in 2018, with the Wildcats to play their first s ...
. The sponsored name is the brand used by said state agency in its marketing campaign for agricultural products produced in that state.


In the United States

Naming rights in United States may have been traced back to 1912 with the opening of
Fenway Park Fenway Park is a located in , , near . Since 1912, it has been the home for the , the city's baseball team, and , its only (MLB) franchise. While the stadium was built in 1912, it was substantially rebuilt in 1934, and underwent major renovat ...

Fenway Park
in
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the and city of the of in the and 21st . The city proper covers with an estimated population of 692,600 in 2019, also making it the most populous city in . It is the seat of (although the c ...

Boston
. The stadium's owner had owned a realty company called "Fenway Realty" (itself named for a nearby parkland), so the promotional value of the naming has been considered. Despite this, it is more widely believed to have begun in 1926 when William Wrigley, the chewing gum magnate and owner of the
Chicago Cubs The Chicago Cubs are an American professional baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on t ...
, named his team's stadium "
Wrigley Field Wrigley Field is a baseball park A baseball park, also known as a ballpark or diamond, is a stadium, venue where baseball is played. A baseball park consists of the baseball field, playing field and the surrounding spectator seating. While t ...

Wrigley Field
". In 1953,
Anheuser-Busch Anheuser-Busch Companies, LLC is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly know ...
head and
St. Louis Cardinals The St. Louis Cardinals are an American professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball in which players are selected for their talents and are paid to play for a specific team or club system. It is played in baseball league, ...
owner August Busch, Jr. proposed renaming
Sportsman's Park Sportsman's Park was the name of several former Major League Baseball Baseball park, ballpark structures in St. Louis, Missouri. All but one of these were located on the same piece of land, at the northwest corner of Grand Boulevard (St. Louis), ...
, occupied by the Cardinals, "
Budweiser Budweiser () is an American-style pale lager produced by Anheuser-Busch Anheuser-Busch Companies, LLC is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known a ...
Stadium". When this idea was rejected by
Ford Frick Ford Christopher Frick (December 19, 1894 – April 8, 1978) was an American sportswriter and baseball executive. After working as a teacher and as a sportswriter for the ''New York Journal-American, New York American'', he served as public relat ...

Ford Frick
, the
Commissioner of Baseball The Commissioner of Baseball is the chief executive officer of Major League Baseball (MLB) and the associated Minor League Baseball (MiLB) – a constellation of leagues and clubs known as "organized baseball". Under the direction of the Commissi ...
at that time, Anheuser-Busch then proposed the title "Busch Stadium" after one of the company's founders. The name was readily approved, and Anheuser-Busch subsequently released a new product called "Busch Bavarian Beer" (now known as
Busch Beer Anheuser-Busch, a wholly owned subsidiary of Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV, is the largest brewing company in the United States, with a market share of 45 percent in 2016. The company operates 12 breweries in the United States and nearly 20 in other ...
). The name would later be shifted to the
Busch Memorial Stadium Busch Memorial Stadium, also known as Busch Stadium II, was a multi-purpose sports facility in St. Louis St. Louis () is the second-largest city in Missouri Missouri is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern r ...
in
1966 In February, Luna 9 Luna 9 (Луна-9), internal designation Ye-6 No.13, was an uncrewed space mission of the Soviet Union's Luna programme. On 3 February 1966, the Luna 9 spacecraft became the first spacecraft to achieve a survivable lan ...
, shortened in the 1970s to "Busch Stadium" and remained the stadium's name until it closed in 2005. By that time,
Major League Baseball Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball in which players are selected for their talents and are paid to play for a specific team or club system. It is played in baseball league, leag ...
's policy had changed – with
Coors Field Coors Field is a baseball park A baseball park, also known as a ballpark or diamond, is a stadium, venue where baseball is played. A baseball park consists of the baseball field, playing field and the surrounding spectator seating. While the ...

Coors Field
in
Denver Denver () is a consolidated city and county, the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more forma ...

Denver
and
Miller Park American Family Field is a baseball park A baseball park, also known as a ballpark or diamond, is a stadium, venue where baseball is played. A baseball park consists of the baseball field, playing field and the surrounding spectator seating ...
in
Milwaukee Milwaukee ( ) is the largest city in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in ...

