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''Monacha cartusiana'' is a
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
of small air-breathing
land snail A land snail is any of the numerous species of snail that live on land, as opposed to the sea snails and freshwater snails. ''Land snail'' is the common name for terrestrial molluscs, terrestrial gastropod mollusks that have gastropod shell, shel ...

land snail
, a
terrestrial Terrestrial refers to things related to land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists main ...
pulmonate Pulmonata, or "pulmonates", is an informal group (previously an order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clea ...
gastropod The gastropods (), commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may ...
mollusk Mollusca is the second-largest phylum In biology, a phylum (; plural The plural (sometimes list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical number, grammatical category of number ...
in the family
Hygromiidae Hygromiidae is a Taxonomy (biology), taxonomic family (biology), family of small to medium-sized air-breathing land snails, terrestrial molluscs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Helicoidea. Anatomy Some snails in gene ...
, the hairy snails and their allies. Helix cartusiana var. depressa Caziot, 1909 (invalid; preoccupied) Monacha (Monacha) cartusiana (O. F. Müller, 1774)· accepted, alternate representation This is the
type species In zoological nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted Convention (norm), convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific name, scientific naming of organisms treated as animals. It is al ...
of the genus ''
Monacha ''Monacha'' is a genus of air-breathing land snails, terrestrial molluscs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the subfamily Trochulininae Lindholm, 1927 of the family Hygromiidae, the hairy snails and their allies. MolluscaBase eds. (202 ...
''.


Distribution

The native distribution of this species is Atlantic-
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...
. It lives in various areas including: *
Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...
. This species was fully protected in the United Kingdom under the
Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 The Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 is an Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parliament or council). In mo ...
from 1981 to 1988. *
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...
Balashov I. & Gural-Sverlova N. 2012. An annotated checklist of the terrestrial molluscs of Ukraine. ''Journal of Conchology''. 41 (1): 91-109. This species has been accidentally introduced and naturalized in: * United States - Newcastle County, DelawareRobinson, D.G. & J. Slapcinsky. 2005. Recent introductions of alien land snails into North America. ''American Malacological Bulletin'' 20:89-93.


Life cycle

The size of the egg is 1.8 mm.Heller J.: ''Life History Strategies''. in Barker G. M. (ed.):
The biology of terrestrial molluscs
'. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, 2001, . 1-146, cited page: 428.


References

* Provoost, S.; Bonte, D. (Ed.) (2004). Animated dunes: a view of biodiversity at the Flemish coast evende duinen: een overzicht van de biodiversiteit aan de Vlaamse kust Mededelingen van het Instituut voor Natuurbehoud, 22. Instituut voor Natuurbehoud: Brussel, Belgium. ISBN 90-403-0205-7. 416, ill., appendices pp. * Sysoev, A. V. & Schileyko, A. A. (2009). Land snails and slugs of Russia and adjacent countries. Sofia/Moskva (Pensoft). 312 pp., 142 plates. * Holyoak, D. T. & Holyoak, G. A. (2018). A new genus Zenobiellina for Helix subrufescens Miller, 1822 (Hygromiidae), with description of a new congeneric species from northern Spain. Iberus. 36 (2): 133-147


External links


Müller, O. F. (1774). Vermium terrestrium et fluviatilium, seu animalium infusorium, Helminthicorum, et testaceorum, non marinorum, succincta historia. vol 2: I-XXXVI, 1-214, 10 unnumbered pages. Havniae et Lipsiae, apud Heineck et Faber, ex officina Molleriana

Gray, J. E. (1821). A natural arrangement of Mollusca, according to their internal structure. London Medical Repository. 15 (87): 229–239

Caziot, E. (1909). Description d'espèces nouvelles de mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles du département des Alpes-Maritimes. Bulletin de la Société zoologique de France. 34: 87-95, 99-104.
Hygromiidae For convenience, all Hygromiidae should be included in this cat ...
Gastropods described in 1774 Taxa named by Otto Friedrich Müller {{Hygromiidae-stub