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Mount Emei (; ), alternately Mount Omei, is a
mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger than a hill, typically rising at least ...

mountain
in
Sichuan Province Sichuan (; , ; alternatively romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admini ...
, China, and is the highest of the Four Sacred Buddhist Mountains of China. Mount Emei sits at the western rim of the
Sichuan Basin The Sichuan Basin (), formerly transliterated as the Szechwan Basin, sometimes called the Red Basin, is a lowland region in southwestern China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia Eas ...
. The mountains west of it are known as
DaxianglingDaxiangling (), or Daxiang Range is a fairly small mountain range in China's Sichuan Province. It runs in the general western and northwestern direction from the famous sacred Mount Emei, and is part of the western mountainous rim of the Sichuan Basi ...
. A large surrounding area of countryside is geologically known as the Permian Emeishan Large Igneous Province, a
large igneous province A large igneous province (LIP) is an extremely large accumulation of igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ''ignis'' meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main The three types of rocks, rock types, the others ...
generated by the
Emeishan Traps The Emeishan Traps constitute a flood basalt volcanic province, or large igneous province, in south-western China, centred in Sichuan province. It is sometimes referred to as the Permian Emeishan Large Igneous Province or Emeishan Flood Basalts. Li ...
volcanic eruptions during the
Permian Period The Permian ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth ...
. Administratively, Mount Emei is located near the
county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city (1949–1970: ; 1970–1983: ), is a county-level administrative division of the People's Republic of China China ...
of the same name ( Emeishan City), which is in turn part of the
prefecture-level city A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectural city is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It ...
of
Leshan Leshan, formerly known as Jiading or Jiazhou, is a prefecture-level city A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectural city is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China China (), offi ...

Leshan
. It was made a
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
in 1996.


As a sacred mountain

Mount Emei is one of the Four Sacred Buddhist Mountains of China, and is traditionally regarded as the
bodhimaṇḍa Bodhimaṇḍa (Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia a ...
, or place of enlightenment, of the
bodhisattva In Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware o ...

bodhisattva
Samantabhadra Samantabhadra (Lit. "All Good") may refer to: * Samantabhadra (Bodhisattva), a bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism associated with practice and meditation * ''Samantabhadra'', the name of a Buddha, the Adi-Buddha Vajradhara, the main Ādibuddha depi ...
. Samantabhadra is known in
Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration o ...
as Pǔxián Púsà (). Sources of the 16th and 17th centuries allude to the practice of
martial arts Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for a number of reasons such as self-defense; military and law enforcement applications; combat sport, competition; physical, mental, and spiritual development; entertainment; an ...
in the monasteries of Mount Emei made the earliest extant reference to the Shaolin Monastery as Chinese boxing's place of origin..


Buddhist architecture on Emei

This is the location of the first
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, an ...

Buddhist
temple built in China in the 1st century CE. The site has seventy-six Buddhist monasteries of the
Ming The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an eth ...

Ming
and
Qing The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
dynasties, most of them located near the mountain top. The monasteries demonstrate a flexible architectural style that adapts to the landscape. Some, such as the halls of Baoguosi, are built on terraces of varying levels, while others, including the structures of Leiyinsi, are on raised stilts. Here the fixed plans of Buddhist monasteries of earlier periods were modified or ignored in order to make full use of the natural scenery. The buildings of Qingyinge are laid out in an irregular plot on the narrow piece of land between the Black Dragon River and the
White Dragon River The Bailong River () is a river 576km long river in the Yangtze River along the Yangtze River. in Hubei Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of C ...
. The site is large and the winding footpath is , taking several days to walk. Cable cars ease the ascent to the two temples at
Jinding The Jinding (), elevation , is the main peak of Mount Emei Mount Emei (; ), alternately Mount Omei, is a mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedro ...
(3,077 m), an hour's hike from the mountain's peak.Hayes, Holly (2009
Emei Shan
Sacred Destinations. Updated 24 July 2009.
Gluckman, Ron (2002)

''Silk Road'', December 2002. Hong Kong; Dragon Airlines.


Climate

The summit of Mount Emei has an alpine
subarctic climate The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool summers. It is found on large landmasses, often away from the moderating effects of an ocean, gen ...
( Köppen ''Dwc''), with long, cold (but not severely so) winters, and short, cool summers. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from in January to in July, and the annual mean is . Precipitation is common year-round (occurring on more than 250 days), but due to the influence of the
monsoon A monsoon () is traditionally a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology ...

monsoon
, rainfall is especially heavy in summer, and more than 70% of the annual total occurs from June to September.