Milwaukee
going up in that span – and Anheuser-Busch (who retained the naming rights after selling the team) was able to use the same name for the Cardinals'
new stadium
new stadium
which opened on April 4, 2006.
Foxboro Stadium Foxboro Stadium, originally Schaefer Stadium and later Sullivan Stadium, was an outdoor stadium located in Foxborough, Massachusetts, United States. It opened in 1971 and served as the home of the New England Patriots The New England Patr ...
, the home of the
New England Patriots The New England Patriots are a professional American football team based in the Greater Boston area. They compete in the National Football League (NFL) as a member club of the league's American Football Conference (AFC) AFC East, East division ...
between 1970 and 2001, was an early example of a team selling naming rights to a company that did not own it, naming the stadium
Schaefer Stadium Foxboro Stadium, originally Schaefer Stadium and later Sullivan Stadium, was an outdoor stadium located in Foxborough, Massachusetts Foxborough is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States, about sou ...
after the
beer company
beer company
from its erection until 1983. The public reaction to this practice is mixed. Naming rights sold to new venues have largely been accepted, especially if the buyer is well-established and has strong local connections to the area, such as the cases of Rich Stadium (now Highmark BlueCross BlueShield Stadium) in the
Buffalo
Buffalo
suburb of Orchard Park,
Heinz Field Heinz Field is a football stadium located in the North Shore neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Pittsburgh ( ) is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States and the county seat of Allegheny County. An estimated popul ...

Heinz Field
in
Pittsburgh Pittsburgh ( ) is a city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States and the county seat of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, Allegheny County. A population of 302,971 residents lives within the city limit ...

Pittsburgh
, and
Coors Field Coors Field is a baseball park A baseball park, also known as a ballpark or diamond, is a stadium, venue where baseball is played. A baseball park consists of the baseball field, playing field and the surrounding spectator seating. While the ...

Coors Field
in
Denver Denver () is a consolidated city and county, the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more forma ...

Denver
. Selling the naming rights to an already-existing venue has been notably less successful, as in the attempt to rename Candlestick Park in
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...

San Francisco
to 3Com Park. The general public (and some media outlets) continued to call the facility what it had been known as for over three decades–i.e. Candlestick Park. After the agreement with 3Com expired, the rights were resold to
Monster Cable Monster Inc. is an American company that manufactures and markets about 6,000 products, but is best known for audio and video cables. It also produces speakers, headphones, power strips, mobile accessories and audio devices for automobiles. The c ...
, and the stadium was renamed Monster Park. San Francisco voters responded by passing an initiative (Proposition H) in the November 2004 elections that essentially stipulated the name must revert to Candlestick Park once the contract with Monster expired in 2008. The initiative proved largely ceremonial, however, and it was overturned by the passage of Proposition C in 2009 in response to desperate economic times. The naming rights to the park were never resold and the stadium closed in 2014. .


Outside the United States

Sports stadiums with naming rights deals are not limited to the United States. "Named" stadiums can be found in countries including Australia, Japan, China, Finland, Canada, Israel and Germany, where 8 of the 10 largest football stadiums have their naming rights sold to corporate sponsors. The practice is widening in the United Kingdom; for instance the current stadium of
Bolton Wanderers Bolton Wanderers Football Club () is a professional football club based in Horwich, Bolton Bolton (, locally ) is a large town in Greater Manchester in North West England, Historic counties of England, historically and traditionally a pa ...
is the
University of Bolton Stadium The University of Bolton Stadium is the home ground of Bolton Wanderers F.C. in Horwich, Lancashire , England. Opening in 1997, it was named the Reebok Stadium, after club sponsors Reebok. In 2014, Bolton Wanderers signed a naming rights deal w ...
(after 17 years as Reebok Stadium and 4 as Macron Stadium) and
Arsenal Football Club Arsenal Football Club is a professional football Football is a family of team sport A team is a Islington Islington () is a district in Greater London, England, and part of the London Borough of Islington. It is a mainly resid ...
's stadium (opened for the 2006/2007 season) is the
Emirates Stadium The Emirates Stadium (known as Ashburton Grove prior to sponsorship, and as Arsenal Stadium for UEFA The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA ; french: Union des associations européennes de football; german: Union der europäi ...

Emirates Stadium
, their previous ground being
Arsenal Stadium Arsenal Stadium was a football Football is a family of team sport A team is a [group (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working together to achieve their goal. As defined by Professor Leigh Thompson (academ ...
. In cricket, the most famous example is The Oval, home of Surrey County Cricket Club. It has had several sponsors over the years, and is currently known as "The Kia Oval", having originally been known as the "Kennington Oval", after the district of London in which it is located.


Other examples

While the highest prices have traditionally been paid for stadium rights, many companies and individuals have found that selling their naming rights can be an important consideration in funding their business. In the last few years many new categories have opened up, such as the selling of the rights to name a new monkey species for $650,000.


Public transit

Naming rights to public transit stations have been sold in Las Vegas and Philadelphia (
NRG station NRG station (formerly named AT&T station, and earlier Pattison station) is the southern terminus of SEPTA's Broad Street Line, located at 3600 Broad Street (Philadelphia), South Broad Street, at the intersection with Pattison Avenue in the South P ...
, Jefferson Station, and
Penn Medicine station Penn Medicine station (formerly University City station) is a train station in the University City, Philadelphia, University City section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on the SEPTA Regional Rail system. The station serves the area around the Univer ...
). Such sales have been contemplated in New York and
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the and city of the of in the and 21st . The city proper covers with an estimated population of 692,600 in 2019, also making it the most populous city in . It is the seat of (although the c ...

Boston
, and ruled out in San Francisco. A sponsorship for the
MBTA The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (abbreviated MBTA and known colloquially as "the T") is the public agency responsible for operating most public transport Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit ...

MBTA
's State Street station by Citizens Bank lasted from 1997 to 2000. In
Tampa Tampa () is a major city on the Gulf Coast The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or as a line that forms the bo ...

Tampa
, naming rights for both
streetcar A tram (also known as a streetcar or trolley in North America) is a train that runs on tramway track on public urban streets; some include segments of segregated Right-of-way (transportation), right-of-way. The lines or networks operated b ...
stations and rolling stock are available. In December 2016, the
Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LACMTA), commonly branded as Metro, is the agency that plans, operates, and coordinates funding for most of the transportation system A transport network, or transportation network i ...
approved a naming rights policy for its facilities and routes, but later rescinded the policy two months later over potential lawsuits for skipping sponsors. A couple of examples outside of the United States would be the on
Madrid Metro The Madrid Metro (Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , nat ...
where the metro line
Line 2Line 2 or 2 Line may refer to: Public transport Americas *2 (New York City Subway service), a rapid transit service in the A Division of the New York City Subway *Line 2 Bloor–Danforth, a subway line in Toronto *Line 2 (Rio de Janeiro), a metro l ...
and the station Sol was renamed from 2013 to 2016 after the mobile phone operator
Vodafone Vodafone Group Plc () is a British Multinational corporation, multinational telecommunications company. Its registered office and global headquarters are in Newbury, Berkshire, England. It predominantly operates services in Asia, Africa, Europe ...
, and
Monumento Station Monumento station is a station on the Manila Light Rail Transit System Line 1. Like all other Line 1 stations, Monumento is above-ground. The station serves the southern portion of Caloocan, and is named after the most famous landmark of Calooc ...
in the
Manila Light Rail Transit System Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila, ), is the capital city, capital of the Philippines, and its second most populous city. It is Cities of the Philippines#Independent cities, highly urbanize ...
in the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
, which was renamed Yamaha Monumento Station on February 14, 2018, after renovations.


Sports

Naming rights in the realm of sports is common for both stadiums and sports competitions and series. In addition, some sports teams adopt a name of the sponsor as their team or club name (see List of sports clubs named after a sponsor).


Competitions

In
association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a team sport A team sport includes any sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain ...
, leagues and cup competitions sometimes adopt the name of their sponsors. For example,
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
's
Premier League The Premier League, often referred to as the English Premier League or the EPL (legal name: The Football Association Premier League Limited), is the top level of the English football league system The English football league system, als ...
was known as the Barclays Premier League until 2016, and its
FA Cup The Football Association Challenge Cup, more commonly known as the FA Cup, is an annual knockout A knockout (abbreviated to KO or K.O.) is a fight-ending, winning criterion in several full-contact Contact sports are sports that emphasize ...

FA Cup
is officially the
Emirates Emirates may refer to: United Arab Emirates * United Arab Emirates, a Middle Eastern country * Emirate, any territory ruled by an emir ** Gulf emirates, emirates located on the Persian Gulf ** Emirates of the United Arab Emirates, the individual e ...
FA Cup. The Premier League announced in 2015 that it would not accept a title sponsorship beginning in the 2016–17 season. Since 2020, the French Professional Football Ligue adopted the name of Ligue 1 Uber Eats. In
college football College football (french: football universitaire) is gridiron football Gridiron football,
, all of the Division I
bowl game In North America, a bowl game is one of a number of post-season college football College football (french: football universitaire) is gridiron football Gridiron football,Capital One Capital One Financial Corporation is an American bank holding company specializing in credit cards, auto loans, banking, and savings accounts, headquartered in McLean, Virginia with operations primarily in the United States. It is on the list o ...
Orange Bowl The Orange Bowl is an annual American college football College football (french: football universitaire) is gridiron football consisting of American football in the United States, American football played by teams of student athletes fie ...