Indigenous animals

Visitors to Mount Emei will likely see dozens of
Tibetan macaque The Tibetan macaque (''Macaca thibetana''), also known as the Chinese stump-tailed macaque or Milne-Edwards' macaque, is a macaque species found from eastern Tibet east to Guangdong and north to Shaanxi in China. It has also been reported from nor ...
s who can often be viewed taking food from tourists. Local merchants sell nuts for tourists to feed the monkeys. Other featured animals includes '''', '' Vibrissaphora liui'' and ''
Pheretima praepinguis ''Pheretima praepinguis'' is a huge earthworm An earthworm is a terrestrial invertebrate that belongs to the phylum . They exhibit a tube-within-a-tube , are externally segmented with corresponding internal segmentation, and usually have on ...
''


Flora

Mount Emei is known for its high level of
endemism Endemism is the state of a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest gro ...
and approximately 200 plant species in various plant families have been described from this mountain. A rare species of Fir tree is endemic to this mountain it is Abies Fabri.


Gallery

File:Mount_emei.jpg, Two temples at the Golden Summit File:Mount Emei pic 3.jpg, A temple at the Golden Summit File:Massive golden buddha on the sumit of Eimei Shan.jpg, Massive statue of
Samantabhadra Samantabhadra (Lit. "All Good") may refer to: * Samantabhadra (Bodhisattva), a bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism associated with practice and meditation * ''Samantabhadra'', the name of a Buddha, the Adi-Buddha Vajradhara, the main Ādibuddha depi ...
at the summit of Mount Emei File:Baoguosi.jpg, Baoguosi, a Buddhist temple File:报国寺弥勒殿.JPG, Buddhist temple at Mount Emei File:CrystalStreamOverpass2.jpg, Wooden bridgewalk over the Crystal Stream, western slopes File:MacaqueEmeishan.jpg,
Macaque The macaques () constitute a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxono ...

Macaque
indigenous to the region File:Sunrise at Eimei Shan.jpg, Sunrise over Mount Emei File:Sunrise over clouded sea on sumit of Eimei Shan.jpg, Sunrise over a sea of clouds at Mount Emei File:Guangfu pavilion at Mount Emei.JPG, Guangfu pavilion, with summit visible in background File:Elephant statues in the fog on the steps of the temple atop Mount Emei.jpg, Elephant statues on the steps leading to the statue of Samantabhadra File:Mount emei tour.jpg, alt=mount emei travel guide , Monkeys of Mount Emei File:在峨秀湖远望峨眉山 Mount Emei 1.jpg, Mount Emei and Exiu Lake File:在峨秀湖远望峨眉山 Mount Emei 2.jpg, Mount Emei and Exiu Lake


See also

*
Emei Sect The Emei Sect is a fictional martial arts sect mentioned in several works of '' wuxia'' fiction. It is commonly featured as one of the leading orthodox sects in the '' wulin'' (martial artists' community). It is named after the place where it is b ...
*
Zuo Ci Zuo Ci (), courtesy name Yuanfang, was a legendary personage of the late Eastern Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period (20 BC–280 AD) of China. Though he is known to be from Lujiang Commandery (盧江郡; around present-day Lu'an, Anhui), ...


References


External links


Religion and the environment in China, 中国的宗教与环境 - chinadialogue article

Mount Emei, including Leshan Giant Buddha, Scenic Area: official Unesco site
{{authority control Chinese Buddhist grottoes
Emei Mount Emei (; ), alternately Mount Omei, is a mountain in Sichuan Province, China, and is the highest of the Sacred Mountains of China, Four Sacred Buddhist Mountains of China. Mount Emei sits at the western rim of the Sichuan Basin. The mou ...
National parks of China World Heritage Sites in China Chinese architectural history
Emei Mount Emei (; ), alternately Mount Omei, is a mountain in Sichuan Province, China, and is the highest of the Sacred Mountains of China, Four Sacred Buddhist Mountains of China. Mount Emei sits at the western rim of the Sichuan Basin. The mou ...
Tourist attractions in Sichuan Religion in Sichuan Major National Historical and Cultural Sites in Sichuan Buddhist sites in China