Orange Bowl
'', '' The Rose Bowl Game presented by
Northwestern Mutual Northwestern Mutual is an American financial services Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. ...
''), there have been bowl games that have totally eliminated their traditional name in favor of solely using a corporate sponsor's name in an effort to dissuade fans from using a generic name (for instance, the former ''Tangerine Bowl'' is now the
Camping World Bowl The Cheez-It Bowl is an annual college football College football is gridiron football consisting of American football in the United States, American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Higher education in the United Stat ...
, and the ''
Gator Bowl The Gator Bowl is an annual college football College football is gridiron football consisting of American football in the United States, American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Higher education in the United States, ...
'' was for a time known as the ''TaxSlayer Bowl''), a move that generally is treated with consternation from fans. Team names and even whole leagues have occasionally been sold to corporate sponsors as well (examples include the
New York Red Bulls The New York Red Bulls are an American professional soccer Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a team sport A team sport includes any sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, ...
in the former case, the NET10 Wireless
Arena Football League The Arena Football League (AFL) was a professional arena football, indoor American football league in the United States. It was founded in 1987 Arena Football League season, 1987, making it the third longest-running professional football league ...
for the latter), but this is generally rare in the United States and more common in other parts of the world. During the 1980s, sanctioned auto races in
NASCAR#REDIRECT NASCAR The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, LLC (NASCAR) is an American auto racing sanctioning and operating company that is best known for stock car racing Stock car racing is a form of automobile racing found m ...

NASCAR
and
IndyCar INDYCAR, LLC, is an American-based auto racing Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing, or automobile racing) is a involving the of for competition. Auto racing has existed since the invention of the automobile. Races of v ...
began to abandon their traditional names in favor of exclusive sponsor names. The trend expanded rapidly in NASCAR such that in 1991, all 29 races in the
Winston Cup Series The NASCAR Cup Series is the top racing series of the NASCAR, National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR). The series began in 1949 as the Strictly Stock Division, and from 1950 to 1970 it was known as the Grand National Division. I ...
featured sponsor names (including the
Daytona 500 The Daytona 500 is a NASCAR Cup Series The NASCAR Cup Series is the top racing series of the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, LLC (NASCAR) is an American auto racing s ...
, which was given a presenting sponsor as the ''Daytona 500 by STP''), with little or no reference to the original names. As of the 2010s, very few exceptions remain in NASCAR (such as the Daytona 500, which no longer uses the presenting sponsor), and typically races without sponsor names only lack them because a suitable sponsor could not be secured in enough time. IndyCar follows suit, with most races (except the very traditional
Indianapolis 500 The Indianapolis 500, also formally known as the Indianapolis 500-Mile Race, or simply the Indy 500, is an annual automobile race held at Indianapolis Motor Speedway The Indianapolis Motor Speedway is an automobile racing circuit located in ...

Indianapolis 500
) embracing title sponsorship. Sports media coverage (such as
ESPN ESPN (originally an initialism for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network) is an American multinational basic cable Cable television Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequen ...

ESPN
news reports) typically refer to races by the town in which the home race track is held, avoiding the use of sponsored names in news coverage.


Media

Television and radio series, especially in the early days of each medium, frequently sold the naming rights to their programs to sponsors, most of whom bankrolled the program; examples include
Texaco Star Theatre ''Texaco Star Theater'' was an American comedy-variety show, broadcast on radio from 1938 to 1949 and telecast from 1948 to 1956. It was one of the first successful examples of American television broadcasting, remembered as the show that gave Milt ...
and
The Philco Television Playhouse ''The Philco Television Playhouse'' is an American television anthology series Image:Luxdolls2.jpg, ''Lux Radio Theatre'' ad art featuring Joan Crawford An anthology series is a radio programming, radio, television program, television, or film s ...
. This form of sponsorship fell out of favor in the late 1950s.


Unofficial Naming Rights

The International Star Registry is a commercial company that since 1979 has sold unofficial naming rights to stars (''i.e.'', the
astronomical objects In astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It us ...
). The naming services are limited to an entry in a book, and carry no scientific or official authenticity according to professional astronomers.ISR FAQ
FAQ
from ''International Star Registry''
"The OFFICIAL Star Naming FAQ"
archived
at
Internet Archive The Internet Archive is an American digital library A digital library, also called an online library, an internet library, a digital repository, or a digital collection is an online databaseAn online database is a database In computing ...


Social connotations

In some places, and especially in the UK and United States, the naming or renaming of arenas or events is usually met with disapproval from the general public. Some people see it as an example of a
selling out "Selling out", or "Sold out" in the past tense, is a common expression for the compromising of a person's integrity Integrity is the practice of being honest and showing a consistent and uncompromising adherence to strong moral and ethical prin ...
, especially when they see no obvious benefit to themselves. They often refuse to use a new name, preferring instead to use a non-branded name, especially in colloquial situations.
Rebranding Rebranding is a marketing strategyMarketing strategy is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its limited resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. Strategic pla ...
can also lead to confusion. In such cases, there may be a lengthy period during which the property is known by both names. A common example is
Willis Tower The Willis Tower (formerly known as and commonly referred to as the Sears Tower) is a 108-story Story or stories may refer to: Common uses * Story, a narrative (an account of imaginary or real people and events) ** Short story, a piece of pr ...

Willis Tower
in
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
which was and often still is referred to as the "Sears Tower", even though the building was sold some time ago. Sporting events such as the
FIFA World Cup The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a played with a between two teams of 11 . It is played by ...
, UEFA Euro,
Olympic Games The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (french: Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a pe ...
and the
Paralympic Games The Paralympic Games or Paralympics, also known as the ''Games of the Paralympiad'', is a periodic series of international multi-sport events involving athletes with a range of physical disability, disabilities, including impaired muscle power ...
prohibit the use of corporate-sponsored name on stadiums, construing the practice as a form of
ambush marketing Ambush marketing or ambush advertising is a marketing Marketing refers to activities a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Le ...
. Any stadium that uses a corporate-purchased name must always be referred to in all event-related media (including live broadcasts) by a generic name (e.g.,
General Motors Place Rogers Arena is a multi-purpose arena located at 800 Griffiths Way in the Downtown Vancouver, downtown area of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Opened in 1995, the arena was known as General Motors Place (GM Place) from its opening until Ju ...

General Motors Place
was referred to as "Canada Hockey Place" during the
2010 Winter Olympics )'' , nations = 82 , athletes = 2,626 , events = 86 in 7 sports Sport pertains to any form of competitive Competition arises whenever two or more parties strive for a common goal A goal is an idea of the future or ...
). The regular corporate signage of a site, including billboards and deck advertising, is usually covered up in these cases; in the FIFA case the signage is replaced solely with FIFA sponsors. However, with the near-universal use of
LED An LED An LED A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivity value falling between that of a Electrical conductor, conductor, such as m ...
ribbon boards, scoreboards, and sideline boardings since the mid-2000s in most major league sites where only known sponsors have advertising displayed, "neutralizing" an arena has become a much easier process than in the past.


Nonprofit usage

A nonprofit organization has the option to recognize a major gift from a donor by bestowing naming rights to a property in recognition of the financial support. This is not a financial transaction in the style of the private sector. For example, in honor of the more than $60 million donated over the years by one donor to the
National Air and Space Museum#REDIRECT National Air and Space Museum
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National Air and Space Museum
properties, the directors of the
Smithsonian Institution The Smithsonian Institution ( ), or simply, the Smithsonian, is a group of museums and education and research centers, the largest such complex in the world, created by the U.S. government "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge". Founded ...

Smithsonian Institution
chose to name its satellite facility in
Loudoun County, Virginia Loudoun County () is in the northern part of the Virginia, Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. In 2020, the population census at 420,959, making it Virginia's third-most populous county. Loudoun County's county seat, seat is Leesburg ...
, after the donor, calling it the
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center
. Walgreen Coast, a portion of the coast of
Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Oc ...

Antarctica
was so named because the
Walgreens Walgreen Company, d/b/a Walgreens, is an American company that operates as the second-largest Pharmacy (shop), pharmacy store chain in the United States behind CVS Health. It specializes in filling prescriptions, health and wellness products, health ...

Walgreens
pharmacy chain sponsored the
Byrd Antarctic Expedition Rear admiral (United States), Rear Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd Jr. (October 25, 1888 – March 11, 1957) was an Americans, American naval officer and explorer. He was a recipient of the Medal of Honor, the highest honor for valor given by the U ...
.


See also

* List of cultural entities with sole naming rights * List of sponsored sports venues * Sponsor (commercial)


References


External links


List of American corporate-named sports venues
on ESPN.com {{DEFAULTSORT:Naming Rights Brand management Place names Sponsorships Sports venues Stadiums